Giudici 4

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Riveduta Bibbia (1927)         

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1 Morto che fu Ehud, i figliuoli d’Israele continuarono a fare ciò ch’è male agli occhi dell’Eterno.

2 E l’Eterno li diede nelle mani di Iabin re di Canaan, che regnava a Hatsor. Il capo del suo esercito era Sisera che abitava a Harosceth-Goim.

3 E i figliuoli d’Israele gridarono all’Eterno, perché Iabin avea novecento carri di ferro, e già da venti anni opprimeva con violenza i figliuoli d’Israele.

4 Or in quel tempo era giudice d’Israele una profetessa, Debora, moglie di Lappidoth.

5 Essa sedeva sotto la palma di Debora, fra Rama e Bethel, nella contrada montuosa di Efraim, e figliuoli d’Israele salivano a lei per farsi rendere giustizia.

6 Or ella mandò a chiamare Barak, figliuolo di Abinoam, da Kades di Neftali, e gli disse: "L’Eterno, l’Iddio d’Israele, non t’ha egli dato quest’ordine: Va’, raduna sul monte Tabor e prendi teco diecimila uomini de’ figliuoli di Neftali e de’ figliuoli di Zabulon.

7 E io attirerò verso te, al torrente Kison, Sisera, capo dell’esercito di Iabin, coi suoi carri e la sua numerosa gente, e io lo darò nelle tue mani".

8 Barak le rispose: "Se vieni meco andrò; ma se non vieni meco, non andrò".

9 Ed ella disse: "Certamente, verrò con te; soltanto, la via per cui ti metti non ridonderà ad onor tuo; poiché l’Eterno darà Sisera in man d’una donna". E Debora si levò e andò con Barak a Kades.

10 E Barak convocò Zabulon e Neftali a Kades; diecimila uomini si misero al suo séguito, e Debora salì con lui.

11 Or Heber, il Keneo, s’era separato dai Kenei, discendenti di Hobab, suocero di Mosè, e avea piantate le sue tende fino al querceto di Tsaannaim, ch’è presso a Kades.

12 Fu riferito a Sisera che Barak, figliuolo di Abinoam, era salito sul monte Tabor.

13 E Sisera adunò tutti i suoi carri, novecento carri di ferro, e tutta la gente ch’era seco, da Harosceth-Goim fino al torrente Kison.

14 E Debora disse a Barak: "Lèvati, perché questo è il giorno in cui l’Eterno ha dato Sisera nelle tue mani. l’Eterno non va egli dinanzi a te?" Allora Barak scese dal monte Tabor, seguito da diecimila uomini.

15 E l’Eterno mise in rotta, davanti a Barak, Sisera con tutti i suoi carri e con tutto il suo esercito, che fu passato a fil di spada; e Sisera, sceso dal carro, si diè alla fuga a piedi.

16 Ma Barak inseguì i carri e l’esercito fino ad Harosceth-Goim; e tutto l’esercito di Sisera cadde sotto i colpi della spada, e non ne scampò un uomo.

17 Sisera fuggì a piedi verso la tenda di Jael, moglie di Heber, il Keneo, perché v’era pace fra Iabin, re di Hatsor, e la casa di Heber il Keneo.

18 E Jael uscì incontro a Sisera e gli disse: "Entra, signor mio, entra da me: non temere". Ed egli entrò da lei nella sua tenda, ed essa lo coprì con una coperta.

19 Ed egli le disse: "Deh, dammi un po’ d’acqua da bere perché ho sete". E quella, aperto l’otre del latte, gli diè da bere, e lo coprì.

20 Ed egli le disse: "Stattene all’ingresso della tenda; e se qualcuno viene a interrogarti dicendo: C’è qualcuno qui dentro? di’ di no".

21 Allora Jael, moglie di Heber, prese un piuolo della tenda; e, dato di piglio al martello, venne pian piano a lui, e gli piantò il piuolo nella tempia sì ch’esso penetrò in terra. Egli era profondamente addormentato e sfinito; e morì.

22 Ed ecco che, come Barak inseguiva Sisera, Jael uscì ad incontrarlo, e gli disse: "Vieni, e ti mostrerò l’uomo che cerchi". Ed egli entrò da lei; ed ecco, Sisera era steso morto, col piuolo nella tempia.

