Ντάνιελ 5

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1 Βαλτασαρ ο βασιλευς εκαμε συμποσιον μεγα εις χιλιους εκ των μεγιστανων αυτου και επινεν οινον ενωπιον των χιλιων.

2 Και εν τη γευσει του οινου προσεταξεν ο Βαλτασαρ να φερωσι τα σκευη τα χρυσα και τα αργυρα, τα οποια Ναβουχοδονοσορ ο πατηρ αυτου αφηρεσεν εκ του ναου του εν Ιερουσαλημ, δια να πιωσιν εν αυτοις ο βασιλευς και οι μεγιστανες αυτου, αι γυναικες αυτου και αι παλλακαι αυτου.

3 Και εφερθησαν τα σκευη τα χρυσα, τα οποια αφηρεθησαν εκ του ναου του οικου του Θεου του εν Ιερουσαλημ· και επινον εν αυτοις ο βασιλευς και οι μεγιστανες αυτου, αι γυναικες αυτου και αι παλλακαι αυτου.

4 Επινον οινον και ηνεσαν τους θεους τους χρυσους και αργυρους, τους χαλκους, τους σιδηρους, τους ξυλινους και τους λιθινους.

5 Εν αυτη τη ωρα εξηλθον δακτυλοι χειρος ανθρωπου και εγραψαν κατεναντι της λυχνιας επι το κονιαμα του τοιχου του παλατιου του βασιλεως· και ο βασιλευς εβλεπε την παλαμην της χειρος, ητις εγραψε.

6 Τοτε η οψις του βασιλεως ηλλοιωθη και οι διαλογισμοι αυτου συνεταραττον αυτον, ωστε οι συνδεσμοι της οσφυος αυτου διελυοντο και τα γονατα αυτου συνεκρουοντο.

7 Και εβοησεν ο βασιλευς μεγαλοφωνως να εισαξωσι τους επαοιδους, τους Χαλδαιους και τους μαντεις. Τοτε ο βασιλευς ελαλησε και ειπε προς τους σοφους της Βαβυλωνος, Οστις αναγνωση την γραφην ταυτην και μοι δειξη την ερμηνειαν αυτης, θελει ενδυθη πορφυραν, και η αλυσος η χρυση θελει τεθη περι τον τραχηλον αυτου και θελει εισθαι ο τριτος αρχων του βασιλειου.

8 Τοτε εισηλθον παντες οι σοφοι του βασιλεως· πλην δεν ηδυναντο να αναγνωσωσι την γραφην ουδε την ερμηνειαν αυτης να φανερωσωσι προς τον βασιλεα.

9 Και ο βασιλευς Βαλτασαρ εταραχθη μεγαλως και ηλλοιωθη εν αυτω η οψις αυτου και οι μεγιστανες αυτου συνεταραχθησαν.

10 Η βασιλισσα εκ των λογων του βασιλεως και των μεγιστανων αυτου εισηλθεν εις τον οικον του συμποσιου· και ελαλησεν η βασιλισσα και ειπε, Βασιλευ, ζηθι εις τον αιωνα· μη σε ταραττωσιν οι διαλογισμοι σου και η οψις σου ας μη αλλοιουται.

11 Υπαρχει ανθρωπος εν τω βασιλειω σου, εις τον οποιον ειναι το πνευμα των αγιων θεων· και εν ταις ημεραις του πατρος σου φως και συνεσις και σοφια, ως η σοφια των θεων, ευρεθησαν εν αυτω, τον οποιον ο βασιλευς Ναβουχοδονοσορ ο πατηρ σου, ο βασιλευς ο πατηρ σου, κατεστησεν αρχοντα των μαγων, των επαοιδων, των Χαλδαιων και των μαντεων.

12 Διοτι πνευμα εξοχον και γνωσις και συνεσις, ερμηνεια ενυπνιων και εξηγησις αινιγματων και λυσις αποριων, ευρεθησαν εν αυτω τω Δανιηλ, τον οποιον ο βασιλευς μετωνομασε Βαλτασασαρ· τωρα λοιπον ας προσκληθη ο Δανιηλ, και θελει δειξει την ερμηνειαν.

13 Τοτε εισηχθη ο Δανιηλ εμπροσθεν του βασιλεως. Και ο βασιλευς ελαλησε και ειπε προς τον Δανιηλ, Συ εισαι ο Δανιηλ εκεινος, οστις εισαι εκ των υιων της αιχμαλωσιας του Ιουδα, τους οποιους εφερεν εκ της Ιουδαιας ο βασιλευς ο πατηρ μου;

14 Ηκουσα τωοντι περι σου, οτι το πνευμα των θεων ειναι εν σοι και φως και συνεσις και σοφια εξοχος ευρεθησαν εν σοι.

