Joshua 8

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1 And Jehovah said to Joshua, Fear not, and be· not ·dismayed. Take with thee all the people of war and arise, go·​·up to Ai; see, I have given into thy hand the king of Ai, and his people, and his city, and his land.

2 And thou shalt do to Ai and to her king as thou didst unto Jericho and her king; only her spoil and her beasts shall you plunder for yourselves; set for thee an ambush for the city from behind it.

3 And Joshua arose, and all the people of war, to go·​·up to Ai; and Joshua chose thirty thousand men, mighty·​·men of valor, and sent· them ·out by night.

4 And he commanded them, saying, See, you shall set·​·an·​·ambush against the city, from behind the city; be· not very ·far from the city; but be ye prepared, all of you.

5 And I, and all the people that are with me, shall come·​·near to the city. And it shall be, when they come·​·out to meet us, as at the first, that we shall flee before them.

6 And they will come·​·out after us, until we have pulled· them ·away from the city; for they will say, They flee before us as the first time; and we will flee before them.

7 And you shall rise·​·up from the ambush and take·​·possession·​·of the city; and Jehovah your God will give it into your hand.

8 And it shall be when you have occupied the city, that you shall kindle the city with fire; according·​·to the word of Jehovah you shall do; see, I have commanded you.

9 And Joshua sent them; and they went to the ambush, and sat between Bethel and Ai, on the west of Ai. But Joshua passed·​·the·​·night on that night in the midst of the people.

10 And Joshua got·​·up·​·early in the morning, and mustered the people, and went up, he and the elders of Israel, before the people to Ai.

11 And all the people of war that were with him went up, and approached, and came over against the city, and encamped on the north of Ai; and there was a ravine between him and Ai.

12 And he took about five thousand men, and he set them in ambush, between Bethel and Ai, on the west of the city.

13 And they set the people, all the camp which was on the north of the city, and those who would supplant on the west of the city; and Joshua went on that night into the midst of the valley.

14 And it was, when the king of Ai saw it, that they hastened and got·​·up·​·early, and the men of the city went out to meet Israel for battle, he and all his people, at the time·​·appointed, facing the desert; but he knew not that there was an ambush·​·set against him from behind the city.

15 And Joshua and all Israel made as if they were stricken* before them, and they fled by the way of the wilderness.

16 And all the people who were in the city were called·​·up to pursue after them; and they pursued after Joshua and were pulled·​·away from the city.

17 And there was not a man left in Ai and Bethel, that went not out after Israel, and they left the city open, and pursued after Israel.

18 And Jehovah said unto Joshua, Stretch·​·out with the javelin that is in thy hand toward Ai; for into thy hand I will give it. And Joshua stretched·​·out with the javelin that was in his hand toward the city.

19 And the ambush· that had been ·set rose·​·up in haste out of its place, and they ran as he stretched·​·out his hand, and came into the city, and captured it; and they hastened and kindled the city with fire.

20 And the men of Ai turned· their ·faces behind them, and they saw, and behold, the smoke of the city went·​·up to the heavens, and they had no power* to flee hither and thither; and the people who fled to the wilderness turned on the pursuers.

21 And Joshua and all Israel saw that those who had set·​·an·​·ambush had taken the city, and that the smoke of the city went up, and they turned·​·back and smote the men of Ai.

22 And these went·​·out from the city to meet them; and they were in the midst of Israel, these on this side and those on that side; and they smote them, until there was· not ·left of them any who survived or escaped.

23 And the king of Ai they caught alive, and brought· him ·near to Joshua.

24 And it was, when Israel had completed killing all those who dwelt·​·in Ai who were in the field, in the wilderness into which they had pursued them, and all of them had fallen to the mouth of the sword until they were entirely consumed, that all Israel returned to Ai, and smote her with the mouth of the sword.

25 And all who fell that day, from man even·​·to woman, were twelve thousand, all the men of Ai.

26 And Joshua turned· not ·back his hand which he stretched·​·out with the javelin until he had doomed all who dwelt·​·in Ai.

27 Only the beast and the spoil of that city Israel plundered for themselves, according to the word of Jehovah which He commanded Joshua.

28 And Joshua burnt·​·up Ai, and set her as an eternal mound, a desolation to this day.

29 And the king of Ai he hanged on the tree until the time of the evening, and at the setting* of the sun Joshua commanded and they took·​·down his carcass from the tree and cast it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised on it a great heap of stones, until this day.

