1 Samuel 8

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Bible Martin (1744)         

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1 Et il arriva que quand Samuel fut devenu vieux, il établit ses fils pour Juges sur Israël.

2 Son fils premier-né avait nom Joël; et le second avait nom Abija; [et] ils jugeaient à Beersébah.

3 Mais ses fils ne suivaient point son exemple, car ils se détournaient après le gain déshonnête; ils prenaient des présents, et ils s'éloignaient de la justice.

4 C'est pourquoi tous les Anciens d'Israël s'assemblèrent, et vinrent vers Samuel à Rama;

5 Et lui dirent : Voici, tu es devenu vieux, et tes fils ne suivent point tes voies; maintenant établis sur nous un Roi pour nous juger comme en ont toutes les nations.

6 Et Samuel fut affligé de ce qu'ils lui avaient dit : Etablis sur nous un Roi pour nous juger; et Samuel fit requête à l'Eternel.

7 Et l'Eternel dit à Samuel : Obéis à la voix du peuple en tout ce qu'ils te diront : car ce n'est pas toi qu'ils ont rejeté, mais c'est moi qu'ils ont rejeté, afin que je ne règne point sur eux.

8 Selon toutes les actions qu'ils ont faites depuis le jour que je les ai fait monter hors d'Egypte jusques à ce jour, et qu'ils m'ont abandonné, et ont servi d'autres dieux; ainsi en font-ils aussi à ton égard.

9 Maintenant donc obéis à leur voix; mais ne manque point de leur protester, et de leur déclarer comment le Roi qui régnera sur eux, les traitera.

10 Ainsi Samuel dit toutes les paroles de l'Eternel, au peuple qui lui avait demandé un Roi.

11 Il leur dit donc : Ce sera ici la manière en laquelle vous traitera le Roi qui régnera sur vous. Il prendra vos fils et les mettra sur ses chariots, et parmi ses gens de cheval, et ils courront devant son chariot.

12 [Il les prendra] aussi pour les établir Gouverneurs sur milliers, et Gouverneurs sur cinquantaines, pour faire son labourage, pour faire sa moisson, et pour faire ses instruments de guerre, et [tout] l'attirail de ses chariots.

13 Il prendra aussi vos filles pour en faire des parfumeuses, des cuisinières, et des boulangères.

14 Il prendra aussi vos champs, vos vignes; et les terres où sont vos bons oliviers, et il [les] donnera à ses serviteurs.

15 Il dîmera ce que vous aurez semé et ce que vous aurez vendangé, et il le donnera à ses Eunuques, et à ses serviteurs.

16 Il prendra vos serviteurs, et vos servantes, et l'élite de vos jeunes gens, et vos ânes, et les emploiera à ses ouvrages.

17 Il dîmera vos troupeaux, et vous serez ses esclaves.

18 En ce jour-là vous crierez à cause de votre Roi que vous vous serez choisi, mais l'Eternel ne vous exaucera point en ce jour-là.

19 Mais le peuple ne voulut point acquiescer au discours de Samuel, et ils dirent : Non; mais il y aura un Roi sur nous.

20 Nous serons aussi comme toutes les nations; et notre Roi Nous jugera, il sortira devant Nous, et il conduira nos guerres.

21 Samuel donc entendit toutes les paroles du peuple, et les rapporta à l'Eternel.

22 Et l'Eternel dit à Samuel : Obéis à leur voix, et établis leur un Roi. Et Samuel dit à ceux d'Israël : Allez-vous-en chacun en sa ville.

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Exploring the Meaning of 1_Samuel 8      

This chapter marks a historic turning point for the Children of Israel. Since their escape from Egypt some four hundred years earlier, the Lord Jehovah, through Moses, and Joshua, and then a series of judges, had directly ruled the people. Now, though, the people pleaded that they might instead have a king. In a sense, they wanted to be led by human nature, not by the God's law and prophets.

The corruption of Samuel’s sons, as judges over Israel, was what spurred this movement. Samuel had grown old, and his sons, Joel and Abiah, had become judges over Israel. However, they began to act immorally, taking bribes and “perverting judgement.” This is similar to the corruption of the High Priest Eli’s sons, described in 1 Samuel 2, and not unlike the misbehavior of two of Aaron's sons, Nadab and Abihu, as in Leviticus 10.

Samuel prayed to the Lord, asking what he should do about the people’s demand for a king. The Lord assured him that the request came not because he, Samuel, had been rejected. Instead, it was the Lord Himself who the people of Israel had rejected. The Lord sent a warning through Samuel to the people, and Samuel told them of the personal and financial cost that would come with having a king. The king would use a substantial portion of the land’s resources, and take the best for himself. Having a king would also mean that they were rejecting the Lord’s direct leadership, and because of this they would be unable to call on His help in the way that they had in the past. The people heard the warning, but did not change their minds.

There are two united ways in which the Lord wants to judge us. One way is through love or goodness. The other is through truth. In other words, our lives can be judged according to the type of love that exists in our hearts, and therefore the love we exhibit toward others. We will make mistakes, but it is our intent that matters most. Judgment according to truth, by comparison, is somewhat cold. We either adhere to the law or we don’t. The two, love and truth, should exist together. Intentions should be considered together with what we actually do. From this time in Israelite history, the role of priest, representing judgment from goodness or love, was separated from the role of king, representing judgment by truth. They denied themselves the opportunity to be ruled by love and left themselves to be ruled by the cold letter of the law (see Arcana Coelestia 6148).

Swedenborg also discusses this concept in Arcana Coelestia 1672. He writes that there is a different meaning of a “people,” meaning truths, and a “nation,” meaning goods. Kings, he writes, are associated with a people, not a nation. Thus before the Children of Israel were ruled by a king, they represented “a good, or that which is celestial,” but while they had a king they represented “truth or that which is spiritual” (Arcana Coelestia 1672). This further supports the idea that they began to separate the judgement by truth and judgement by love, choosing only truth, or the law as represented by a king.


Výklad(y) nebo odkazy ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcanes Célestes 1672, 2015, 2567, 2723, 6148, 8301, 8770

Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 638, 654, 919

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