15 Και τωρα εισηλθον εμπροσθεν μου οι σοφοι και οι επαοιδοι, δια να αναγνωσωσι την γραφην ταυτην και να φανερωσωσιν εις εμε την ερμηνειαν αυτης, πλην δεν ηδυνηθησαν να δειξωσι του πραγματος την ερμηνειαν.

16 Και εγω ηκουσα περι σου, οτι δυνασαι να ερμηνευης και να λυης αποριας· τωρα λοιπον, εαν δυνηθης να αναγνωσης την γραφην και να φανερωσης προς εμε την ερμηνειαν αυτης θελεις ενδυθη πορφυραν και η αλυσος η χρυση θελει τεθη περι τον τραχηλον σου και θελεις εισθαι ο τριτος αρχων του βασιλειου.

17 Τοτε ο Δανιηλ απεκριθη και ειπεν εμπροσθεν του βασιλεως, Τα δωρα σου ας ηναι εν σοι και δος εις αλλον τας αμοιβας σου· εγω δε θελω αναγνωσει την γραφην εις τον βασιλεα και θελω φανερωσει την ερμηνειαν προς αυτον.

18 Βασιλευ, ο Θεος ο υψιστος εδωκεν εις τον Ναβουχοδονοσορ τον πατερα σου βασιλειαν και μεγαλειοτητα και δοξαν και τιμην.

19 Και δια την μεγαλειοτητα, την οποιαν εδωκεν εις αυτον, παντες οι λαοι, εθνη και γλωσσαι ετρεμον και εφοβουντο εμπροσθεν αυτου· οντινα ηθελεν εφονευε και οντινα ηθελεν εφυλαττε ζωντα και οντινα ηθελεν υψωνε και οντινα ηθελεν εταπεινονεν·

20 αλλ' οτε η καρδια αυτου επηρθη και ο νους αυτου εσκληρυνθη εν τη υπερηφανια, κατεβιβασθη απο του βασιλικου θρονου αυτου και αφηρεθη η δοξα αυτου απ' αυτου·

21 και εξεδιωχθη εκ των υιων των ανθρωπων, και η καρδια αυτου εγεινεν ως των θηριων και η κατοικια αυτου ητο μετα των αγριων ονων· με χορτον ως οι βοες ετρεφετο και το σωμα αυτου εβρεχετο υπο της δροσου του ουρανου· εωσου εγνωρισεν οτι ο Θεος ο υψιστος ειναι Κυριος της βασιλειας των ανθρωπων και οντινα θελει, στηνει επ' αυτην.

22 Και συ ο υιος αυτου, ο Βαλτασαρ, δεν εταπεινωσας την καρδιαν σου, ενω εγνωριζες παντα ταυτα·

23 αλλ' υψωθης εναντιον του Κυριου του ουρανου· και τα σκευη του οικου αυτου εφεραν εμπροσθεν σου, και επινετε οινον εξ αυτων και συ και οι μεγιστανες σου, αι γυναικες σου και αι παλλακαι σου· και εδοξολογησας τους θεους τους αργυρους και τους χρυσους, τους χαλκους, τους σιδηρους, τους ξυλινους και τους λιθινους, οιτινες δεν βλεπουσιν ουδε ακουουσιν ουδε νοουσι· τον δε Θεον, εις του οποιου την χειρα ειναι η πνοη σου και εις την εξουσιαν αυτου πασαι αι οδοι σου, δεν εδοξασας.

24 Δια τουτο εσταλη απ' εμπροσθεν αυτου η παλαμη της χειρος και ενεχαραχθη η γραφη αυτη.

25 Και αυτη ειναι η γραφη ητις ενεχαραχθη· Μενε, Μενε, Θεκελ, Ο υ φ α ρ σ ι ν.

26 Αυτη ειναι η ερμηνεια του πραγματος· Μενε, εμετρησεν ο Θεος την βασιλειαν σου και ετελειωσεν αυτην·

27 Θεκελ, εζυγισθης εν τη πλαστιγγι και ευρεθης ελλιπης·

28 Φερες, διηρεθη η βασιλεια σου και εδοθη εις τους Μηδους και Περσας.

29 Τοτε προσεταξεν ο Βαλτασαρ και ενεδυσαν τον Δανιηλ την πορφυραν, και περιεθηκαν την αλυσον την χρυσην περι τον τραχηλον αυτου, και διεκηρυξαν περι αυτου, να ηναι ο τριτος αρχων του βασιλειου.

30 Την αυτην νυκτα εφονευθη ο Βαλτασαρ ο βασιλευς των Χαλδαιων.

31 Και Δαρειος ο Μηδος ελαβε την βασιλειαν, ων περιπου ετων εξηκοντα δυο.