23 Così Dio umiliò quel giorno Iabin, re di Canaan, dinanzi ai figliuoli d’Israele.

24 E la mano de’ figliuoli d’Israele s’andò sempre più aggravando su Iabin, re di Canaan, finché ebbero sterminato Iabin, re di Canaan.

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Exploring the Meaning of Judges 4      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 4: Deborah

Yet again, the children of Israel had disobeyed the Lord. At this point in time, they had been under the yoke of Jabin, a Canaanite king, for twenty years. He had nine hundred chariots of iron, and was apparently very powerful.

The Lord raised up Deborah, a prophetess, to free the Israelites from oppression under Jabin. The text says that she would pass judgements for the children of Israel while she sat under the palm tree of Deborah.

Deborah summoned Barak, an army officer, and told him to go with ten thousand men from the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun to fight King Jabin’s armies. Barak said he would only go if Deborah went as well, so she agreed to join him. Deborah then prophesied that Sisera, the enemy commander, would be defeated by a woman.

The two armies clashed at by the River Kishon, and all of Sisera’s men were killed. Sisera then fled to the tent of Heber, an Israelite who was on peaceful terms with King Jabin. Jael, Heber’s wife, invited Sisera to come in with the comforting words, “fear not”. She covered him with a blanket, gave him milk to drink, and let him sleep there.

Then Jael quietly took a tent peg and drove it into Sisera’s temple using a hammer, so that the peg stuck in the earth. When Barak came to the tent, pursuing Sisera, Jael went out to tell him, “come, and I will show you the man you seek.” And she showed him Sisera, dead, with a peg through his temple.

So Jabin’s army was defeated that day, and Israel grew stronger until their oppression under Jabin came to an end.

*****

Deborah is an especially significant character in the Bible, because she was the only female judge of Israel. It was very unusual for a woman in those times to rise to power, yet she truly earned the respect of her people. Deborah, as a woman, stands for the nurturing power of the Word to strengthen us during regeneration. Her name means ‘a bee’, but this comes from a word meaning ‘to speak’ – here, to speak the Word. Bees make honey; honey is nutritious; God’s word is our nourishment (see Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 3424[2]).

The fact that Deborah judged from under a palm tree may seem like a passing detail, but even this contributes to the spiritual meaning of the story. Palm trees stand for the divine truths of the Word, which means that Deborah was judging the people from her understanding of the Lord’s truths.

King Jabin’s nine hundred iron chariots represent the apparent power of false beliefs, thoughts and persuasions over us. The number ‘nine’ stands for something which is complete, and ‘iron’ here stands for either natural truths or falsities. A ‘chariot’, being pulled by a horse, always stands for a set of teachings or doctrine. These three symbols add to the picture of a very powerful enemy: false ideas and views that can weaken and overwhelm us (Arcana Caelestia 4720[2]).

The spiritual meaning of the complex arrangement between Barak and Deborah is that we can only deal with our spiritual conflicts if we take the Word’s power (Deborah) with us. Barak, a man, represents the power of truth, but Deborah says a woman will gain victory over Sisera. The feminine stands for the power of love: our charity, our affection for good, and our wish to be useful. These qualities are always essential in our spiritual life (see Swedenborg’s work, Apocalypse Explained 1120[2]).

The story about Jael and Sisera is really about actively resisting the temptations of evil in our lives. Jael, a woman, stands for the power of good to overcome what is false in our mind. Driving the tent peg through Sisera’s head stands for the complete destruction of what is false. Driving it right through and into the ground stands for the power of good in our life and in our regeneration, because the ground represents our actions (Arcana Caelestia 268).

When Barak and Jael meet, it stands for the unity between good (Jael, a woman) and truth (Barak, a man). This unity of good and truth appears again at the start of the next chapter, in which Deborah and Barak sing of Israel’s victory.

