Richter 12



1 Und die Männer von Ephraim versammelten sich und zogen hinüber nach Norden, und sie sprachen zu Jephtha: Warum bist du durchgezogen, um wider die Kinder Ammon zu streiten, und hast uns nicht gerufen, daß wir mit dir gingen? Wir werden dein Haus über dir mit Feuer verbrennen!

2 Und Jephtha sprach zu ihnen: Einen heftigen Streit haben wir gehabt, ich und mein Volk, mit den Kindern Ammon; und ich rief euch, aber ihr habt mich nicht aus ihrer Hand gerettet.

3 Und als ich sah, daß du nicht helfen wolltest, da setzte ich mein Leben aufs Spiel und zog hin wider die Kinder Ammon; und Jehova gab sie in meine Hand. Warum seid ihr denn an diesem Tage gegen mich heraufgezogen, um wider mich zu streiten?

4 Und Jephtha versammelte alle Männer von Gilead und stritt mit Ephraim; und die Männer von Gilead schlugen Ephraim, weil sie gesagt hatten: Flüchtlinge Ephraims seid ihr, ihr Gileaditer, inmitten Ephraims und inmitten Manasses!

5 Und Gilead nahm Ephraim die Furten des Jordan. Und es geschah, wenn ein Flüchtling von Ephraim sprach: Laß mich hinübergehen! So sprachen die Männer von Gilead zu ihm: Bist du ein Ephraimiter?

6 Und sagte er: Nein! so sprachen sie zu ihm: Sage doch: Schibboleth! Und sagte er: Sibboleth, und brachte es nicht fertig, richtig zu sprechen, dann ergriffen sie ihn und schlachteten ihn an den Furten des Jordan. Und es fielen in jener Zeit von Ephraim zweiundvierzigtausend.

7 Und Jephtha richtete Israel sechs Jahre; und Jephtha, der Gileaditer, starb und wurde in einer der Städte Gileads begraben.

8 Und nach ihm richtete Israel Ibzan von Bethlehem.

9 Und er hatte dreißig Söhne; und dreißig Töchter entließ er aus dem Hause, und dreißig Töchter brachte er von außen für seine Söhne herein. Und er richtete Israel sieben Jahre.

10 Und Ibzan starb und wurde zu Bethlehem begraben.

11 Und nach ihm richtete Israel Elon, der Sebuloniter; und er richtete Israel zehn Jahre.

12 Und Elon, der Sebuloniter, starb und wurde zu Ajjalon im Lande Sebulon begraben.

13 Und nach ihm richtete Israel Abdon, der Sohn Hillels, der Pirhathoniter.

14 Und er hatte vierzig Söhne und dreißig Enkel, die auf siebzig Eseln ritten. Und er richtete Israel acht Jahre.

15 Und Abdon, der Sohn Hillels, der Pirhathoniter, starb und wurde zu Pirhathon begraben im Lande Ephraim, im Gebirge der Amalekiter.

Exploring the Meaning of Richter 12      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 12: Jephthah’s conflict with Ephraim; Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.

After Jephthah’s victory over the Ammonites, the men of Ephraim came to Jephthah, demanding to know why he hadn’t asked them to join the battle. Jephthah answered that when his people had struggled against Ammon in the past, Ephraim had not answered their calls for help.

Jephthah and Ephraim went to war over this dispute, and Ephraim was defeated. Jephthah’s men, the men of Gilead, stood by the fords of the Jordan to catch fleeing Ephraimites. When a man asked to cross, they would tell him to say “Shibboleth”. The men who pronounced the word as “Sibboleth” were from Ephraim, and were put to death. In total, forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed in the war.

Jephthah died after judging Israel for six years, and was buried in Gilead.


The spiritual meaning of Ephraim is to understand the truths of the Word. Wherever Ephraim is referenced in a negative sense, as in this chapter, the spiritual meaning becomes an understanding of the Word which has been destroyed. The Word commands us to live by what we understand and believe; in this story, Ephraim did not heed Jephthah’s words (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Sacred Scripture 79[3]).

The escaping Ephraimites were exposed by their accent, as they could not pronounce the ‘sh’ sound of “Shibboleth”. The letter ‘h’ stands for the genuine truth of the Word, which is the love of the Lord and for the neighbour. A purely intellectual understanding of the Word fails to comprehend this living heart that makes the Word what it is, and consequently, can only say “Sibboleth” (see Swdenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 4280).

The Word tells us that forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed - that seems an colossal number of casualties! But the Word does not report facts from a historical standpoint; it presents living truths, even in numbers. Forty-two is six multiplied by seven, so its spiritual meaning can be understood as a combination of both numbers. In the creation story, the Lord worked for six days and rested on the seventh. This idea relates to our regeneration, which involves our struggles during temptation, as well as the peace that comes from spiritual growth. The fact that the number of casualties was in the thousands emphasizes the significance of the spiritual meaning (Arcana Caelestia 8539[2]).

Jephthah judged Israel six years. The number six here carries the same meaning of conflict and work during temptation. The temptation in this chapter would be to understand the Word purely in an intellectual or dead way (Ephraim in a bad sense), rather than living by the truths it teaches.


After Jephthah, there were three minor judges of Israel. The first was Ibzan, who gave away thirty daughters to marry abroad, and brought in thirty foreign daughters for his thirty sons. The Bible does not tell us any more about Ibzan, except the curious fact that he came from Bethlehem. It’s uncertain whether this is the same town where the Lord would be born, or another town of the same name.

Ibzan, whose name means ‘illustrious’, stands for a generous and willing spirit, able to take in new perspectives and to share his blessings with others. This concept is called mutual love, which is a key quality of heaven (Arcana Caelestia 2738).

The next judge, Elon, came from Zebulun, and led Israel for ten years. Even these few details that we learn about him present a sense of integrity in their spiritual meanings: his name means an ‘oak’, a tree which is associated with nobility, strength, and longevity, each of which are fitting qualities of a leader; he came from Zebulun, which represents the unity of good and truth (Arcana Caelestia 4592[13]); and the number ten (the number of years that he judged Israel) symbolizes completeness, and also our spiritual ‘remains’ (see Sweenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 56).

The third and final judge, Abdon, had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy young donkeys. Abdon’s name means “to serve”, which is the third spiritual principle after love and truth. To serve is to offer our life to God through charity toward others. A young donkey represents the untamed level of our lives before regeneration, which needs spiritual care (Arcana Caelestia 5084[8]).

These last three ‘minor’ judges remind us of the qualities which guard against the next major opponent of Israel: the Philistines, who represent faith without regard to charity or good works.

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