Daniel 5

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1 Baltassar rex fecit grande convivium optimatibus suis mille : et unusquisque secundum suam bibebat ætatem.

2 Præcepit ergo jam temulentus ut afferrentur vasa aurea et argentea, quæ asportaverat Nabuchodonosor pater ejus de templo, quod fuit in Ierusalem, ut biberent in eis rex, et optimates ejus, uxoresque ejus, et concubinæ.

3 Tunc allata sunt vasa aurea, et argentea, quæ asportaverat de templo, quod fuerat in Ierusalem : et biberunt in eis rex, et optimates ejus, uxores et concubinæ illius.

4 Bibebant vinum, et laudabant deos suos aureos et argenteos, æreos, ferreos, ligneosque et lapideos.

5 In eadem hora apparuerunt digiti, quasi manus hominis scribentis contra candelabrum in superficie parietis aulæ regiæ : et rex aspiciebat articulos manus scribentis.

6 Tunc facies regis commutata est, et cogitationes ejus conturbabant eum : et compages renum ejus solvebantur, et genua ejus ad se invicem collidebantur.

7 Exclamavit itaque rex fortiter ut introducerent magos, Chaldæos, et aruspices. Et proloquens rex ait sapientibus Babylonis : Quicumque legerit scripturam hanc, et interpretationem ejus manifestam mihi fecerit, purpura vestietur, et torquem auream habebit in collo, et tertius in regno meo erit.

8 Tunc ingressi omnes sapientes regis non potuerunt nec scripturam legere, nec interpretationem indicare regi.

9 Unde rex Baltassar satis conturbatus est, et vultus illius immutatus est ; sed et optimates ejus turbabantur.

10 Regina autem pro re, quæ acciderat regi et optimatibus ejus, domum convivii ingressa est : et proloquens ait : Rex, in æternum vive ! non te conturbent cogitationes tuæ, neque facies tua immutetur.

11 Est vir in regno tuo, qui spiritum deorum sanctorum habet in se, et in diebus patris tui scientia et sapientia inventæ sunt in eo : nam et rex Nabuchodonosor pater tuus principem magorum, incantatorum, Chaldæorum, et aruspicum constituit eum, pater, inquam, tuus, o rex :

12 quia spiritus amplior, et prudentia, intelligentiaque et interpretatio somniorum, et ostensio secretorum, ac solutio ligatorum inventæ sunt in eo, hoc est in Daniele : cui rex posuit nomen Baltassar. Nunc itaque Daniel vocetur, et interpretationem narrabit.

13 Igitur introductus est Daniel coram rege : ad quem præfatus rex ait : Tu es Daniel de filiis captivitatis Judæ, quem adduxit pater meus rex de Judæa ?

14 audivi de te, quoniam spiritum deorum habeas, et scientia, intelligentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventæ sunt in te.

15 Et nunc introgressi sunt in conspectu meo sapientes magi, ut scripturam hanc legerent, et interpretationem ejus indicarent mihi : et nequiverunt sensum hujus sermonis edicere.

16 Porro ego audivi de te, quod possis obscura interpretari, et ligata dissolvere : si ergo vales scripturam legere, et interpretationem ejus indicare mihi, purpura vestieris, et torquem auream circa collum tuum habebis, et tertius in regno meo princeps eris.

17 Ad quæ respondens Daniel, ait coram rege : Munera tua sint tibi, et dona domus tuæ alteri da : scripturam autem legam tibi, rex, et interpretationem ejus ostendam tibi.

18 O rex, Deus altissimus regnum et magnificentiam, gloriam et honorem dedit Nabuchodonosor patri tuo.

19 Et propter magnificentiam, quam dederat ei, universi populi, tribus, et linguæ tremebant, et metuebant eum : quos volebat, interficiebat : et quos volebat, percutiebat : et quos volebat, exaltabat : et quos volebat, humiliabat.

