Richard R. Gladish, Professor of Education
The Academy of the New Church
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION
EDUCATION UNDER THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
1785 - 1967
General Church Religion Lessons
Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Foreword to Section I
HISTORY OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION
There are three sections of the manuscript, namely: I. Education under the General Conference of the New Jerusalem (England); II. Education under the General Convention of the New Jerusalem (America); and III. History of the Academy of the New Church. Of these, the third, A History of the Academy of the New Church has already (September 1967) been mimeographed by the General Church Religion Lessons organization, the publisher being the Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Section I and II are now being brought out in mimeograph form (1968) as companion volumes of Section III. Using both sides of the page, they should be somewhat less bulky than Section III.
It is the authors hope that, after a shake-down cruise in mimeograph, it will be possible to put into printed form in, possibly, a single volume, all three sections as A History of New Church Education. It is already contemplated that the third section will be expanded in some areas and probably trimmed in others. Probably the other two sections will also be modified, but since they are a record of past operations, except for the two theological schools, and perhaps-Urbana, and since they have already been checked by representatives of Conference and Convention respectively, and changes duly made, there is not likely to be so much alteration in the final versions of Sections I and II.
The author would appreciate having his attention called to any egregious errors in the present editions.
R. R. Gladish
Professor of Education, ANC
Bryn Athyn, Pa.
The Writings of Swedenborg:
AC Arcana Coelestia
AK Animal Kingdom
BE Brief Exposition of the Doctrines of the New Church
CL Conjugial Love
SD Spiritual Diary
DLW Divine Love and Wisdom
DP Divine Providence
NJHD The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine
HH Heaven and Hell
LJ The Last Judgment
TCR True Christian Religion
(In references to Swedenborgs Writings, the numbers refer to paragraphs.)
General Works of Reference:
ANC Record The Academy of the Mew Church, 1876-1926, An Anniversary Record, by members of the Faculty.
Annals Odhner, Carl Theophilus, Annals of the New Church, Vol.1, 1688-1850.
Doc. Tafel, Rudolph L., Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg, 3 Vols.
RP Hindmarsh, Robert, Rise and Progress of the New Jerusalem Church.
Con. Jour. Journals of the General Convention, 1870-1960.
Jour. Gen. Ch. Journals of the General Church of Pennsylvania, 1883-1890.
Journals of the General Church of The Advent of the Lord, 1891-1896.
Journals of the General Assemblies of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, 1897-1959.
New Church Periodicals:
IR Intellectual Repository, London
Herald New-Church Herald, London. (Conference Organ)
Messenger New Jerusalem Messenger, (now New Church Messenger)
New Church Messenger, Cincinnati, 1853-1854.
The Messenger (Official Convention Organ)
NCL New Church Life, Bryn Athyn, 1882-present.
N. J. Mag. New Jerusalem Magazine, 1827-1872; new series, 1875-1893.
Words Words for the New Church
HISTORY OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION
List of Abbreviations ii
I. ORIGIN AND AIMS OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION 1
1. Swedenborg and the New Church 1
2. Ecclesiastical Bodies Founded on the Writings 4
3. New Church Educational Establishments 6
4. Doctrinal Basis for New Church Education 7
5. Elements in New Church Education Calling for
a. Total Reorientation 10
6. Some Philosophical Concepts Basic to New Church Education 13
EDUCATION UNDER THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM, 1785-1962
II BACKGROUND FOR ENGLISH NEW CHURCH SCHOOLS
1. The Problem 20
2. Growth of the Naturalistic-Humanitarian Tradition in Education 22
3. Types of Schools in England in the Early Nineteenth Century 25
4. The Monitorial System of Bell and Lancaster and the School Societies 37
III NEW CHURCH RESPONSE TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEED 41
1. The Nature of the Need 41
2. New Church Response: Quantitative 43
3. Early School Arrangements 46
4. Organization, Control, and Support of Day Schools 47
5. Early Educational Aims 50
6. The Curriculum in the New Church Infant and Primary Schools 52
A. Religious Experiences and Instruction
B. The Fundamental Processes
7. The Curriculum in the New Church Secondary Schools 56
A. Religious Experiences and Instruction
B. Intellectual and Cultural Pursuits
8. Procedure in a Typical Infant School 59
9. New Church Educational Literature 64
IV. ENGLISH SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED BY OR ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEW CHURCH 68
1. Worsley, 1785- 68
2. New Jerusalem Free School, London, 1822-1853 69
3. Chelmsford Infant School, 1825-? 70
4. Manchester, Peter Street School, 1827-1871 70
5. Salford, 1827-1890? 72
6. Swedenborgian School, Stoneclough, n. d. 72
7. Woodford School, 1828-1832. 72
8. Girls School, Myddleton Square, 1829-1833? 73
9. Boys School, Shoreditch, London, 1827? 74
10. Brightlingsea, 1832-1877? 74
11. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1832-1847 74
12. Birmingham, 1833-1873-1874 75
13. Accrington, 1835-1904 76
14. Dr. Firths School at Hull, 1837-1843 77
15. Heywood, 1838-1873 78
16. The New Church College (Lower School) 1845-1884 78
17. Warren Lane, or Oswaldtwistle, 1848-1893? 79
18. Embsay, 1848-1903 79
19. Failsworth, 1849-1873 80
20. Besses O the Barn, 1855-1903 81
21. Middleton, 1859-1903 81
22. Ramsbottom, 1864-1902 82
23. Argyle Square - Cromer Street School, 1865-1878 83
24. Kearsley, 1866-1905 84
25. Oldham, 1867-1898 84
26. T. C. Lowes School, 1867-1896 86
27. Ashton-under-Lyne, 1867-1902 86
28. Wigan, 1870-1907 87
29. Clayton-le-Moors, 1872-1907 90
30. Radcliffe, 1871-1907 92
31. Snodland, 1883-1907? 93
32. Mr. Clarkes School, Wilmslow, -1907? 93
33. Borough Road School, London 94
34. Miscellaneous 94
35. Effects of Education Act of 1902 95
V. THE WOODFORD SCHOOL: 1828-1832 97
1. William Malins Vision of New Church Education 97
2. Purchase of Property; School Planning 99
3. The Woodford Schools Brief Life 102
4. A Testimonial Letter 105
5. Crisis and Closing 106
VI. THE NEW CHURCH COLLEGE 108
1. Origin 108
2. Batemans Publicity Campaign 110
3. Ministerial Requirements 112
4. Classes Begin 113
5. Batemans Plan of Organization 116
6. Conference Rebuffs Bateman 117
7. Governors Declaration of Belief 119
8. Entrance Examination 121
9. Entrance Requirements 123
10. New Buildings; Interim, 1866-1868 124
11. The College Reopens 126
12. The College Thrives 129
13. Bateman Resigns 131
14. Tafel-Barlow Dispute 131
15. Theological Students Removed 133
16. The Boys School Closes 134
17. Theological Correspondence Courses 136
18. War and the College 138
19. Removed to Woodford Green 139
20. The College in World War I 140
21. Developments Since World War II 141
22. Modern Curricular Requirements 143
23. Purley Chase Summer School 145
VII. TWILIGHT OF ENGLISH DAY SCHOOLS 147
1. Day Schools Declared Terminated 147
2. Reasons for the Decline of the Day School 150
3. Nature of Government Supervision 152
4. Lack of Theoretical Development 154
5. Loss of Conviction 156
6. The New Church Education Institute 157
7. More Recent Conference Thought on New Church Education 159
VIII. CONFERENCE-AIDED AFRICAN MISSION SCHOOLS 162
1. South Africa 162
2. New Church Origins in Nigeria 164
3. Nigerian Schools 169
A HISTORY OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION
ORIGIN, AIMS, AND PURPOSES OF NEW CHURCH EDUCATION
1. Swedenborg and the New Church
Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) was a distinguished Swedish scientist and philosopher who, in middle age, received, he asserted, a Divine call to act as the agent of a final revelation1 from God to mankind. Son of Bishop Swedberg,2 a plain and fearless cleric whose family was ennobled by royal decree in 1719, Swedenborg attended the University of Upsala, traveled in Europe and in England, studied under leading minds in Europe, and constantly sought to master all sciences and apply them to useful inventions and feats of engineering. At the age of twenty-six, Swedenborg had made designs for a submarine and an airplane, and had tentatively designed a method of psychoanalysis.3 By the time he was thirty, Swedenborg had gained the interest of King Charles XII of Sweden, Lion of the North. The king, attracted by Swedenborgs own magazine of mathematics and inventions, Daedalus Hyoerboreus, consulted with the young scientist on public works, including plans for a salt works and a canal to run across southern Sweden; appointed him member of the royal Board of Mines, and was impressed by Swedenborgs feat of transporting a fleet overland to attack the Norwegian fortress of Frederikshall.4
1 According to Swedenborg, the Deity has granted to our earth a total of five dispensations of religion through five distinct revelations, which have led to the establishment of as many successive churches. First of these was the Most Ancient Church, existing in an Eden-like paradise; second was the Ancient Church, which had the first written revelation, called by Swedenborg the Ancient Word; third was the Hebraic or Israelitish Church with the Old Testament; fourth was the Christian Church (New Testament); and finally, the New Church which is to be established by the Lord through the Theological Writings of Swedenborg, which interpret, but do not abrogate, the revelation of the Old and New Testaments and such traces of the Ancient Word as are extant. See AC 407; TCR 760, 762, 786, 787; (For this and other abbreviations of Swedenborgs Works, see table of abbreviations,) Acton, Alfred, An Introduction to the Word Explained, 41 ff.
2 The family name was changed to Swedenborg with granting of nobility.
3 Sigstedt, Cyriel Odhner, The Swedenborg Epic, 27.
4 Ibid. 44-46.
After Charles XII was killed at Frederikshall late in 1718, Swedenborg enjoyed many busy but comparatively peaceful years until he experienced a call to become a revelator of Divine Truth in the mid 1740's. During this period he was engaged in modernizing the mining system, in national improvements through his membership in the Swedish House of Nobles, and with six more foreign journeys during which he studied such sciences as anatomy and physiology. Meanwhile, from his pen there came a steady stream of articles, treatises, and works, such as The Principia, (1734), the Animal Kingdom, (1744-1745), the Economy of the Animal Kingdom, (1740-1741), the Soul or Rational Psychology, (1741), Psychological Transactions, (1742), and The Brain, (1743-1744).1
1 A bibliography lists 76 items in the 25 years 1719-1744. See Stroh, Alfred H. and Ekelog, Greta, Kronologisk Frteckning fver Emanuel Swedenborgs Skrifter, 1700-1772, 14-34.
What Swedenborg called his intromission (admission) into the spiritual world occurred gradually over a period of years, but his commission to become a revelator came to him, he asserted, in 1745, from the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. From this time onward, in humility and awe, he accepted the unsought responsibility and the new way of life, with its trance-states in which he knew himself present with angels and spirits in the world beyond and within this one.2 He resigned his post on the Board of Mines and refused further royal appointments so as to have more time to devote to his new career, but otherwise he lived a surprisingly normal life, mingling frequently in society, where his gentle and urbane manners endeared him. He continued his travel in Sweden and abroad, maintaining his statesmanlike interest in national affairs as a member of the Diet, and yet for twenty-seven years he kept writing of the inner world, which, he asserted, had for the first time been systematically disclosed to mortal ken.3 From 1749, when the first volume of the Arcana Coelestia came from the press in tendon, until 1772, when he died, Swedenborg wrote forty-five works, which, according to the General Church Liturgy4 contain the doctrine of the New Church. If some of these works are only a few pages long, others, such as the Arcana Coelestia (12 vols.), The Apocalypse Explained (6 vols.), and the Spiritual Diary (5 vols.), are not brief.
2 Acton, Introduction, 75, 76, 85-92.
3 Sigstedt, Epic, 215-236.
4 Liturgy and Hymnal for the Use of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, fourth and revised edition, 219.
1 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, Representative Men, Swedenborg, or the Mystic, 105f.
The term New Church is an abbreviation for The Church of the New Jerusalem which is announced on the title page of Swedenborgs True Christian Religion as The New Church foretold by the Lord in Daniel VII, 13, 14; and in Revelation XXI, 1, 2. Swedenborg clarified his call or commission to become a revelator most explicitly in a letter to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt just after the publication of True Christian Religion, in 1771,2 and toward the end of the same work as follows:
2 Tafel, Rudolf L., Documents, Vol. 2, 386-387
Since the Lord cannot manifest Himself in Person, as shown just above,3 and nevertheless has foretold that He was to come and establish a new church, which is the New Jerusalem, it follows that He will do this by means of a man, who is able not only to receive these doctrines in his understanding, but also to publish them by the press. That the Lord manifested Himself before me, His servant, and sent me to this office, that He afterward opened the eyes of my spirit end thus introduced me into the spiritual world and granted me to see the heavens and the hells, and to talk with angels and spirits, and this now continuously for several years, I affirm in truth; as also that from the first day of that call I have not received anything whatever pertaining to the doctrines of that church from any angel, but from the Lord alone while I have read the Word.4
3 TCR 777.
4 TCR 779
Of course this tremendous claim of Swedenborg has been frequently and virulently attacked, but the most violent onslaughts generally center upon the element of communication with the spiritual world.
1 Brian, R. Nisbet, Gustavus III and his Contemporaries, 1756-1792, 225 f.
2 HH 249.
3 Block, Marguerite Beck, Swedenborg and the Romantic Movement, New Christianity, Vol. 4, Winter, 1938, 3-4; Keller, Helen, My Religion; Markham, Edwin, Edwin Markham on Swedenborg and other papers; Silver, Ednah C., Sketches of the New Church in America; Very, Frank, An Epitome of Swedenborgs Science.
2. Ecclesiastical Bodies Founded on the Writings
As Swedenborg wrote his theological works, he published them anonymously and at his own expense.4 He made no attempt to organize followers or to found a church. However, he did send copies of his theological works to European universities, and sometimes to learned acquaintances. He sent copies of Heaven and Hell and The Four Doctrines to the Bench of Bishops of the Church of England and the Protestant peers in the House of Lords, but he later learned that one of the bishops has managed through abuse and misrepresentation to influence others to reflect these works.l
4 Sigstedt, op. cit., 233
1 SD 6098, 6101.
The first receivers of the Writings met in tendon, Swedenborgs second home, for the first time in 1783, eleven years after Swedenborgs death, and thirty-four years after the first volume of the Arcana Coelestia was offered for sale in that city.2 Six years later (1789), the group organized the General Conference of the New Jerusalem Church.3 But before that, in 1784, James Glen, an intellectual plantation owner of Demerara, after reading the ship captains Latin copy of Heaven and Hell while on a voyage to tendon, joined the London group and carried the message of Swedenborg and some of his books to Philadelphia and Boston.4
1 SD 6098, 6101.
2 Of eleven trips abroad during his lifetime, Swedenborg made seven to England, lodging in London, where he did much of his writing and publishing and enjoyed a greater freedom, both of belief and from interruptions. A recent writer stated: In the Continuation Concerning the Last Judgment, Swedenborg writes of the noble English nation. He loved England for its spirit of freedom, and the consequent interior intellectual light of its people.--Duckworth, Dennis, A New Churchmans Guide to London, 2.
3 Odhner, Carl Theophilus, Annals of the New Church, 146. Hereafter to be cited as Annals.
4 Hindmarsh, Robert, Rise and Progress of the New Jerusalem Church, 17.
Twenty-eight years after the Conference was organized, an American body, The General Convention of the New Jerusalem of the United States, was established in Philadelphia in 1817,5 in a new temple especially built for the society there. The Academy of the New Church, beginning as a reform movement within the Convention (1876), led to the formation of the third ecclesiastical body, called the General Church of the New Jerusalem (1897). The Academy, originally a church, has now metamorphosed gradually into an educational institution, bequeathing its ecclesiastical functions to the General Church.6 In 1937 a schism occurred in the General Church when a body calling itself The Lords New Church Which is Nova Hierosolyma was formed, led by Rev. Ernst Pfeiffer of Holland and Rev. Theodore Pitcairn of Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.7
5 Annals, 256-257.
6 Ibid.,146, 257.
7 Pfeiffer, Ernst, Documents Concerning the Separation of the Rev., from the General Church of the New Jerusalem.
3. New Church Educational Establishments
The first three New Church bodies have, at some time in their history, conducted day schools, or still do so. The British General Conference stressed, in its original document of organization, the need of teaching the young the doctrines, and, indeed of educating them in separate schools.l But the first day school under the Conference did not come into being until 1822, as a part of the development of the Sunday school and charity school movements. Thereafter, under the Conference, some twenty-five schools were established from 1822 until 1907, when the day schools died out as a Conference-supported venture. The Conference still maintains Sunday schools, a theological school, called The New Church College, at Woodford Green, a pleasant London suburb northeast of London, and has affiliations with native schools in South Africa and Nigeria.2
1 Minutes of a General Conference of the Members of the New Church signified by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation (1789).
2 See infra Chap. VII.
The General Convention commenced its educational efforts in 1836, in Boston, and soon thereafter in several other locations. Its schools were smaller than those of England, where some school enrollments reached over 800 pupils, the American schools being intended for the most part to aid parents of New Church societies to bring up their children in the beliefs of the Church. Convention schools were located principally in the East, but two short-lived schools came into being across the Mississippi River. In Ohio, Urbana University, has struggled among since its founding in 1853 and currently is a public college with New Church leanings.3 All other Convention schools, with the exception of The New Church Theological School at Cambridge, Massachusetts4 have long ceased to exist as schools of the Church.
3 Infra, Section II, Chapter IV.
4 In 1967 the school was removed to Newton, Mass., and designated The Swedenborg School of Religion.
The General Church, from its inception as The Academy of the New Church, has stressed education in the church for the children and young people of the church.
1 Pendleton, N. D., Foreward in The Academy of the New Church, 1876-1926, An Anniversary Record, 10. Hereafter cited as ANC Record.
The Nova Hierosolyma organization, commonly called the Hemelsche Leer, from its erstwhile publication by that name, does not maintain any day schools of its own, although some of its members send their children to the General Church schools at Bryn Athyn. This body, with an enrollment estimated by its secretary at between 200 and 300 members, conducts individual instruction of theological candidates, but without any particular school headquarters.2
2 Barnitz, Rev. Harry, Secretary of Nova Hierosolyma, Interview, February, 1959.
4. Doctrinal Basis for New Church Education
Two reasons, broadly speaking, exist for New Church education, according to General Church educators. The first has to do with passing on a body of beliefs and a way of life from one generation to the next, and the second lies in the educational implications of the Writings themselves. Every intelligent society in the worlds history has recognized that if it wishes to be perpetuated, it must educate and train its children and youth. In this the New Church is no exception.
The educational implications of the Writings present a problem with two facets: First is the question as to whether it is to be a pervasive influence within the other churches or a separate church; second are the various specific statements concerning education in the Writings.
As to separatism, there has been a difference of opinion within New Church ranks from the beginning. Although the principles laid down in the organization of the English Conference in 1789 stressed the distinctive idea, the Rev. John Clowes, founder of the New Church in the teeming Manchester area, believed that the New Church would permeate the Christian Church in both Catholic and Protestant divisions, and gradually change it into a spiritually new organization, progressively doing away with the old Christian dogmas attacked in the Writings.l The followers of Clowes doctrine have generally been stronger in the ranks of Conference and Convention, while the General Church has gone on record for the separatist viewpoint.
1 Clowes, Rev. John, An Address from the Translator of the Theological Writings of Baron Swedenborg. intended to point out the general design and tendency of those writings, and particularly to show that they do not authorize the readers in a separation, at the present time, from external communion with other professed Christians.
However, the Writings themselves appear to leave little doubt as to the necessity for separation. We read in Swedenborgs Brief Exposition: The faith of the New Church cannot by any means be together with the faith of the former church, and if they be together, such a collision will take place that everything of the New Church with men will perish.2 The implication here is that the New Church to be established is not just a minor correction of Christian belief and practice, but a total reorientation around new and different concepts. Pursuing this conviction, Bishop W. F. Pendleton formulated the General Church position in the following statements (1899):
2 BE 102.
1. The Lord has made His Second Coming in the Writings of the New Church, revealing Himself therein, in His own Divine Human, as the only God of Heaven and earth... the Church acknowledges no other Authority, and no other Law.
2. The old or former Christian Church is consummated and dead, with no hope of resurrection;
6. A marriage of one in the faith of the Church, with one in a false faith or in no faith, is heinous in the sight of heaven.
12. The most fruitful field of Evangelization is with the children of New Church parents. In order to occupy this fruitful field of work New Church schools are needed, that children may be kept in the sphere and environment of the Church, until they are able to think and act for themselves....1
1 Pendleton, W.F., The Principles of the Academy, 3, 4, 6.
As the last-quoted sentence makes clear, the Principles aim at the provision of separate schools for children of the New Church, to keep the rising generation from being reabsorbed into the predominant religious or irreligious environments of modern society. However, further study has led toward distinctive studies and curricula within New Church schools--something of positive growth--not merely defensive segregation, useful as the latter proved to be.
Bishop George De Charms, after having studied the Old Testament in the light of the Writings against the background provided by modern findings in physiology and psychology, formulated the concept that each year of child growth establishes a different state2 of mind and spirit. This state, while running on an individual time table, must be known and understood by the teacher, who can then aim his instruction to known spiritual states of the child and so cause both child and state to be properly fed and infilled.3 The states of the child, roughly corresponding with each year of growth, follow a definite succession, and each state, while it may be abbreviated or extended with the individual, is never omitted with a normal child.l
2 The term state in Swedenborgian parlance refers to a condition of mind or feeling, also a stage of spiritual development. See AC 6-13; HH 154-167, 491-520.