30 Then Joshua built an altar to Jehovah, the God of Israel, in Mount Ebal,

31 as Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded the sons of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses: an altar of whole stones upon which no one has moved* any iron; and they offered·​·up on it burnt·​·offerings unto Jehovah, and sacrificed peace·​·offerings.

32 And he wrote there on the stones a second copy* of the law of Moses, which he wrote before the sons of Israel.

33 And all Israel, and their elders and the officers and their judges, stood on this side and that side of the ark in·​·front·​·of the priests, the Levites, who carried the ark of the covenant of Jehovah, as the sojourner, so the native; half of them were next·​·to Mount Gerizim, and half of them next·​·to Mount Ebal, as Moses the servant of Jehovah had commanded at the first to bless the people Israel.

34 And after that, he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the cursing, according·​·to all that was written in the book of the law.

35 There was not a word of all that Moses commanded which Joshua read not in·​·the·​·presence·​·of all the assembly of Israel, and the women, and the infants, and the sojourner who walked in the midst of them.

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Exploring the Meaning of Joshua 8      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth and New Christian Bible Study Staff

Joshua 8: The fall of Ai and the renewal of the covenant.

The events of this chapter - and their spiritual meaning for us - follow on from the previous chapter. After their first setback at Ai, the Children of Israel take the city of Ai by using a clever ruse. Joshua chose thirty thousand men for the battle. The plan was for five thousand of them to hide near the city, while he led the main army to attack the city. Then, Joshua and his forces would pretend to run away, pursued by the men of Ai. Those who had hidden were then to come out, go into the city, and set it on fire. The men of Ai would see this and run back, get ambushed, and be caught between Joshua’s two armies.

It all happened as planned, and Israel took Ai. (See Arcana Caelestia 1557). As with Jericho, everything in Ai was commanded to be destroyed, except that in this case the livestock and the city’s spoils were to be kept. The whole city was burned and its king was hanged on a tree until sunset and then his body was thrown down at the city entrance with a great heap of stones put over it.

The basic spiritual meaning of any battle in the Bible such as this, is to show how a heavenly principle can and will overcome a hellish or evil attack, especially for us, during some temptation - when we seek to resist and fight back.

Evil is only strong in illusion and fear-mongering; when the light of what is true shines on evil it gets shown for what it is. (Heaven and Hell 49)

The city’s name “Ai” means “a heap”. The word gets used several times in the text of the chapter. A heap implies rubble and rubbish. Cities sometimes look noble and well-planned; in Ai’s case it was the very opposite - a heap, a ruin. (Heaven and Hell 586[2])

While Jericho generally represents our wrong thinking, which first stands in the way of our regeneration and spiritual will, Ai represents our evil emotions and our selfish passions. Both of them must fall before we can make further progress.

Joshua chooses a large number to go against a relatively few in Ai, who nevertheless all rush out to fight Israel. “There was not a man left in Ai or Bethel who did not go out after Israel. Thus they left the city open.” (Joshua 8:17)

Joshua’s tactic of drawing out the men of Ai means our challenge to evil - by confronting it with the truths and commandments we know and obey. Joshua’s pretence of fleeing away draws Ai out in glee, interpreting the flight as a real retreat. Then everything turns, and Joshua’s men go forward representing the power of the truth, the Word and our persuasion of their effectiveness in winning. (Arcana Caelestia 6344[4])

Ai’s men see their city on fire, for other Israelites entered Ai and set it ablaze. This represents the self-condemnation of evil, of hell, when it is exposed to what is true, heavenly and of God. But Joshua’s men, lying in ambush and waiting for the moment, represent our keen observation of how our selfish desires work to cause havoc in us. They are 5,000. Symbolically, in the Bible, five or its multiples always stand for a small amount - but enough to use.

Hanging the king of Ai stands for our need to put down the controlling power of any evil which stirs us. And all Ai is destroyed, because all evil must be turned against and refused.

Then, and only then, Joshua remakes the covenant with the Lord God; he builds an altar, he writes a copy on stones of the Law of Moses in the presence of all Israel, the priests stand in two groups in front of two mountains, then Joshua reads the words of blessing and cursing and all the Law of Moses.

