Judicum 1



1 Post mortem Josue, consuluerunt filii Israël Dominum, dicentes : Quis ascendet ante nos contra Chananæum, et erit dux belli ?

2 Dixitque Dominus : Judas ascendet : ecce tradidi terram in manus ejus.

3 Et ait Judas Simeoni fratri suo : Ascende mecum in sortem meam, et pugna contra Chananæum, ut et ego pergam tecum in sortem tuam. Et abiit cum eo Simeon.

4 Ascenditque Judas, et tradidit Dominus Chananæum ac Pherezæum in manus eorum : et percusserunt in Bezec decem millia virorum.

5 Inveneruntque Adonibezec in Bezec, et pugnaverunt contra eum, ac percusserunt Chananæum et Pherezæum.

6 Fugit autem Adonibezec : quem persecuti comprehenderunt, cæsis summitatibus manuum ejus ac pedum.

7 Dixitque Adonibezec : Septuaginta reges amputatis manuum ac pedum summitatibus colligebant sub mensa mea ciborum reliquias : sicut feci, ita reddidit mihi Deus. Adduxeruntque eum in Jerusalem, et ibi mortuus est.

8 Oppugnantes ergo filii Juda Jerusalem, ceperunt eam, et percusserunt in ore gladii, tradentes cunctam incendio civitatem.

9 Et postea descendentes pugnaverunt contra Chananæum, qui habitabat in montanis, et ad meridiem, et in campestribus.

10 Pergensque Judas contra Chananæum, qui habitabat in Hebron (cujus nomen fuit antiquitus Cariath Arbe), percussit Sesai, et Ahiman, et Tholmai :

11 atque inde profectus abiit ad habitatores Dabir, cujus nomen vetus erat Cariath Sepher, id est, civitas litterarum.

12 Dixitque Caleb : Qui percusserit Cariath Sepher, et vastaverit eam, dabo ei Axam filiam meam uxorem.

13 Cumque cepisset eam Othoniel filius Cenez frater Caleb minor, dedit ei Axam filiam suam conjugem.

14 Quam pergentem in itinere monuit vir suus ut peteret a patre suo agrum. Quæ cum suspirasset sedens in asino, dixit ei Caleb : Quid habes ?

15 At illa respondit : Da mihi benedictionem, quia terram arentem dedisti mihi : da et irriguam aquis. Dedit ergo ei Caleb irriguum superius, et irriguum inferius.

16 Filii autem Cinæi cognati Moysi ascenderunt de civitate palmarum cum filiis Juda, in desertum sortis ejus, quod est ad meridiem Arad, et habitaverunt cum eo.

17 Abiit autem Judas cum Simeone fratre suo, et percusserunt simul Chananæum qui habitabat in Sephaath, et interfecerunt eum. Vocatumque est nomen urbis, Horma, id est, anathema.

18 Cepitque Judas Gazam cum finibus suis, et Ascalonem, atque Accaron cum terminis suis.

19 Fuitque Dominus cum Juda, et montana possedit : nec potuit delere habitatores vallis, quia falcatis curribus abundabant.

20 Dederuntque Caleb Hebron, sicut dixerat Moyses, qui delevit ex ea tres filios Enac.

21 Jebusæum autem habitatorem Jerusalem non deleverunt filii Benjamin : habitavitque Jebusæus cum filiis Benjamin in Jerusalem, usque in præsentem diem.

22 Domus quoque Joseph ascendit in Bethel, fuitque Dominus cum eis.

23 Nam cum obsiderent urbem, quæ prius Luza vocabatur,

24 viderunt hominem egredientem de civitate, dixeruntque ad eum : Ostende nobis introitum civitatis, et faciemus tecum misericordiam.

25 Qui cum ostendisset eis, percusserunt urbem in ore gladii : hominem autem illum, et omnem cognationem ejus, dimiserunt.

26 Qui dimissus, abiit in terram Hetthim, et ædificavit ibi civitatem, vocavitque eam Luzam : quæ ita appellatur usque in præsentem diem.

27 Manasses quoque non delevit Bethsan, et Thanac cum viculis suis, et habitatores Dor, et Jeblaam, et Mageddo cum viculis suis, cœpitque Chananæus habitare cum eis.

28 Postquam autem confortatus est Israël, fecit eos tributarios, et delere noluit.

29 Ephraim etiam non interfecit Chananæum, qui habitabat in Gazer, sed habitavit cum eo.

30 Zabulon non delevit habitatores Cetron, et Naalol : sed habitavit Chananæus in medio ejus, factusque est ei tributarius.

31 Aser quoque non delevit habitatores Accho, et Sidonis, Ahalab, et Achazib, et Helba, et Aphec, et Rohob :

32 habitavitque in medio Chananæi habitatoris illius terræ, nec interfecit eum.