3 E.g.--The high school state must be infilled with knowledges, affections, and experiences before the student is ready for the college state.
1 De Charms, George, The Growth of the Mind, 1932, revised, 1953, 93-102.
No one, least of all those engaged in the work of New Church Education, would today contend that all ends have been achieved. Threshhold is the term most commonly heard in General Church circles. Yet, on the other hand, those who question the existence or the possibility of New Church education may be answered by the following basic concepts which the Writings have introduced into the world. These concepts, when believed in by the teacher, should produce an education which, in its slant and impact, can and should be called New Church.
5. Elements in New Church Education
Calling for a Total Reorientation
New Church educators, arguing from the teachings of the Writings, assert that students at every level should be presented with a total reorientation of thought, in contrast with the going and accepted beliefs of Christendom. General Church educators today present some of these elements as follows, with citations from the Writings as authority:
1. The Last Judgment prophesied in the Bible2 has already taken place--in the world of spirits, the hells, and the heavens, and its effects have been, and will continue to be felt in human society.3
2 Luke XVII, 34-36; Revelation V-XXI.
3 AE Vols. 1-6
2. The Second Coming of the Lord has also taken place--in and through the Writings of Swedenborg.4 The New Jerusalem is potentially present in the world, as revealed truth, but men must take the truths of this revelation and build in their individual and collective lives the outward reality of the New Jerusalem, which would be a reformed and beneficent state of society on earth.
4 AR 879-926
3. The Word in the Old and the New Testaments has an internal sense which is the underlying truth of the universe about man and creation, and the Writings, also a Word, explain this sense.1
1 AC 1-5.
4. The Writings constitute a final revelation of Divine Truth from God to man.2 Their completion was an event of the spiritual world as well as an event of this world.3
2 TCR 786-791.
3 Ibid., 791.
5. There is a spiritual world, a heaven, and a hell, which have been now plainly disclosed to faith, and man is free to plan his life in a pattern leading to a permanent destiny either in heaven or in hell.4
6. Man lives in two worlds--the outward one and the hidden or spiritual one--simultaneously. Spiritually, he is constantly in the presence of spirits or angels or devils, whom he can invite or reject by an effort of will.5 Mans thoughts and affections arise from his spiritual associates, colored by his own nature, and do not spring from some mechanical or chemical process within the substances of his brain and nervous fiber. Man himself is essentially a choice-maker--all his creativeness is a synthesis of elements and forms found in nature.6
5 AC 50(3). The superscribed figure refers to a sub-section of the paragraph cited.
6 AC 95.
7. There is one God, who manifested Himself in the historical person of Jesus Christ, and who in His life on earth established a personal means of communication with every human being who ever was or will ever be born.7
7 HH 2.
8. God, whose greatness all our thought exceeds,8 and whose love seeks free and sentient beings outside Himself to benefit, created the universe to be the temporary physical home of man, and man to live to eternity in useful happiness in heaven.9 It is part of mans freedom that he can personally frustrate the Divine will by choosing to go to hell.1
8 Hymn No. 111, Liturgy for the use of The General Church of the New Jerusalem, 4th Edition, 561.
9 AC 1808.
1 DP 43.
9. Human freedom is essential to mans condition as image and likeness of the Creator. There is no creation without freedom of will, and no real happiness without freedom. Therefore, the Lord guards mans essential freedom of will above all else. So it is that the greatest truths of the universe, such as the existence of God Himself, have been placed beyond possibility of external proof.2 Essentially, man can and must believe only what he is willing to believe. He cannot change the nature of the universe, it is true, but he can and does create his own belief about it in accordance with his own desires. This belief, after internalization, which alone creates a lasting system, may have little or no correspondence to the actual facts, or to the Divine internalization or schema of the universe, but the individual is free to believe it and actually will believe it if he wishes.
10. If there is one essential reality of the universe with its various physical manifestations and vastly varied human reflections, then it seems desirable for each human being to obtain a personal view as close to the reality or essential truth as possible. To do otherwise would be to settle for a partial or erroneous view. An honest man demands the freedom to see things as they are, even though at any given time human frailty may prevent his exercising that freedom. Man in freedom acts as he sees and believes. To act aright, he must see and believe aright.
11. In the Writings appears a final Divine revelation of truth, supplementary to and supporting the Divine messages contained in the Old and New Testaments. It is like taking a mirror and pressing a spring which turns it into a microscope--a new and unexpected world of depth of experience appears. The Lord has given the Writings with this invitation: Nunc Licet (Now it is permitted to enter intellectually into the mysteries of faith.)3 No one has to read them. No one has to believe them. No one has to live them. But if their truth is fundamental to this creation, then to read, to understand, and to live them should improve the conditions of individual and collective human life on this earth. It should make men happier, freer, better.
3 TCR 508.
No man really grasps truths higher than his motives and his way of life permit to find a home in his mind. It is essential to salvation that man shun evils as sins against God. The Old Testament tells in the Ten Commandments what evils are. The New Testament shows that their internalization--lust and hatred as well as their avert expressions--are evil.1 The Writings tell much more about the internalization of evils and goods. They also expound the nature of man and his interacting life of the spirit.2
1 Matt. V-VII.
2 TCR 282-331.
These are some of the new truths about man and creation as the General Church educators view them. Any school which attempts to operate without taking cognizance of these ideas could scarcely be called New Church, they feel. Still, the externals might be much the same in a New Church school as in an outside one. And the work of externalization3 of the Writings and their truths is only just beginning, it is felt. New Church men have seen the sun rise, but in the utilization of its light much remains to do.
3 The common Swedenborgian term would be ultimate or ultimation, meaning most external, as in the phrase from primes to ultimates.--De Verbo 5.
6. Some Philosophical Concepts Basic to New Church Education
Bishop De Charms, President-Emeritus of the Academy, has defined some recent ideas about New Church Education in his book, The Growth of the Mind: Education in its broadest sense is nothing but the ordered development of the human mind; and as a whole this lies beyond our ken.4 While the emphasis here is strongly on the mental side, this definition is not intended to exclude the development of the physical body or the work and play activities appropriate to schools of various levels.
4 De Charms, Growth, Introduction, xi.
1 Student work, formerly called scholarship work, came into being primarily to save money, and to make it possible for students to earn part of their tuition and boarding expenses. It had less in common as to purpose with the American manual-labor movement of 1820-1840, (Mulhern, James, A History of Education, 401ff.) than with Booker T. Washingtons entrance examination to Hampton Institute. (Washington, Booker T., Up From Slavery, 52ff.) In short, its inspiration was practical, not theoretical. It recognized one benefit stressed by the American manual-labor movement in bringing education within the reach of modest pocketbooks, (Mulhern, James, History, 402.) but the vocational angle has never been emphasized, and since most of the work has been indoors, health benefits have not been stressed.
2 Students received tuition and board credits totaling $21,522.75 in 1958 for cleaning, grounds-keeping, and secretarial duties, etc. Gyllenhaal, L. E., Treasurer of the Academy, Interview, February, 1959.
Fundamental to the New Church educational concept is the view of the human mind as a dual organism. The New Church regards the human mind as an organism created to live to eternity. It postulates that the mind is a double organism, adapted for life in two distinct worlds.3
3 De Charms, Growth, xiv.
Some further implications of New Church education derived from the Writings are reflected in the recent work of another General Church leader, successor to De Charms as President of The Academy of the New Church. Bishop W. O. Pendleton notes the curricular similarity of so-called Distinctive New Church Education to that of other schools:
With the exception of religion and philosophy, the courses that are taught in New Church schools cover the same fields of learning as those taught in other schools. Here we find the time-honored subjects which have long been identified with the liberal tradition in education: the arts, the humanities, the physical sciences, the biological sciences, and the social studies group. Hence the familiar question: Wherein does New Church education differ in course content from other schools?l
1 Pendleton, Willard D., Foundations of New Church Education, 21.
Bishop Pendleton then goes on to answer his question by saying that it is the duty of New Church educators to borrow, like the children of Israel, jewels of silver and gold from the Egyptians; that is to say, to adopt knowledges and techniques for education from the schools and systems of the world around them. In similar fashion the early Christian Fathers used the Roman and Greek classics for their style and moral instruction.2 Another conclusion of Bishop Pendletons is that knowledge is not an end in itself. It is only a means by which we may acquire wisdom. It is, however, necessary means, for wisdom is not given without knowledge....3 Basic to New Church education, the same writer says, is the concept that truth is ascertainable and that its source is in revealed truth as published in the Old Testament, and the New Testament, and the Writings. And it is fundamental to New Church education that knowledge of God must be the beginning of the educational process. Hence it is that children in homes, in pre-kindergarten classes, in kindergarten and primary grades are first taught about the Lord as Creator and Savior.
2 Woodward, W. H. Vittorino Da Feltre and Other Humanist Educators, 27-29.
3 Pendleton, W. D., Foundations, 22.
The essential human quality is the affection of truth;... by virtue of this affection man is educable.4 Although the New Church educator strives to develop the reasoning powers, nevertheless he recognizes that higher powers exist than marshalling evidence or ratiocination. These embrace the ability to recognize the truth, to love it, and to be changed by it. The function of reason, therefore, is not to determine the truth but to confirm it.5
4 Ibid., 30.
5 Ibid., 31.
Some may say, is not this the same position as that held by Anselem and the Realists of the Middle Ages? The sense of their motto, as Ueberweg puts it,
Credo, ut Intelligam, is that Christians should advance from direct faith td whatever degree of scientific insight may be attainable by them, but always on condition that the Christian creed, already fixed in dogmatic form (and not, as in the time of the Fathers, in process of development, side by side with and by the aid of philosophic and theological thought), remains (sic) untouched and must be regarded as the absolute norm for thought. The result of examination may only be affirmative; if in any respect it is negative, thought is by that very fact exposed as false and sinful, the dogma sanctioned by the Church being the adequate doctrinal expression of the truth revealed by God.1
1 Ueberweg, Friedrich, History of Philosophy, (translated by Geo. S. Morris) Vol. 1, 378.
New Church educators answer that there is a fundamental difference between the concepts of truth held by Anselm and the New Church. Anselm, they contend, took a man-made Christian creed already fixed in dogmatic form as final truth, unchangeable, the same for all men for all time. The New Church man would recognize a vital distinction between dogma, whether developed by Church Council or papal bull, and the letter of revelation itself, as in the canonical books of the Bible. The dogma is man-made; the latter is revelation, Divinely inspired, dictated, and preserved in purity.2 And similarly with the Writings; the theological Writings of Swedenborg are held to be divinely inspired, authoritative; but decrees of men interpreting these Writings are viewed as the fruits of mens minds, more or less fallible. Only Divine revelation is infallible. This belief would seem to render the New Church man blindly dependent upon human claims to revelation. The only test of Divine truth, finally, New Church leaders declare, is human perception of its authenticity, careful judgment of its rationality, and earnest testing to see if following it leads to good or evil in living. The Writings, unlike Anselm, declare the understanding of truth to be a very complex, individual thing, existing on many planes, never identical with any two minds, always bound up with good. But Divine truth itself, they hold, exists in perfection of form within Revelation, i.e., the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Writings. Divine Truth is never pure or plenary with any man or body of men, yet it is essential to mans existence as a human being. To use the figure of water for truth (a comparison or correspondence frequently given in the Writings),l Anselms concept of truth may be likened to a stagnant pool of water, admired with human impurities; the New Church concept brings to mind a lively mountain stream, clear and flashing, shaped always individually to the forms (minds) into which it flows. To change the image, Anselms concept imprisons; that of the Writings sets the mind free because it brings the mind into eventual communication with the living, all-productive soul of the universe.
2 See AE 1085(2) on providential protection of the letter of the Word.
1 AC 2702.
2 AC 1496.
How, then, does a body of men come together in a shared belief to form a church, if their grasp of truth is so individual and non-demonstrable? The Writings say that if men had remained in charity, their differences of view would not have separated the Christian Church into sects:
There are three essentials of the Church: an acknowledgment of the Divine of the Lord; an acknowledgment of the holiness of the Word, and the life that is called charity.... If the Church had held these three essentials, it would not have been divided, but only varied by intellectual dissentions, as light varies the color in beautiful objects, and as various circlets give beauty in the crown of a king.3
3 DP 259.
There are possible--nay, inevitable--wide divergences of belief among men. Church groups, or sects within the New Church, which regards itself as a new dispensation, not a mere division of Christendom, may organize themselves to serve those uses which they hold of greatest importance. In the General Convention today, generally speaking, the emphasis is upon external evangelization, while in the Academy or General Church, the emphasis is upon internal evangelization of its own people through worship and instruction at all age-levels, though not excluding external evangelization.
Yet it is the view of the New Church that all truth deeper than the facts of science must come to man through the Word, or revelation. Gentilesl who live well come into fuller truth after death, but some truth is given to all men.2 There is an influx into the souls of men that there is a God and that He is one.3 If there is a God, and He is one, then one kind of truth infills and governs the universe, New Church leaders emphasize. Man is not a god; he is a child and product of God. He cannot decipher the plan of the universe or of his own life unaided, being born into no knowledges.4 And unlike the animals, he lacks an instinctive awareness of all that pertains to his life. God has, however, made it possible for man to understand the plan and the truth of the universe if he will seek it in the right place--revelation--striving to see the truth and live according to it as he understands it. If man insists upon devising his own scheme, without reference to the plan God has given in revelation, he is bound to go wrong, because his own inherited promptings and urgings are pervert, and therefore he becomes an easy spiritual prey for the formidable inflowing forces of the hells.5 From this, New Church educators conclude that their programs must start with God and adhere to the Word; must pursue truth and encourage life according to it on every plane of life.
1 The Writings refer to those lacking belief in or contact with the Word as Gentiles.
2 AC 2590, 2597; HH 321.
3 TCR 8.
4 AC 1059.
5 Ibid., 987.
The curriculum for the New Church school, Bishop Pendleton indicated, should not be dictated by tradition or necessity but should constitute a new and true approach to Him who is Wisdom itself.l
1 Pendleton, W. D., Foundations, 34.
2 Ibid., 37.
The aim of New Church education may be summed up as an interpretation of the vision of Isaiah, In that day there shall be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, ... and Israel shall be a blessing in the midst of the land.3
3 Isaiah. 19:23.
In the New Church interpretation, the highway is the true path of educating. Egypt represents the sciences--things learned through the senses; Assyria represents the rational faculty--mans ability to interpret what is learned through the senses in terms of meaningful concepts; Israel stands for the perception of truth from Divine revelation.
The vision of New Church education, as stated in a recent speech is: An educational process, or system, in which man may be led to a rational acknowledgment of the Lord, and a true understanding of the meaning and purpose of: 1ife.4
4 Pendleton, W. D., The Future of the Academy, Charter Day Banquet, Oct. 21, 1961.
BACKGROUND FOR NEW CHURCH SCHOOLS
1. The Problem
In 1822 in London a New Church day school began with 20 pupils. By 1832 five other New Church schools were in existence, and by 1876 the last of some twenty-five schools founded in the name of the English New Church had been launched. At their peak they held some 6,000 children within their walls; by 1907, when they ceased to be schools of the Church, they had imparted a measure of education, in some cases, with national distinction, to over a quarter of a million young English souls.
The English city-dweller of the early 1820s was faced with a noisy and disturbing problem--what to do about the host of young children of the poor that the Industrial Revolution had left on his doorstep. They were loud, illiterate, and inclined toward mischief. There was no national system of education, but they plainly needed schooling, as well as someone to care for them, for they were often neglected by their parents, who were themselves frequently illiterate. Many citizens thought that the answer was schooling, and under leadership of philanthropists like Robert Owen, political leaders like Lord Brougham, clergymen like John Clowes of Manchester, and educators such as James Kay-Shuttleworth, James Buchanan, and Samuel Wilderspin, they worked to found and support schools for the children of the poor.
While part of the motivation for the new educational movement was undoubtedly altruistic, a response to a crying need, part of it also was defensive. Many a Londoner would have agreed with Wilderspin when he wrote,
Probably one reason that may be assigned for the increase of crime is the increase of population, and another, poverty; and I think there is not any thing better calculated to prevent this evil than taking the children of the poor out of the streets; for there, it must be acknowledged, they can learn no good, but much evil.l
1 Wilderspin, Samuel, On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor, etc., 2d edition, 14.
Manchester, whose population ... multiplied by almost a thousand per cent from 25,000 at the time of Owens birth (1771) to nearly a quarter of a million half a century later was a city that typified the new urban problems.1 This city, which furnished a center for most of the New Church schools of England, struck James Kay-Shuttleworth in 1832 as a mixed world of vigorous industrial wage-earners, of improvident labourers and their neglected offspring, of prostitutes and back alley thugs, and all the woes and miseries of gin shops, insanitary houses, cellar life, long hours of work and child-labour in the mills.2 Adam Smiths aphorism, in his Wealth of Nations (1776), that a man uneducated is a man mutilated,3 and that, since an ignorant person is an element of weakness in the commonwealth, public education is a mode of national defense, was underlined in blood when jittery officialdom unleashed militia to charge and sabre the unarmed crowd, including women and children, in Manchesters infamous Peterloo massacre of August 16, 1819.4 It was fear, fear of the possible reactions of an uneducated mob, which led to the Peterloo tragedy; and of course the revolutionary mobs of France had not been reassuring to the British.
1 Jeffreys, M. V. C., Robert Owen, in Judges, A. V., Pioneers of English Education, 66.
2 A. V. Judges, James Kay-Shuttleworth, in ibid., 110.
3Smith, Adam, The Wealth of Nations, 740.
4Colby, Chas. W., (Ed.) Selections from the Sources of English History, The Peterloo Massacre, Annual Register, 1819, 279-300.
To the several diverse motives which any Englishman might own for taking an interest in spreading education, the New Church Englishman might also add the spread of the New Church. If a New Churchman were to take an interest in providing a nearly free schooling for children of the poor, would it not seem only sensible and right for him to tinge that education with what he conceived to be the true principles of Christianity restored? Anyone with a sense of economy would seize upon so plain a method of dispatching all possible birds with a single missile. Writers in New Church periodicals frequently expressed the thought that the great rise of public education had been brought about in Providence in order to prepare the world for the New Church, and for the reading and understanding of the Writings.5
5 Sunday and Day Schools of the New Church, IR, March, 1857, IV, 121-129.
Thus at the very time when these heavenly doctrines were about to be introduced into the British empire in the language of the people, they having been originally written in Latin, provision was made; by extending the benefits of education to every class of the community, that the poor, as well as the rich, might enjoy all the advantages arising from the new dispensation of mercy and truth, now opening upon the inhabitants of the earth.l
1 RP 241.
2. Growth of the Naturalistic-Humanitarian Tradition in Education
In order to understand the nature of the schools and the character of the education given in them during the early nineteenth century, it is necessary to examine the new inner life and spirit which came into full flower about that time. This inner spirit was often associated with the name of Pestalozzi, but it had a fairly long history before Pestalozzi. This understanding will also be aided by an examination of the types of schools current and popular in this period, and by some consideration of the famed monitorial method brought into being about the turn of the nineteenth century. After these considerations, it will be plainer why the solution to the English New Churchmans quandary regarding the hordes of children left on his doorstep by the Industrial Revolution took the form that it did.
Medieval education aimed generally at discipline, an aim bequeathed as a tendency to later ages, along with severe repression of mans physical nature, and sacrifice of health, grace, and aesthetic tendencies. A drudgery of imitation, memorization, and slavish bowing to authorities ruled the classroom.2
2 Mulhern, James, A History of Education, 209.
The natural affectionate human touch, probably never wholly absent from education, was at least unusual enough to be noticed when it appeared as deliberate policy in the teaching and writing of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670).1 Man is a fallen being, yes, said the kindly Moravian bishop, but he is in himself a harmony, and can be restored to harmony; he is the image of God, and therefore the seeds of learning, virtue, and religion are planted within him. Led by principles from the Word of God, let us as educators observe nature and learn how to teach from thence: nature in the child, and nature as it operates in all growth processes about us.2 The child is not to be merely repressed, but to be taught a proper expression and becoming activity on all planes, and gladsomeness and delight are important in the process.3
1 Comenius, John Amos, The Great Didactic, Ed. by M. W. Keatinge, 174-200.
2 Ibid., 250-311.
3 Comenius, John Amos, School of Infancy (1633), (Ed. by Will Monroe) 13f.
Next the cause of naturalistic-humanitarianism was taken up and brandished like a torch by Rousseau (1712-1778). In Emile (1762), he tried to topple the foundations of contemporary education and religion, having already tried his hand at the family, civil society, and the state in previous works.4 In this ardent source-book for progressive education, we miss Comenius balance. In Emile, nature, environment is all; out goes the Divine Word; out goes careful assumption of worthy tradition; out goes wisdom of past ages. Rousseau has thrown out much that was sham and stifling, but in ridding himself of civilization he has also dropped overboard many sound ideas. Voltaire declared that he was not prepared to follow Rousseau to the extent of running about on all fours. Nevertheless, Rousseau established a view for later educators to refine and develop.
4 Rousseaus Emile, (Abridged, translated, and annotated by William H. Payne) Editors preface, vii and viii.
Among these educators who looked to Emile for inspiration, but who applied the brakes of common sense, was Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827). Pitying children of his day in what he called unpsychological schools that are only artificial stifling-machines where children are penned up like sheep ... in stinking rooms ... pitilessly chained to a maddening course of life,l
1 Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, (Trans. by Lucy E. Holland and Frances G. Turner, Ed. by Ebenezer Cooke) 2d ed. 60f.
