Regters 19

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1 En in dié dae was daar geen koning in Israel nie. En 'n Levitiese man het as vreemdeling vertoef agter in die gebergte van Efraim; en hy het vir hom 'n vrou, 'n byvrou, geneem uit Betlehem-Juda.

2 Maar sy byvrou het by hom gehoereer en van hom weggegaan na haar vader se huis, na Betlehem-Juda; en sy was daar vier maande lank.

3 Daarop maak haar man klaar en gaan haar agterna om na haar hart te spreek en haar terug te bring; sy dienaar was by hom met 'n paar esels. En toe sy hom in die huis van haar vader bring en die vader van die jong vrou hom sien, was hy bly om hom te ontmoet.

4 En sy skoonvader, die vader van die jong vrou, het hom teruggehou, sodat hy drie dae by hom gebly het; en hulle het geëet en gedrink en die nag daar oorgebly.

5 Maar terwyl hulle op die vierde dag vroeg in die môre opstaan en hy klaarmaak om weg te gaan, die vader van die jong vrou vir sy skoonseun: Versterk jou hart met 'n stukkie brood, en daarna kan julle weggaan.

6 En hulle het gebly, en hulle twee het saam geëet en gedrink. Daarop die vader van die jong vrou aan die man: Bly tog asseblief die nag oor, en laat jou hart vrolik wees.

7 Toe die man egter klaarmaak om weg te gaan, het sy skoonvader by hom aangedring, sodat hy weer die nag daar oorgebly het.

8 Terwyl hy op die vyfde dag vroeg in die môre klaarmaak om weg te gaan, die vader van die jong vrou: Versterk jou hart tog, en vertoef julle tot agtermiddag. En hulle twee het geëet.

9 Maar toe die man klaarmaak om weg te gaan, hy en sy byvrou en sy dienaar, sy skoonvader, die vader van die jong vrou, vir hom: Kyk, die son sak, dit wil aand word; bly julle maar die nag oor: kyk, dit is al laat, bly die nag hier oor, en laat jou hart vrolik wees; dan kan julle môre vroeg klaarmaak vir julle reis en na jou tente toe gaan.

10 Maar die man wou nie die nag oorbly nie en het klaargemaak en weggetrek en gekom tot teenoor Jebus--dit is Jerusalem--met 'n paar opgesaalde esels by hom; ook sy byvrou was by hom.

11 En toe hulle by Jebus kom en die son al baie gesak het, die dienaar aan sy heer: Kom tog, laat ons uitdraai na hierdie stad van die Jebusiete en daarin vernag.

12 Maar sy heer aan hom: Ons kan nie uitdraai na 'n vreemde stad waar nie van die kinders van Israel is nie, maar Ons moet verbytrek tot by Gíbea.

13 Verder hy aan sy dienaar: Trek, laat ons nader kom by een van die plekke en in Gíbea of Rama vernag.

14 So het hulle dan verder verbygetrek; en die son het vir hulle ondergegaan by Gíbea wat aan Benjamin behoort.

15 Toe draai hulle daar uit om in Gíbea te gaan vernag. En hy het ingekom en gebly op die plein van die stad, want daar was niemand wat hulle in sy huis opgeneem het om te vernag nie.

16 Maar kyk, in die aand kom daar 'n ou man uit die veld van sy werk af, en die man was van die gebergte van Efraim afkomstig en het in Gíbea as vreemdeling vertoef; maar die manne van die plek was Benjaminiete.

17 En toe hy sy opslaan, sien hy die reisiger op die plein van die stad, en die ou man vra: Waar gaan u heen, en waar kom u vandaan?

18 En hy vir hom: Ons trek deur van Betlehem-Juda tot agter in die gebergte van Efraim; ek kom daarvandaan en het tot by Betlehem-Juda gereis, en ek gaan na die huis van die HERE; maar hier is niemand wat my in sy huis opneem nie,

19 alhoewel ons esels strooi sowel as voer het, en daar ook brood en wyn is vir myself en vir u dienares en vir die bediende wat by u dienaars is; daar is aan geen ding gebrek nie.

20 Toe die ou man: Vrede vir jou! alleenlik, al wat u kortkom, is vir my rekening; u moet net nie op die plein vernag nie.

21 Daarop het hy hom in sy huis ingebring en aan die esels voer gegee; en nadat hulle hul voete gewas het, het hulle geëet en gedrink.

22 Terwyl hulle hul hart vrolik maak, omsingel die manne van die stad, slegte manne, meteens die huis en klop hard aan die deur; en hulle spreek met die ou man, die eienaar van die huis, en : Bring die man uit wat in jou huis ingekom het, dat ons hom kan beken.

