Joshua 8

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1 Poi l’Eterno disse a Giosuè: "Non temere, e non ti sgomentare! Prendi teco tutta la gente di guerra, lèvati e sali contro ad Ai. Guarda, io do in tua mano il re di Ai, il suo popolo, la sua città e il suo paese.

2 E tu tratterai Ai e il suo re come hai trattato Gerico a il suo re; ne prenderete per voi soltanto il bottino e il bestiame. Tendi un’imboscata dietro alla città".

3 Giosuè dunque con tutta la gente di guerra si levò per salire contro ad Ai. Egli scelse trentamila uomini valenti e prodi, li fe’ partire di notte, e diede loro quest’ordine:

4 "Ecco, vi fermerete imboscati dietro alla città; non v’allontanate troppo dalla città, e siate tutti pronti.

5 Io e tutto il popolo ch’è meco ci accosteremo alla città; e quando essi ci usciranno contro come la prima volta, ci metteremo in fuga dinanzi a loro.

6 Essi c’inseguiranno finché noi li abbiam tratti lungi dalla città, perché diranno: Essi fuggono dinanzi a noi come la prima volta. E fuggiremo dinanzi a loro.

7 Voi allora uscirete dall’imboscata e v’impadronirete della città: l’Eterno, il vostro Dio, la darà in vostra mano.

8 E quando avrete preso la città, la incendierete; farete come ha detto l’Eterno. Badate bene, questo è l’ordine ch’io vi do".

9 Così Giosuè li mandò, e quelli andarono al luogo dell’imboscata, e si fermarono fra Bethel e Ai, a ponente d’Ai; ma Giosuè rimase quella notte in mezzo al popolo.

10 E la mattina levatosi di buon’ora, passò in rivista il popolo, e salì contro Ai: egli con gli anziani d’Israele, alla testa del popolo.

11 E tutta la gente di guerra ch’era con lui, salì, si avvicino, giunse dirimpetto alla città, e si accampò al nord di Ai. Tra lui ed Ai c’era una valle.

12 Giosuè prese circa cinquemila uomini, coi quali tese un’imboscata fra Bethel ed Ai, a ponente della città.

13 E dopo che tutto il popolo ebbe preso campo al nord della città e tesa l’imboscata a ponente della città, Giosuè, durante quella notte, si spinse avanti in mezzo alla valle.

14 Quando il re d’Ai vide questo, la gente della città si levò in fretta di buon mattino; e il re e tutto il suo popolo usciron contro a Israele, per dargli battaglia al punto convenuto, al principio della pianura; perché il re non sapeva che c’era un’imboscata contro di lui dietro la città.

15 Allora Giosuè e tutto Israele, facendo vista d’esser battuti da quelli, si misero in fuga verso il deserto.

16 E tutto il popolo ch’era nella città fu chiamato a raccolta per inseguirli; e inseguirono Giosuè e furon tratti lungi dalla città.

17 Non ci fu uomo, in Ai e in Bethel, che non uscisse dietro a Israele. Lasciaron la città aperta e inseguirono Israele.

18 Allora l’Eterno disse a Giosuè: "Stendi verso Ai la lancia che hai in mano, perché io sto per dare Ai in tuo potere". E Giosuè stese verso la città la lancia che aveva in mano.

19 E subito, non appena ebbe steso la mano, gli uomini dell’imboscata sorsero dal luogo dov’erano, entraron di corsa nella città, la presero, e s’affrettarono ad appiccarvi il fuoco.

20 E la gente d’Ai, volgendosi indietro, guardò, ed ecco che il fumo della città saliva al cielo; e non vi fu per loro alcuna possibilità di fuggire né da una parte né dall’altra, perché il popolo che fuggiva verso il deserto s’era voltato contro quelli che lo inseguivano.

21 E Giosuè e tutto Israele, vedendo che quelli dell’imboscata avean preso la città e che il fumo saliva dalla città, tornarono indietro, e batterono la gente d’Ai.

22 Anche gli altri usciron dalla città contro a loro; cosicché furon presi in mezzo da Israele, avendo gli uni di qua e gli altri di là; e Israele li batté in modo che non ne rimase né superstite né fuggiasco.

23 Il re d’Ai lo presero vivo, e lo menarono a Giosuè.

24 Quando Israele ebbe finito d’uccidere tutti gli abitanti d’Ai nella campagna, nel deserto dove quelli l’aveano inseguito, e tutti furon caduti sotto i colpi della spada finché non ne rimase più, tutto Israele tornò verso Ai e la mise a fil di spada.