2 Ibid., 67f.
To teach a school, in the way practiced here, without books, and almost entirely by verbal instruction, is extremely laborious. The teacher must be constantly with the child, always talking, questioning, explaining, and repeating. The pupils, however, by this process are brought into very close intimacy with the instructor. Their capacities, all their faculties and propensities become laid open to his observation.... The success of this mode of instruction greatly depends on the personal qualifications of those who undertake to conduct it. There is nothing of mechanism in it, as in the Lancasterian plan; no laying down of precise rules for managing classes, etc. It is all mind and feeling. Its arrangements must always depend on the ages, talents, and tempers of the scholars.... Above all, it requires that the teacher should consider himself as the father and bosom friend of his pupils, and to be animate with the most affectionate desires for their good. Pestalozzi himself is all this.3
3 Griscom, John, A Year in Europe, Vol. II, 415ff.
While Pestalozzis school could not be reproduced, so much of it stemming from his original genius and affectionate nature, it was widely imitated; not only in Europe, but also in America. At Hofwyl, not far from Yverdun, Fellenbergs school adopted the general idea of a return to nature, but with a greater attention to mechanical arts and agriculture.4 These schools attracted many visitors, and it became fashionable to send English and American children to so-called Pestalozzian schools. In 1824, Milo Williams, a New Church school master, advertised a Pestalozzian school in Cincinnati,5 and in 1832 another New Churchman, the Rev. David Goyder, did the same in Newcastle, England.6
4 Ibid., 386.
5 Infra Part II, Ch. II.
6 Infra, Part I, Ch. IV.
Having traced the development of the naturalistic-humanitarian concept of education, the soul of the new schools of the early nineteenth century, let us examine briefly the various bodies--or school types--in which that soul was housed from Comenius to Pestalozzi.
3. Types of Schools in England in the Early Nineteenth Century
It has been said that human invention never creates anything really new; man creates only by synthesis of familiar forms. History, including educational history, certainly confirms this idea. So we see in the new schools of early nineteenth century England no new creation springing, like Athene, full-formed from the head of Zeus, but a school which was an agglomeration of many forms of schools familiar to English history, with the usual slight admixture which British cosmopolitanism allows, of foreign flavor.
To define the new schools, we would have to say that they were, predominantly, charity schools, charging little or nothing for attendance; some of the methods of the old dame schools were incorporated in them; they had been influenced by the infant schools, which were only an up-to-date kind of dame school; they were, in a sense, an extension of the Sunday schools, which, while they had existed since St. Charles Borromeo in the sixteenth century, had boomed with the sudden need, under the impetus given them by Robert Raikes and his followers in 1781.1
1 Mulhern, James, History, 395-399.
No only did the factors which went into the formation of the popular schools of the early nineteenth century come from a wide variety of sources, but they were put together with no master hand. As a modern student of English education says, One looks in vain for a planned system at any stage.2 Again, None had the assurance or the knowledge, or the universality of mind to speak of a general policy of education... the times were moving too fast for tranquil reflection.3 Another writer notes how slowly the professional viewpoint grew:
2 Judges, A. V., Pioneers 12.
Certainly until the end of the nineteenth century, education was not primarily, or even to any important extent, a professional activity. Throughout this period all men of responsibility in society were obliged to know and do something about educational affairs, and it is, I suppose, still a part of our tradition that everybody tends to regard himself as an educational expert.1
1 Morris, Sir Philip, The English Tradition in Education, in ibid., 45.
To complicate matters still more, each of the factors mentioned was involved in other problems growing out of the basic ideal of personal freedom characteristic of the English. This ideal, when it is spread over certain redoubts of control and privilege, such as the class system and the established church, creates some odd and awkward shapes. For example, it would not have been too difficult to obtain political aid and public support for the charity schools had it not been necessary for the established church to maintain its control; lay control would not do.2 As Judges put it, Until the non-conformists themselves were forced by economic circumstances to lean away from voluntaryism and turn to rate-aid [taxation]--and the lesson took two generations to learn--a mixture of private charity was the only compromise available.3
2 Ibid., 22.
3 Ibid., 22f.
Charity Schools: It is difficult to say just when British charity schools came into existence, but undoubtedly some of them were in existence as early as 1604 when the Canons of that year placed the control of education in the hands of the Church.4 Yet there was something of education placed in the hands of the state, when in 1601 Overseers of the Poor were directed by the Poor Law to apprentice pauper children, and to provide for their instruction in the rudiments of reading and writing.5 The Anglican Church formed two societies to provide free education about the start of the eighteenth century, and these continued their work well into the nineteenth. These were the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (S. P. C. K., 1698), and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (S. P. G., 1701).
4 Dobbs, A. E., Education and Social Movements, 1700-1850, 94.
5 Mulhern, James, History, 281.
The Charity Schools, which, at the beginning of the century, had promised to develop into a widespread system of popular schools, ceased before the succession of George III to increase in number, and those that survived had outlived their usefulness. Sarah Trimmer (Reflections upon ... Charity Schools, 1792) ... describes them as teaching by rote religious formularies greatly beyond the capacity of children, while many of the teachers were incompetent to do better, and the whole plan of instruction was too sedentary.2
2 Adamson, J. W., Education, in Cambridge History of Literature, (Ed. by Ward, A. W., and Walter, A. R.) XIV, 434.
Kindred with the charity schools in spirit were the institutions of the Childrens Friend Society, which aimed at isolating children of the destitute and criminal classes in permanent institutions.3 The Ragged School Union had similar purposes, succinctly put by Dobbs thus:
3 Dobbs, Education 153.
A ragged school might start as a Sunday school, as a day school, or an evening class. It might include industrial classes, a library, and a provident Club, and become a centre for social and religious meetings and different forms of amusement. It might develop into a boarding institution, or a reformatory, or home for destitute children.4
Dame Schools, Parish Schools: Institutions, formal and informal, for the dissemination of learning existed in considerable number and variety prior to the nineteenth century in England, but the Industrial Revolution put the people who needed them--and most of these were children--out of touch with them. That revolution had transformed England from a land where one-fourth of the population lived on the soil and the principal industry was carried on in the homes of the people to a land wherein men, women, and children worked desperately long and hard in gloomy factories to keep alive. Eventually only one-twenty-fifth of the population stayed to till the land--in other words, 96 per cent of the population decamped to the cities.5
5 Robinson, Cyril E., England, A History of British Progress from the Early Ages to the Present Day, 448.
1 Hans, Nicholas, New Trends in Education in the Eighteenth Century, 210f.
Elementary schools were established from time to time in connection with the parochial organization, being instituted or at any rate supervised by the clergy and carrying on a practice common in the Middle Ages, when the parish clerk, often a beneficed cleric held the position of schoolmaster. Moreover a growing demand had encouraged the development of private enterprise in teaching as a commercial speculation. In some cases the parish clerk would, on his own initiative, open a roadside establishment and undertake to ground the children of the village in spelling, reading, cyphering, and pothooks for a small payment; or a tradesman who had come to grief would try his hand at teaching and travel from place to place in search of pupils, old and young.2
2 Dobbs, Education, 88f.
Dobbs picture of the Dame School, which once gave basic schooling in many European countries and in America, has a touch of the classic about it:
But the type of adventure school with which tradition has rendered us most familiar was held under the auspices of the village dame. A dark room, a dame, a hornbook and a good birchen rod--a congested troop of infants droning in an oppressive atmosphere--a stray hen scouring for scraps on the threshold--and the mistress attending intermittently to her domestic affairs: such, in the main, is the prose version of the celebrated stanzas of Shenstone popularized by Royal Commissioners in a later and more fastidious age.3 But the dame schools answered a definite, though humble, purpose; and in the urban districts, where a superior demand existed, there were many instances of exceptional success. Thomas Cooper at least had reason to recall with gratitude the memory of an expert and laborous (sic) teacher of the art of spelling and reading, whose knitting too (for she taught girls as well as boys) was the wonder of the town.4
3 Shenstone, William, The Schoolmistress, in Bredvold, Louis I., McKillop, Whitney, Lois, Alan D., (Ed.) Eighteenth Century Poetry and Prose, 550-556.
4 Dobbs, Education, 89.
Infant Schools: Unlike the schools previously dealt with in this section, the infant schools were not forerunners of the mass-schools of the early nineteenth century.
In June, 1814, he (Buchanan) went, probably from Addington, to New Lanark. Mr. Robert Owen wished to get women to work in the mills and thought they would consent if they were relieved of the care of their children. He appropriated a large room in one of the mills and selected James Buchanan to take charge of all children sent to him.1 The women willingly fell in with the arrangement. Mr. Owens sole idea in the beginning was to keep the children in safety while the mothers were at work; neither he nor Mr. Buchanan had any thought of an infant school. The room appropriated by Mr. Owen had bare walls, no seats, no lessons, no toys, nothing with which to occupy or amuse the children.
1 While the incident in this footnote relates to the infant school in London (1819-1839) it could well have occurred at New Lanark (1814). A letter from Madame Bodichon, daughter of Benjamin Smith, M.P., one of the backers of Buchanans infant school in London (1819-1839), to Miss Florence Nightingale, tells of a typical situation in Buchanans school: She (Mrs. Buchanan) was a thrifty, bustling, managing, shrewd Scotchwoman. Mr. Buchanan was very impractical, childlike, thriftless, and everything reverse of his wife. He would take the dirtiest little imp in his arms, kiss it, and teach it:
Do to others as you would
That they should do to thee,
Twill make you happy, kind and good,
As Children ought to be.
But Mrs. Buchanan would seize it and carry it off to the bath attached to the school and wash it from head to heel, and then set it down in its place. She was in her element: in that bathroom, and she knew there was no better way of pleasing my father than by washing the dirty little ragged creatures who came utterly neglected to the school. One penny a week was the charge, but Mr. Buchanan was not very exact in exacting it. Higham, Charles, James Buchanan, N. C. Mag. May, 1915, xxxiv, 270f.
1 Ibid., 211-219.
The infant school idea soon began to spread to other parts of the kingdom, as Higham goes on to tell.
Mr. Buchanans success attracted attention, and visitors to the mills, which were themselves a novelty, were often brought to the other novelty - the first infants school. One party of visitors consisted of Henry (Lord) Brougham, James Mill, John Smith, M. P., the Marquis of Lansdowne, Zachary Macaulay, and other personages. They were so pleased with his school that they determined to have similar ones in England. They, therefore, persuaded Mr. Owen to allow Mr. Buchanan to move to London, where he arrived in 1818.
The gentlemen named, with Thomas Babbington, Lord Dacre, Sir Thomas Baring, William Leake, M. P., John Walker, and Joseph Wilson formed a committee. They took the premises, 23 Brewers Green, Westminster, which consisted of a large room, a small playground, and a house for the teacher. On the school door was a brass plate inscribed The Westminster Free Day Infant Asylum.2
2 Ibld., 216.
This was not a New Church School, although its guiding spirit, Buchanan, was a New Churchman.
Another pioneer in the founding of infant schools was Samuel Wilderspin, who, according to the same author, and other New Church writers of the day, was also a New Churchman1 as well as a recognized leader of the infant school movement.2
1 Jonathan Bayley, in his New Church Worthies, 30, writes - The master, Buchanan, was a New Churchman, attending the place of worship of the Rev. Thomas Goyder, in St. Georges Fields. The second school, begun a few months afterwards, was that of Mr. Wilderspin, at Spitalfields, also a New Churchman, connected with the same congregation.... A writer, Correspondent, in the Intellectual Repository of November, 1847, III, 437f., states: Mr. Wilderspin is himself a Swedenborgian. The writer remembers the time when he and his family were associated with New Church friends, and there are some in London old enough to remember that his father was the means of introducing the Writings to some now living. Mr. Wilderspin the elder, was, in fact, in the employ of Mr. Hindmarsh, while his printing establishment in Clerkenwell was in operation, and his interest was powerfully awakened by the waste which came into his hands, especially by some sheets of the Conjugial Love which he carried away and read to some of his acquaintances; in this way one family, at least, was introduced to a knowledge of Swedenborgs writings.... The appearance is that Samuel Wilderspin began life as a child in a New Church family, but that he later ceased his formal communion with the New Church, whatever his private convictions may have been. He may have been a follower of the Rev. John Clowes in the non-separatist idea. The following quotation from his own book hints at some such interpretation. In this concept, the great and important events bearing on religious welfare might allude to the rise of the New Church: the present (work) may show my fixed religious principles; and to put the matter in a clearer light, I may also add that I am a member of the Established Church, worship within her walls, communicate at her table, and am instructed by her ministers. Since the annexed essay was written, great and important events bearing on religious welfare have taken place, and deep interest been excited; but I hope and trust the Providence of God will overrule all to the advancement of pure and practical Christian piety Wilderspin Samuel, Manual for Religious and Moral Instruction of Young Children in the Nursery and Infant School. With T. J. Terrington, Preface, vi.
2 Higham, Charles, Samuel Wilderspin, N. C. Mag., March, 1915, xxxiv, 106-112.
It would also seem that the recognized French founder of the infant school idea, jean Frederic Oberlin, was powerfully influenced by the Writings of Swedenborg. The Rev. John Henry Smithson, a minister of the Conference, wrote of having visited Oberlin in his Alsatian Darish of Ban-de-la-Roche when the Lutheran minister was 84 years old, and Smithson himself a young student in Switzerland, just acquainted with the Writings. It was the profound effect of the Writings upon Oberlin as much as any other thing which influenced Smithson into becoming a Swedenborgian minister. Smithson described the interview in part as follows:
I asked him whether he had read any of the works of Swedenborg. Without replying, he immediately reached a book, and clapping his hands upon it, expressive of great satisfaction, told me that he had had this treasure many years in his library, and that he knew from his own experience that everything relating to it was true. This treasure was Swedenborgs work on Heaven and Hell.1
1 Bayley, Worthies, 25.
Oberlin had been made acquainted with Heaven and Hell through a friend, probably Jung Stilling, living in Strasbourg. He had also other copies of works of Swedenborg, namely: Divine Love and Wisdom, Divine Providence, and Smithson thought, Earths in the Universe.
Bayleys account of the Smithson visit continues:
So convinced was Oberlin, Smithson wrote, of the salutary importance of teaching his flock concerning Heaven and Hell, and the relation which man sustains to the spiritual world, that he formed a chart or map representing heaven, which he hung up in his church. This celestial diagram, as it was called, was taken from Solomons temple, which in all respects corresponded to heaven. These correspondences Oberlin had derived from Swedenborg, and he pointed out to his flock that according to their humility, piety, fidelity, and their love of being useful to each other, would be their elevation either to the first, second, or third heaven. His flock were extremely delighted to hear his remarks concerning heaven....2
2 Ibid. 27. See also, Compton, Theodore, Pastor Oberlin, who cites as his prime source, Stoeber, D. E., Vie de J. F. Oberlin, Pasteur Waldbach au Ban-de-la-Roche, Strasbourg, 1831.
Oberlins first infant school came into being in 1774, and others later. Their origin is described by Compton thus:
Soon after his arrival Oberlin had noticed the neglected and helpless condition of the infants and young children, left as they were, almost unavoidably, a prey to their natural propensities and evil surroundings. Knowing that they must needs be learning good or evil, and might from the earliest infancy be trained in habits of order, and to distinguish between right and wrong, he resolved to begin the work of education from the cradle: not by any harsh discipline, or hot-house culture, but by the gentle force of motherly love....
As very few of the peasant women had time and talent to educate their children above the low, rude standard prevailing, Oberlin sought for suitable women to act as Infant Teachers. The first appointed to this honourable office was Sarah Banter, who thus became mistress of the first Infant School ever established.1
1 Compton, Oberlin, 27-28.
A later assistant, Louise Scheppler, described the efforts of the infant school teachers to try to impress upon the children the reality of the presence of God at all times, and in all places; to give them a horror of deceit and lying and evil speaking, of idleness, disobedience, vulgarity, and want of respect towards the poor as well as the rich. They teach them to pray.2 The youngest infants simply learned habits of order and obedience. Later they learned to read, spin, knit, and sew. Pictures were used to acquaint them with plants and animals, and events of Bible history. It was stressed that names and words were signs of ideas and not mere sounds or marks. Older children learned to find places on maps, in connection with pictures, stories, and descriptions of various countries. The lessons were frequently varied by singing and bodily exercises. While Oberlin conducted his schools with kindness and gentleness, at the same time he stressed a strict striving for perfection, urging his teachers to give awards, but only to absolute perfection in any one thing. He is quoted by Compton as addressing the teachers thus:
2 Ibid., 29.
You know very well that it will not do to be tender and indulgent in the examination. No harm is done to a child who is not passed. On the contrary, it will try harder to gain a prize next time. But if you pass the imperfect by favour, or mistaken kindness, you deceive the child as well as the public and myself; the Certificate becomes a mere sham. It is dishonest, and defeats the object in view. The Divine Love wills that we try to become perfect, and the crown is given to those alone who have fairly won it....3
3 Ibid., 32.
Wilderspins school seems to have been inspired by a need similar to that which brought Oberlin schools into being, and to have been conducted in a similar way.
1 Wilderspin, Importance, 14.
3 Ibid., 33.
4 Ibid., 37.
5 Ibid., 40-45.
Sunday Schools: Robert Raikes, Father of the Sunday School movement, whose efforts date from 1781 when he was a Gloucester printer, explained in a letter how the need of the poor children of the cities for education had first been impressed upon him:
Some business leading me one morning into the suburbs of the city (Gloucester) where the lowest of the people, who are principally employed in the pin manufactory, reside, I was struck with concern at seeing a group of children, wretchedly ragged, at play in the street. I asked an inhabitant whether these children belonged to that part of the town, end lamented their misery and idleness. Ah! Sir, (said the woman to whom I spoke), could you take a view of this part of the town on a Sunday, you would be shocked indeed; for then the street is filled with multitudes of these wretches, who, released on that day from their employment, spend their time in noise and riot, playing at chuck, and cursing and swearing in a manner so horrid as to convey to any serious mind an idea of hell rather than any other place6
6 RP 240f.
As a result of this exposure, Raikes located several decent, well-disposed women who kept schools in the neighborhood, and offered them a shilling for teaching reading and the catechism to such boys as he should send to them.
Sunday schools were speedily established in various parts of Great Britain: they were also introduced in New York in 1814, and in Philadelphia in 1815. Indeed, where ever the English language prevails, as well as among nations of a different tongue, Sunday Schools are to be found; and where these exist, the means are given for the extensive promulgation of truth.2
These Sunday schools are not to be confused with modern Sunday schools which feature Bible study and hymn singing. The Sunday schools of nineteenth century England did indeed teach the catechism and hymns, but they were instituted primarily to give a modicum of education to those who worked six days a week and could not learn their letters at any other time. While most of their students were children from the factories, there were a fair number of adults mixed in with the children, and sometimes individuals would continue their Sunday school education year after year, well into adult life. As Dobbs says, for some time the greater part of the industrial classes, both young and old, found their only means of instruction on Sunday.... 3 Of the Sunday schools Adamson writes:
3 Dobbs, Education, 154.
These schools outdid the rapid success of the charity schools. As early as 1784 Wesley reported them springing up wherever he went. In the following year, their organization was assured by the creation of the Sunday School Union.4
4 Adamson Education, 434.
In 1846 Kay-Shuttleworth reported 466,794 Sunday scholars, as compared with 955,865 in the day schools.5
5 Kay-Shuttleworth, James, Public Education as Affected by the Minutes of the committee of Privy Council from 1846-1852, 34.
As far as the New Church in England is concerned, the records show that their Sunday schools were established earlier, were more numerous, had a higher enrollment, and continued longer than the day schools.
In any event, the Conference took this official action in 1823, resolving:
That it be recommended to every society of the New Church, whenever and wherever practicable, to open Sunday Schools, for the instruction of youth in reading and writing, and even (if convenient) in the first and most useful rules of arithmetic; in the just obligations they are under to society, in a moral and civil point of view; and in the fear of the Lord, and love to one another.l
1 Minutes of Conference, 1823, 28
That the Sunday Schools were providentially given for the sake of the New Church is the view of a writer in the Intellectual Repository:
Among the many evidences of the commencement of the Second Advent, none are more prominent than those arising from the progress of popular education. This Advent is the appearance of the Lord as the truth itself, in the clouds of the literal sense of His holy Word; and is attended by the manifestation of the great and exceeding glory of its spiritual wisdom. It is, therefore, an advent: of light and truth, and for its full appreciation requires a state of fitness on the part of the people. And in harmony with this requirement, no sooner does the chosen servant of the Lord Jesus Christ announce the fact of His coming and the commencement of His Advent, than providential agencies bring into active operation the means especially suited to prepare His way. The then reigning Sovereign of our own country, (George III), where the progress of civil and religious freedom had prepared us to take a prominent part in its establishment, is said to have expressed a desire that every child in his dominions should be taught to read the Bible. The same Providence put into the hearts of others to institute the means of accomplishing this benevolent desire.
