約書亞記 20

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1 避難城(參民35:9~28;申19:1~13)耶和華對約書亞

2 “你要告訴以色列人:‘你們要照著我藉著摩西命令你們的,為自己設立避難城,

3 好使那出於錯誤、並非蓄意殺人的,可以逃到那裡去;這些城要成為你們逃避報血仇的人的避難所

4 那殺人的要逃到這些城中的座,站在城門口,把自己的事情向城中的眾長老述說,長老就要把他接入城中,到他們那裡,並要地方,使他可以在他們中間。

5 如果報血仇的人追趕他,長老不可把他交在報血仇的人裡,因為他並非蓄意殺人,他以前與他並沒有仇恨

6 那殺人的要在那城裡,直到他站在會眾面前受審;等到當時的祭司死了,才可以回到本城本,回到他逃出的城那裡。’”

7 於是以色列人在拿弗他利地,把加利利的基低斯分別出來;在以法蓮地,把示劍分別出來;在猶大地,把基列.亞巴分別出來,基列.亞巴就是希伯崙;

8 又在約旦河東,耶利哥的東面,從流本支派中,指定在曠野平原上的比悉;從迦得支派中,指定在基列的拉末;從瑪拿西支派中,指定在巴珊的哥蘭。

9 這些都是為所有的以色列人,和在他們中間寄居的外族人所指定的城,讓誤殺人的可以逃到那裡,不致在報血仇的人裡,直到他站在會眾面前受審為止。


Exploring the Meaning of 約書亞記 20      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Joshua 20: The six cities of refuge.

Once all twelve tribes of Israel had received their inheritance, the Lord commanded Joshua and the Israelites to designate six cities of refuge, which were spread throughout the land on both sides of the Jordan. These cities would serve as safe havens, so that anyone who accidentally killed another person could flee to safety there. At the gate of the city, the refugee would declare his case to the city elders, and they would shelter him there until the high priest died. Then, the refugee could go back to his own city.

The six cities of refuge were evenly spaced throughout the land. In the north, Kedesh; in the center, Shechem; in the south, Kirjath Arba. Across the Jordan: Bezer, in Reuben; Ramoth, in Gad; and Golan in Manasseh. The three cities in Canaan are all said to be ‘on the mountains’, while the three cities across the Jordan are said to be ‘in the wilderness’ or ‘on the plain’.

There is a humanitarian purpose in granting safety when someone is accused of murder, a crime punishable by death. The spiritual meaning of this provision partly lies in the difference between justice and mercy. Justice has to do with the penalty of the law, while mercy recognizes that there could be more to the picture than just the intention to harm.

The Word acknowledges the place of both justice and mercy. Truth condemns, but love forgives. Ultimately, it is not we who know the real intentions of human hearts. This is something known only to the Lord, who will treat us justly, but also feel tender mercy and compassion towards us “for our low estate” (see Psalm 136:23 and Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 6180).

In his work, True Christian Religion, Swedenborg writes: “We acquire justice the more we practice it. We practice justice the more our interaction with our neighbour is motivated by a love for justice and truth. Justice dwells in the goodness itself or the useful functions themselves that we do. The Lord says that every tree is recognized by its fruit. Surely we get to know other people well through paying attention not only to what they do but also to what outcome they want, what they are intending and why. All angels pay attention to these things, as do all wise people in our world” (see True Christian Religion 96[2]).

Innocence is the wish not to harm, and it is one of the cornerstones of heaven. We can easily begin to feel guilt when we cause harm to someone without intending to. They suffer and we suffer also. Reconciliation is needed for everyone in that kind of situation. Spiritually, these cities of refuge mean giving others and ourselves the time and space to let go of harmful feelings – which hell often plays on – and after finding refuge, allowing the Lord to bring us healing (Arcana Caelestia 9011).

There are six cities of refuge because the number ‘six’ represents all the labors of regeneration and spiritual temptation. ‘Seven’ follows after ‘six’ and refers to the Sabbath, the day of the Lord’s rest, when He has brought us through hardships into a new peace (Arcana Caelestia 8975).

The fact that the six cities of refuge were spread on both sides of the Jordan also holds a valuable spiritual meaning. Being in Canaan means that we are consciously living with a sense of the Lord’s guidance in our thinking and actions. This gives us a higher level of understanding, rather like seeing life from up on the mountain. Being across the Jordan means that we are more acutely experiencing the uncertainties of life, although we still try to do what is good because of our faith and trust in the Lord. No matter what situation we face, we need our personal cities of refuge where we meet the ‘elders’ of the city – the leading truths in the Word – who bring us in, and offer us sanctuary with the Lord (Arcana Caelestia 8578).

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