After we resist any evil and its temptation, we must re-hear and re-affirm the truth that this was the Lord’s victory, not ours, and re-dedicate ourselves to the life the Lord gives us. (True Christian Religion 13[2])

Swedenborg

Výklad(y) nebo odkazy ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 796, 878, 1298, 1453, 2799, 5156, 6752, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 457, 662


Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 585, 655, 937

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Skočit na podobné biblické verše

Genesis 12:7, 8

Exodus 8:1, 17:9, 12, 13, 20:25

Numbers 15:15, 16, 29

Deuteronomy 2:34, 35, 7:18, 21, 11:29, 13:17, 21:22, 23, 27:2, 8, 14, 28:28, 29:9, 10, 31:11, 12

Joshua 1:9, 2:24, 3:1, 6:2, 21, 7:26, 9:3, 10:7, 22, 26, 27, 11:14, 12:9

Judges 9:32, 20:29, 31, 32, 34, 37, 40, 41

1 Samuel 15:5

Nehemiah 8:2, 3

John 4:20

1 Thessalonians 5:27

Významy biblických slov

fear
Fear has various significations according to the thing which causes it. Fear signifies love. Fear, as in Gen 28:17, signifies a holy change.

Fear not
Fear not, as in Revelation 1:17; Daniel 10:5, 12; Matthew 17:5, 7; 28:10, etc., signifies resuscitation to life, and at the same time adoration from...

arise
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

given
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

land
"Earth" in the Bible can mean a person or a group of like-minded people as in a church. But it refers specifically to the external...

jericho
Jericho' signifies instruction and also the good of life because no one can be instructed in the truths of doctrine but he who is in...

beasts
"Beasts" represent the affection for doing good things, a true desire to do them from the heart. In the negative sense, "beasts" stand for the...

plunder
'Spoil of gold, and silver, and cattle' signifies falsified truths.

people
"Man" is a tricky word to discuss, because the Hebrew of the Old Testament uses six different words that are generally translated as "man," with...

thirty
'Thirty' has a twofold significance because it is is the product of five and six, and also three and ten. From five multiplied by six,...

mighty
'Might' denotes the forces or power of truth.

valor
Mighty,' as in Revelation 19:18, signify people who are educated about doctrine derived from the Word. By extension, 'mighty' signifies education or learning derived from...

us
Angels do give us guidance, but they are mere helpers; the Lord alone governs us, through angels and spirits. Since angels have their assisting role,...

say
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

rise
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

see
To look,' as in Genesis 18:22, signifies thinking, because seeing denotes understanding. Look not back behind thee,' as in Genesis 19:17, means that Lot, who...

sent
'Being sent' everywhere signifies, in an internal sense, going forth, as in John 17:8. In similar manner, it is said of the holy of the...

morning
Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

Elders of Israel
The elders of Israel (Deut. 1:13, 15) represent celestial men.

war
War in the Word represents the combat of temptation when what is good is assaulted by what is evil or false. The evil that attacks...

encamped
'Pitch,' as in Genesis 14:10, denotes lusts. 'Burning pitch,' as in Isaiah 34:9, signifies direful fantasies.

five
Five also signifies all things of one part.

Five thousand men
Five thousand men besides women and children, as in Matthew 14:15, 21, signifies all who are of the church in truths from good; men, those...

camp
Camps in the Bible represent spiritual order – a person’s (or a church community’s) whole collection of desires for good and true ideas on how...

north
'North' signifies people who are in obscurity regarding truth. North,' in Isaiah 14:31, signifies hell. The North,' as in Jeremiah 3:12, signifies people who are...

night
The sun in the Bible represents the Lord, with its heat representing His love and its light representing His wisdom. “Daytime,” then, represents a state...

valley
Mountains in the Bible represent people's highest points, where we are closest to the Lord - our love of the Lord and the state of...

early
Since the sun represents the Lord, the early morning and sunrise represent a state of enlightenment, with a new and clear understanding coming after a...

battle
War in the Word represents the combat of temptation when what is good is assaulted by what is evil or false. The evil that attacks...

knew
In a general sense, men represent things of the intellect – facts, ideas, knowledge, everything from the deepest truths to the most pernicious falsities about...

way
In John 14:6, 'the way is doctrine,' 'the truth' is every thing pertaining to doctrine, and 'the life' is the essential good which is the...

pursue
'To pursue,' as in Genesis 14:16, signifies a state of purification, because 'to pursue enemies' is the expulsion of evils and falsities which were with...

bethel
When Jacob had his famous dream, of a staircase leading to heaven, he named the place "Bethel," which is Hebrew for "the house of God."...

open
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

said
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

stretch
The hand in the Bible represents power, which is easy to understand, so to reach out or stretch out the hand means to exercise power,...