20 Quando autem elevatum est cor ejus, et spiritus illius obfirmatus est ad superbiam, depositus est de solio regni sui, et gloria ejus ablata est :

21 et a filiis hominum ejectus est, sed et cor ejus cum bestiis positum est, et cum onagris erat habitatio ejus : fœnum quoque ut bos comedebat, et rore cæli corpus ejus infectum est, donec cognosceret quod potestatem haberet Altissimus in regno hominum, et quemcumque voluerit, suscitabit super illud.

22 Tu quoque, filius ejus Baltassar, non humiliasti cor tuum, cum scires hæc omnia :

23 sed adversum Dominatorem cæli elevatus es : et vasa domus ejus allata sunt coram te, et tu, et optimates tui, et uxores tuæ, et concubinæ tuæ vinum bibistis in eis : deos quoque argenteos, et aureos, et æreos, ferreos, ligneosque et lapideos, qui non vident, neque audiunt, neque sentiunt, laudasti : porro Deum, qui habet flatum tuum in manu sua, et omnes vias tuas, non glorificasti.

24 Idcirco ab eo missus est articulus manus, quæ scripsit hoc quod exaratum est.

25 Hæc est autem scriptura, quæ digesta est : Mane, Thecel, Phares.

26 Et hæc est interpretatio sermonis. Mane : numeravit Deus regnum tuum, et complevit illud.

27 Thecel : appensus es in statera, et inventus es minus habens.

28 Phares : divisum est regnum tuum, et datum est Medis, et Persis.

29 Tunc, jubente rege, indutus est Daniel purpura, et circumdata est torques aurea collo ejus : et prædicatum est de eo quod haberet potestatem tertius in regno suo.

30 Eadem nocte interfectus est Baltassar rex Chaldæus.

31 Et Darius Medus successit in regnum, annos natus sexaginta duos.


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The Feast of Belshazzar      

Napsal(a) Rev. Dr. Andrew M. T. Dibb

Belshazzar's Feast, by Rembrandt, showing the handwriting on the wall

This chapter begins with Belshazzar's feast for his friends. Belshazzar is presented in this chapter as the son of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. His name tells us something about him, for Belshazzar in the original Chaldean language means 'Bel Protect the King.' 'Bel' was a Babylonian god, so this name is about the relationship of the kingly, or ruling loves in a person, and the love of selfishness and dominion from that described by the god of the Babylonians.

Belshazzar has a similar spiritual relationship to Nebuchadnezzar as the Lord Jesus Christ had to the Father. In the case of the Lord, His human set forth the Divine, making it present for all people to see. In the case of Belshazzar, he set forth the love of selfishness, Nebuchadnezzar, for all the world to see. Belshazzar represents the external manifestation of the deepest feelings of selfishness, translated first into thoughts, then actions.

The story of Daniel is about the power of truth changing us from being self-centered to being regenerated. Each person has a Nebuchadnezzar side, and also a Daniel side. In previous chapters, we see Daniel's impact on Nebuchadnezzar. So truth impacts our lives. When we begin the process of change, we follow the order given in chapters two, three, four, and five. Truth is first an intellectual idea which, in time, affects our will. To change, we must be willing to undergo the temptations described in chapter four, but for this to happen, we need to judge our behavior. This is the feast, where actions are judged and those incompatible with conscience are cast out.

Belshazzar commanded the vessels brought so that the guests could drink from them. To drink wine from them means drawing teachings from the Word that one needs to live properly (Apocalypse Explained 376). Before our minds are clear of selfishness, we may go to the Word for guidance. But we are not looking to be lead to the good of life, but to support the selfishness within. This is not unusual with people first introduced to the truths of the Word: as they learn, they may find that the teachings seem to support some of their attitudes, rather than undermine faults. We can see this in Belshazzar's use of the vessels: he did not treat them with respect, but profaned them. Sharing the vessels with his lords, his wives, and concubines shows the various thoughts and affections still tied to selfishness which guided him.