25 Tutti quelli che caddero in quel giorno, fra uomini e donne, furon dodicimila: vale a dire tutta la gente d’Ai.

26 Giosuè non ritirò la mano che avea stesa con la lancia, finché non ebbe sterminato tutti gli abitanti d’Ai.

27 Israele prese per se soltanto il bestiame e il bottino di quella città, secondo l’ordine che l’Eterno avea dato a Giosuè.

28 Giosuè arse dunque Ai e la ridusse in perpetuo in un mucchio di ruine, com’è anch’oggi.

29 Quanto al re d’Ai, l’appiccò a un albero, e ve lo lasciò fino a sera; ma al tramonto del sole Giosuè ordinò che il cadavere fosse calato dall’albero; e lo gittarono all’ingresso della porta della città, e gli ammassarono sopra un gran mucchio di pietre, che rimane anche al di d’oggi.

30 Allora Giosuè edificò un altare all’Eterno, all’Iddio d’Israele, sul monte Ebal,

31 come Mosè, servo dell’Eterno, aveva ordinato ai figliuoli d’Israele, e come sta scritto nel libro della legge di Mosè: un altare di pietre intatte sulle quali nessuno avea passato ferro; e i figliuoli d’Israele offriron su di esso degli olocausti all’Eterno, e fecero de’ sacrifizi di azioni di grazie.

32 E là, su delle pietre, Giosuè scrisse una copia della legge che Mosè avea scritta in presenza dei figliuoli d’Israele.

33 Tutto Israele, i suoi anziani, i suoi ufficiali e i suoi giudici stavano in piè ai due lati dell’arca, dirimpetto ai sacerdoti levitici che portavan l’arca del patto dell’Eterno: gli stranieri come gl’Israeliti di nascita, metà dal lato del monte Garizim, metà dal lato del monte Ebal, come Mosè, servo dell’Eterno, avea da prima ordinato che si benedisse il popolo d’Israele.

34 Dopo questo, Giosuè lesse tutte le parole della legge, le benedizioni e le maledizioni, secondo tutto ciò ch’è scritto nel libro della legge.

35 Non vi fu parola di tutto ciò che Mosè avea comandato, che Giosuè non leggesse in presenza di tutta la raunanza d’Israele, delle donne, de’ bambini e degli stranieri che camminavano in mezzo a loro.

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Exploring the Meaning of Joshua 8      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth and New Christian Bible Study Staff

Joshua 8: The fall of Ai and the renewal of the covenant.

The events of this chapter - and their spiritual meaning for us - follow on from the previous chapter. After their first setback at Ai, the Children of Israel take the city of Ai by using a clever ruse. Joshua chose thirty thousand men for the battle. The plan was for five thousand of them to hide near the city, while he led the main army to attack the city. Then, Joshua and his forces would pretend to run away, pursued by the men of Ai. Those who had hidden were then to come out, go into the city, and set it on fire. The men of Ai would see this and run back, get ambushed, and be caught between Joshua’s two armies.

It all happened as planned, and Israel took Ai. (See Arcana Caelestia 1557). As with Jericho, everything in Ai was commanded to be destroyed, except that in this case the livestock and the city’s spoils were to be kept. The whole city was burned and its king was hanged on a tree until sunset and then his body was thrown down at the city entrance with a great heap of stones put over it.

The basic spiritual meaning of any battle in the Bible such as this, is to show how a heavenly principle can and will overcome a hellish or evil attack, especially for us, during some temptation - when we seek to resist and fight back.

Evil is only strong in illusion and fear-mongering; when the light of what is true shines on evil it gets shown for what it is. (Heaven and Hell 49)

The city’s name “Ai” means “a heap”. The word gets used several times in the text of the chapter. A heap implies rubble and rubbish. Cities sometimes look noble and well-planned; in Ai’s case it was the very opposite - a heap, a ruin. (Heaven and Hell 586[2])

While Jericho generally represents our wrong thinking, which first stands in the way of our regeneration and spiritual will, Ai represents our evil emotions and our selfish passions. Both of them must fall before we can make further progress.

Joshua chooses a large number to go against a relatively few in Ai, who nevertheless all rush out to fight Israel. “There was not a man left in Ai or Bethel who did not go out after Israel. Thus they left the city open.” (Joshua 8:17)

Joshua’s tactic of drawing out the men of Ai means our challenge to evil - by confronting it with the truths and commandments we know and obey. Joshua’s pretence of fleeing away draws Ai out in glee, interpreting the flight as a real retreat. Then everything turns, and Joshua’s men go forward representing the power of the truth, the Word and our persuasion of their effectiveness in winning. (Arcana Caelestia 6344[4])

Ai’s men see their city on fire, for other Israelites entered Ai and set it ablaze. This represents the self-condemnation of evil, of hell, when it is exposed to what is true, heavenly and of God. But Joshua’s men, lying in ambush and waiting for the moment, represent our keen observation of how our selfish desires work to cause havoc in us. They are 5,000. Symbolically, in the Bible, five or its multiples always stand for a small amount - but enough to use.