give
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

rose
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

haste
'To hasten' or 'hastiness' in the internal sense, does not denote what is quick, but what is certain, and also what is full, thus every...

place
'A dry place,' as in Luke 11:24, signifies states of evil and falsity which are in the life of someone who does the work of...

came
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

captured
"Catching" is used in a variety of ways in the Bible, both positive and negative. Thieves get caught; the Egyptians caught up with the Children...

hastened
'To hasten' or 'hastiness' in the internal sense, does not denote what is quick, but what is certain, and also what is full, thus every...

fire
Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

behind
Behind, or after, (Gen. 16:13), signifies within or above, or an interior or superior principle.

heavens
"Heaven" and "heavens" are used many times in the Bible, with a couple of variations of meaning. Sometimes it is relatively literal, including times when...

flee
Flight, as in Matthew 14:20, signifies removal from a state of the good of love and innocence. Flight, as in Mark 8:18, signifies the last...

fled
Flight, as in Matthew 14:20, signifies removal from a state of the good of love and innocence. Flight, as in Mark 8:18, signifies the last...

saw
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

smoke
'Smoke' signifies divine truth in extremes, because 'fire' which gives off smoke, signifies love. 'Smoke' also signifies the same thing as 'cloud' in many places....

turned
Swedenborg says that the Lord is the sun of heaven, and like the natural sun of our world shines on everyone, good or evil. What...

meet
In natural language, to "meet" someone can be positive or negative: it can be a welcoming and greeting, or it can be "meeting" them in...

midst
The "midst" of something in the Bible represents the thing that is most central and most important to the spiritual state being described, the motivation...

near
'Near,' in the Word, signifies presence and conjunction. 'To be near' signifies being on internal levels. Near,' as in Genesis 19:20, signifies truth bordering upon...

field
When we have a desire to be good people and to do good things, the natural first questions are "What does that mean?" "What should...

wilderness
'Wilderness' signifies something with little life in it, as described in the internal sense in Luke 1:80 'Wilderness' signifies somewhere there is no good because...

pursued
'To pursue,' as in Genesis 14:16, signifies a state of purification, because 'to pursue enemies' is the expulsion of evils and falsities which were with...

fallen
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

mouth
In most cases, "mouth" in the Bible represents thought and logic, especially the kind of active, concrete thought that is connected with speech. The reason...

sword
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

returned
Everyone knows the phrase "the natural order of things." It means that everything is in its proper place, occupying the niche it is meant to...

smote
'The smitten' signify people who are oppressed by the falsities of ignorance.

fell
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

man
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

Woman
The word "woman" is used a number of different ways in the Bible – as a simple description, as someone connected to a man ("his...

thousand
As children, most of us at some point frustrated our mothers into using the phrase “if I've told you once, I've told you a thousand...

men
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

back
There are many instances in the Bible which describe people turning back, looking back or going back. In most cases it is a negative, sometimes...

hand
In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

stretched
The hand in the Bible represents power, which is easy to understand, so to reach out or stretch out the hand means to exercise power,...

javelin
'Lances' signify combating truths.

dwelt
Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

beast
"Beasts" represent the affection for doing good things, a true desire to do them from the heart. In the negative sense, "beasts" stand for the...

spoil
'Spoil of gold, and silver, and cattle' signifies falsified truths.

the Word
In general, we tend to be very aware of how knowing what's true leads to doing what is good. That starts as children, with parents...

eternal
In many cases, the use of “eternity” in the Bible is pretty literal, simple meaning forever. This is especially true when the text is referring...

ai
Hai, or Ai, signifies light derived from worldly things.

hanged
'To hang,' as mentioned in Genesis 41:13, signifies rejecting. 'Hanging' represents the damnation of profanation.

tree
In general, plants in the Bible represent facts, thoughts and ideas – intellectual things. This makes sense: Plants are rooted in place, but can grow...

Time
Time is an aspect of the physical world, but according to Swedenborg is not an aspect of the spiritual world. The same is true of...

evening
Since the light and warmth of the sun represent the Lord’s wisdom and love, it makes sense that evening, a time when the light and...

coming
Coming (Gen. 41:14) denotes communication by influx.

sun
The 'sun' signifies celestial and spiritual love. The 'sun' in the Word, when referring to the Lord, signifies His divine love and wisdom. Because the...

down
"Down" is used many different ways in natural language, and its spiritual meaning in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Phrases like "bowing down,"...

carcass
A carcass (Matt. 24:28) signifies the church void of the life of charity and faith.

entrance
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

gate
"Gates" in ancient times had a significance that does not hold in the modern world. Cities then were enclosed by walls for protection; gates in...

city
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

great
The word "great" is used in the Bible to represent a state with a strong degree of love and affection, of the desire for good;...

heap
Galeed, a heap and a witness, mentioned in Genesis 31:47, signifies quality on the part of good of the divine natural principle.

day
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

built
There are really two meanings for "build" in the Bible. When something is being built for the first time, or built in the most typical...