1 Sunday and Day Schools of the New Church, IR, March 1857, IV, 121f.
4. The Monitorial System of Bell and Lancaster and the School Societies
The monitorial system of elementary education was a highly-organized method of handling great numbers of pupils in large, factory-like buildings and of imparting some education to them in the process. The system, apparently developed almost simultaneously by the Rev. Andrew Bell in India and Joseph Lancaster in London, was based on the idea that older or more advanced pupils should teach those less advanced. In an age when the masses were spending fourteen hours or so of each day in factories, it somehow seemed convenient and natural for children to attend schools similarly constructed and organized. As to the origin of the system, Bell borrowed the idea from a native school in Madras, adapted it in his own school in the same city, and later published (1797) a book about it: An Experiment in Education made at the Male Asylum at Madras, suggesting a system by which a School or Family may teach itself under the Superintendence of the Master or the Parent. Lancaster, who had been conducting schools for about two years, and who had already hit on the idea of having abler boys teach the less able, read Bells treatise, and adapted several of his ideas to his own school.
Shortly after 1800, Lancaster set about working out the idea of monitors with extraordinary zeal and energy and as he really possessed a fertile invention, he soon produced a very complex system.2 which he described in Improvements in Education. (1803).
2 Salmon, David, Joseph Lancaster, 7.
2 Meiklejohn, J. M. D., An Old Educational Reformer, Dr. Andrew Bell, 181f.
Little was left for the master to do except to organize, to reward, to punish, and to inspire. When a child was admitted, a monitor assigned him his class; while he remained, a monitor taught him (with nine other pupils); when he was absent, one monitor ascertained the fact, and another found out the reason; a monitor examined him periodically, and when he made progress, a monitor promoted him; a monitor ruled the writing paper, a monitor made or mended the pens; a monitor had charge of the slates and books; and a monitor-general looked after all the other monitors. Every monitor wore a leather ticket, gilt, and lettered Monitor of the First Class, Reading Monitor of the Second Class, etc.
Although there were those who advocated Bells system and decried Lancasters, partly because Lancaster was thought to represent a threat to the Churchs control of education,4 they were not really two, but essentially one system. It had great prestige from the early eighteen-hundreds till the eighteen-forties, as Adamson testifies: The faults of the mutual or monitorial system are obvious; yet, contemporary opinion ranked it as a great discovery or invention, a nostrum for all the ills of education.5 Even the Great Public School, Charterhouse, adopted it for about five
4 Ibid., 25-34.
5 Adamson, Education, (Cambridge History), 450.
No doubt human nature played its part, for, when regimentation failed, the Bell-Lancaster system was bound to be chaotic, Moreover, the amount one child can teach another is likely to be severely limited. In any event, as Dobbs observes,
Between 1837 and 1858 a number of improvements spread from London to the provinces. The barn-like buildings of the monitorial system were broken up into classrooms.
1 Dobbs, Education, 162.
And Her Majestys Inspector, J. D. Morrell, Esq., whose name is noted several times in connection with his visits and reports on New Church schools of the Manchester area, reported by 1850, In the schools where pupil-teachers are employed, the monitorial system has generally been given up.2 It was, however, Kay-Shuttleworth who passed the severest judgment upon the monitorial system:
2 Kay-Shuttleworth, Public Education, 421.
The elementary schools of the country were, however, generally in the most deplorable condition ... the monitorial system had in this country not only utterly failed, but for the time ruined the confidence of the poor in elementary schools, exhausted the charity of the middle classes, and even dragged into the mire of its own dishonor the public estimate of what was practical or desirable in the education of the poor.3
3 Ibid., 57.
And while he admired the system of the Holland schools in which 500 to 600 children were taught in one room by one teacher, he found the English schools lacking, and decried ....the noise, confusion, absence of discipline, of the most necessary apparatus, of intelligence, of attainments, and of common sense in the arrangements of the great majority of our monitorial schools.4
From the written testimony of several of their authors, it would seem that the systems of Pestalozzi, Bell, Lancaster, Buchanan, and Wilderspin, developed not entirely from theory, but equally from trial and error in dealing with crowds of children. How many would-be educators failed in this test we do not know, as their names have not survived. But those names which did come down to us belong to men who, on some impulse, suffered themselves to be shut up in a large room or house with a good many young children and subsequently managed to work out a way of quieting, amusing, and educating them.5 Leitch finds something of the monitorial system in Pestalozzis method, in that, in Pestalozzis own words,
5 See Pestalozzi, Henry, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, in Leitch, James, Practical Educationists and their Systems of Teaching, 75ff. also, Higham, James Buchanan, N. C. Mag., May, 1915, XXXIV, 211-219.
Children became the teachers of children.... Seeing that I had no assistant teachers, I placed a child of superior capacities between two of inferior powers. He taught them what he knew....1
1 Leitch, Practical Educationists, 79.
Two organizations for philanthropy in education came in being early in the nineteenth century. The National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church, (1811) commonly called the National Society, espoused the cause of Dr. Bell, and as its name makes clear, that of religious education under the Church of England. The British and Foreign Society (1808) came into being to support the work of Joseph Lancaster, and represented the non-conformist elements, including some of the New Church schools.2 Since it had been laid down in the Parliamentary Act of 18393 that any schools desiring support from public funds must be vouched for by one of the two societies, it was inevitable, in the event of the failure of voluntary funds :to carry out the full needs of the schools, that the New Church schools would ally themselves with the British and Foreign Society. Their schools were therefore sometimes called, British New Church Schools.
2 Reisner, Edward H., Nationalism and Education Since 1789, 237-238.
3 Parker, S. C., A Textbook in the History of Modern Elementary Education, 237.
The solution, therefore, to the problem posed by the Industrial Revolution, as the New Churchman saw it early in the nineteenth century, was to lend his efforts and support to the establishment of a New Church School. In hiring a master or other teachers, he would try to make sure that they were New Church men and women themselves, and that they would teach the doctrines of the New Church as revealed by Swedenborg.
Thus would the dual problems of dealing with the large mass of children in need of order and education, and that of spreading the doctrines of the New Church be met. At first it seemed obvious, in the light of the discoveries of Bell and Lancaster, and in view of the large numbers to be accommodated, that the best system to use was some adaptation of the monitorial system. This gave way gradually to the pupil-teacher system as modified in the forties and fifties.
NEW CHURCH RESPONSE TO EDUCATIONAL NEEDS
1. The Nature of the Need
The most obvious necessity of England in the first quarter of the nineteenth century--obvious now, across the perspective-giving-years--was that the great majority of her population lacked status as ordinary human beings. As Horace Mann wrote after his European tour in 1843, on which he found many of Englands schools poorest of all:
Of production, there is no end; of distribution, there is no beginning. Nine hundred and ninety-nine children of the same common Father, suffer from destitution, that the thousandth may revel in superfluities.
It was Englands schools that exhibited the greatest contrast and cleavage between rich and poor in all Europe, Mann found.1 And W. E. H. Lecky, who spent nineteen years on his monumental history of England in the eighteenth century, stated:
1 Mann, Horace, Seventh Report, for 1843, in Life and Works of Horace Mann, III, 230-418; 258f.
Even the history of the African slave trade hardly reveals more horrible abuses than may be found in the early days of the factory system in England, when machinery first introduced child labour on a large scale into industrial employment, when the domestic industries were broken up, and when multitudes of ignorant peasants were precipitated from their country homes into the great manufacturing towns.2
2 Lecky, W. E. H., Democracy and Liberty, II, 407.
Cyril E. Robinson found working-class England as late as 1842 in desperate need of education. ...Millions of men could neither read nor write; and for such to organize effectively was well-nigh impossible.3 Even after the work of the free schools had been carried on nearly half a century, and twenty-nine years after the first of the New Church free schools had come into being, official figures show only two-fifths of the elementary-school-age population in attendance at school.4 From the great mass of testimony as to the hard lot of the laboring classes during the first half of the nineteenth century in England, one concludes that many, including whole families--father, mother, and children down even to the age of four--had been reduced under the industrial system to the level of slavery.
3 Robinson, Cyril E., England, A History of British Progress, 571f.
4 The Census Report (1851) puts the number of children in England between three and fifteen years at 5,000,000 of whom 2,046,848 were at school. Dobbs, A. E., Education and Social Movements, 158, n.
1 Marx, Karl, Capital, I, 231.
Worse, perhaps, than the conditions which obtained for the laborers in many branches of industry, was the fatalistic and convenient philosophy which led some of the ruling classes to condone such conditions, calling Malthus to witness. Frank Smith notes:
The Essay on Population by Malthus, published in 1798, was used with ... sinister results. Its thesis that population tends to increase faster than the means of subsistence and is kept in check by unwholesome occupations, over-exertion, poverty, neglect, disease, large towns, wars, plagues, and famine, was actually used to support the view that poverty is necessary and incurable, a natural law that prevents worse evils.2
2 Smith, Frank, History of English Elementary Education, 1760-1902, 28f.
Sometimes children in workhouses or orphanages were sold into bondage in the factories, as Smith, quoting Hansard, relates:
Leonard Horner told the House of Commons in 1815 that it had been known that with a bankrupts effects a gang of these children had been put up to sale; and were advertised publicly, as a part of the property ... an agreement had been made between a London parish and a Lancashire manufacturer, by which it was stipulated that with every twenty children, one idiot should be taken.3
3 Ibid., 14.
Labor became a commodity, in the eyes of too many manufacturers, to be absorbed and used up,4 Under such conditions, instead of mans three-score years and ten, men and women were not likely to live much more than half of that,5 and sometimes the frequency of factory childrens deaths embarrassed the management, as Smith quotes a record of 1832 to show.6
4 Marx, Karl, Capital, 252.
5 Ibid., 241.
6 Smith, History, 29, There were so many deaths that some of the bodies were buried at Toddington to avoid scandal, though the burial fees were those of Tideswell.
In short, the need was for more than education. A greater need existed for kindness, for status, for common respect, for regard of the neighbor as a human being, no matter what his social or financial condition. This need was great in regard to children, in their capacity as family members, scholars, and apprentices or workers.
Another need of which the New Church people were especially aware was the need for a new faith--new doctrine. It was felt in New Church circles that much of the evil that had fallen upon mankind was caused by the failure of the old faith (called the Old Church, to distinguish it from the New Church). The lack of religion which they observed about them they believed stemmed from the failure of the old faith to live up to the needs of a need age on which they were now embarking. People increasingly found it difficult to believe, New Churchmen observed, in a tri-personal God, in an ecclesiasticism which claimed control over the gates of heaven, or in the power of faith alone (Luthers Fides Sola) to save mans soul. They felt that what was needed was a new religion and a new way of life based upon its principles.
2. New Church Response: Quantitative
Most obvious was the need for education in reading, writing, and arithmetic--the mental tools of all human beings. The New Church schools, in the 85 years from 1822 to 1907,1 made reading, writing, and religion staples in the educational diet of some 200,000 day school students. Another estimated 300,000 in Conference Sunday schools were taught reading and writing as well as religion.2
1 Minutes of Conference, 1907, 29.
2 Infra, 45.
Figures for day school enrollment, taken from the annual reports given in the published minutes for the years from 1822 through 1905,3 and added together, gave a final figure of 262,584 scholars.
3 No figures are given for 1906.
1 NJFS Reports, 1847, 13.
2 However, the district and the year had a bearing on enrollment. After its thirty-one years of operation, the New Jerusalem Free School of London had had an almost even balance of boys and girls--4650 and 4616 respectively. NJFS Report, 1853, 9.
3 Manchester School Report, 1846, 6; 1850, 8.
When we lop off one-fourth of the total figure for day school enrollment, we get approximately 200,000 which we assume represents rather closely the total number of different individuals who attended the day schools of the New Church over the eighty-five year period in which they were operative as schools of the Church.4
4 To get a figure for the total educational impact of the New Church on the English population, we add the estimated figures for the Sunday schools, which in the period for 1832-1870 were nearly double that for the day schools. Discounting a generous amount for overlap, we get a figure of 300,000. The total number of children in day and Sunday schools of the New comes out at an estimated 500,000--a half million souls with some New Church influence brought to bear on their minds. Considering that each scholar would involve others of family and friends, one can suppose a Church, then, considerable extension of New Church knowledge among the English people.
The New Jerusalem Free School began with twenty pupils in 1822. For the first four years the number remained the same. Thereafter a fairly regular increase occurred until more than 500 pupils were enrolled in the London school. In the country as a whole, the peak was reached in 1879, with a total of 6,332 pupils in all the Mew Church schools of England.
The figures show a relatively small overlap between the day and Sunday school enrollments, something in the neighborhood of twenty-five per cent of the day school students attending the Sunday School in those schools observed. This is somewhat surprising in view of the large enrollments which the Sunday schools had, and the influence which the managers of the day schools often brought to bear. In 1906, when day schools were about to be officially abandoned by Conference, Sunday scholars reached 8,318.1
1 Conference Minutes, 1906, Appendix, 141; Rev. C. E. Presland, Conference Secretary, notes, December 3, 1958: 8800 probably is the correct figure.
In the New Jerusalem Free School alone, a total of 9,266 children had been in attendance in the thirty-one years of its operation until it closed in 1853.2 This is an average of 291 each year. In some years, attendance was over 500.
2 NJFS Report for 1853, 9.
Some twenty-five schools under the aegis of the New Church were operated for the benefit of the 200,000 estimated day school pupils over the years from 1822 to 1907. After the New Jerusalem Free School on Waterloo Road, London, was established in 1822,3 the next school to be put into operation was a joint effort4 of the Manchester and Salford societies, in Bolton Street, Salford, June 25, 1827. By 1828 there were two schools, the second one in Peter Street, Manchester, church rooms, both being operated by the same joint School committee, Salford and Manchester being twin cities. The Woodford School--an experiment in distinctive boarding school operation--then was founded in 1828,5 but lasted only four years.
3 NJFS Report, 1823, 6-12.
4 Smith, Francis, History of the Peter Street Society of the New Church, Manchester, 5f.
5 IR, April, 1828, III, 145-151.
1 Conference Minutes, 1876, 19.
2 Accrington Day School Committee Minutes, January 3, 1848.
3 Hull, Felix, Letter to R. R. Gladish, September 7, 1959.
3. Early School Arrangements
The first schools were barn-like--large, bare rooms with high ceilings--often empty halls or factory buildings being pressed into service. It was mass education, and with the monitorial system in operation, it was feasible to deal with hundreds of children in the same room. As time went on, the halls were broken up or partitioned into smaller rooms; galleries were constructed at one end where the teacher could lecture to a smaller group. But, at first, many a school had but one room, with the masters desk on a platform where he could observe all, as he was often the sole adult among 200 children or more.4
4 Niemeyer, N., and Spalding, E. H., England: A Social and Economic History, 301f.
The children were grouped for each subject in little drafts of a dozen or fifteen children, and they stood or sat on benches along the side of the room, and were taught by a boy or girl in charge, called a monitor. This monitor taught them spellings from a sheet, or tables by rote, or words out of a book. At a signal, the groups all changed for a new subject, and a new group came before each monitor.5
Heating was done by fireplaces or stoves, and ventilation by windows. Among the New Church Day Schools, that at Accrington had two school rooms 66 x 30 with a 12-foot ceiling. Brightlingsea had a single room 40 x 30 with a 20-foot ceiling, and had only a fireplace for heat. Heywoods school was 66 x 36, with a 15-foot ceiling, and was heated by stoves.
1 Conference Minutes, 1847, Appendix, 78.
4. Organization, Control, and Support of Day Schools
Kindness among the New Church friends of education took a useful form with the legacy of 3000 left in 1823 by Thomas Chester, Esquire, of Dover, for the education of poor children under Conference.2 At first all the proceeds of the Chester legacy went to the New Jerusalem Free School of London, but as other schools came into being, the money was shared. A pound a year was allowed for each pupil, who was declared adopted by Conference, and a strict accounting of pupils and the time they spent in each school was therefore required.3 Other legacies of smaller amounts were added from time to time, such as the Marshal bequest of 1,126 (1832), and constant appeals for donations and subscriptions for school uses were made in the societies which supported schools.4 In 1860, it was voted to abolish the legal fiction of adoptions by Conference; henceforth any school recognized as worthy would receive an annual grant from Conference.5
2 RP, 406; IR, July-September, 1823, VI, 479f.
3 NJFS Report, 1825, 8.
5 IR, September, 1860, 442.
Generally there were three sources of support for the day schools. First was the Conference annual grant from the organizations various endowment funds. Second was contributed support from the members of the individual church society which supported and sponsored the school, and third was the pence--the pennies brought to the school by the children themselves. The annual grant added to the pence sometimes was sufficient to carry the running expenses of the schools, but when new buildings or extensive repairs were required, the members of the society backing the school had to make up the necessary total through subscriptions.
The first New Church school, the New Jerusalem Free School, being established for charity, charged no fees at first, but after three years of gratis operation, it commenced to charge a penny a week per pupil.
1 NJFS Report, 1825, 7f.
2 NJFS Report, 1825, 7f.
3 IR, March, 1838, V, 101.
With 527 children on the rolls, the Manchester-Salford schools received a tidy portion of their support from pence, but with many less popular schools, keeping the school project alive became a serious problem. Sometimes rival churches would compete for pupils and future church-members by eliminating the pence charge, or reducing it below what was common in the area. It was such competition which finally forced the New Jerusalem Free School to close its doors in 1853.4 Sometimes too, families were hard-pressed to meet the pence payments which later ranged from 2d. to 4d. (d. = penny) a week, according to the standard or grade reached.5
4 NJFS Report, 1853, 2.
5 Hooker, Maggy, Recollections of the Day School at Failsworth, 2.
From 1843 on, school support through government allotments and grants became an increasing factor in the financing of the schools. And since control follows the purse, we witness through this period a gradual assumption of power over the schools of England on the part of the national government. When a church society had difficulty making ends meet, it was natural to turn to the government, and by meeting statutory educational requirements, become eligible for public funds. At first the government support took the form of grants for heads of schools, who were required to pass certain stringent examinations.l
1 Smith, Frank, A History of English Elementary Education, 204.
2 NJFS Report, 1849, 8.
3 Smith, History, 227.
4 Ibid., 261.
5 Ibid., 274.
In 1870 the Elementary Education Act introduced a conscience clause, confining religious training either to neutral religious observances, or, if denominational, to special times before or after the regular school day.6 Nearly all the Conference schools then in operation, since they had come to lean heavily on public funds, quickly dropped their specifically New Church religious instruction, Thomas Mackereth, head of the Salford New Church School, responded by placing doctrinal instruction as the first order of the school day, and making it voluntary. He also had a group of thirty-five pupils whose parents paid the full cost of their schooling. This enabled them to be taught New Church doctrines.7 However, this temporary arrangement was a far cry from the situation obtaining when hundreds of children were required to support the schools efforts, as in the early days of the New Jerusalem Free School.8
6 Holdsworth, W. A., The Elementary Education Act, 1870, Popularly Explained, 101.
7 IR, October, 1870, XVII, 481.
8 NJFS Report, 1823, 5.
In most cases, the organization directly responsible for management of the day schools was an educational association or committee within the membership of a specific church society. In the New Jerusalem Free School, the educational committee set school policy and curriculum, determined the condition of application and attendance, received grants from and rendered reports to Conference, appointed teachers, and found funds with which to pay the master and mistress and support the school.
1 NJFS Report, passim; ibid., 1825, passim; ibid., 1827, 9ff.
5. Early Educational Aims
To the prevailing sentiment for educating children of the poor, New Churchmen added the concept of education for heaven. Letters and articles in the periodicals of the Church urged, first, that New Church parents should carry out the baptismal vows regarding their own children by bringing them up according to their doctrines, and then, that in the great work of education of the poor they ought to spread the benefits of their religion to other pupils through the Church schools.2 In the reports of the New Jerusalem Free School, especially in the first ten years, the missionary purpose of the school is clear. All children in the school were to be taught the fundamental doctrines of the New Church, such as the sole divinity of Christ, shunning evils as sins against Him, and teachings of the Writings about heaven and hell. Moreover, their parents were called upon to subscribe to a declaration of their willingness and desire to have the children educated in the Doctrines An added reason was given by a writer in 1831 who noted that since, according to Swedenborg, there are schools in heaven to finish the education of those whose education was incomplete when they died,4 how much more important must schools of the Church be here on earth, where the ideal conditions of the spiritual world by no means obtain, but ... the young are surrounded by snares, fallacies, allurements, and temptations of every kind!5
2 IR, September, 1830, I, 226-231.
3 NJFS Report, 1823, 13ff.; Ibid., 1829, 16.
4 HH, 329-345.
5 NJFS Report, 1831, 6.
In 1847, the report of a committee appointed by the previous Conference to define ... the nature, extent and frequency of the instruction required to be given to the child, called for a strong program of proselytizing.1
1 Minutes of Conference, 1847, 78f.
2 The New Church has its own canon of the Bible, called the Word, which omits, among other books, all the Pauline Gospels. NJHD. 266.
4 Minutes of Conference, 1847, 78f.
The report, written by Thomas Agnew, leading New Church layman and one-time mayor of Salford, noted visible effects and indirect effects of the instruction given in New Church schools on the public at large. The visible effects included, Agnew felt, addition of a number of effective missionaries for the New Church, several exemplary members, and the spreading of the knowledge of the Church around the world as ex-students traveled to distant lands.5
5 Ibid., 79.
Indirect effects included beneficial influences on the minds of thousands of families from which children had been sent to New Church schools in the twenty-four years that the schools had been established. Much prejudice against the Doctrines had thus been removed, and many defenders of the doctrines had been created, even though they might not become members of the New Church. Agnew closed the report by asserting that the New Churchs mission of improving and regenerating mankind would come about chiefly by instructing the young, which he declared to be the great duty of the New Church.6
6 Ibid., 80.
The aim of proselytizing was certainly promoted by the Conference resolution requiring all students in the schools to learn the Conference Catechism by heart and study its statements.
1 Ibid., 1847, 8.
2 A Catechism or Instruction for Children in the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, published for the General Conference by James Speirs, 1873, 1-16.