As the king and his guests drank from the holy vessels, they showed their true allegiance: they worshiped gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone, compounding their profanation. Profanation is when the sacred and profane are brought together. One cannot believe the Word is holy, and mock it at the same time. No one can serve two masters (Matthew 6:24).

For a complete explanation of the different materials of the profane idols, see the explanation of the statue from Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel 2. The differences between the two rests in materials of the legs and feet, but in the internal sense, these differences disappear.

Amid this debauchery, a vision took place: the fingers of a man's hand appeared on the wall and wrote words in an unknown language. Belshazzar's fear reflects our own when it suddenly dawns on us that the activities of our life are in conflict with the very things we hold to be true. The conflict between good and evil within us is brought down to the level of our daily lives. The effect can be frightening: it is the realization of our shortcomings. Yet often, before the issues become clear, we feel a sense of unease, a feeling of dissatisfaction at the way our lives are going.

This vague feeling is Belshazzar's inability to read the words written upon the wall. They frightened him, but he did not know what they meant. Like us, he turned to the familiar, comforting voices which usually explained the unknown to him: the astrologers, the soothsayers, and the Chaldeans. These 'wise men' represent the thought patterns we have when our lives are disturbed: we look inwards to our usual justifications. Thus we blame others for our state of mind, or credit it to misfortune, without ever really going to the source of what is bothering us.

Belshazzar promised his soothsayers three distinct things:

"Whoever reads this writing, and tells me its interpretation, shall be clothed with purple and have a chain of gold around his neck; and he shall be the third ruler in the kingdom."

The angels of the celestial heaven wear crimson clothes (Divine Love and Wisdom 380, True Christian Religion 686) as an expression of their love to the Lord. Clothing signifies knowledge (Heaven and Hell 179, Arcana Coelestia 1073, 2576, 5319, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536) so 'clothing of purple' represents knowledges about love to the Lord. But because Belshazzar is selfishness, the knowledge he offered represents re-establishing selfish love as the ruling principle in our minds. In addition to the purple garments, he offered chains of gold. As we have seen before, gold represents goodness from the Lord. But in this case, the 'goodness' originates in selfishness. The final promise is power. The characteristic of the love of self is the lust for power. Nebuchadnezzar extended his natural kingdom across the earth, as selfishness extends its power throughout our lives.

Unsurprisingly, the 'wise men' could not read the writing on the wall. When we are unhappy because of our selfishness, no thoughts from selfishness will set us straight. If we know that what we are doing is wrong, and yet make excuses for our behavior, we will find little or no comfort in these justifications—they are a part of the problem.

So the queen suggested to Belshazzar that he call Daniel. To convince him of Daniel's worth, she uses terms that describe the quality of a conscience formed from the truths of the Word. 'The Spirit of the Holy God' is the truth from the Lord (Apocalypse Explained 183), where conscience is formed. Divine truth in the mind brings spiritual light (True Christian Religion 40) giving first understanding, and then wisdom. Conscience draws its being from the Divine truths from the Lord. The Babylonian 'wise men' all represent the various thoughts of a selfish mind. As the conscience is formed, it begins to take precedence over these thoughts, until it rules. So a person regenerating intellectually thinks from truth, but may still act from selfishness.

The queen's pleas made an impact on Belshazzar, and Daniel was brought before him. The king offered Daniel the same gifts he offered his wise men and astrologers. Daniel, of course, could not accept these, in much the same way, years before, he had been unable to accept food from Nebuchadnezzar's table. To accept the garments of purple, chains of gold, and a position of power in the kingdom was meaningless to Daniel. He was already, after all, in a position of power. Conscience does not need to be bribed: it stands firm and alone in our minds.