  

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The Feast of Belshazzar      

Napsal(a) Rev. Dr. Andrew M. T. Dibb

Belshazzar's Feast, by Rembrandt, showing the handwriting on the wall

This chapter begins with Belshazzar's feast for his friends. Belshazzar is presented in this chapter as the son of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. His name tells us something about him, for Belshazzar in the original Chaldean language means 'Bel Protect the King.' 'Bel' was a Babylonian god, so this name is about the relationship of the kingly, or ruling loves in a person, and the love of selfishness and dominion from that described by the god of the Babylonians.

Belshazzar has a similar spiritual relationship to Nebuchadnezzar as the Lord Jesus Christ had to the Father. In the case of the Lord, His human set forth the Divine, making it present for all people to see. In the case of Belshazzar, he set forth the love of selfishness, Nebuchadnezzar, for all the world to see. Belshazzar represents the external manifestation of the deepest feelings of selfishness, translated first into thoughts, then actions.

The story of Daniel is about the power of truth changing us from being self-centered to being regenerated. Each person has a Nebuchadnezzar side, and also a Daniel side. In previous chapters, we see Daniel's impact on Nebuchadnezzar. So truth impacts our lives. When we begin the process of change, we follow the order given in chapters two, three, four, and five. Truth is first an intellectual idea which, in time, affects our will. To change, we must be willing to undergo the temptations described in chapter four, but for this to happen, we need to judge our behavior. This is the feast, where actions are judged and those incompatible with conscience are cast out.

Belshazzar commanded the vessels brought so that the guests could drink from them. To drink wine from them means drawing teachings from the Word that one needs to live properly (Apocalypse Explained 376). Before our minds are clear of selfishness, we may go to the Word for guidance. But we are not looking to be lead to the good of life, but to support the selfishness within. This is not unusual with people first introduced to the truths of the Word: as they learn, they may find that the teachings seem to support some of their attitudes, rather than undermine faults. We can see this in Belshazzar's use of the vessels: he did not treat them with respect, but profaned them. Sharing the vessels with his lords, his wives, and concubines shows the various thoughts and affections still tied to selfishness which guided him.

As the king and his guests drank from the holy vessels, they showed their true allegiance: they worshiped gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone, compounding their profanation. Profanation is when the sacred and profane are brought together. One cannot believe the Word is holy, and mock it at the same time. No one can serve two masters (Matthew 6:24).

For a complete explanation of the different materials of the profane idols, see the explanation of the statue from Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel 2. The differences between the two rests in materials of the legs and feet, but in the internal sense, these differences disappear.

Amid this debauchery, a vision took place: the fingers of a man's hand appeared on the wall and wrote words in an unknown language. Belshazzar's fear reflects our own when it suddenly dawns on us that the activities of our life are in conflict with the very things we hold to be true. The conflict between good and evil within us is brought down to the level of our daily lives. The effect can be frightening: it is the realization of our shortcomings. Yet often, before the issues become clear, we feel a sense of unease, a feeling of dissatisfaction at the way our lives are going.

This vague feeling is Belshazzar's inability to read the words written upon the wall. They frightened him, but he did not know what they meant. Like us, he turned to the familiar, comforting voices which usually explained the unknown to him: the astrologers, the soothsayers, and the Chaldeans. These 'wise men' represent the thought patterns we have when our lives are disturbed: we look inwards to our usual justifications. Thus we blame others for our state of mind, or credit it to misfortune, without ever really going to the source of what is bothering us.

Belshazzar promised his soothsayers three distinct things:

"Whoever reads this writing, and tells me its interpretation, shall be clothed with purple and have a chain of gold around his neck; and he shall be the third ruler in the kingdom."

The angels of the celestial heaven wear crimson clothes (Divine Love and Wisdom 380, True Christian Religion 686) as an expression of their love to the Lord. Clothing signifies knowledge (Heaven and Hell 179, Arcana Coelestia 1073, 2576, 5319, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536) so 'clothing of purple' represents knowledges about love to the Lord. But because Belshazzar is selfishness, the knowledge he offered represents re-establishing selfish love as the ruling principle in our minds. In addition to the purple garments, he offered chains of gold. As we have seen before, gold represents goodness from the Lord. But in this case, the 'goodness' originates in selfishness. The final promise is power. The characteristic of the love of self is the lust for power. Nebuchadnezzar extended his natural kingdom across the earth, as selfishness extends its power throughout our lives.

Unsurprisingly, the 'wise men' could not read the writing on the wall. When we are unhappy because of our selfishness, no thoughts from selfishness will set us straight. If we know that what we are doing is wrong, and yet make excuses for our behavior, we will find little or no comfort in these justifications—they are a part of the problem.