However, sanguine expectations by such leaders as Agnew of thousands of little New Churchmen emerging from the teeming schools of Conference were not realized. Relatively few pupils from outside families remained in the church. However, a number of monitors and pupil teachers did come into the church as they became adult, and there were occasional reports of doctrinal permeation in the families of the pupils. One ten-year-old boy was quoted as he gravely set straight his Methodist father on the doctrine of the Trinity.3
3 IR 1849, X, 291.
As late as 1893, Conference, in its annual meeting, urged officials of the various day schools under its charge to teach the Catechism of the New Church. However, by the early 1900s, only three of the six schools then under Conference were teaching any distinctly New Church doctrine or propaganda.4
4 Conference Minutes, 1893, 20.
6. The Curriculum in the New Church Infant and Primary Schools
A. Religious Experiences and Instruction
Since the aim of the New Church schools was not just education, but New Church education, this purpose was reflected in the curriculum. Because the Swedenborgian religion was structured with many philosophical principles and was decidedly of an intellectual cast, mere hymn-singing and worship of a pietistic sort was not sufficient.
In the early days of the charity schools, when the demand for schooling was great and schools were few, the New Church school managers found it possible to make strict conditions for attendance, without demurral from parents or students. Thus in the early days of the New Jerusalem Free School, it was enjoined ... that all children received into this school shall be instructed in the Liturgy and Catechism of the New Jerusalem Church, and that they do constantly attend Divine Service on the Lords Day morning and evening.l It continued true of such popular New Church schools as these at Manchester, Salford, or Accrington that they could maintain doctrinal requirements with little resistance from pupils or parents at least until the Education Act of 1870 came into operation in 1871.
1 NJFS Report, 1819, 2.
Ordinarily, school would commence with a worship service, accompanied by the singing of hymns, and often the school day would close in the same manner. The children were encouraged to attend Church on Sunday, and in the early days, most of them seem to have done so. Other services included Whit-week parades and ceremonies (in the Manchester region) in which the children of the schools marched in procession, each group following its banner. Special teas and public examinations were also given two or three times a year, which the children graced by singing hymns, reciting, or holding religious dialogues.2
2 IR, November, 1835, III, 676.
Instruction in the New Church doctrines was given in connection with exercises in reading, writing, and speaking. In connection with reading, not only the Bible, but several of the works of the Writings were used. The pupils were required to read The True Christian Religion, The Four Doctrines, and Heaven and Hell, as well as the Conference Catechism and its current liturgy. Genuine understanding of the doctrines was the goal of the best instruction, and in the case of the Manchester School, it was reported by the school inspection committee that,
...intellectual exercises on important subjects of doctrine, such as goodness and truth, the Will and the Understanding, Charity and Faith, (were the means to lead the children) to see clearly that Truth has no life, ... unless united to goodness....
1 IR, June, 1847, III, 237.
It is plain, therefore, that reading was, under these circumstances, far more than an exercise in word recognition: it was indeed liberal education with a philosophical basis.
In writing, many of the schools used mottoes or quotations from the Writings as models to be painstakingly inscribed on slates or tablets. In the process it was hoped that not only the letters would be learned, but more important, the sentiments and thoughts would become inscribed on the minds of the pupils. Hence, such sentences as these were placed before the pupils as a part of their writing exercises:
All good is derived from God and all evil from hell.
Beware of the seductive arts of evil spirits.
Faith is dead when disunited from Charity.
God is one in essence and person.
Heaven and hell are states rather than places.
Jesus Christ is the only God of Heaven and Earth.
The Word of God contains a spiritual sense within it.
The Lord draws near as man recedes from evil.2
2 NJFS Report, 1825, 26ff.
Among the various exercises in speaking, perhaps the most striking was the memorized dialogue, obviously not of the pupils composition, on some topic of religious significance. For example, a program was put on by the students of the New Jerusalem Free School in the spring of 1825 which included recitation of the catechism, repetition from memory of several long extracts from the Writings, and a dialogue between two young scholars on the subject of the Trinity. The fact that the matters under discussion in the dialogue were far beyond the mental grasp of the young scholars seemed to bother no one in the audience, which was composed of patrons of the school. The entertainment concluded with a song by the children expressing their gratitude to their kind patrons for making it possible far them to attend the New Jerusalem Free School.1
1 Dawn of Light and Theological Inspector, June, 1825, complete in one volume, 208ff.
B. The Fundamental Processes
Unavoidably conscious of the fact that they were pioneering in the realms of religious ideas and concepts, the founders and managers of the New Church schools felt no particular urge to experiment with curriculum otherwise. They had two basic aims: first, to educate children in the beliefs of the New Church, and second, to give them the common tools needed to make their way in the workaday world. It seems true that these two aims gradually became transposed in importance over the years from the beginning in 1822 until the closing of the New Church Day Schools in 1907. They were satisfied that the way they had proceeded in teaching religious truths was satisfactory, and they went about teaching reading, writing, simple arithmetic and accounts, spelling, and handwriting in the way that other schools about them were wont to use. The method here was at first that of the monitorial system, later changing to the pupil-teacher system. Lectures on astronomy and other cultural subjects might be given occasionally.2
2 Ibid., I, 92ff.
Aside from the religious instruction, which might have caught the interest of the brighter and more philosophical-minded pupils. the average day in the New Church schools was a montage of reading, writing, arithmetic, and grammar, with a little hymn-singing on either end.3 As the Nineteenth Century wore on, New Church schools gradually extended their offerings as did the schools about them, to Include geography, ratio and proportion, parsing, genealogies of English sovereigns, and constitutional history. For the girls, cooking classes were added to the sewing classes.4 As Stones remarks, ... parsing involved the mutilation of the classics, with Miltons Paradise test being the piece de resistance.5
4 Stones, E. The Development of Education in Accrington, 1790-1903, 23.
By 1892 the curriculum of a typical elementary school included drawing, arithmetic, mental calculation, geography, history, as well as singing and reading and writing.1 From time to time mention of science occurs, but it is probable that this subject was one of the latest to find its place in the curriculum, along with organized instruction in physical education.2
1 Clayton-le-Moors Education Committee Minutes, June 20, 1893
2 Besses O th Barn Minutes, 1890; Birmingham, Report of the Free Day School Society, 1840, 11f.
There was no over-all prescription from Conference relating to curriculum or method except in the matter of religious instruction. Therefore each school made its own decisions as to the inclusion of such subjects as music, foreign languages, and sewing or embroidery. The New Jerusalem Free School as early as 1829 realized some income from the sewing and embroidery of its girls3 while the Snodland School in 1893 erected a branch for teaching woodwork and manual training.4
3 NJFS Report, 1829, 22.
4 Hull, Felix, Letter to R. R. Gladish, September 7, 1959.
7. The Curriculum in the New Church Secondary Schools
Only four of the thirty-some schools of England with which we are concerned were of secondary level, namely:
The Woodford School, 1828-1832
Dr. Firths School, 1837-1848
The New Church College, 1845-1884 5
T. C. Lowes School, 1867-1896 6
5 The termination date refers only to the Boys School; the Theological School continues to the present.
6 A1so entitled, at one stage of its existence, Hamstead Hill School.
A. Religious Experiences and Instruction
The aims of the New Church secondary schools were similar to those of the infant and primary schools, but since the secondary schools generally had a higher percentage of New Church children as students, and had a much smaller student body, it is probable that the processes of inculcation with New Church ideas and training went forward more successfully in the secondary schools.
1 Malins, William, Report of Proceedings Having for their Object the Formation of a General Education Establishment for the Children of the New Jerusalem Church, With the Plan of the Institution, 7 passim; IR, August, 1845, XX, 310, passim.
2 Information from Miss Kathleen Lowe, July 5, 1956, at Birmingham, England.
Religious exercises included morning chapel services, and attendance at Sunday Church services, either at the school, or at a nearby New Church. T. C. Lowe, although not a minister, often preached at the Birmingham New Church on Sundays, his students occupying the first two rows of the church.3
While Malins had the idea of permeating all the classes and activities of the Woodford School with New Church teachings, through the influence of New Church instructors, it is probable that he had regular classes in religion also.4 Such permeation was also the arm of Henry Bateman at the New Church College, but he also had courses and lectures on New Church doctrines.5 Lowe had as an assistant in his school the Rev. J. J. Woodman, a New Church minister. His school was known for its New Church accent in Swedenborgian circles throughout England. Since it was a boarding school (in part) New Church people sent their young people to it from various parts of England.6
4 Malins, Report, 7.
5 IR February, 1560, VII, 62-67.
6 Lowe, Kathleen, Interview, July 5, 1956.
1 IR, July, 1830, IV, 200f.
Most revolutionary and advanced in concept of all the New Church schools was undoubtedly the Woodford School. Malins had purchased a large estate in a country area north-east of London, well-stocked with timber, gardens, six excellent greenhouses, fruit-trees, horses, cows, and sheep, pigs, and all necessary buildings, including barns for the animals and dormitory accommodations for the boarding students. Malins planned to use the early years of childhood to teach heavenly truths in the manner Swedenborg described children in heaven learning by. Boys would be taught to labor with their hands and learn the dignity of useful work of any kind, and strengthen their bodies by manly but harmless sports, while the girls should be distinguished by the sweetest charm, feminine delicacy, and reserve, added to a well-cultivated mind and a practical knowledge of every useful art. Religion was to be brought into act, ... which is bringing it into the world and into life; otherwise it remains in the memory and is dead.2
2 Malins, Report, 21, passim.
B. Intellectual and Cultural Pursuits
Curricular studies at the Woodford School included, English and Latin, (including the reading of Heaven and Hell in Latin) writing, arithmetic, bookkeeping, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, experimental philosophy (science), natural history and botany. For young ladies there was also needlework, while additional courses would be available upon the payment of extra fees. These were: Greek, Hebrew, French, German, drawing, music, and dancing.3
3 Malins, Report, 37; IR, April, 1828, III, 149.
Malins favored informal methods of the Pestalozzian school, and his headmaster, John Henry Smithson, who had studied the Pestalozzian system, directed Woodville Woodman and Master Wyand, and other members of the staff, in that method.l
1 IR, June, 1864, XI, 260f.
The New Church College offered German, Latin, English, science, French, classics. Dancing, drawing, and music were considered extras, and charged for at a fee of one guinea each.2 Since candidates for the theological classes at the College had to pass matriculation examinations, and since the lower school was expressly designed by Bateman as a preparatory school for the school of theology, it is likely that the lower schools curriculum offered similar subjects. The entrance examination included: 1) Reading of the Word and Bible History; 2) The General Doctrines of the New Church; 3) The Gospel According to St. John in the Greek; 4) The first book of Caesars Gallic Wars in Latin; 5) The first book of the Aeneid; 6) Arithmetic to decimal fractions; 7) Algebra, including simple equations; 8) The first book of Euclid.3
2 IR, July, 1860, VII, 339f.; Ibid., January, 1853, XIV, 37.
3 IR, December 1, 1864, XI, 579.
The Lowe school, which in its Hamstead Hill location included a kindergarten as well as a boys and girls school, offered history, mathematics, literature and science, including chemistry. A carpenter taught his trade to those boys interested, and the girls could take needlework and dancing. Gymnastics also was offered by a skilled master who also drilled the boys indoors on rainy days. On a large lawn in front of the school the students played tennis and rounders.
The school of Dr. Robert Firth at Hull, was listed as a Classical and Mathematical Academy, but we have no specifics as to curriculum for this school.4
4 Drewery, R. F., Letter to R. R. Gladish, December 19, 1958.
8. Procedure in a Typical Infant School
David George Goyder was an ardent receiver of the New Church doctrines who later became a minister of the Conference. He also was active in education, and from all evidence, an able and successful educator as well as author on educational subjects.
1 See reference to the Newcastle Pestalozzian School, infra, Sec. I, Ch. IV.
Goyder had received the doctrines from his brother, the Rev. Thomas Goyder, in whose London Waterloo Road Church sat two ornaments of the infant school movement, namely, James Buchanan and Joseph Wilderspin.2 Contact with these schoolmen had led to his undertaking an infant school at Bristol, which apparently was a success. David Goyders book about this school in Bristol seems to have been popular, the one cited being a fourth edition. Goyder listed his daily program at the Bristol school thus:
2 Obituary of D. G. Goyder, unsigned, in Intellectual Repository, enlarged series, 1878, XXV, 405.
ROUTINE OF SCHOOL BUSINESS
Morning: Half past nine oclock: Hymn 15; prayer; the children count 100; multiplication table.
10:00 oclock: Hymn 19; Ten Commandments; Hymn 22; Pence Table.
Half past ten: Marching, Table, etc.
11:00 oclock: Hymn 21.
12:00 oclock: Hymn 1.
Afternoon: Half past 12 to 2:00: Dinner time and Play, during which time the Swings and Toys in general are in use.
2:00 oclock: Hymn 6; Writing for one hour.
3:00 oclock: Hymn 8; Arithmetic till 4 oclock.
4:00 oclock: Hymn 2; Reading and Spelling.
Quarter before 5:00: Children collected together;
Address from the Master; Hymn 16; Prayer; and the concluding verses follow this song:
Oh, thou meek and holy Saviour,
Thou hast seen us through and through;
Pardon all our bad behaviour;
Make us good and holy too.
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday mornings: Picture Lessons.l
1 Goyder, G., A Manual of the System of Instruction Pursued at the Infant School, Bristol, 4th edition very considerably enlarged, 30.
Goyder made much of marching, as he said, Not for war, but healthy exercise.2 And he continued:
2 Ibid., 25.
There is nothing more likely to arrest the attention of children and to lead them to the most submissive and willing obedience than the exercise of marching; and there is nothing which is more pleasing, (generally speaking) to the visitors.3
Making use of a shrill whistle, Goyder led the children through all sorts of complicated maneuvers, apparently designed to astound spectators, whose frequency was such as to give to the schools daily program the spectacle of a theatrical performance. The senior monitor led in stamping and clapping in time. Master Goyder conducted an inspection of the childrens faces:
... should any child come with an unwashed face, I cause him to pass before all the other children, as a warning for them not to come dirty, and I have found this to become productive of the most salutary effects.4
Then after further inspection, this time of the hands, and marching with flags, the children might sing this song:
Always try to keep the step,
Clap your hands and not forget,
The kind of treatment that we meet
At Bristol Infant School.5
The monitorial system was used, as Goyder explained, but while the children were taught to look up to the monitors with respect, the latter were allowed no badge of superiority because of the danger that these will
...be but so many dangerous stimulants which tend more to harrow up the passions, to puff up the mind with an undue consequence of its own superiority, and thus to feed its impure self-love, rather than to cherish that spirit of conscious humility which should always accompany the possession of eminent talents.1
1 Ibid., 110.
This was a departure from the system used by other schools, particularly those of Lancaster and Wilderspin, where the children were given brass medallions or other insignia of superiority. The New Church doctrines about the evil of claiming merit were responsible for Goyders attitude towards rewards. One such teaching was: No one is ever rewarded in the other life on account of good acts, if he has placed merit in them.2
2 AC 1936(3).
Goyder continued, discussing what in the New Church would be called the doctrines of Providence and Use, with, however, a very British twist as to station in society:
The children are therefore taught to do good for its own sake; if some have better capacities than their little companions, they are told that they were not given to make them more vain, but more useful, and to afford with pleasure their aid to their less-gifted but equally meritorious school-fellows; they are told further, that God never withholds a blessing from anyone, and that although they may be quicker at their books than their companions, yet they on their part may excel in some other employment better adapted to their genius. They are told lastly that the Lord gives us talents according to the station we are designed to fill in society, and that without them, we should not be qualified to perform the various duties assigned to us.3
3 Goyder, Bristol. 110.
While inveighing against the practice characterized by Locke as the usual lazy and short way by chastisement and the rod Goyder nevertheless believed in punishment.
To restrain the vicious, however, it is absolutely necessary that some sort of punishment should be resorted to.... When a passionate child is brought first to the school, it generally tries with all his might to get the upper hand, by crying, or stamping with its feet, or some such act of infantile violence.
1 Ibid., 112f.
Goyder ingeniously resisted the temptation to use corporal punishment, as he explained:
If I discover any child fighting, I put a pair of wooden handcuffs upon its wrists, with a ticket pinned before him stating the offense, for about five minutes....
If a child ran away from the school, or played truant, I put upon his legs an instrument not unlike the stocks, by which he is deprived of his play. I likewise sometimes use them when children make use of bad words, and on some other occasions, always stating on a ticket the nature of the offense. But though I have been repeatedly requested by parents to inflict corporal punishment, I have abstained from it; by which means, all the children are much attached to me, and there is not one of them but would execute my commands with pleasure....2
2 Ibid., 114.
Not only did Goyder stick by his guns in regard to corporal punishment, but he also refused to use the dunce cap, not wishing to incite the natural urge to hold the neighbor in contempt.
Sometimes Goyder arranged for various trades and occupations to be explained by parents who came in for that purpose--a quite modern touch, probably traceable to Pestalozzian influence as well as New Church emphasis on use.
Although the Bristol Infant School was not a New Church school, evidently its master did try to inculcate principles which he found in the writings of Swedenborg and indeed to conduct his school according to New Church principles as well. It is indicated that a good many private-venture schools were operated during the nineteenth century by New Church personnel, in which there were efforts to teach at least the simpler principles of the New Church, and hence the influence of the church was undoubtedly spread further than the confines of its membership or of the schools patently under its aegis.l
1 Concerning Samuel Wilderspin: New Church Magazine, October, 1915, XXXIV 34, 211-217; Buchanan, Introducer of Cheap Day Schools, in Bayley, Jonathan, New Church Worthies, 29-35; concerning David George Goyder: The Rev. David George Goyders Work for Infant Education, New Church Magazine, October, 1915, XXIV, 445-453; concerning John Frederic Oberlin: Bayley, Worthies, Oberlin, Originator of Infant Schools, 17-28; concerning T. C. Lowe, Infra, Sec. I, Ch. IV.
9. New Church Educational Literature
By the late 1830s, day and Sunday school enrollments called strongly for texts and other written materials for the scholars. This need was supplied by the efforts of ministers, schoolmen, and laity, anonymous women writers being especially active. Fortunately, the New Church was well supplied with men in the printing and publishing business from the very start. Robert Hindmarsh, himself a leader of the British New Church from its organization in 1789 to his death in 1835, styled himself Printer to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales,2 and Harry Hodson also published many books and tracts for his confreres of the New Church at his printing shop, 22 Portugal Street, Lincolns Inn, his work being carried on after his death in 1821 by his brother, James S. Hodson.3 Other New Church printers were J. and G. Goyder of Glasgow, and James Speirs, of London.
2 Conference Minutes 1789, 43.
3 Annals, 289.
Some of the books used in the schools are listed and reviewed in church periodicals. These notices give some indication of the educational aims of the schools. While religious references predominate, there were a few secular texts, several of which made good sales to the general school public. Any early school book was Singing at Sight Made Easy, by the Rev. Woodville Woodman, a New Church minister.4 Another was A Reading and Spelling Book for the Use of the Sunday and Day Schools of the New Church, by Henry Butter. Undoubtedly the trade version of this is the all-time best-seller among books by New Church writers to date. Its sales total was nearing the three million mark at its last edition in 1953. An English scholar, the Rev. J. G. Dufty, told the story tersely:
4 IR, July 1860, VII, 330.
Then you must not overlook that splendid little book on Spelling by Henry Butter. There is romance here. The New Church Conference of 1825 invited him to prepare such a work for the New Church Schools, but on production evaded publication. He published it on his own, and I have a copy issued in 1897 used by my own daughters which completed 2,565,000! The Conference thus lost a little gold mine.l
1 Letter from the Rev. J. G. Dufty, London, November 28, 1953, to R. R. Gladish.
The New Church version of the work did not receive much encouragement, but Butter prepared an edition for the general public called Reading and Spelling in Easy Gradations, and then the immensely successful Etymological Spelling Book and Expositor. He also wrote the Gradual Primer. Butter was master of an Academy in Rawstorne Street, Goswell Road, London.2 Butter, like other New Church writers, carefully removed from his works any allusions which would tend to heterodoxy, such as references to a tri-personal deity. He did not, however, lean so heavily on the Bible as a source for examples as was common at that day in such textbooks.3
2 RP, 470f.
Dufty called attention to many class books issued by New Church publishers and others for use in such (New Church Gay) schools.4 He continued, In connection with the Manchester School there was issued by M. Birchall Elements of Geography and Astronomy, 2nd Edition, 1819, and a little work by Scotson5 I have handled on Chemistry.... Another teacher was J. Bradley who in 1822 issued The Juvenile Reader... Rev. J. Bayley issued Second Reading Book, n. d., and New Church Reader and Class Book, 1846....6 Since the first day schools of the Church came into existence in 1822, books dated before that time could not have been intended for New Church day schools, but some of these schools doubtless used them later, as did the Sunday schools.
4 Dufty, J. C., Letter, November 28, 1953.
5 Head of the Manchester School.
Sometimes New Church writers, addressing a general school public, would quietly insert sentences or statements conveying New Church concepts. This was true of Butters Gradual Primer, which was evidently popular, as it was published in a 10th edition in 1839.