Hanging the king of Ai stands for our need to put down the controlling power of any evil which stirs us. And all Ai is destroyed, because all evil must be turned against and refused.

Then, and only then, Joshua remakes the covenant with the Lord God; he builds an altar, he writes a copy on stones of the Law of Moses in the presence of all Israel, the priests stand in two groups in front of two mountains, then Joshua reads the words of blessing and cursing and all the Law of Moses.

After we resist any evil and its temptation, we must re-hear and re-affirm the truth that this was the Lord’s victory, not ours, and re-dedicate ourselves to the life the Lord gives us. (True Christian Religion 13[2])

Swedenborg

Výklad(y) nebo odkazy ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 796, 878, 1298, 1453, 2799, 5156, 6752, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 457, 662


Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 585, 655, 937

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Deuteronomio 2:34, 35, 7:18, 21, 11:29, 13:17, 21:22, 23, 27:2, 8, 14, 28:28, 29:9, 10, 31:11, 12

Joshua 1:9, 2:24, 3:1, 6:2, 21, 7:26, 9:3, 10:7, 22, 26, 27, 11:14, 12:9

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Významy biblických slov

l’eterno
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

disse
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

giosuè
Joshua is first mentioned in Exodus 17, where he is told to select men to fight for the children of Israel against the Amalekites in...

re
The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

guerra
La guerra nella Parola rappresenta il combattimento della tentazione quando ciò che è bene è assalito da ciò che è male o falso. Il male...

ai
Hai, or Ai, signifies light derived from worldly things.

Guarda
To look,' as in Genesis 18:22, signifies thinking, because seeing denotes understanding. Look not back behind thee,' as in Genesis 19:17, means that Lot, who...

mano
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

città
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

hai
Hai, or Ai, signifies light derived from worldly things.

gerico
Jericho' signifies instruction and also the good of life because no one can be instructed in the truths of doctrine but he who is in...

bottino
'To spoil,' as in Genesis 34:27, signifies destruction. 'Spoil,' as in Deuteronomy 13:16, signifies the falsification of truth.

salire
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

uomini
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

notte
The sun in the Bible represents the Lord, with its heat representing His love and its light representing His wisdom. “Daytime,” then, represents a state...

prima
Nella maggior parte dei casi, il significato di "prima" è piuttosto semplice, sia come modo di valutare il tempo relativo, sia nel suo uso che...

in fuga
To flee signifies to escape, and be rescued. To flee signifies to be overcome.

noi
Angels do give us guidance, but they are mere helpers; the Lord alone governs us, through angels and spirits. Since angels have their assisting role,...

Dio
Il Signore è l'amore stesso, espresso sotto forma di saggezza. L'amore, quindi, è la sua essenza, il suo intimo. La saggezza - la comprensione amorosa...

detto
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

ordine
To command is to give an order that something must be done, and is directed to an individual, or a group. It is an imperative,...

bethel
Quando Giacobbe fece il suo famoso sogno, di una scala che portava in cielo, chiamò il luogo "Bethel", che in ebraico significa "la casa di...

mezzo
'Middle' denotes what is primary, principal, or inmost.

mattina
Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

anziani
Ancients of the people, and the princes thereof ('Isaiah 3:14'), have a similar signification with the twelve disciples.

d’israele
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

israele
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

nord
'North' signifies people who are in obscurity regarding truth. North,' in Isaiah 14:31, signifies hell. The North,' as in Jeremiah 3:12, signifies people who are...

campo
Camps in the Bible represent spiritual order – a person’s (or a church community’s) whole collection of desires for good and true ideas on how...

valle
Mountains in the Bible represent people's highest points, where we are closest to the Lord - our love of the Lord and the state of...

fretta
'To hasten' or 'hastiness' in the internal sense, does not denote what is quick, but what is certain, and also what is full, thus every...

battaglia
La guerra nella Parola rappresenta il combattimento della tentazione quando ciò che è bene è assalito da ciò che è male o falso. Il male...

pianura
'A plain' signifies good and truth in the natural self, because 'the people who dwell in plains,' or 'beneath mountains and hills' are in the...

deserto
'Wilderness' signifies something with little life in it, as described in the internal sense in Luke 1:80 'Wilderness' signifies somewhere there is no good because...

uomo
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

dietro a
Behind, or after, (Gen. 16:13), signifies within or above, or an interior or superior principle.

lancia
'Lances' signify combating truths.

dare
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

stese
The hand in the Bible represents power, which is easy to understand, so to reach out or stretch out the hand means to exercise power,...