23 Daarop gaan die man, die eienaar van die huis, uit na hulle en aan hulle: Nee, my broers, moet tog nie kwaad doen nie, aangesien hierdie man in my huis ingekom het; moet nie hierdie skanddaad begaan nie.

24 Hier is my dogter wat 'n jongmeisie is, en sy byvrou; laat ek hulle uitbring, onteer hulle dan en maak met hulle wat goed is in julle , maar aan hierdie man mag julle so 'n skanddaad nie begaan nie.

25 Toe die manne nie na hom wou luister nie, gryp die man sy byvrou en bring haar uit na hulle daarbuite; en hulle het haar beken en die hele nag deur haar mishandel, tot die môre toe, en haar laat loop toe die rooidag uitkom.

26 En teen dagbreek het die vrou gekom en neergeval voor die ingang van die man se huis waar haar heer was, totdat dit lig was.

27 En toe haar heer die môre opstaan en die huisdeure oopmaak en uitgaan om sy reis voort te sit--kyk, daar lê die vrou, sy byvrou, voor die ingang van die huis met haar hande op die drumpel.

28 En hy vir haar: Staan op en laat ons trek; maar niemand antwoord nie. Daarop het hy haar op die esel gelaai, en die man het klaargemaak en na sy woonplek getrek.

29 Maar toe hy in sy huis kom, het hy 'n mes geneem en sy byvrou gegryp en haar stukkend gesny volgens haar gebeente in twaalf stukke en dit in die hele grondgebied van Israel rondgestuur.

30 En elkeen wat dit sien, het gesê: So iets het nie gebeur en is nie gesien van die dag af dat die kinders van Israel uit Egipteland opgetrek het tot vandag toe nie; neem dit tog ter harte, gee raad en spreek!

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Exploring the Meaning of Judges 19      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

The Levite’s Concubine and the Crime of Gibeah

In many ways the events in this chapter show the further deterioration of the spiritual condition of the people of Israel. It's a terrible story, much like the story of Sodom, much earlier in the Book of Genesis. It ends with some men of Gibeah – a town of Israel – seeking to have sex with a man who is a guest of one of the men of the city. This does not happen; they are instead diverted into an all-night rape of the man’s concubine, so that she is lifeless when he retrieves her body in the morning. He then cuts her up into twelve pieces and sends these throughout the whole territory of Israel.

As we have been saying, these last few chapters of the Book of Judges show clearly that once evil takes hold of a person – even a community or a country – and goes unchecked, and there is no indication of any desire to stop it or to turn from it, it will expand and poison the whole ‘body’. Then there is no distinction between what is good and evil, or between what is true and what is false, and there is no longer any active conscience left to check thoughts, desires and actions. (Arcana Caelestia 977)

The story begins… A Levite, a priest of Israel, takes a concubine from Bethlehem in Judah, but she takes part in prostitution and leaves the priest and goes to her father’s house in Bethlehem. The Levite goes to talk kindly with her, and she takes him into her father’s house where he is made welcome by her father.

The spiritual meaning of this is about a fairly mild situation of disorder and wrong which will form the beginning of all that is to happen. The Levite has a concubine. The concubine takes part in prostitution. The father’s fault seems to be that he keeps delaying the Levite’s departure. Every person lives with their own natures which produce mild disorders which can in fact become useful to us during regeneration. But allowed or left to stay unchecked, these disorders can begin to take hold. (Arcana Caelestia 8407)

The Levite keeps intending to leave, but several times the father of the concubine begs him to stay another night and detains him. Three days there becomes four, another night is spent, and on the fifth day the father urges the Levite to stay and eat and spend another night and go away early the next day. This time the Levite refuses and they leave and get to the town of Jebus, a Canaanite town which will eventually become Jerusalem.

The spiritual meaning of these delays before leaving lies in the danger of not turning away from something which is beginning to hold us and become our new normality. The father is very persuasive, but he is the father of a concubine who prostitutes herself. The Levite senses something is not right, and he insists he will leave. (Divine Providence 329)

The Levite’s servant asks for them to stay in Jebus, but the Levite refuses to stay in a foreign city and says they will go on to Gibeah or Ramah. They come to Gibeah and stay in the square as no one will take them in. An old man passes by and offers to take them into his house, and they go with him.

The spiritual point of this refusal to stay in the foreign city of Jebus but to go on to Gibeah, a city in Israel, is to bring out for us a sense of the abhorrence of what is about to happen there, and the extent of the wrong in Israel. (Apocalypse Revealed 158)

Some men of Gibeah beat on the door demanding that the man staying there come out so that they can sexually abuse him. The old man refuses but offers them his virgin daughter and the visitor’s concubine, but the men refuse. The Levite takes the concubine out of the house to the men and they rape her all night until morning.