1 Butter, Henry, Gradual Primer, 23.
2 Ibid., 13.
3 Ibid., 55.
Efforts toward distinctively New Church teaching occur in Bayleys New Church Reader and Class Book, which the reviewer noted, consist(s) of selections in prose and verse from the most approved New Church authors, from the Writings of Swedenborg, together with some original compositions.4 Of a little book called Le Cras, Newest Reading Made Completely Easy, or an Introduction to Reading the Holy Bible, the reviewer wrote, It contains much that must tend to imbue the infant mind with the truths of the New Church.5
4 IR December, 1846, VI, 464.
5 Ibid., July, 1827, II, 611.
A book aiming to teach doctrine to children is The Childs First Book of Religious Instruction, by A Lady.6 Among the topics in this book are the Word of God, the spiritual world, of heaven and angels, of hell and infernal spirits, the nearness of the spiritual world, the life that leads to heaven.7
6 Ibid., May, 1839, V, 482f.
7 Ibid., 13.
Another book, by A Lady, is A Mothers Legacy to Her Children in a Series of Twelve Letters upon the Decalogue. The authors preface stated:
In times like the present, when the liberty of the press forms a fountain from which good and evil flow together, it behooves all who wish well to the cause of true religion ... to contribute....8
8 Ibid., 1839, V, 545.
Another, or possibly the same lady, published a book called the Childs Own Book on New Church Doctrine in eight lessons, price one shilling.
Little children, should you like to hear something about the spiritual world? I dare say you would; for that is a world where we shall all live, when we leave this world where we live now. There is a correspondence between the things that are within us and the thing that are without us. What I am going to tell you I have learned from the Writings of Swedenborg. He was a very good man, to wham these things were revealed by the Divine mercy of the Lord, that he might tell them to us for our instruction and delight. When you are older, you will read the books he has written yourselves; and I assure you that you will learn many wonderful and delightful things from them.1
1 Ibid., September, 1837, III, 599.
ENGLISH SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED BY OR ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEW CHURCH
The schools which are the subject of the present study can be divided into two general classes, namely, those day schools Operated under the aegis of Conference, and those which taught from a New Church viewpoint, but which were not officially affiliated with the General Conference of the New Jerusalem. While there was considerable variation among the officially recognized schools as to the degree of their New Church influence, this variation was probably greater among the unofficial day schools. While more information is available, generally speaking, in regard to the officially-recognized schools, there is not much information available concerning some of them, and about the unofficial schools sometimes nothing is known beyond their bare existence.1
1 When information is limited to a single notation from the past, it is reasonable to doubt existence, too.
A summary table of the known English schools is presented in the Appendix.2 We propose to present here information about these schools in addition to what has already been presented in Chapter III.
2 Appendix, A, Part I.
1. Worsley, 1785- ?
A Society of Readers [of Swedenborg] was formed in Worsley, a small suburb of Manchester, in 1785 by Thomas Bury. This was a fairly common approach to the formation of a circle or society of the New Church. A Mrs. Lowe, whose husband was one of the Readers, and one of the supporters and faithful helpers of Thomas Berry [Bury],3 conducted a day school for an indefinite period.4 While little further information is presently available, one can speculate that the school was small, as it was conducted in a house occupied by Thomas Cooke, a sawyer, in Worsley Yard.5 Probably it was intended for the children of the reading groups members. Doyle suggests that in the absence of further information, the duration of the school was probably short.
3 Doyle, John, Letter to R. R. Gladish, December 12, 1960.
4 Herald, October 22, 1960, XLI, 174.
1 Doyle, Letter, December 12, 1960.
2. New Jerusalem Free School, London, 1822-1853 2
2 As an example of the difficulties involved in classification of these schools, we might mention here as a possible alternate choice David George Goyders Bristol Infant School. [Supra, III.] Although this school was not recognized by the Conference, it was lively and popular school in which the master, later a New Church minister and teacher, definitely attempted to influence the pupils and to educate them according to principles derived from the Writings. We have left it out of our classification, however, on the grounds that, from available information, the purpose of the school was not overtly proselytizing, it was not patronized by New Church people, and it was a private-venture school organized by its proprietor primarily as a means making a living. While Goyder used New Church principles, it was not to spread knowledge of the Church, but because he felt they were superior to other principles.
The New Jerusalem Church Free School began at a meeting of The Chain of Christian Fellowship, an organization connected with the London Waterloo Road New Church, whose pastor then was the Rev. Thomas Goyder, July 77 1819. The group had planned to organize a Sunday School, but decided at this meeting that a day school would have a better chance of attracting children to and holding them in the New Church.3 At first  the school was held for twenty children, ten boys and ten girls, in the premises of the New Temple on Waterloo Road.4 In 1826 the boys moved into the lower floor of a new school building on Charles Street, now Gerridge Street, built by the Society, and a girls school was commenced on the upper floor in 1827.5 This school was right by the Thames, near the Old Vic Theatre in the center of London.6
3 First Report of the New Jerusalem Free School Society, 1819, 2. Hereafter these reports are cited as NJFS Report.
4 Ibid., 8.
5 Ibid., 1826, 1828.
6 Presland, Rev. C. H., Letter, December 3, 1958. A letter of August 4, 1961, from the same source, reports that the original school building is still standing, the upper floor being used as a carpenters shop.
When the school ceased to operate, at Christmas recess, 1853, it had in its thirty-one years under the same master, George Granger, taught 4,650 boys and 4,616 girls; total - 9,266.1
1 NJFS Report, 1853, 9.
2 NJFS Reports, 1819-1853.
3. Chelmsford Infant School, 1825?
Only one reference to a New Church school at Chelmsford has come to light. This, a statement in the Intellectual Repository of April, 1825, announced that an unnamed New Churchman living in the vicinity of Chelmsford had been so struck by a visit to Wilderspins Infant School at Spitalfields, London, that he had erected at his own expense a schoolroom at Chelmsford capable of accommodating 200 children, had engaged a New Church school master and school mistress, and that the school was to be opened March 28, 1825.3 Since no further trace of this school has come to light, one is forced to conclude either that the unnamed benefactor changed his mind, or that the school was extremely short-lived.
3 IR, April, 1825, VII, 517.
4. Manchester, Peter Street School, 1827-1871
Of all the New Church schools in England, this was the most successful and efficient in the eyes of the educational world, as interpreted in the judgments of Her Majestys School Inspectors. A. O. Mundella, vice-president of the national Council on Education, in 1880 congratulated the citizens of Manchester in being in possession of the best appointed Elementary School in the whole of Her Majestys dominions. You have managed to combine all the advantages of the English and Continental systems in your school, and to introduce the newest improvements.... Mr. Scotson I consider the Prince of Elementary Schoolmasters. When I want to point to some first-rate Schoolmasters in England, I generally begin with Mr. Scotsons name.1
1 Lever, H., and Birkby, J. G. A Short History of the Central High School for Boys, Manchester, 6.
2 Ibid., 3f.
However, it was Joseph Moss who had headed the school when it was founded in 1827 as a joint venture of the New Church societies in Salford and Manchester, twin cities. The school began in a Sunday school room of the New Jerusalem Temple in Bolton Street, Salford, on June 25, 1827. Moss first had visited the New Jerusalem Free School of London to observe its methods. From the start, the school was successful. After a year another school was started in the lecture room adjoining the Peter Street Church of nearby Manchester, and Moss transferred to Peter Street, another master being selected for Salford.3 However, the two schools continued under a joint committee until 1846, when, with 250 boys and 60 girls enrolled, it was declared of the Manchester schools that they were established for instruction of children in the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Church, and for teaching them reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and such other branches of general education as may be considered useful and necessary; the education of the girls to include needlework.4
3 Bayley, Jonathan, New Church Worthies, 37f.
4 Report of Manchester New Jerusalem Day School, 1846, 8.
The report of J. D. Morrell, school inspector, for 1850, characterized the Manchester schools [boys and girls] as ... among the best primary schools I have yet had the pleasure of inspecting. In that year the system of circular classes under unpaid monitors was changed to a system of pupil teachers or apprentices who were in turn taught by the school-master--an in-service plan.5
5 Ibid., 1850, 8f.
As late as 1864, the Conference school-visiting committee reported that ... the doctrines of the Lords New Church are effectively and unreservedly taught in these schools ... and deeply impressed upon the minds of the children.1
1 Report of the Conference Visiting Committee, August, 1864.
2 Ibid., July 17, 1870.
3 Manchester Minutes of Conference Religious Inspection Reports, March 16, 1871.
4 Ibid., July 19, 1871.
5 Lever & Birkby, Short History, 5.
5. Salford, 1827-1890?
Linked with the Peter Street School of Manchester in its origin, the Salford schools history runs closely parallel to that of the Peter Street School. Both were highly commended for efficiency, and for loyalty to the New Church doctrines. Both had large enrollments. Although the Salford school attempted to teach specific doctrines later than 1871,6 such teaching was given to a small minority of its students. This school stood on Bolton Street, on the grounds of the Salford New Church Temple. The old school building today is a factory for reclaiming used machine oil.7
7 Information gathered by the writer on a visit in 1956.
6. Swedenborgian School, Stoneclough, n. d.
The only reference to this school occurs in a list of past masters of the Peter Street School in Lever and Birkbys Short History of the Manchester Central High School for Boys.8 J. Kellett, who was second master or assistant principal at Peter Street, is listed as headmaster of a Swedenborgian school at Stoneclough, near Bolton, in the Manchester region.
8 p. 50.
7. Woodford School, 1828-1832
Of all the English schools, the Woodford School came closest in aim to that of the Academy or General Church. William Malins, who began and largely supported it, expressed the concept of letting the Writings be methods and complete though gentle control of their activities and environment.1
1 Malins, William, Report of Proceedings, etc., 4., passim.
This school commenced with the aim of 300 enrollment, equally divided between the sexes. However, after one years operation, the girls enrollment having dropped to fifteen, the girls school was discontinued, some of its students being transferred to a new school for girls in Myddleton Square, London.2
2 IR, March, 1829, III, 544ff.
Inexperience in the complexities of operating a boarding school, plus lack of support by people of the New Church, combined to cause the Woodford School to fail in 1832.3 Although Malins may not have lost money on the project in the long run, it being reported that the property was eventually sold for 7,000 more than it cost,4 failure of the cherished plan apparently caused him to drop out of New Church activities. He has no obituary in the Intellectual Repository.
3 RP, 467, n.
4 IR, July, 1860, VII, 343.
8. Girls School, Myddleton Square, 1829-1833?
After the discontinuance of the girls school at Woodford, Mrs. H. C. Hodson, widow of the New Church publisher, and Miss Foulson of London started a school for girls in Myddleton Square, Pentonville, London. Some of the girls from Woodford attended. This school operated about four years. Once it was reported that the Hodson-Poulson school put on a bazaar for the benefit of the New Jerusalem Free School.5 The last mention of this school in literature of the Church was in May, 1833, when its want of patronage was deplored.6
5 NFJS Report, 1831, 7.
6 RP, 491, n.
9. Boys School, Shoreditch, London, 1827?
Only one reference to this school has come to light. As of November 18, 1827, it was reported that seventy-nine boys were receiving daily New Church education at Shoreditch.1 Obviously this school could not have lasted long without leaving more evidence of its existence.
1 New Jerusalem Magazine and Theological Inspector, January, 1828, III, 26.
10. Brightlingsea, 1832-1877?
Woodville Woodman came to Brightlingsea in 1832, uniting the offices of church leader with that of schoolmaster. He had been left without employment by the failure of the Woodford School.2 A school room was built during Woodmans tenure, and another was built in 1875, testifying to the fact that the day school at Brightlingsea had at least two lives.3 Woodman was ordained in 1838.4 The new school quarters built in 1875 were large and modern for their day, but were not maintained as a New Church Day school very long.5 Recollections of former pupils do not indicate that New Church teachings played any special part in the school.6 Perhaps the lack of an answer to an advertisement in a periodical of the Church for a Certified Master was the cause of the schools discontinuance. If so, that date would have been 1876.7
2 N. C. Mag., April, 1900, XIX, 149ff.
4 RP, Appendix, iv.
5 Lawrence, B. E., Letter to R. R. Gladish, October 14, 1959.
6 Interviews with Noble Eagle, whose mother taught in the school; Arthur Skinner, and C. Bates, at Brightlingsea, July 2, 1956.
7 IR. December, 1876, XXIII, from advertising pages.
11. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1832-1847
Rev. David George Goyder commenced this school under the title: The New Church Pestalozzian School of Newcastle-on-Tyne. For a fee of a four-pence a week, pupils might study geometry, astronomy and music, in addition to the usual branches.8 When the first teacher, a former convert of Goyders, turned out to be a drunkard and a dope addict, he was replaced by George Field, who later went to the United States and Canada as a highly successful missionary for the New Church.1
8 Newcastle Minutes of Day School Committee, hereafter, Newcastle Minutes, June 1, 1832.
1 Ibid., August 14, 1832; Field, George, History of the New Church in the United States and Western Canada, passim.
2 Newcastle Minutes, January 28, 1946.
Before the school closed its poverty-stricken career, its managers received one piece of sound counsel from the Rev. Richard Storry of Heywood, to whom they had written for advice. Story wrote:
... the sum of 52 per annum is not an adequate remuneration for the services of a schoolmaster ... there is no class of men worse remunerated than teachers of all kinds....
He then suggested that the teachers income be made partially dependent upon his own efforts by giving him the childrens pence and the Conference grant, and expecting the subscribers to find funds to pay other expenses. This, he said, was the method used in Heywood. In closing he made this comment:
I have long felt that before much can be done in the great cause of education we must raise the character and respectability of educators....3
3 Storry, Rev. R., Letter to Wm. Dodds, January 15, 1946.
12. Birmingham, 1833-1874
The Birmingham New Church school began in order to provide the minister, the Rev. Edward Madeley, with sufficient income to enable him to remain as pastor of the Wretton Road Church, the society not being prepared to offer him a sufficient salary otherwise.4 It was suggested to him that a private day school would be more remunerative, but Madeley felt the greater use would lie with the free day school for poor children.5
4 Birmingham New Jerusalem Church Minutes, Report of Free Day School Society, hereafter Birmingham Minutes, October 5, 1843.
In a report of 1867, A. Best, secretary, emphasized the use of the school over the years in spreading among the public a respect and affection for the New Church. Eight thousand scholars had passed through the school since 1833; income was 344, and expenses 346.6
6 Birminghan Day School Report, 1867, 1.
1 Conference Minutes, 1866.
13. Accrington, 1835-1904
The day school at Accrington, an industrial town some twenty miles north of Manchester, was the largest of the New Church day schools, and carried on for sixty-nine years, thirty-six of them teaching doctrine under the aegis of the Church. In 1886, enrollment reached a peak of 902 with an average attendance of 855.2
2 Report of the New Church British Day School, Hargreaves Street, Accrington, 1886; hereafter, Accrington Report.
Accrington provides a good example of the half-timers problem found in many of the mill towns in the Nineteenth Century. Under the Factory Acts children to be employed had to have a minimum of 150 hours of schooling before they could take a job in the cloth mills. This instruction could be obtained at any time during the six months previous to their employment. During this period the pupils were serving two masters, and their schooling suffered. Often teachers had to repeat the same lesson as many as five times to make sure that all had heard it.3
3 Stones, E., The Development of Education in Accrington, 1790-1903, 10, 20.
An example of a teacher-apprentice, or student-teacher agreement is also found among the records of the Accrington New Church School. It follows:
I, James Chester, with the consent of parents, agree to serve and assist John Massey, Master of the New Jerusalem Day School, Accrington, from April 24, 1862, to February 28, 1863, and afterward to be bound apprentice to said John Massey for two years as the case may be determined by Committee of Council on-Education, on condition that I am paid after the rate of 17 10s Od.4
4 Accrington Educational Minutes, July 4, 1862.
In addition to running the school and teaching his own classes, the master of such a school had to find time to teach his apprenticed pupil-teachers.
1 Accrington Boys School Log Book, March 31, 1863; April 1, 1863; June 11, 1863.
With the passage of the Education Act of 1870, the Accrington New Church School Committee voted to end its teaching of doctrine, and relinquished its rights to Conference support.2 In 1855, the old premises being inadequate, a new school Building with steel girders was erected. Remarkably modern in design, this building still is used for Sunday School classes and other society uses. In latter years, cookery, elementary science and other subjects were added to the curriculum. The Accrington school was transferred to the Local Education Authority on April 1, 1904. The day school ceased to exist in 1017.3
2 Conference Report of Day Schools, Accrington, 1872, 5.
3 Stones, Development, 29; Brown, Geoffrey R., A Short History of the New Church in Accrington, 24.
14. Dr. Firths School at Hull, 1837-1843
In the Intellectual Repository of 1845, mention was made of Dr. Firth, of Hull, who had a school for boys which has gained the patronage of our most eminent ministers.4
4 IR, July, 1845, VI, 6, 311.
Although the literature of the Church is silent beyond this one reference, Dr. Robert Firth taught a day school in Hull from 1837 to 1846, and operated an academy between 1846 and 1848. The day school was conducted on New Church property, at Freemans Lodge, 33 Mytongate, but there is no indication that there was any formal affiliation with the Church. The city directory of Hull for 1846 lists Dr. Firth as follows:
FIRTH, ROBERT, M.A., D.P.,
Classical and Mathematical Academy,
10 Brownlow Terrace.
and in 1848, the last reference to him, this academy had moved to 9 Walker Street.1 No information is available as to enrollment.
1 Drewery, R. F., Chief Librarian, Lingston upon Hull Public Libraries, Letter to R. R. Gladish, 19th December, 1958.
15. Heywood, 1838-1873
Heywood was one of some fifteen mill towns in the Manchester region where visits by John Clowes led to circles or societies of the New Church. There were once some fourteen New Church day schools in the Manchester-Salford area. In 1861 New Church influence was indicated by the list of books noted as in daily use in the Heywood day school: The New Church Catechism, The Four Leading Doctrines, The Heavenly Doctrines, Clowes on Miracles.2
2 Heywood Day School Annual Report, 1861,
In 1873, Rev. Richard Storry, revered founder of the school and then Conference president, stated that Failsworth, Heywood, and Kearsley were under government inspection, having dropped their distinctiveness. They are well-conducted secular schools taught under a general rather than a specific religious influence and instruction. They possess a good reputation in their neighborhoods, and as educational establishments are very successful.3
3 IR, September, 1873, xx, 434.
In 1903, as a result of the Education Act of 1902, the school was transferred to the management of the Local Education Authority.4
4 The New Church, Heywood, 17ff.
16. The New Church College, (Lower school) 1845-1884
As a later chapter is devoted to this school, the present notation will merely identify it in the context of the other New Church schools.5 The original name of this institution was Emanuel College, and it was commenced by Henry Bateman, surgeon and prominent member of Conference, with the help of a 10,000 bequest by Roger Crompton.
5 Infra, Chapter.
Bateman, an enthusiast of Malins sort, planned a two level school: a lower school for all male New Church Youth up to the age of seventeen, and a theological school. The former would serve the latter by preparing students, and the best candidates from the lower school would enter the theological School.1 However, the lower school, after reaching an enrollment peak of 50 pupils in 1878, about half of them from New Church families, ceased to exist in 1884.2 The Theological School, now at Woodford Green, Northeast of London, continues.
1 Minutes of the Proceedings of the New Church College, hereafter NCC Minutes, April 29, 1845.
2 NCC Report, 1878; 1884.
17. Warren Lane, or 0swaldtwistle, 1848-1893?
A colony of the Accrington School was established in 1847 when the Warren Lane School was opened with the help of members of the staff at the Accrington School. The Warren Lane School, sometimes called Oswaldtwistle, or Spring Hill, opened January 3, 1848, with Miss Pickles and Miss Ramsbottom in charge,3 but in 1849 there was talk of giving up the school at Warren Lane and Miss Pickles came back in September of 1849 to be the mistress of the school at Accrington. In 1858 steps were taken to put Warren Lane under government inspection.4 The school broke off and was resumed about 1876. It ceased about 1893.5 Today the Warren Lane School building is occupied by a motion picture theater.
3 Minutes of Accrington Day School Committee, January 3, 1848.
4 Ibid., January 28, 1857.
5 Conference Committee Minutes, 1893? n. d., follows 1892.
18. Embsay, 1848-1903
The Embsay school, which began in 1848 or 1849, is of interest for the struggle between its backers and the Church of England vicar of the village. The latter conducted a one-man campaign against what he apparently thought an heretical sect and its school, and according to the Embsay New Church records, conducted his own school with a fierce determination to inculcate ... the doctrine of the Church of England.