33 Nephthali quoque non delevit habitatores Bethsames, et Bethanath : et habitavit inter Chananæum habitatorem terræ, fueruntque ei Bethsamitæ et Bethanitæ tributarii.

34 Arctavitque Amorrhæus filios Dan in monte, nec dedit eis locum ut ad planiora descenderent :

35 habitavitque in monte Hares, quod interpretatur testaceo, in Ajalon et Salebim. Et aggravata est manus domus Joseph, factusque est ei tributarius.

36 Fuit autem terminus Amorrhæi ab ascensu Scorpionis, petra, et superiora loca.


Exploring the Meaning of Judicum 1      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 1: The continuing conquest of Canaan.

The book of Judges follows on almost seamlessly from Joshua. It is called ‘Judges’ because a number of regional leaders arose and made judgments for the people, often actively defending Israel from outside oppression. A pattern emerges in Judges: Israel disobeys the Lord – an enemy oppresses Israel – the Lord raises a leader – the leader is victorious against the enemy – there is peace for a time – Israel disobeys the Lord again.

There were twelve judges in all, about whom we either hear very much or next to nothing. The number twelve (as with the twelve tribes of Israel, the twelve disciples, and other examples in the Word), stands for all the various aspects of spirituality that we need to understand, develop, and put to use. A clue is often found in the meaning of their names, because biblical names are nearly always linked to spiritual qualities, such as ‘courage’, or ‘one who walks with God’ (see Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 10216).

The theme of this first chapter is the further conquest of the land. The Israelites asked the Lord, “Who shall go up and fight for us?” And the Lord said that the tribe of Judah would go, because the Lord had delivered the land into their hand. Judah then called on the tribe of Simeon to join them, and they won many battles against the Canaanites still in the land.

One Canaanite king, Adoni-bezek, fled and was captured by the Israelites, who then cut off his thumbs and big toes. Adoni-bezek said that God had dealt justice by punishing him, as he had previously cut off seventy kings’ thumbs and big toes, and they had to gather scraps of food under his table.

Then Caleb, a leader of Israel during the journey through the wilderness, said that the man who took Kirjath-sepher (Caleb’s inheritance city) from the Canaanites would marry his daughter, Achsah. Caleb’s nephew, Othniel, took the city and Achsah was given to him. Achsah asked her father for the blessing of springs of water, and Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs.

Next, spies were sent to Bethel. They met a man there, and said that if he directed them the entrance to the city, they would show him mercy. He helped them, and they took the city but showed mercy on the man and all his family. After all of this, the man built a new city called Luz in the land of the Hittites.

The chapter ends by listing the twelve tribes, as well as the Canaanite peoples who remained unsubdued in each of their territories.


The overarching spiritual theme of Judges is the process of our regeneration. As the opening of Judges reminds us, there were still parts of the land and various tribes that Israel needed to conquer. In fact, the Israelites never finished driving enemies out of their land. In the same way, we need to control our inherited human nature, but it is never completely wiped out (see Swedenborg’s work, Divine Love and Wisdom 238).

During regeneration, we will discover deeper and subtler self-centered states in ourselves, which need to be mitigated. Each judge raised by the Lord stands for our determination to deal with these states, using the Word as a guide. This brings us a period of peace, followed by the start of another personal discovery.

When the Israelites chose which tribes would fight for them, it was no coincidence that they selected Judah and Simeon. Judah (who was a prominent tribe of Israel) and Simeon (who usually acts with another tribe) stand for the highest things in our spiritual life: our love for the Lord, and our obedience to the Lord’s Word. Choosing Judah and Simeon as our strength will always bring victory in our regeneration (see Arcana Caelestia 3654 and Apocalypse Explained 443).

The spiritual meaning in the story of Adoni-bezek is about taking away the power of our self-love, as cutting off thumbs and big toes makes hands and feet virtually useless. When we work on our lower nature, we are to minimize its control over us. It is the same with any influences from hell; their power must end. Adoni-bezek’s comment about doing the same to seventy kings vividly describes how self-love can only lead to our downfall (Arcana Caelestia 10062[4]).

The delightful story of Caleb, Achsah and Othniel illustrates that after battle, there is rest and reward. In the same way, we strengthen the ‘marriage’ of good and truth in us after overcoming spiritual struggles (see Swedenborg’s work, Divine Love and Wisdom 409). The springs of water given to Achsah stand for the truths which flow into our mind, both about the ‘upper’ things of the Lord and heaven, and those ‘lower’ ones about spiritual life and responsibility.

The episode about the man from Bethel means that when we open up our life to the Lord to allow Him to guide us, we become blessed (Arcana Caelestia 3928). Then our life can be re-built in very practical and good ways, represented by the Hittites.

The final mention of the Canaanites still in the land points to the continuing presence of our unregenerate qualities. Although we may progress through the work of regeneration, we are still human, and we will always have flaws left to improve on.

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