The spiritual meaning for us of this story of the men of Gibeah and the concubine stems from the fact that no one in the entire story is blameless, apart from the virgin daughter of the old man. Everyone else is culpable. Spiritually, this reminds us that we are potentially capable of thinking about and even wanting to commit every evil and that regeneration – shunning all evils as sins against God and living in careful obedience to the Word – is the guard against this. (Divine Providence 296)

Abused and left, the concubine falls at the door of the house. In the morning the Levite sees her, bids her get ready to leave, then realises she is dead. He puts her on his donkey and goes to his house. He takes a knife and cuts the concubine into twelve pieces and sends these throughout the whole of Israel. And all who see say that no such thing has been seen since Israel came out of Egypt and end saying, ‘Consider it. Confer. Speak up!’

The spiritual meaning for us in dividing the concubine’s body in twelve parts and distributing them throughout all Israel is to do with our need to examine ourselves and see where our evils lie within us, often hidden and unknown. This is to be done in view of our actions, words, thoughts, intentions and what we might do if there were no penalty. (Divine Providence 149, 152, 278)

Swedenborg

Výklad(y) nebo odkazy ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 3148, 4592

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Významy biblických slov

dae
"Day" describes a state in which we are turned toward the Lord, and are receiving light (which is truth) and heat (which is a desire...

koning
The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

Israel
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

man
In general, men are driven by intellect and women by affections, and because of this men in the Bible generally represent knowledge and truth and...

Efraim
Ephraim was the second son born to Joseph in Egypt and was, along with his older brother Manasseh, elevated by Jacob to the same status...

vrou
'Women,' as in Genesis 45:19, signify the affections of truth. But in Genesis 31:50, 'women' signify affections of not genuine truth, so not of the...

Betlehem-Juda
City of Judah,' as in Isaiah 40:9, signifies the doctrine of love towards the Lord and love towards our neighbor in its whole extent.

Betlehem
There is a strong relationship between Ephrath and Bethlehem in the Bible; they might be two different names for the same town, or it’s possible...

Juda
City of Judah,' as in Isaiah 40:9, signifies the doctrine of love towards the Lord and love towards our neighbor in its whole extent.

huis
A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

vier
The number "four" in the Bible represents things being linked together or joined. This is partly because four is two times two, and two represents...

maande
'A month' has respect to the state of truth in a person. 'A month' signifies a full state. Month,' as in Genesis 29, signifies the...

gaan
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

na
According to Swedenborg, time and space don’t exist in spiritual reality; they are purely natural things that exist only on the physical plane. This means...

hart
The heart means love. A good heart means love to the Lord and to the neighbor while a hard or stony heart means the love...

spreek
Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

terug
There are many instances in the Bible which describe people turning back, looking back or going back. In most cases it is a negative, sometimes...

bring
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

esels
Donkeys signify the things relating to the self-intelligence of the sensual man; and camels, the things of self-intelligence in the natural man (Isa 30:6, 7.)

jong
"Youths" or "Young men" generally represent intelligence or the understanding of truth. This is fitting, since adolescent boys tend to be more advanced intellectually than...

sien
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

bly
To make glad signifies influx and reception from joy of heart.

ontmoet
In natural language, to "meet" someone can be positive or negative: it can be a welcoming and greeting, or it can be "meeting" them in...

drie
The Writings talk about many aspects of life using the philosophical terms "end," "cause" and "effect." The "end" is someone’s goal or purpose, the ultimate...

geëet
When we eat, our bodies break down the food and get from it both energy and materials for building and repairing the body. The process...

gedrink
To be drunken without wine (Isa. 29:9), are they who are unconcerned about the Word, and the truths of faith, and thus have no inclination...

vierde
The number "four" in the Bible represents things being linked together or joined. This is partly because four is two times two, and two represents...

dag
"Day" describes a state in which we are turned toward the Lord, and are receiving light (which is truth) and heat (which is a desire...

vroeg
Since the sun represents the Lord, the early morning and sunrise represent a state of enlightenment, with a new and clear understanding coming after a...

môre
Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

opstaan
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...


As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

brood
Just as natural food feeds the natural body, so spiritual food feeds the spiritual body. And since our spiritual body is the expression of what...

twee
The number "two" has two different meanings in the Bible. In most cases "two" indicates a joining together or unification. This is easy to see...

om
‘To grow’ signifies to be perfected.

tente
'Tent' is used in the Word to signify the celestial and holy aspects of love, because in ancient time they performed holy worship in their...

Jerusalem
Jerusalem, on Mount Zion, signifies the doctrine of love to the Lord, and how it governs your life. Jerusalem first comes to our attention in...

ons
Angels do give us guidance, but they are mere helpers; the Lord alone governs us, through angels and spirits. Since angels have their assisting role,...