1 Third Annual Report of Embsay Day School Committee, n. d., c. 1852.
2 Report of Conference Committee on Education, 1903.
19. Failsworth, 1849-1873
Failsworth had two lives. New Church residents in the area of the once-splendid church building, which is flanked by two rather shabby brick buildings, where the day school was once held, supposed in 1956 that the school began in 1871. However, records in the office of the Lancashire Education Committee show clearly that the original grant of the land was made in a deed of October 27, 1848, in the name of the Failsworth New Jerusalem British School. This school was recognized as providing accommodation for 556 children, the average attendance being 291. This deed also specified that the premises were to be used by a member of the New Jerusalem Church, chosen by the local society to teach, according to the usual order or custom of Societies of the New Jerusalem Church.3 The Lancashire County Council took over jurisdiction of the school, May 1, 1908. However, Rev. Richard Storry reported that this school had ceased to teach New Church doctrine as of 1873.4 The premises ceased to be recognized as a public elementary school January 5, 1914.5
3 Lancashire County Education officer, Letter to G. A. Tiffin, Divisional Education officer, No. 23, June 20, 1956.
4 IR, September, 1873, XX, 434.
5 Letter to Tiffin.
Among the unusual courses taught at Failsworth, were chemistry for the boys, and physical education drills using dumbbells and Indian clubs turned on a lathe by one of the teachers. Exercises were done to music, usually that of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas. The school was considered outstanding for its singing.6
6 Hooker, Mrs. Maggy, Recollections of the Day School at Failsworth, 3f.
20. Besses O the Barn 1855-1903
This school may also have had two lives. According to one report, it was begun about 1855 by two New Churchmen, John Taylor and a Mr. Briggs, in a hall built by the Band of Hope Society for temperance lectures.1 Unlike Embsay, this church and school received direct aid and support from the local Church of England vicar in building new schools.2 In 1892 the managers of the Day School, petitioning Conference for a continuation of educational funds, declared that the Scriptures and the Doctrines of the New Church shall be systematically taught in the school.3 The 1903 report of the ConferenceEducationa1 Committee indicates that the Besses school had been placed under the Local Education Authority, although it seems to have retained four members on the board of managers in the manner of the Radcliffe school until 1920.4
1 A Short History of the New Jerusalem Church at Besses, Ms., no author given.
2 Besses Minutes, 1898.
3 Ibid., 1892.
4 Report of Conference Committee on Education, 1901; 1903.
21. Middleton, 1859-1903 (5)
5 Middleton appears to be the middle town between Manchester and Richdale, which lie 11-1/2 miles apart.
The Middleton Society established a school in 1859 which continued til 1903. On one occasion the school report declared--perhaps the words were those of Edward Seddon, whilom schoolmaster,--
Indeed the nature of the Doctrines is such that it fits them for being taught in day schools with much advantage and good results. They are so purely intellectual that they are excellent mental discipline, and so eminently practical they have influence for good on the minds of the pupils....6
6 Middleton Report, July, 1862.
In 1903 Middleton was listed in Conference reports as one of three schools whose doctrinal teaching continued to be satisfactory, but it was not expected to be able to continue its day school any longer in view of the Education Act of 1902. The lack of mention of Middleton in succeeding reports indicates that the Middleton school was handed over to the Local Educational Authority in 1903.
22. Ramsbottom, 1864-1902
Ramsbottom is a country town clinging to the steep flanks of a valley some thirteen miles north of Manchester. Its New Church day school had two departments comprising three infants classes and five junior classes. Leaving age was thirteen, but some of the pupils left earlier to do part-time work. Evening classes were also held, in art and chemistry.
A colorful schoolmaster named George Washington was remembered by New Church people of Ramsbottom in 1956. He was a thorough New Churchman whose two daughters also taught in the school. Washington was known as a strict disciplinarian. One day a part-timer from another school on his way to work yelled through the door of the New Church school, Cocky, Washingtons nick-name, and took to his heels. Washington dropped his teaching and took off after the boy, caught him, and detained him long enough to make him late for work. This was condign punishment because in those days to be late meant to be locked out of the mill.
Ramsbottom offers an example of how New Church proselytizing was hampered after the Education Act of 1870 came in. The report of 1883 notes that fifty-nine children were presented for examination by the educational committee of Conference on the New Church Catechism, while 185 children were presented for the Scripture examination. It is assumed that the fifty-nine were either children of New Church members, or sufficiently friendly to the Church to waive the conscience clause.
The school closed in 1902 as a result of the pressure from the Education Authority of that time, according to a letter by the Rev. J. O. Booth. One of the schools shortcomings in official eyes was lack of a playground. Also part of the schoolroom, under the Church, was beneath ground level.l The report of the Conference in 1897 noted 315 scholars with sixty-one attending Sunday School.
1 Booth, Rev. J. O., Letter to R. R. Gladish, August 16, 1956; October 11, 1956.
23. Argyle Square - Cromer Street School, 1865-1378
When Dr. Jonathan Bayley went to the Argyle Square Society in London in 1856 after twenty years of building and promoting the interests of the New Church in Accrington, he induced the Argyle Square Society to acquire house property in Cromer Street at the back of the church.
The New Jerusalem Free School of London had ceased in 1854 and there was no other school in the area for New Church children with the exception of the nascent school at Islington which later became the New Church College. The property on Cromer Street was converted into schoolrooms for boys, girls, and infants, and opened October 9, 1865. It was supported by modest fees and private subscriptions plus an annual government grant.
The school supplied a want for thirteen years when it was transferred to the London School Board in 1878.1
1 Bayley, Jonathan, The Divine Word Opened. Memorial Edition. Memorial of Dr. Bayley by Rev. John Presland, xvii.
A year after the schools beginning an enrollment of 351 was reported, along with the commendations of the government inspectors.2 Matthew Arnold, H. M. Inspector, examined the Cromer Street School in 1869 and again in 1870. Although the poets name is not given in connection with the report of 1871, the comments of that year might appropriately be his:
2 IR October, 1866, XIII, 477.
There is a want of spirit and intelligence in the reading, and this rises to its height in the reading of poetry in the fifth standard. The poetry, however, in this book, is singularly ill-chosen....3
3 Cromer Street Day School Minutes, April 5, 1869; April 4, 1870; July 3, 1871.
An appeal of 1877 on behalf of the school indicated the relation of subscribed support to the government grant:
... however liberal the Government Grant may be, it can never supersede the contributions of the individual members, inasmuch as it is itself regulated by the revenues of the School and may be reduced if it exceed either the income arising from fees, subscriptions, and so forth, or one half the amount expended on the annual maintenence.l
1 Cromer Street Day School Report, 1877, 3.
The same report gave a good account of the New Church phase of education in the school, but did not indicate how many children elected to take it. Seemingly abruptly, the school was abandoned the next year. The records indicated that the major interest of the managers was that the children of the poor might receive the benefits of a sound plain education.2 The school was handed over to the London School Board in 1878.3
2 Ibid., 1874, 5.
3 Bayley, Jonathan, The Divine Word Opened, Memorial Ed., xvii.
24. Kearsley, 1866-1905
Kearsley (sometimes spelled Kersley) is another New Church society on the outskirts of Manchester, founded at least in part through the effort of Clowes. The day school was begun in 1866, in the enlarged Sunday school building.4
4 Cooke, Mrs. Robert, A History of the New Jerusalem Church, Kearsley, 45f.
In 1874, Kearsley, along with Failsworth and Heywood, was placed under government inspection, and dropped New Church doctrinal teachings.5 The report of the Conference Committee on Education listed Kearsley in 1897 as having 459 scholars, with fifty-four attending the Sunday school. Kearsley was not, however, among the schools recommended for Conference grants as satisfying the religious conditions in 1901. Yet it remained on the list of Conference Day Schools through 1905.6
5 IR, September, 1874, XXI, 434.
6 Conference Minutes, 1905, 123.
In 1900 three additional classrooms were added to the west end of the school. In 1922 the large and massive school building was sold to the Lancashire County Council Education Authority. Certain rooms of the building were still used, however, up to 1956, for Sunday school and other such purposes.
7 Walker, Carlton, Letter to R. R. Gladish, February 2, 1956.
25. Oldham, 1867-1898
The school established by the Oldham Society in 1867 is distinguished by the contract or agreement between the day school teacher and the society at Rochdale Road, Oldham, which remains in manuscript form at the Swedenborg House, London.
The nature of the contract seems to indicate that the master was to conduct the school as a private venture with the society avoiding involvement in any failures or losses he might have. Moreover, the society evidently hoped to profit financially from the arrangement.
The contract noted the days upon which the rent of 7 per annum was to be due in quarterly installments, and also that three months notice was be given by either teacher or the society should the Society desire to leave....
The teacher was to find for his own use, all fuel, gas, brushes, desks, stools, and anything he might require, except such articles as were provided by the society for the Sunday School and Church. The teacher was to clean the school twice, and the society do so once. All income for the day school, from whatever source, was to be paid immediately to the teacher, except bequests.
The teacher was responsible for all damage while he occupied the premises, but the trustees would be responsible otherwise. The contract was signed by the Messrs. Thomas Hey, Robert Daltry, James Hall, William Winterbottom, Dan Hodgton, for the trustees, and by the teacher, Edward Seddon. This note was added:
...The Trustees consider that the Day should not in any respect be a tax upon the society, but that it should rather be a help to it, and that it should pay a share of all expenses that lawfully chargeable to both....1
1 Agreement between the Day School Teacher and the Society at Rochdale Road, Oldham,1867.
Oldham is last listed among the Conference Day Schools in 1898, when 189 pupils were listed, 148 average attendance, and thirty-five day school pupils attending Sunday School.2
2 Conference Minutes, 1898, 129.
26. T. C. Lowes School, 1867-1896
Although his institution was not listed as a school under Conference, Thomas Cochrane Lowe, B. A., a New Churchman by conversion, conducted a school attended by a good many New Church boys, between the years of 1867 and 1896.
Lowe was born in 1831 in Glasgow of Scottish parentage. After he had become interested in the Church through some Church people named Appleby, in Belper, Derbyshire, who were operating a school there, he started a small school in the Hockley district of Birmingham. He met the future Mrs. Lowe (Elizabeth Bragg) there and both attended the Summer Lane Church in Birmingham. The school was called the Portland House School on Soho Hill in Handsworth, a Birmingham suburb. According to the recollection of a daughter, Miss Kathleen Lowe, many New Church boys from various parts of England attended this school, remaining until the age of sixteen or seventeen. Some completed their education there.
The school removed about 1867 from the Portland House to Hamstead Hill, Browns Green, where another school was set up. There were probably three assistants and a pupil-teacher involved in this school. A kindergarten was started about 1883 in which some of the Lowe girls (there were ten in the family) taught. At Hamstead Hill there was a girls school, a kindergarten, and a boys school. Four of Miss Lowes sisters taught in the Hamstead Hill School, as she did. There was a ten-acre field for the boys to play on, including a cricket field for playing rounders and football.
The school closed in July, 1896, and Lowe died in 1901. The old pupils took up a collection and helped pay the debts remaining on the school after it had closed.1
1 Lowe, Miss Kathleen, Interview, July 9, 1956, at Birmingham.
27. Ashton-under-Lyne, 1867-1902
The day school at Ashton-under-Lyne2 was opened in 1867 by Thomas Boardman, formerly a pupil-teacher in the boys school of the Middleton New Jerusalem Day School.l
2 Pronounced by natives Ashton underline.
1 Mliddleton Day School Report, 1867, 1.
2 Conference Committee on Education Reports, 1897; 1902.
An entry in the Conference records indicated that Ashton people were not overly enthusiastic over New Church doctrines, and also, that the idea embodied in the conscience clause of the Education Act of 1870 was invoked even before the Act became law: As the religious prejudices of Ashton are strong, it has been found necessary to strictly observe the conscience clause in imparting religious instruction.3
3 Ibid., 1869.
A ripple of excitement appeared in the report of 1879 with the news that a mixture of New Church teachings with Church of England practices revealed that the master o this New Church school ... was in heart and faith with the established Church. Needless to state, he was soon replaced.4
4 Ibid., 1879.
28. Wigan, 1870-1907
The day school at Wigan, a large industrial town on what might be termed the outskirts of the area centered by Manchester, was organized as a British School under headmaster John Johnson, a former teacher of the Salford School in 1870. This next-to-largest of the Conference day schools, whose enrollment once reached 800 in addition to its thriving night school, remains interesting for its record of conflicts, including its litigious relationship with Englands local and national educational authorities.
From its beginning, the Wigan New Church school was filled, if not overcrowded, and Headmaster Johnson was threatened by loss of government grant if he did not enlarge the premises.5 Pupils numbered 242, with 300 being turned away. By 1873 a new building was raised, capable of housing an additional 600 children.
5 IR, March, 1872, XIX, 167f.
1 Ibid., September, 1873, XX 448f.
The Wigan school then became the subject of contention when the vicar of the district Established Church attacked it, assailing the management for inefficiency, inspired, New Church people thought, by jealousy rather than evidence. The Wigan papers were full of the controversy, which apparently ended with the vicars discomfiture.2
2 IR, March, 1875, XXII, 194; Middlehurst, F., Interview, Wigan, July, 1956.
Further contention occurred over the leasing (1906) and finally the sale (1921) of the school building and premises to the Local Education Authority. With the building in need of extensive repairs and remodeling recommended by H. M. Inspector,3 and the new restrictions of the Education Act of 1902 facing them, the managers of the Wigan school approached the Local Education Authority (the Wigan Borough Education Committee) in 1903 and 1904 with proposals for leasing the property to the Wigan Borough Education Committee. After prolonged haggling, numerous meetings, and much correspondence involving the New Jerusalem School Trustees, the Wigan Borough Education Committee and its sub-committees on Elementary Education and Buildings and Repairs, and the Board of Education at Whitehall, the lease was finally completed on September 6, 1906. Its terms called for a yearly rent of 240 for the first year, and 80 for each subsequent year for the eleven years of the lease period.4Under terms of the lease, the Church trustees retained the right to use the buildings on Sundays, religious holidays, and three evenings a week, thus enabling them to carry on Sunday school and church services. The Church committee was in general responsible for maintenance of the grounds and the exterior of the buildings, and The Local Education Authority for the interior and alterations.5
3 Dasent, John R., Letter October 17, 1904, from Board of Education, Whitehall, London, to Wigan Borough Education Committee (Local Education Authority).
4 Jevons, Harold, Town Clerk, Letter, October 11, 1906, to John W. Home, Esq., Secretary, Wigan Education Committee.
5 Lease of the New Jerusalem School, Wigan, September 6, 1906.
An important condition exterior to the lease, but affirmed by a resolution of the Wigan Elementary Education Sub-Committee shortly after the lease was signed, was a resolution transferring the engagements of eighteen members of the school staff from the School-Church managers to Education Committee at salaries ranging from 300 for Mr. Johnson and 115 for Headmistress Mrs. E. Holman, down to 20 for pupil-teacher F. Critchley.1
1 Minutes of Wigan Education committee, September l8, 1906.
Similar, and appropriately more lengthy negotiations occurred when, in 1914, the business of selling the property to the Wigan Education Committee commenced. By August 12, 1921, the sale of the Wigan Societys day school, now called the Warrington Lane Council School, had been effected for 2,450.2
2 Ibid., September 19, 1921.
It was the opinion of F. Middlehurst, whose father had been headmaster of the school upon the retirement of John Johnson in 1907, and had managed the school until his retirement in 1921 after fifty years of teaching, that there was no attempt to proselytize or give a New Church bias to the instruction in the school, although it was hoped that the example of the New Church way of life as shown by New Church teachers on the staff would be observed by and prove attractive to the pupils. However, some of the teachers were from other faiths, and most of the students likewise. Many Jewish children attended the school.3 After the lease in 1906, Headmaster Johnson was appointed to a committee to prepare a syllabus of religious instruction for the school.4
3 Interview, F. Middlehurst, July, 1956.
4 Minutes of Wigan Education Committee, December 11, 1906.
Johnson had introduced the higher grades system, anticipating the secondary modern school. He was well-known for his scientific achievements, and formed classes in shorthand, music, French, cookery, needlework and embroidery.5 The school had a fine record for academic success, eleven scholarships having been granted to its pupils in one year. It is still held in affectionate remembrance in the neighborhood as the New Jerusalem School, rather than the Warrington Lane Council School, which is its official name.1
5 Middlehurst, F., Interview, July, 1956.
29. Clayton-le-Moors, 1871-1907
The odd name for this school and town arises--it is said by residents of the area--from the circumstance that the moors surrounding the area once were sources of clay. Clayton-le-Moors began as a New Church-aided school in 1871 and also made use of government grants. There was church influence, but it is not certain how much distinctly New Church doctrine was taught in the school, which was conducted in the Clayton-le-Moors New Jerusalem Church rooms. The Clayton-le-Moors school closed in 1906 because of falling revenues and Government pressures.
The headmaster had six assistants, two or three adult teachers and the other pupil-teachers, usually fifteen or sixteen years old. The curriculum was largely devised to meet examination requirements of the local education authority and the government inspectors. Morning prayers were held, but no direct doctrinal teaching, although George Howard, headmaster for many years, was an earnest New Churchman.
The three-cornered correspondence, preserved in virtual completeness, between the school managers, the Local Education Authority, and the Board of Education at Whitehall, has an intriguing quality, especially during the years between May, 1891, and December, 1896. The letters and minutes of this period disclose a drama in which John Wolstenholme, erstwhile headmaster, is the protagonist, and the-governmental forces fill the role of the heavy, if not that of fate in Greek drama.
At the end of this period, having been caught twice in errors of pupil accounting, Wolstenholmes teaching certificate was suspended by the Education Department at Whitehall for three years. This meant that during that time he could not be recognized as a teacher in a public Elementary School in receipt of annual grants.2
2Clayton-le-Moors Education Committee Minutes, August 15, 1896.
A spark of interest glowed in the minutes when in the winter of the same year (1896-1897) Headmaster Howard was attacked by an angry mother in the classroom where he had earlier been called upon to chastise two of her children. This case went to court, the mother being fined one pound.l
1 Ibid., March 8, 1897.
It is evident from the records that some New Church religion was taught, but not very much. Usually thirty to fifty children were mentioned as appearing for Conference examinations. One year it was recorded: ... by some mistake, the scholars learned the whole of the Catechism.2
2 Conference Education Report, July 11, 1892; also 1878, 1880, 1883.
In 1906 the School Committee, evidently irked by government regulation, inspections-without-notice, and official threats to close the school or take away the government grant if its directives were not promptly complied with, decided to close the school. They sent a letter to the L. E. A.3 to this effect.4 The L. E. A., upon receipt of this letter, requested a meeting with the School Committee. The School Committee, representing the Church trustees, evidently enjoyed the reversal of roles which put the L. E. A, into the position of suppliants. After all, the Church had provided its hall for school accommodations, and a staff as well, for between 100 and 200 children which the L. E. A. would be responsible for, should the school cease. After the meeting with the L. E. A., the managers declared,
3 Local Education Authority--local committee usually of borough, township, town, or city, responsible for public education in England.
4 Clayton Minutes, March 29, 1906.
The Trustees are willing to keep the school open until 30rh April, 1907, at a rental. of 50 per annum, commencing from the 1st day of April, 1906 (thirteen months in all) with the present staff of teachers and no diminution in their salaries.5
This proposal was to be submitted to the Church Committee. In the absence of further evidence, we assume that the Clayton-l e-Moors New Jerusalem British School closed April 30, 1907.
30. Radcliffe, 1871-1907
The unusual feature of this school is that it is still in operation--not as a New Church School, but as a provided school whose six-man board of managers has four foundation managers, or representatives of the Radcliffe New Church Society, sitting upon it.
Headmaster of the Radcliffe school in 1956 was Harold Stones, B. Sc., a New Churchman, who, with five teachers, taught eight classes of boys and girls together, averaging thirty per class. The Church connection, Stones averred, was purely nominal by this time, no effort being made to teach any doctrine.l
1 Stones, Harold, Interview, at Ramsbottom, July, 1956.
Radcliffe, too, has had two lives. It was first operated as a day school by the Rev. James Boys, formerly of the Salford School, when he became pastor at Radcliffe in 1840.2 In 1871 the school was reconstituted as a British School under the L. E. A., depending to some extent upon a government grant based upon the efficiency of the scholars and calling for annual inspections. The present building, rather imposing according to the style of the 1880s, was erected in 1887 for the Sunday and day schools. It was dedicated to Boys, who served it forty-six years as minister at Radcliffe.3
2 Radcliffe Centenary (Booklet) New Jerusalem Sunday Schools, Stand Lane, Radcliffe, 1813-1913, 11.
3 N. C. Mag., June, 1900, XIX, 242f.
The days of the present Radcliffe School are numbered, since the Local Educational Authority wishes to close the school and build a county primary school in place of it. There are now four schools in the area. Under the Education Act of 1944, the school can no longer qualify on certain criteria such as size of playground. However, although it has one foot in the grave, the school is far from dead; according to its headmaster, it is open practically every night in the week for community activities such as Scouts and Cubs, ladies meetings, and games. It was undergoing some important alterations and repairs in the summer of 1956.4
4 Interview with Harold Stones, July, 1956.
31. Snodland, 1883-1907?
The Snodland British School, in Holborough Road, a quarter-mile north of the junction with High Street, was associated with the New Church, although not directly controlled by it. It was first formed in 1835, with accommodation for 250 children, in connection with the Independent Chapel. After the Swedenborgian Church was built in Snodland in 1883, the school was enlarged and largely supported by the Misses Hook, who also paid for the building of the New Church. These women were daughters of Charles Townsend Hook, who owned the paper mills in Snodland.l between 1889 and 1907. The survivor, Maud Midsummer Hook, died in 1930. She was, according to the Rev. C. H. Presland, very wealthy, and lived for the New Church. She was virtually squire of Snodland.2
1 Hull, Felix, Kent County Archivist, Letter to R. R. Gladish, September 7, 1959.
2 Presland, C. H., Letter to R. Gladish, December 3, 1958.
By 1888, the school had been enlarged to hold 680 pupils, being supported by the Misses Hook, school fees, and government grant. By 1895 it was supported, apart from Government aid, entirely by the Misses Hook. Between 1907 and 1913 Miss Maud Hook ceased to support the school, and the Kent Education Committee and government grants provided all the funds. It was a mixed and infants school. There was a manual training school in connection with it erected in High Street in1893 by the Misses Hook. The school became a temporary Council school on May 10, 1929, and continued as such until it was closed in May, 1932, when-new premises were provided.
3 Hull, Felix, Letter, September 7, 1959.
It is plain from the circumstances that this school could not have been strong doctrinally. Since it was always -operated under the Education Acts, religious education would have had to be voluntary, with the conscience clause in force.