fuoco
Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

fumo
'Smoke' signifies divine truth in extremes, because 'fire' which gives off smoke, signifies love. 'Smoke' also signifies the same thing as 'cloud' in many places....

cielo
I cieli sono cose celesti e spirituali. Di conseguenza, sono le cose più profonde, sia del regno del Signore nei cieli che della terra. Questo...

fuggire
To flee signifies to escape, and be rescued. To flee signifies to be overcome.

vedendo
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

indietro
Ci sono molti esempi nella Bibbia che descrivono persone che tornano indietro, che si guardano indietro o che tornano indietro. Nella maggior parte dei casi...

uccidere
'To slay a man to his wounding,' means extinguishing faith, and 'to slay a young man to his hurt,' signifies extinguishing charity, as in Genesis...

abitanti
Inhabitants,' in Isaiah 26:9, signify the men of the church who are in good of doctrine, and thence in the good of life.

caduti
'To slay a man to his wounding,' means extinguishing faith, and 'to slay a young man to his hurt,' signifies extinguishing charity, as in Genesis...

spada
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

giorno
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

donne
'Women,' as in Genesis 45:19, signify the affections of truth. But in Genesis 31:50, 'women' signify affections of not genuine truth, so not of the...

perpetuo
'Perpetual' in the literal sense, means to the end of one’s life, after death, and eternity.

oggi
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

albero
'Trees,' in general, signify the perceptions when discussing the celestial self, but when related to the spiritual church, they signify knowledges. A person in the...

sera
Since the light and warmth of the sun represent the Lord’s wisdom and love, it makes sense that evening, a time when the light and...

sole
The 'sun' signifies celestial and spiritual love. The 'sun' in the Word, when referring to the Lord, signifies His divine love and wisdom. Because the...

cadavere
A carcass (Matt. 24:28) signifies the church void of the life of charity and faith.

Ingresso
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

porta
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

mucchio
'A heap,' as mentioned in Genesis 31:40, signifies good, because in the past, before they built altars, the ancients made heaps and ate together upon...

pietre
Stones in the Bible in general represent truths, or things we know concerning the Lord and what He wants from us and for us in...

altare
Il primo altare menzionato nella Parola fu costruito da Noè dopo che uscì dall'arca. Su quell'altare, egli sacrificò al Signore animali puliti. Le montagne rappresentano...

Iddio
Il Signore è l'amore stesso, espresso sotto forma di saggezza. L'amore, quindi, è la sua essenza, il suo intimo. La saggezza - la comprensione amorosa...

mosè
Moses's name appears 814 times in the Bible (KJV), third-most of any one character (Jesus at 961 actually trails David at 991). He himself wrote...

ordinato
To command is to give an order that something must be done, and is directed to an individual, or a group. It is an imperative,...

figliuoli
Swedenborg tells us that space and time in the physical world correspond to states of life in the spiritual world. So when the Bible talks...

scritto
If knowing what’s right were the same as doing what’s right, we would all be thin, healthy, hard-working, law-abiding, faithful to our spouses and free...

libro
(Rev. 10:9.) "And I went unto the angel, saying, give me the little book," signifies the faculty of perceiving the quality of the Word from...

ferro
'Iron,' in Deuteronomy 8:9, signifies natural or rational truth. Iron' signifies natural truth, and consequently, the natural sense of the Word. At the same time,...

giudici
It’s easy to see the connection between judging and truth. In a court of law, the judge’s whole purpose is to find the truth. In...

lati
'Side' signifies good or spiritual love.

arca
Ci sono tre arche menzionate nella Parola, l'arca di Noè, l'arca dei giunchi per il piccolo Mosè, e l'arca dell'alleanza nel tabernacolo. Tutte e tre...

sacerdoti
Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

gli stranieri
The word "stranger" is used many times in the Bible, and it is sometimes paired with the word "sojourner". They are different concepts in the...

stranieri
The word "stranger" is used many times in the Bible, and it is sometimes paired with the word "sojourner". They are different concepts in the...

Israeliti
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

metà
Half and double in reference to numbers in the world have a similar signification as the numbers themselves.

lato
'Side' signifies good or spiritual love.

benedisse
Il Signore è l'amore perfetto espresso come saggezza perfetta. Ci ha creati perché ci amasse, ci desse amore e saggezza, e potesse così unirsi a...

dopo
Secondo Swedenborg, il tempo e lo spazio non esistono nella realtà spirituale, sono cose puramente naturali che esistono solo sul piano fisico. Ciò significa che...

parole
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

maledizioni
The Lord is love itself, and his love for us never wavers and never changes. What does waver and change is the degree to which...

parola
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

comandato
To command is to give an order that something must be done, and is directed to an individual, or a group. It is an imperative,...

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