Swedenborg

Výklad(y) nebo odkazy ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 2799


Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 447, 811

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Významy biblických slov

morto
Dead (Gen. 23:8) signifies night, in respect to the goodnesses and truths of faith.

figliuoli
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

d’israele
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

israele
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

male
'To hurt,' as mentioned in Revelation 6:6, signifies violation and profanation. 'To hurt' as mentioned in Revelation 9:4, signifies perverting the truths and goods of...

occhi
It’s common to say “I see” when we understand something. And indeed, “seeing” in the Bible represents grasping and understanding spiritual things. So it makes...

l’eterno
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

mani
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

re
The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

canaan
Canaan signifies a worship in things external without internals, which arose out of the internal church corrupted, called Ham. Thus it is that Ham is...

hatsor
'The inhabitants of Hazor,' as mentioned in Jeremiah 49:30, signify those who possess spiritual riches, which are the things of faith. 'Hazor,' as mentioned in...

capo
Captains and Rulers (Jer. 51:23) signifies principal evils and falsities. Captains and Rulers (Ezek 33:6) signifies principal truths. See Chief Captains.

esercito
A host and an army come from the same Hebrew word and mean the same thing in Bible; when the Children of Israel were numbered...

Sisera
Sisera, as in Judges 5:20, signifies falsity from evil destroying the church.

ferro
'Iron,' in Deuteronomy 8:9, signifies natural or rational truth. Iron' signifies natural truth, and consequently, the natural sense of the Word. At the same time,...

venti
'Twenty,' when referring to a quantity, signifies everything, or fullness, because it is ten twice. In Genesis 18:31, 'twenty', like all numbers occurring in the...

tempo
Time is an aspect of the physical world, but according to Swedenborg is not an aspect of the spiritual world. The same is true of...

giudice
It’s easy to see the connection between judging and truth. In a court of law, the judge’s whole purpose is to find the truth. In...

moglie
The Hebrew of the Old Testament has six different common words which are generally translated as "wife," which largely overlap but have different nuances. Swedenborg...

sotto
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

rama
'Ramah' denotes things that pertain to spiritual truth derived from celestial truth.

bethel
Quando Giacobbe fece il suo famoso sogno, di una scala che portava in cielo, chiamò il luogo "Bethel", che in ebraico significa "la casa di...

efraim
Ephraim was the second son born to Joseph in Egypt and was, along with his older brother Manasseh, elevated by Jacob to the same status...

figliuolo
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

neftali
'Naphtali' in a supreme sense, signifies the proper power of the Lord’s divine human. In a spiritual sense, he signifies temptation and victory and a...

disse
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

Iddio
Il Signore è l'amore stesso, espresso sotto forma di saggezza. L'amore, quindi, è la sua essenza, il suo intimo. La saggezza - la comprensione amorosa...

ordine
To command is to give an order that something must be done, and is directed to an individual, or a group. It is an imperative,...

diecimila
Most places in Swedenborg identify “ten” as representing “all,” or in some cases “many” or “much.” The Ten Commandments represent all the guidance we get...

uomini
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

torrente
A 'stream' signifies aspects of intelligence.

donna
'Women,' as in Genesis 45:19, signify the affections of truth. But in Genesis 31:50, 'women' signify affections of not genuine truth, so not of the...

mosè
Moses's name appears 814 times in the Bible (KJV), third-most of any one character (Jesus at 961 actually trails David at 991). He himself wrote...

tende
'The tabernacle' has almost the same meaning as 'temple,' that is, in the highest sense, the Lord’s divine humanity, and in a relative sense, heaven...

giorno
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

dato
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

spada
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

piedi
The foot, as in Deuteronomy 33:3, signifies an inferior principle. To set the right foot on the sea and the left on the earth, as...

tenda
'The tabernacle' has almost the same meaning as 'temple,' that is, in the highest sense, the Lord’s divine humanity, and in a relative sense, heaven...

casa
A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

incontro
In natural language, to "meet" someone can be positive or negative: it can be a welcoming and greeting, or it can be "meeting" them in...

acqua
'Waters' signify truths in the natural self, and in the opposite sense, falsities. 'Waters' signify particularly the spiritual parts of a person, or the intellectual...

sete
Food in the Bible generally relates to the desire for good, and drink generally relates to ideas of what is true. It makes sense then,...

Aperto
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

latte
Water represents true ideas about day-to-day life, and other drinks and liquids in general represent different forms of truth. Milk is a drink that contains...

Ingresso
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

viene
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

terra
"Terra" nella Bibbia può significare una persona o un gruppo di persone che la pensano come in una chiesa. Ma si riferisce specificamente all'esterno della...

vieni
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

uomo
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

Dio
Il Signore è l'amore stesso, espresso sotto forma di saggezza. L'amore, quindi, è la sua essenza, il suo intimo. La saggezza - la comprensione amorosa...

mano
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

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