Stad
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

kinders
A child is a young boy or girl in the care of parents, older than a suckling or an infant, but not yet an adolescent....

Gíbea
Gibeah, as in 2 Samuel 6, signifies the natural or ultimate principle of the church. Gibeah, Ramah, and Bethaven, as in Hosea 5:8, denote those...

trek
"Drawing" is used a number of different ways in the Bible, generally in the sense of pulling, leading or moving: People most commonly draw water,...

nader
'Near,' in the Word, signifies presence and conjunction. 'To be near' signifies being on internal levels. Near,' as in Genesis 19:20, signifies truth bordering upon...

een
A company might have executives setting policy and strategy, engineers designing products, line workers building them, managers handling personnel and others handling various functions. They...

plekke
'A dry place,' as in Luke 11:24, signifies states of evil and falsity which are in the life of someone who does the work of...

Rama
'Ramah' denotes things that pertain to spiritual truth derived from celestial truth.

son
The 'sun' signifies celestial and spiritual love. The 'sun' in the Word, when referring to the Lord, signifies His divine love and wisdom. Because the...

Benjamin
Also, Benjamin signifies the Word in its ultimate sense (Deut. 33:12)

draai
Swedenborg says that the Lord is the sun of heaven, and like the natural sun of our world shines on everyone, good or evil. What...

aand
Since the light and warmth of the sun represent the Lord’s wisdom and love, it makes sense that evening, a time when the light and...

kom
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

ou
Ancients of the people, and the princes thereof ('Isaiah 3:14'), have a similar signification with the twelve disciples.

veld
When we have a desire to be good people and to do good things, the natural first questions are "What does that mean?" "What should...

werk
'Works,' as in Genesis 46:33, denote goods, because they are from the will, and anything from the will is either good or evil, but anything...

plek
'A dry place,' as in Luke 11:24, signifies states of evil and falsity which are in the life of someone who does the work of...


It’s common to say “I see” when we understand something. And indeed, “seeing” in the Bible represents grasping and understanding spiritual things. So it makes...

Here
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

strooi
The word 'straw,' as in Genesis 24:25, signifies scientific truths, because it is food for camels. Straw,' as in Isaiah 11:6, signifies the Word in...

voer
'Provender' signifies the good of scientific truths. 'To give provender to his donkey,' as in Genesis 42:27, signifies reflection upon scientific ideas, because 'provender' is...

wyn
Wine played a key role in the ancient world, where safe, reliable water sources were scarce. It could be stored for long periods of time;...

dienares
'Maids' denote external affections serving the internal.

dienaars
“Servant” literally means “a person who serves another,"" and its meaning is similar in reference to the spiritual meaninngs of the Bible. Our lives in...

gebrek
'Want of spiritual nourishment,' denotes a lack of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom.

voete
The foot, as in Deuteronomy 33:3, signifies an inferior principle. To set the right foot on the sea and the left on the earth, as...

gewas
It does not take a great leap of imagination to see that “washing” in the Bible represents purification. Washing dirt from the skin is symbolic...

omsingel
To encompass, as in Genesis 19:4, signifies to be contrary, or to attack and assault with a hostile intention.

deur
In a general sense, doors in the Bible represent the initial desires for good and concepts of truth that introduce people to new levels of...

broers
There are two ways "brother" is used in the Bible, ways that are still reflected in modern language. One denotes an actual blood relationship; the...

dogter
Marriages among people – both in the Bible and in life – represent spiritual marriage. Women represent the desire to be good and to do...

luister
'To hearken to father and mother,' as mentioned in Genesis 28:7, signifies obedience from affection. 'To hearken,' as mentioned in Genesis 30:22, signifies providence. See...

nag
The sun in the Bible represents the Lord, with its heat representing His love and its light representing His wisdom. “Daytime,” then, represents a state...

voor
In most cases, the meaning of "before" is pretty straightforward, both as a way of assessing relative time, and in its use meaning "in someone's...

ingang
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

lig
In the Word, “light” in the highest sense represents Divine Truth: knowledge, ideas, understanding that come to us from the Lord. In lesser degrees...

hande
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

antwoord
To "answer" generally indicates a state of spiritual receptivity. Ultimately this means being receptive to the Lord, who is constantly trying to pour true ideas...

mes
'A knife' used for sacrifices denotes the truth of faith.

gesê
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

gesien
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

vandag
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

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 Deborah and Barak Review Questions
Choose words from a word bank to complete sentences about the story of Deborah and Barak.
Activity | All Ages

 Dividing the Land of Canaan Review Questions
Choose words from a word bank to complete sentences about the division of the land of Canaan.
Activity | All Ages


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