God
When the Bible speaks of "Jehovah," it is representing love itself, the inmost love that is the essence of the Lord. That divine love is...

Sons of Israel
'The camp of the sons of Israel' represents the church.

altar
The first altar mentioned in the Word was built by Noah after he came out of the ark. On that altar, he sacrificed clean animals...

iron
'Iron,' in Deuteronomy 8:9, signifies natural or rational truth. Iron' signifies natural truth, and consequently, the natural sense of the Word. At the same time,...

Offerings
'Offerings' signify worship.

peace
In ordinary life, we tend to think of "peace" as essentially "a lack of conflict." As a nation, if we're not at war, it's a...

wrote
In John 8:2-11, the Lord wrote twice on the ground, when the woman taken in adultery was brought to him, which signifies the condemnation of...

stones
Stones in the Bible in general represent truths, or things we know concerning the Lord and what He wants from us and for us in...

before
In most cases, the meaning of "before" is pretty straightforward, both as a way of assessing relative time, and in its use meaning "in someone's...

elders
Elders are mentioned in the Bible mainly in two ways: First the elders of Israel: and second the 24 elders seated about the throne of...

judges
It’s easy to see the connection between judging and truth. In a court of law, the judge’s whole purpose is to find the truth. In...

stood
'To stand,' and 'come forth' as in Daniel 7:10, refers to truth. In Genesis 24:13, it signifies a state of conjunction of divine truth with...

side
'Side' signifies good or spiritual love.

ark
A coffin (Gen. 1:26) signifies that wherein something is shut up or concealed.

priests
Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

jehovah
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

half
Half and double in reference to numbers in the world have a similar signification as the numbers themselves.

mount
The Writings tell us that the Lord's love is the sun of heaven, and it is natural for us to look above ourselves to the...

servant
“Servant” literally means “a person who serves another,"" and its meaning is similar in reference to the spiritual meaninngs of the Bible. Our lives in...

the first
'Resurrection' signifies salvation and eternal life. 'The first,' mentioned in Revelation 20:5, 6, does not mean a first resurrection, but the essence and primary part...

first
Why would it be insulting for a man to refer to his married partner as his “first wife”? Because it implies there will be a...

bless
The Lord is perfect love expressed as perfect wisdom. He created us so that He could love us, could give us love and wisdom of...

after
Behind, or after, (Gen. 16:13), signifies within or above, or an interior or superior principle.

words
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

cursing
The Lord is love itself, and his love for us never wavers and never changes. What does waver and change is the degree to which...

written
In John 8:2-11, the Lord wrote twice on the ground, when the woman taken in adultery was brought to him, which signifies the condemnation of...

book
(Rev. 10:9.) "And I went unto the angel, saying, give me the little book," signifies the faculty of perceiving the quality of the Word from...

word
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

moses
Moses's name appears 814 times in the Bible (KJV), third-most of any one character (Jesus at 961 actually trails David at 991). He himself wrote...

commanded
To command is to give an order that something must be done, and is directed to an individual, or a group. It is an imperative,...

joshua
Joshua is first mentioned in Exodus 17, where he is told to select men to fight for the children of Israel against the Amalekites in...

assembly
A congregation is a group of people with common loves, interests, and purposes. It often refers to a church group. In the Word it is...

israel
Jacob is told twice that his name will now be Israel. The first time is when he wrestles with an angel on his journey to...

women
The word "woman" is used a number of different ways in the Bible – as a simple description, as someone connected to a man ("his...

sojourner
There is a long history of using travel to round out an education, from the 19th-century “world tours” taken by Oxford and Cambridge graduates to...

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 Compare Joshua with Jesus
Complete a chart comparing Joshua and Jesus. Who were theys fighting? Where did they go? How did they show courage?
Activity | Ages 9 - 13

 The Capture of Ai
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3


Thanks to the Kempton Project for the permission to use this New Church translation of the Word.


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