Joshua 20



1 POI il Signore parlò a Giosuè, dicendo: Parla a’ figliuoli d’Israele, dicendo:

2 Costituitevi le città del rifugio, delle quali io vi parlai per Mosè;

3 acciocchè l’ucciditore, che avrà uccisa una persona per errore, disavvedutamente, si rifugga là; ed esse vi saranno per rifugio da colui che ha la ragione di vendicare il sangue.

4 Un tale adunque si rifuggirà in una di quelle città; e, fermatosi all’entrata della porta della città, dirà agli Anziani della città le sue ragioni; ed essi l’accoglieranno a loro dentro alla città, e gli daranno luogo, ed egli abiterà con loro.

5 E quando colui che ha la ragione di vendicare il sangue lo perseguiterà, essi non gliel daranno nelle mani; perciocchè egli ha ucciso il suo prossimo disavvedutamente, non avendolo per addietro odiato.

6 Ed egli starà in quella città, finchè, alla morte del sommo Sacerdote che sarà a que’ dì, egli comparisca in giudicio davanti alla raunanza; allora l’ucciditore se ne ritornerà, e verrà alla sua città, e alla sua casa; alla città, onde egli sarà fuggito.

7 I figliuoli d’Israele adunque consacrarono Chedes in Galilea, nel monte di Neftali; e Sichem nel monte di Efraim; e Chiriat-arba, che è Hebron, nel monte di Giuda.

8 E di là dal Giordano di Gerico, verso Oriente, costituirono Beser, nel deserto, nella pianura, d’infra le terre della tribù di Ruben; e Ramot in Galaad, d’infra le terre della tribù di Gad; e Golan in Basan, d’infra le terre della tribù di Manasse.

9 Queste furono le città assegnate per tutti i figliuoli di Israele, e per li forestieri che dimorano fra loro; acciocchè chiunque avesse uccisa una persona per errore si rifuggisse là, e non morisse per man di colui che ha la ragione di vendicare il sangue; finchè fosse comparito davanti alla raunanza.

Exploring the Meaning of Joshua 20      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Joshua 20: The six cities of refuge.

Once all twelve tribes of Israel had received their inheritance, the Lord commanded Joshua and the Israelites to designate six cities of refuge, which were spread throughout the land on both sides of the Jordan. These cities would serve as safe havens, so that anyone who accidentally killed another person could flee to safety there. At the gate of the city, the refugee would declare his case to the city elders, and they would shelter him there until the high priest died. Then, the refugee could go back to his own city.

The six cities of refuge were evenly spaced throughout the land. In the north, Kedesh; in the center, Shechem; in the south, Kirjath Arba. Across the Jordan: Bezer, in Reuben; Ramoth, in Gad; and Golan in Manasseh. The three cities in Canaan are all said to be ‘on the mountains’, while the three cities across the Jordan are said to be ‘in the wilderness’ or ‘on the plain’.

There is a humanitarian purpose in granting safety when someone is accused of murder, a crime punishable by death. The spiritual meaning of this provision partly lies in the difference between justice and mercy. Justice has to do with the penalty of the law, while mercy recognizes that there could be more to the picture than just the intention to harm.

The Word acknowledges the place of both justice and mercy. Truth condemns, but love forgives. Ultimately, it is not we who know the real intentions of human hearts. This is something known only to the Lord, who will treat us justly, but also feel tender mercy and compassion towards us “for our low estate” (see Psalm 136:23 and Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 6180).

In his work, True Christian Religion, Swedenborg writes: “We acquire justice the more we practice it. We practice justice the more our interaction with our neighbour is motivated by a love for justice and truth. Justice dwells in the goodness itself or the useful functions themselves that we do. The Lord says that every tree is recognized by its fruit. Surely we get to know other people well through paying attention not only to what they do but also to what outcome they want, what they are intending and why. All angels pay attention to these things, as do all wise people in our world” (see True Christian Religion 96[2]).

Innocence is the wish not to harm, and it is one of the cornerstones of heaven. We can easily begin to feel guilt when we cause harm to someone without intending to. They suffer and we suffer also. Reconciliation is needed for everyone in that kind of situation. Spiritually, these cities of refuge mean giving others and ourselves the time and space to let go of harmful feelings – which hell often plays on – and after finding refuge, allowing the Lord to bring us healing (Arcana Caelestia 9011).

There are six cities of refuge because the number ‘six’ represents all the labors of regeneration and spiritual temptation. ‘Seven’ follows after ‘six’ and refers to the Sabbath, the day of the Lord’s rest, when He has brought us through hardships into a new peace (Arcana Caelestia 8975).

The fact that the six cities of refuge were spread on both sides of the Jordan also holds a valuable spiritual meaning. Being in Canaan means that we are consciously living with a sense of the Lord’s guidance in our thinking and actions. This gives us a higher level of understanding, rather like seeing life from up on the mountain. Being across the Jordan means that we are more acutely experiencing the uncertainties of life, although we still try to do what is good because of our faith and trust in the Lord. No matter what situation we face, we need our personal cities of refuge where we meet the ‘elders’ of the city – the leading truths in the Word – who bring us in, and offer us sanctuary with the Lord (Arcana Caelestia 8578).

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To many Protestant and Evangelical Italians, the Bibles translated by Giovanni Diodati are an important part of their history. Diodati’s first Italian Bible edition was printed in 1607, and his second in 1641. He died in 1649. Throughout the 1800s two editions of Diodati’s text were printed by the British Foreign Bible Society. This is the more recent 1894 edition, translated by Claudiana.