Jonáš 4

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1 I mrzelo to Jonáše velmi, a rozpálen byl hněv jeho.

2 Pročež modlil se Hospodinu a řekl: Prosím, Hospodine, zdaliž jsem toho neřekl, když jsem ještě byl v zemi své? Protož jsem pospíšil uteci do Tarsu; nebo jsem věděl, že jsi ty Bůh milostivý a lítostivý, dlouhočekající a hojný v milosrdenství, a kterýž lituješ zlého.

3 Nyní tedy, ó Hospodine, vezmi, prosím, duši mou ode mne; nebo lépe jest mi umříti nežli živu býti.

4 I řekl Hospodin: Jest-liž to dobře, že tak horlíš?

5 Nebo vyšel byl Jonáš z města, a seděl na východ proti městu, a udělav sobě tu boudu, seděl pod ní v stínu, ažby viděl, co se bude díti s tím městem.

6 Přistrojil pak byl Hospodin Bůh břečtan, kterýž vyrostl nad Jonáše, aby zastěňoval hlavu jeho, a chránil ho před horkem. I radoval se Jonáš z toho břečtanu radostí velikou.

7 V tom nazejtří v svitání nastrojil Bůh červa, kterýž ranil ten břečtan, tak že uschl.

8 I stalo se, že když vzešlo slunce, nastrojil Bůh vítr východní žhoucí, a bilo slunce na hlavu Jonášovu, tak že umdléval, a žádal sobě, aby umřel, řka: Lépeť mi jest umříti nežli živu býti.

9 I řekl Bůh Jonášovi: Jest-liž to dobře, že se tak hněváš pro ten břečtan? Kterýžto řekl: An dobře jest, že se hněvám až na smrt.

10 Jemuž řekl Hospodin: Ty lituješ toho břečtanu, o němž jsi nepracoval, aniž jsi ho k zrostu přivedl, kterýž za jednu noc zrostl, a jedné noci zahynul,

11 A já abych nelitoval Ninive města tak velikého, v němž jest více nežli sto a dvadceti tisíc lidí, kteříž neznají rozdílu mezi pravicí svou a levicí svou, a dobytka mnoho?

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Exploring the Meaning of Jonah 4      

By Joe David and Steve David

In this fourth chapter of the Book of Jonah, (Jonah 4), the prophet Jonah has a strange reaction to his success. He's angry, and sulky. He thinks he knows better than God does. What is this story about?

Rev. George McCurdy, in his exegesis of this chapter, offers a summary in his Study Guide for the Book of Jonah, which is available for free as a .pdf, for your use. Below, we've excerpted part of his summary, and edited it for use in this context.

The people of the Jewish church in Jonah's time didn't want to reconsider their belief in their "most-favored-nation status." They challenged the Lord. They couldn't understand why He wanted to save their enemies in Nineveh.

Despite the hard lessons in chapters 1 and 2, and his success as described in chapter 3, Jonah still thought he knew better than the Lord. He thought that God was being too soft and loving -- too forgiving -- and that He needed to come around to Jonah’s tougher view.

Jonah got so angry and vengeful that he preferred to die rather than approve of the Lord’s way to save the Ninevites. His self-love wanted shade -- protection for its concepts. The Lord needed to bring such thinking to an end; the worm brought about death to the gourd from within. The Lord then sent a vehement east wind, that represents a blowing away of the stagnant thinking of the church.

The Lord's heavenly sun shone upon Jonah, but he felt faint. Here, Jonah's insistence on his own troubling view of things made him uncomfortable with the Lord’s view. The Divine guidance offered him a way to learn to enjoy the success of his neighbors as his own, but he wouldn't take it.

For us, then -- what? This story is telling us that we can't just keep the truths of the Word for ourselves; we have to go to Nineveh and share them. And then, if people start to hear them, and use them to turn their lives around, we can't allow ourselves to get resentful that the Lord accepts their repentance and forgives them. It's a very human reaction; think of the disciples vying to be first in the Lord's command structure (Luke 9:46), or the brother of the prodigal son (Luke 15:28-29), or the workers in the vineyard who had worked all day for a denarius (Matthew 20:10-12). But... it's not a good reaction. The Lord doesn't admire it in Jonah, and doesn't admire it when it crops up in our minds, either.

Rev. Martin Pennington recommends several explanatory passages from Swedenborg's theological writings:

"Shade or shadow means the perception of good and truth lies in obscurity." (Arcana Coelestia 2367)

"A vine is spiritual good (the spiritual church)". (Arcana Coelestia 217)

"A worm represents falsity gnawing away and tormenting one." (Arcana Coelestia 8481)

"'And the sun grew hot' in the contrary sense means self-love and love of the world." (Arcana Coelestia 8487)

And... here's a link to an interesting (audio) sermon on this chapter, by Rev. Todd Beiswenger.

Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 214


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Tajemství nebe 10441

O Písmu svatém 51

Pravé křesťanství 226


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 401, 419

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Word/Phrase Explanations

Jonáše
'Jonah' represents the Jewish nation.

řekl
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

věděl
Like so many common verbs, the meaning of "know" in the Bible is varied and dependent on context. And in some cases – when it...

hojný
'Sufficiency' relates to the reception of good, because good is the spiritual nourishment of the soul, as natural food is the nourishment of the body.

milosrdenství
In regular language, "mercy" means being caring and compassionate toward those who are in poor states. That's a position we are all in relative to...

Hospodin
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

Města
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

seděl
If you think about sitting, it seems fair to say that where you're sitting is more important than that you're sitting. Sitting in a movie...

pod
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

viděl
To look,' as in Genesis 18:22, signifies thinking, because seeing denotes understanding. Look not back behind thee,' as in Genesis 19:17, means that Lot, who...

Bůh
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

břečtan
The gourd which God prepared to come up over the head of the prophet Jonah, in Jonah 4:6, signifies the evil and self-love of the...

radoval se
To make glad signifies influx and reception from joy of heart.

slunce
The 'sun' signifies celestial and spiritual love. The 'sun' in the Word, when referring to the Lord, signifies His divine love and wisdom. Because the...

vítr
Because a nearer and stronger divine influx through the heavens disperses truths among the wicked, 'wind' signifies this dispersion of truth and the resulting conjunction...

Ninive
'Nineveh' signifies the falsities of doctrinal matters, also the Gentiles, or the falsities originating in the fallacies of the senses, in the obscurity of an...

sto
It's a landmark for a young child to count to 100; it sort of covers all the "ordinary" numbers. One hundred is obviously significant for...

tisíc
As children, most of us at some point frustrated our mothers into using the phrase “if I've told you once, I've told you a thousand...

mnoho
Intellectual things – ideas, knowledge, facts, even insight and understanding – are more separate and free-standing than emotional things, and it’s easier to imagine numbering...

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library by following this link.


 Jonah
Article | Ages 15 - 17

 Jonah
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 Jonah and the Gourd
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 Jonah and the Gourd (3-5 years)
Project | Ages 4 - 6

 Jonah and the Gourd (6-8 years)
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 Jonah and the Gourd (9-11 years)
Project | Ages 11 - 14

 Jonah and the Great Fish
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 Jonah Goes to Nineveh
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Prophet Jonah
This article shows how the Lord tried to teach Jonah to be merciful and kind when Jonah disobeyed the Lord because of his hatred toward the Assyrians. 
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14


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