Daniel began his interpretation of the Writing on the Wall with a brief history of Nebuchadnezzar, as a summary of the progression of selfishness. He began with the fact that Nebuchadnezzar received his kingdom of from God. In chapter 1, we are told that 'the Lord gave Jehoiakim into his hand.' This implies that not only was the Lord responsible for the siege of Jerusalem, but for all of Nebuchadnezzar's other victories. This verse reinforces that concept: Nebuchadnezzar's success was because of the Lord.

Daniel voiced the words of judgment eloquently: Belshazzar had not humbled his heart, he had lifted himself up against the Lord of heaven. He used the vessels of the Lord's temple to worship gods of silver and gold, bronze and iron, wood and stone, yet he does not know that the Lord holds his life in His hand.

These well-spoken words of judgment are as much an indictment on us as they were on Belshazzar. Often we know the truths of the Word, we wrestle with them in our minds, we allow them to direct our feelings, and yet we do nothing about them. Spiritual procrastination is one of life's greatest dangers. As long as we put off spiritual progress, and wallow in the comfort of selfishness, as long as we hang onto old prejudices and attitudes, and habitual thinking, we are using the Lord's Word as a way of worshiping false idols. What needs to change in us are our loves, our attitudes. As these change, our external behavior must be brought into alignment with them.

Having chastised Belshazzar, Daniel began to explain the writing on the wall. He began by stressing that the fingers that wrote 'were sent by Him,' meaning the 'Most High God' who gave Nebuchadnezzar his kingdom, majesty and glory. While Nebuchadnezzar had humbled himself before the Lord, Belshazzar had not. In the historical sense, it was important for Daniel to stress the relationship between what happened to Nebuchadnezzar and what would happen to Belshazzar.

The judgment, from the power of the Lord, lay in the words written on the wall: 'mene, mene, tekel, upharsin.' Four words in an unknown language that could only be interpreted by Daniel. Thus we see how our conscience, drawn as it is from the teachings of the Word, is the root of our resistance to evil.

Daniel begins by explaining 'mene' saying: 'God has numbered your kingdom and found it wanting.' To number means to know the quality of something. This is why Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem 'in the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim,' and dreamed of the great statue 'in the second year' of his own reign.

The word 'mene' means the process of self-examination. There is no indication why the word is repeated twice; perhaps it indicates the need for an examination of acts flowing from both our will and our understanding—our actions from an inner love for them, and actions from a sense of duty.

The third word on the wall is 'Tekel,' which Daniel told Belshazzar means: 'You have been weighed in the balances and found wanting.' When we examine ourselves, it is from truth: we judge how we compare to the truth. The next step is to assess our feelings. Thus 'one should be found wanting.'

Daniel interprets the final word of the four to mean 'your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.' This literally happened to Belshazzar, but in the internal sense, to divide means to disperse and expel (Apocalypse Explained 373, Arcana Coelestia 9093). This is the third stage of repentance: when a person has examined self, found one's self wanting, and is willing to change, the next step is to separate the evil from ourselves, and to expel it from our lives. It is only in this way that we can be cleansed of evil.

This is an indication of how our lives should progress: no man can serve two masters, the Lord said, we cannot serve God and mammon. We cannot serve self and be ruled by the conscience at the same time. One must increase and the other decrease. By giving Daniel these gifts in the face of the imminent end of his kingdom, Belshazzar shows us how the conscience must increase, while selfishness as the root of our evil must decrease.

Thus it happened that on that very night, Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, was slain, and Darius the Mede received the throne, being about sixty-two years old.


Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 1326

Apocalypse Explained 587, 1029

Apocalypsis Revelata 717

The Last Judgement 54

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 176

Dicta Probantia 4, 37

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 1183, 3079, 3104, 5223, 8932, 9093, 9818, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 313, 316, 364, 459, 913

De Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia 383

Doctrine of the Lord 48

De Coelo et de Inferno 365

Vera Christiana Religio 156, 754

Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypsis Explicata 183, 220, 242, 373, 376, 453

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