士師記 12

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1 以法蓮聚集,到了北方,對耶弗他:你去與亞捫爭戰,為甚麼沒有招我們同去呢?我們必用燒你和你的房屋

2 耶弗他對他們:我和我的民與亞捫;大大爭戰;我招你們來,你們竟沒有來我脫離他們的

3 我見你們不來我,我就拚命前去攻擊亞捫人,耶和華將他們交在我中。你們今日為甚麼上我這裡來攻打我呢?

4 於是耶弗他招聚基列人,與以法蓮人爭戰。基列人擊殺以法蓮,是因他們:你們基列人在以法蓮瑪拿西中間,不過是以法蓮逃亡的人。

5 基列人把守約但河的渡口,不容以法蓮人過去。以法蓮逃走的人若:容我過去。基列人就問他:你是以法蓮人不是?他若:不是,

6 就對他:你示播列;以法蓮人因為咬不真字音,便西播列。基列人就將他拿住,殺在約但河的渡口。那時以法蓮人被殺的有四萬人。

7 耶弗他作以色列的士師年。基列人耶弗他死了,葬在基列的一座城裡。

8 耶弗他以,有伯利恆人以比讚作以色列士師。

9 他有三十兒子三十女兒女兒都嫁出去了。他給眾子從外鄉娶了三十媳婦。他作以色列的士師年。

10 以比讚死了,葬在伯利恆

11 以比讚之,有西布倫人以倫,作以色列的士師年。

12 西布倫人以倫死了,葬在西布倫地的亞雅崙。

13 以倫之,有比拉頓人希列的兒子押頓作以色的士師。

14 他有四十兒子三十個孫子,著七十匹駒。押頓作以色列的士師年。

15 比拉頓人希列的兒子押頓死了,葬在以法蓮地的比拉頓,在亞瑪力人的地。


Exploring the Meaning of 士師記 12      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 12: Jephthah’s conflict with Ephraim; Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.

After Jephthah’s victory over the Ammonites, the men of Ephraim came to Jephthah, demanding to know why he hadn’t asked them to join the battle. Jephthah answered that when his people had struggled against Ammon in the past, Ephraim had not answered their calls for help.

Jephthah and Ephraim went to war over this dispute, and Ephraim was defeated. Jephthah’s men, the men of Gilead, stood by the fords of the Jordan to catch fleeing Ephraimites. When a man asked to cross, they would tell him to say “Shibboleth”. The men who pronounced the word as “Sibboleth” were from Ephraim, and were put to death. In total, forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed in the war.

Jephthah died after judging Israel for six years, and was buried in Gilead.

*****

The spiritual meaning of Ephraim is to understand the truths of the Word. Wherever Ephraim is referenced in a negative sense, as in this chapter, the spiritual meaning becomes an understanding of the Word which has been destroyed. The Word commands us to live by what we understand and believe; in this story, Ephraim did not heed Jephthah’s words (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Sacred Scripture 79[3]).

The escaping Ephraimites were exposed by their accent, as they could not pronounce the ‘sh’ sound of “Shibboleth”. The letter ‘h’ stands for the genuine truth of the Word, which is the love of the Lord and for the neighbour. A purely intellectual understanding of the Word fails to comprehend this living heart that makes the Word what it is, and consequently, can only say “Sibboleth” (see Swdenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 4280).

The Word tells us that forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed - that seems an colossal number of casualties! But the Word does not report facts from a historical standpoint; it presents living truths, even in numbers. Forty-two is six multiplied by seven, so its spiritual meaning can be understood as a combination of both numbers. In the creation story, the Lord worked for six days and rested on the seventh. This idea relates to our regeneration, which involves our struggles during temptation, as well as the peace that comes from spiritual growth. The fact that the number of casualties was in the thousands emphasizes the significance of the spiritual meaning (Arcana Caelestia 8539[2]).

Jephthah judged Israel six years. The number six here carries the same meaning of conflict and work during temptation. The temptation in this chapter would be to understand the Word purely in an intellectual or dead way (Ephraim in a bad sense), rather than living by the truths it teaches.

*****

After Jephthah, there were three minor judges of Israel. The first was Ibzan, who gave away thirty daughters to marry abroad, and brought in thirty foreign daughters for his thirty sons. The Bible does not tell us any more about Ibzan, except the curious fact that he came from Bethlehem. It’s uncertain whether this is the same town where the Lord would be born, or another town of the same name.

Ibzan, whose name means ‘illustrious’, stands for a generous and willing spirit, able to take in new perspectives and to share his blessings with others. This concept is called mutual love, which is a key quality of heaven (Arcana Caelestia 2738).

The next judge, Elon, came from Zebulun, and led Israel for ten years. Even these few details that we learn about him present a sense of integrity in their spiritual meanings: his name means an ‘oak’, a tree which is associated with nobility, strength, and longevity, each of which are fitting qualities of a leader; he came from Zebulun, which represents the unity of good and truth (Arcana Caelestia 4592[13]); and the number ten (the number of years that he judged Israel) symbolizes completeness, and also our spiritual ‘remains’ (see Sweenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 56).

The third and final judge, Abdon, had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy young donkeys. Abdon’s name means “to serve”, which is the third spiritual principle after love and truth. To serve is to offer our life to God through charity toward others. A young donkey represents the untamed level of our lives before regeneration, which needs spiritual care (Arcana Caelestia 5084[8]).

These last three ‘minor’ judges remind us of the qualities which guard against the next major opponent of Israel: the Philistines, who represent faith without regard to charity or good works.

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