So the queen suggested to Belshazzar that he call Daniel. To convince him of Daniel's worth, she uses terms that describe the quality of a conscience formed from the truths of the Word. 'The Spirit of the Holy God' is the truth from the Lord (Apocalypse Explained 183), where conscience is formed. Divine truth in the mind brings spiritual light (True Christian Religion 40) giving first understanding, and then wisdom. Conscience draws its being from the Divine truths from the Lord. The Babylonian 'wise men' all represent the various thoughts of a selfish mind. As the conscience is formed, it begins to take precedence over these thoughts, until it rules. So a person regenerating intellectually thinks from truth, but may still act from selfishness.

The queen's pleas made an impact on Belshazzar, and Daniel was brought before him. The king offered Daniel the same gifts he offered his wise men and astrologers. Daniel, of course, could not accept these, in much the same way, years before, he had been unable to accept food from Nebuchadnezzar's table. To accept the garments of purple, chains of gold, and a position of power in the kingdom was meaningless to Daniel. He was already, after all, in a position of power. Conscience does not need to be bribed: it stands firm and alone in our minds.

Daniel began his interpretation of the Writing on the Wall with a brief history of Nebuchadnezzar, as a summary of the progression of selfishness. He began with the fact that Nebuchadnezzar received his kingdom of from God. In chapter 1, we are told that 'the Lord gave Jehoiakim into his hand.' This implies that not only was the Lord responsible for the siege of Jerusalem, but for all of Nebuchadnezzar's other victories. This verse reinforces that concept: Nebuchadnezzar's success was because of the Lord.

Daniel voiced the words of judgment eloquently: Belshazzar had not humbled his heart, he had lifted himself up against the Lord of heaven. He used the vessels of the Lord's temple to worship gods of silver and gold, bronze and iron, wood and stone, yet he does not know that the Lord holds his life in His hand.

These well-spoken words of judgment are as much an indictment on us as they were on Belshazzar. Often we know the truths of the Word, we wrestle with them in our minds, we allow them to direct our feelings, and yet we do nothing about them. Spiritual procrastination is one of life's greatest dangers. As long as we put off spiritual progress, and wallow in the comfort of selfishness, as long as we hang onto old prejudices and attitudes, and habitual thinking, we are using the Lord's Word as a way of worshiping false idols. What needs to change in us are our loves, our attitudes. As these change, our external behavior must be brought into alignment with them.

Having chastised Belshazzar, Daniel began to explain the writing on the wall. He began by stressing that the fingers that wrote 'were sent by Him,' meaning the 'Most High God' who gave Nebuchadnezzar his kingdom, majesty and glory. While Nebuchadnezzar had humbled himself before the Lord, Belshazzar had not. In the historical sense, it was important for Daniel to stress the relationship between what happened to Nebuchadnezzar and what would happen to Belshazzar.

The judgment, from the power of the Lord, lay in the words written on the wall: 'mene, mene, tekel, upharsin.' Four words in an unknown language that could only be interpreted by Daniel. Thus we see how our conscience, drawn as it is from the teachings of the Word, is the root of our resistance to evil.

Daniel begins by explaining 'mene' saying: 'God has numbered your kingdom and found it wanting.' To number means to know the quality of something. This is why Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem 'in the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim,' and dreamed of the great statue 'in the second year' of his own reign.

The word 'mene' means the process of self-examination. There is no indication why the word is repeated twice; perhaps it indicates the need for an examination of acts flowing from both our will and our understanding—our actions from an inner love for them, and actions from a sense of duty.

The third word on the wall is 'Tekel,' which Daniel told Belshazzar means: 'You have been weighed in the balances and found wanting.' When we examine ourselves, it is from truth: we judge how we compare to the truth. The next step is to assess our feelings. Thus 'one should be found wanting.'

Daniel interprets the final word of the four to mean 'your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.' This literally happened to Belshazzar, but in the internal sense, to divide means to disperse and expel (Apocalypse Explained 373, Arcana Coelestia 9093). This is the third stage of repentance: when a person has examined self, found one's self wanting, and is willing to change, the next step is to separate the evil from ourselves, and to expel it from our lives. It is only in this way that we can be cleansed of evil.

This is an indication of how our lives should progress: no man can serve two masters, the Lord said, we cannot serve God and mammon. We cannot serve self and be ruled by the conscience at the same time. One must increase and the other decrease. By giving Daniel these gifts in the face of the imminent end of his kingdom, Belshazzar shows us how the conscience must increase, while selfishness as the root of our evil must decrease.

Thus it happened that on that very night, Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, was slain, and Darius the Mede received the throne, being about sixty-two years old.

Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 1326

Apocalypse Explained 587, 1029

Apocalypse Revealed 717

The Last Judgement 54

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 176

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 37


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 1183, 3079, 3104, 5223, 8932, 9093, 9818, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 313, 316, 364, 459, 913

Divine Love and Wisdom 383

Doctrine of the Lord 48

Heaven and Hell 365

True Christian Religion 156, 754


Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 183, 220, 242, 373, 376, 453

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