32. Mr. Clarkes School, Wilmslow, to 1900?
Our sole reference to this school simply mentioned the existence of the school:
A Mr. Clarke also ran a private boarding school on New Church lines in the town of Wilmslow1 up to around the beginning of this century.2
1 About twelve miles south of Manchester.
2 Dawson, Percy, Letter, London, August 16, 1955, to R. R. Gladish.
33. Borough Road School, London
The only reference to a New Church school in the Borough Road, London, is contained in a letter of 1835 from Charles Attwood replying to a request for funds to support the Pestalozzian School in Newcastle-on-Tyne. After acceding to the request to the tune of 10, Attwood wrote,
... if your school be so conducted as to produce a degree of moral and intellectual progress at all approaching to the beautiful exemplification almost to the degree of a phenomenon which I had the pleasure to witness some time ago at a school on these [New Church] principles in the Borough Road, London, in company with an excellent and philosophic New Church professor, Dr. Spurgin, I shall deem it not only a duty, but a high delight to administer hereafter to its pecuniary needs to a much more considerable amount, should that be requisite.3
3 IR, September, 1835, III, 623.
In view of the date, it would seem that the school referred to might be the New Jerusalem Free School, under George Granger, but the address does not seem to match. Conceivably Attwood made a mistake as to the location.
While peripheral to the present consideration of day schools, indications exist that a number of evening schools were operated both in day school quarters by the same personnel who ran the day schools, and in other places by persons connected with the New Church. An example of such activities occurs in the following announcement of 1859:
We have also a very good Free Evening School, held twice a-week in a large room near the church. Though the attendance has, now the summer is here, decreased, it nevertheless averages from sixty to eighty.4
4IR, July, 1859, VI, 324.
A request for a Nottingham evening school to be established for the instruction of poor children and others in New Church doctrines, sent to Conference, was refused as being outside the scope of the Conferences work.1
1Conference Committee on Education, Minutes, 1891.
A schoolroom was mentioned as being under construction at Leeds, capable of accommodating one hundred scholars, but the probability is that this was for the Sunday school only, as no day school has ever been listed in the official records of Conference against the Leeds Societys name.2
2 Higham, Charles, History of the Church, XIII, Leads, New Jerusalem Magazine, January, 1900, XIX, 5.
Effects of Education Act of 1902
The following quotation many well stand as a colophon to this summary of the day schools of England, since it bids fair to explain the fact that the Conference schools were officially declared inoperative as New Church schools by 1907:3
3 Conference Minutes, 1907, 63.
The Committee appointed at the last session to inquire into the question of the religious education in the day schools presented a report from which it appeared that, owing to the Education Act of 1902, the work of the Committee had been seriously empeded. With few exceptions, Societies were negotiating for the transfer of their schools to the local educational authorities, and if these arrangements were completed, doctrinal instruction would be impracticable in school hours. The report was then agreed to on the motion of Rev. A. Wilde.4
4 Summary of Conference Report on Day Schools, 1903, N. C. Mag., July, 1903, XXII, 326.
While the main effect of the Education Act of 1902 was to provide for secondary as well as elementary education out of the rates (taxes), another far as effect was to reduce or, as far as official sanction was concerned,5 to eliminate the local school boards. In this legislation the New Church schools saw a threat to their autonomy as managers of their schools. The Act of 1870 had already taken away much of their influence in proselytizing. The Act of 1902 seemed to them to have finished the job of putting all voluntary schools into the national public school system, so long as those voluntary schools accepted government funds in any way.
5 Education in Britain, 1955, 6.
THE WOODFORD SCHOOL: 1828-1832
1. William Malins Vision of New Church Education
At least half the motivation for the early New Church schools was altruism directed toward relieving the poor and strengthening the nation. The other half was missionary zeal. But over the years, amid the problems of dealing with hundreds of little children of scanty background for religion or culture, the missionary motivation had a way of slackening and disappearing.
However, with William Malins and his Woodford School (182811832) something dashing was added. His dream was a school for the children of New Church parents, where the teachings of the Writings would be the focal point--where children would learn to live the Doctrine of Use and commence here below a life based on the heavenly pattern. They would be independent of the old and tired world with its social evils and dubious morals; like Rousseau, Malins envisioned the building of a new civilization through the agency of a dedicated and enlightened institution. Unfortunately the vision of Malins found little response from other New Churchmen. His Icarian flight failed and he disappeared from the New Church scene.
When Malins rose to speak at an evening social in 1827, he was not unknown to some 200 Conference men and women there. Treasurer of Conference, chairman of the New Jerusalem Free School Committee which had recently built the new school building in Westminster Road1 Malins was brilliant, altruistic, impulsive and generous.2 Moreover, he was an ardent student of the Writings, and rather well-to-do. He was emboldened to address a social gathering at such length, (his address lasted an hour) he said, because his topic was near to the hearts of his hearers as fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters or guardians.1
1 NJFS Report, 1825, 8.
2 Kingslake, Rev. Brian, The New Church Boarding School at Woodford, New Church Magazine, April-June, 1946, Vol. 65, 20-24; Malins was a malt manufacturer of Kennington, near London, Conference Minutes, 1821, 28.
1 Malins, William, Report of Proceedings Having for their Object the Formation of a General Education Establishment for the Children of the New Jerusalem Church, With the Plan of the Institution, 4.
2 Kingslake, B., loc. cit. 20.
The dust of a century and a third fails to obscure all the appeal of Malins words; some of their fervor and magnanimity still comes through. At the outset Malins decried complacency over the Churchs progress and called for action in the noblest cause that was ever committed to mortal hands.... If we are indeed citizens of the New Jerusalem, we shall deem no sacrifice too great in her behalf....3
3 Malins, William, op. cit., 2f.
The speaker denied that he contemplated any headlong course and asserted that he had revolved the question, of education for New Church children in his mind for years. He exclaimed, all must wish to see their children grow up to be ornaments of the Church ... but in too many cases we deliver them over to the stranger and the enemies of our faith. This is a crying and grievous evil, which appears to weaken us in the most vital part. Some of the children of our members, he added, do remain in the church, but their number falls very short of what we might reasonably have expected.4
4 Ibid., 5.
Malins then proceeded to confess his fervent gratitude for the acquaintance he has had of the heavenly doctrines of the New Jerusalem. And, he added, I am fully sensible that if I wish to benefit my family, my neighbor, my country, and the world at large, it must; be by promoting the extension of the Heavenly Jerusalem. He declared for an institution wherein we could instill in the minds of children from the earliest age, the doctrine of uses; and not only the doctrine, but the practice; thereby introducing them into the duties of life and preparing them to form good members of society in this natural world; which is an essential and efficacious preparation ... for the heavenly life.1
The Writings of the New Church unfold the nature of the human soul beyond all former illustrations ... given to mankind, Malins continued. Why then should we so long neglect ... this light for the instruction of our infant race? ... Why should we give our children to be educated in the paths of error by persons who are ignorant of the nature of the human soul; who are capable of doubting whether it is the Galvanic or electric fluid; and whether man has life in himself, or whether it is the accidental concatenation of matter,--the mere result of organization? If we wish them to be brought up in the acknowledgment and worship of a plurality of gods, what surer method could we devise, than to send them to a seminary where that doctrine is taught?2
2 Ibid., 7.
It is true, he said, that there are some schools operated by New Church persons, but these cannot teach the doctrines of the Church without hazarding the enrollment of non-New Church children. Enthusiastically Malins declared, The members of the New Church, who have a clear view laid before them of the voluntary and intellectual faculties of man, and the relative culture which each requires, are alone capable of conducting education as it ought to be carried through the varied states and years; and can they devote their attention to a more delightful or more important duty?3 And if the New Church members do their duty by educating their children, not only will their children take their places as members of the Church, but, commencing earlier than most of us, their profit will be greater; that, having superior advantages, they will be the instruments of conducting the New Church of the Lord far onward.
4 Ibid., 20.
2. Purchase of property; School Planning
At a second meeting of those interested held September 19, Malins described a 51-acre estate, The Rookery, at Woodford, some fifteen miles northeast of London, and was encouraged to proceed with its purchase for a school site for 10,000--a considerable bargain.l
1 Kingslake, B., loc. cit., 21-22.
An old print shows it (the mansion) as possessing a somewhat bizarre appearance.... The general effect is elaborate and costly, and Malins describes it as a noble mansion, replete with fixtures of every description. ...there were numerous outbuildings, including four coachhouses, and stabling for twelve horses. The gardens covered four acres, and were substantially walled in; they were well-stocked with all kinds of fruit trees, and contained six excellent hot-houses, with vines in full bearing.... The whole expense of setting the institution on foot was estimated at 12,000, of which 8,000 was taken on mortgage, leaving a balance of 4,000. Mr. Malins contributed 1,000 of this out of his own pocket, and invited the New Church public to raise the remaining 3,000, promising that, if the undertaking were successful, he would secure the property and profits for the benefit of the New Church forever, by handing it over to the Conference Trustees. The school fees asked at the outset were 21 per child per annum, inclusive of everything.
The conception of the school was admirable, Kingslake noted, and amazingly advanced for the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was to communicate an experimental and practical knowledge of farming, gardening, and the most useful mechanical arts and employments (agriculture, manufactures, and commerce)....2
Malins planned his school for not less than 150 boys and 150 girls, their education to be so designed that their minds should be amply stored with those principles of goodness and truth, so often spoken of in the Word, under the name of Remains....3 He would use the early years of childhood to teach heavenly truths, modeling their progressive education upon the mode by which infants are led in the other life.4 Boys would be taught to labor with their hands, and learn the dignity of useful work of any kind; they should strengthen their bodies by manly but harmless sports,5 while the girls should be distinguished by the sweetest charm, feminine delicacy, and reserve, added to a well-cultivated mind and a practical knowledge of every useful art....1
3 Malins, Wm., Report of Proceedings, 13.
4 Ibid., 15.
5 Ibid., 18.
Malins planned to use one of the monitorial forms of education, for children will learn much more readily of each other than from adults.2 Corporal punishment was to be done away with as far as possible. As a child helps raise his own food in the spacious gardens of the estate, he will see, feel, and acknowledge that God giveth the increase.3 Moreover, the schools promoter thought that by economy and good management, and by producing on the estate a large proportion of the very best food, viz., milk, eggs, fruit, and vegetables, the school would feed the children and pay its expenses at the same time.4
2 Ibid., 26.
3 Ibid., 29.
4 Kingslake, B., loc. cit., 22.
The design in the school Malins declared, is to afford a liberal education founded on the true Christian principles of the New Jerusalem Church.5 Religion was to be taught not so much as a course but was to be in the minds of the teachers at all times and should be brought into act which is bringing it into the world and into life; otherwise it remains in the memory and is dead.6
5 Malins, Wm., Report of Proceedings, 29.
6 Ibid., 23.
Among other amusements were to be gardening, care of animals, athletic exercises, and dancing.
Anticipating a rush of children to the school, Malins stated that the school was to be open first to the children whose parents or guardians were receivers of the New Church, and if their numbers are not sufficient to fill it, to other children whose parents are willing to have them brought up in the principles of those doctrines. They will be admitted at any period between 5 and 12 years and may continue in the schools to whatever age the parents think fit. As to holidays, a fortnight will be given at Christmas and the same at mid-summer.7
7 Ibid., 37.
1 Ibid., 40.
3. The Woodford Schools Brief Life
The school opened on the appointed day, February 4th, with 35 boys and 19 girls for a total of 54 students. Of these, 5 girls and 11 boys belonged to parents outside the New Church.2
2 IR, April, 1828, Vol. 3, 145-151.
Malins interpreted this as a gratifying feature which he supposed gives assurance that the religious opinions will not be a bar to filling the School with any number that there may be room for after the Members of the Church are acconmodated.3 There were many applications, and Malins expected the numbers would be considerably increased in the next few days. He found that it would be impossible to educate the children for only twenty guineas a year; however, he was still strong for New Church education.
It is my opinion that the peculiar duty of the New Church is education. It is the highest use we can perform for society; it is the surest foundation we can lay for the increase of the Church, and the growth of righteousness and peace on earth.4
4 Ibid., 146.
But there were problems, financial and otherwise. He was concerned for the investment of the friends who had already subscribed, and appealed for greater support. He also found that the idea of the children instructing each other was not working out very well, and that more tutors and governesses would be necessary than was contemplated, with added expense. He also found that the accommodations were not sufficient to take as many children as originally planned; in fact, only 170 instead of 300 could be cared for. Subscriptions had amounted to only 2,870 instead of the 4,000 required. This plus the heavier expenses, had caused him to cut down the timber on the estate and sell it.
2 Ibid., 149.
More teachers were needed and he asked for applications from members of the Church, particularly for the female department. A governess was required as well as a tutor to take the English department in the school. The tutor must be a man of liberal education, with a general knowledge of the world; and a scientific turn would be a recommendation.3 A postscript to the same letter related that the great boys could now be accommodated out of the house and therefore girls up to the age of twelve might be received.4
4 Ibid., 150.
In another letter, a year later, to the same periodical, Malins reported that the Girls School would be discontinued, as its numbers had been reduced to a low of fifteen at the end of the mid-summer term. The Boys School was doing better, however.5 There were 39 boys, of whom about one-third were not the sons of professing members of the Church. Malins suggested two reasons why the school had not received greater patronage from New Church parents: First, the unusual plan of having the boys and girls under the same establishment. This he said, although they are quite distinct, diminished, in the feeling of many persons, the respectability of both. Second was the prejudice against manual operations for the pupils, although many parents had been highly delighted with its effects.
5 IR, March, 1829, Vol. 3, 544-546.
1 Ibid., 545.
Malins had met with the subscribers in tendon and had taken upon himself all responsibility for the school, the subscribers deeming it too great an undertaking.2
2 Ibid., 145.
He added that the death of his brother (killed in an accident involving a runaway horse) who had been conducting his business while he was supervising at Woodford, had caused him to look for an opportunity of withdrawing to a larger degree from the supervision of the institution; however, he cheerfully concluded, But in speaking of trials and troubles, I wish to be understood as a New Church man conscious that they are but adapted to the requirements of our stiff necks and stony hearts--that they are in reality blessings in disguise.3
3 Ibid., 445.
Employed at the school, in addition to Malins, was John Henry Smithson, who embraced the New Church doctrines while studying in Basle, Switzerland, with a view to going out to China as a missionary. Of him, Kingslake wrote,
Though a young man, Mr. Smithson was one of the best scholars connected with the New Church at that time, being conversive in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, various oriental tongues, and the principal languages of modern Europe.
Another young gentleman to serve on the staff, who afterward became a prominent New Church minister, was Woodville Woodman who remarked humorously in later life that his designation had been Woodville Woodman, Woodford.4
4 Kingslake, Brian, loc. cit., 21.
It was a frequent practice at this time and indeed through the nineteenth century for schools to invite parents and other interested visitors to view the establishment from within. The Woodford School took part in this form of public relations with a public examination of the young gentlemen held Wednesday, June 16, 1830.
1 IR, July, 1830, Vol. 4, 200f.
2 Ibid., 200.
A student translated from the Greek Testament, and another class of pupils translated from the Latin Heaven and Hell very correctly and without hesitation. Specimens of handwriting and drawing were also accorded accolades of superiority. Questions about the doctrines were also raised and correctly answered. Altogether the impression produced was, that the pupils are making greater progress, in every branch of education, than is usual in similar establishments.3
4. A Testimonial Letter
Following the account just quoted from, which was written by one of those gentlemen visitors present at the public examination, is a letter from a medical gentleman of eminence at Southampton written to Malins and signed T. R. Keele under date of February 5, 1830. The Writer who would be addressed in England as Mr. If he were a surgeon and Dr. if he were a physician or a general practitioner) expressed enthusiastic satisfaction with the schools influence upon his boy and contrasted the results of the Woodford School with those received from his boys previous attendance at a public school.
Every days experience confirms in my mind the vast superiority its (Church) members possess in the inestimable stores of knowledge they have at their command. A school founded on such advantages and conducted in every way so truly in accordance with the glorious knowledge it possesses, must surely prove a blessing upon the earth and a model for the schools of the rising generation.1
1 Ibid., 201.
Keele went on to say that in the two years his son had attended Woodford School he had improved in every respect, intellectually as well as otherwise, and he returned to school willingly.
I am rejoiced to say he returns without having either by word or by look betrayed one spark of that reluctance usually felt by boys in returning to the discipline of a school. During the time he has been at home, I have not heard from him one syllable of discontent of any kind.
Not only was Keele pleased to have his child thus preserved unstained and brought up in the principles and teachings of [the] Church,2 but he was willing to say it with cash:
I shall pay with much pleasure the additional charge that has been found necessary to make in consequence of the alteration from the original plan.3
5. Crisis and Closing
Despite the favorable comments of the visitors, the school did not receive support from the membership, and its finances continued to deteriorate. Toward the end of that year, 1830, efforts were made to obtain students outside the Church. The education was to be conducted on New Church lines for those who wished it. Others were merely taught the Scriptures, and were allowed to attend the Established Church for their worship and theological training. One of the last things heard of this school is a terse note of Hindmarshs Editor: In March, 1832, the school was entirely given up.4 In 1835, the estate was disposed of, and Malins, who had resigned the treasureship of Conference to be on hand at the school, moved to another home. Twenty-five years later Dr. John Spurgin was quoted as saying that the property at Wood-ford had been disposed of advantageously, and realized some 7,000 more than it cost.1
1 IR, July, 1860, Vol. 7, 343.
There was a conscious effort to adapt Pestalozzian methods at the Woodford School, as the Rev. Mr. Smithson, Classics Master and preacher, who also bore the title of Headmaster, had studied Pestalozzis system, which led him to discard the stiffer modes generally adopted by English teachers, and to make his lessons more familiar, more of the character of explanatory conversation.2 Malins must have operated under the capacity of general supervisor.
2 IR, June, 1864, Vol. 11, 280-261; 258.
So perished the Woodford School, a most ambitious and idealistic undertaking which, had it been properly supported by others with the generosity and decisiveness evident in both the words and actions of Malins, might have been the foundation of a permanent educational establishment in the British Isles. But New Church people largely kept their purse-strings closed and sent their children to the schools about them. Malins, whose vision outdistanced his practicality and experience in the Woodford School experiment, resigned from all his New Church posts and disappeared from New Church circles. He has no obituary in the Intellectual Repository.
THE NEW CHURCH COLLEGE
Of some twenty-five schools commenced by, or later associated with the English Conference, only the New Church College, the Conference Theological School, remains in operation today. It is situated at Woodford Green, northeast of London, in a pleasant suburban mansion. Begun in 1845 by Henry Bateman under the name of Emanuel College, it was planned as a two-level institution whose lower school would offer a distinctive New Church Education to all New Church boys, and whose upper level would provide ministers educated for the Church.1 By 1865 it had received nearly 12,000 in endowments, and was recognized as the official theological school of Conference.2 However, the lower school, after reaching a peak enrollment of 50 pupils in 1878,3 about half of them from New Church families, ceased to exist in 1884.
1 Higham, Charles, NCC Report, 1900,
2 Ibid., 9.
3 NCC Report, 1878.
Bateman, leader of the first board of governors, envisioned a lower school for all New Church male youth, and a theological school. Promising ministerial candidates would be chosen from among the graduates of the lower school. But Conference generally saw little use in the lower school and remained cool to the idea of a distinctive New Church education for its own sake. Most Conference members regarded only the Theological school as really necessary.
Equipped with the same idealism, fervor, and drive as William Malins,4 Bateman, a successful surgeon,5 was, like Malins, a student of the Writings, and a dedicated New Church layman. About 1845, Bateman expressed to Mrs. Mary Ann Philpot his interest in founding a school for New Church children in London. She agreed to contribute f50 to this object, and Bateman was to contribute another 50. And so they drew up an agreement, a copy of which is to be found, in a handwriting that seems to be Batemans, in the first minute book of the New Church College.1
4 Supra, Chapt. V.
5 IR, January 1853, XIV, 37; November, 1876, XXIII, back advertising pages.
1 Minutes of the Proceedings of the New Church College, 29th April, 1845, hereinafter designated NCC Minutes.
We, the undersigned, being desirous of promoting the cause of Education in the New Church, having agreed to the following Rules, have become governors for life in this society thus founded. (Signed by)
Mary Ann Philpot
Mary Eliza Bateman
Thos. C. Shaw
T. Wilde. 2
The first five rules, setting forth the purposes of the institution, as read and adopted by the meeting, follow:
I. That this institution be and hereby is denominated Emanuel College.
II. That the object of the Institution is to educate young members of the New Church in various branches of Literature and Science, and especially in the Doctrines & Life of the New Jerusalem, and to prepare such as are suitable for the Ministry.
III. That the Rules and Regulations by which it is governed shall be such as to encourage the Students to matriculate and take degrees in the University of London.
IV. That, like the Colleges of Eton and Winchester, boys of any age, beyond that of seven years, shall be admitted, but that all who have not either matriculated at the University of London, or arrived at the age of 17 years shall be called Pupils, while those who have matriculated, or who have reached that age, shall be denominated Students.
V. That the Institution shall be supported by Endowment, by Voluntary Subscription, by Donations, and by the Fees paid by the Students and Pupils.3
Other regulations had to do with the designation of governors, elections, etc.4
2. Batemans Publicity Campaign
Before commencing the Emanuel College, (later called the New Church College) Bateman, like William Malins at the Woodford School, campaigned vigorously for his idea. In the Intellectual Repository for August, 1845, he stated:
Truth ... may be fearlessly taught by us, and it is our duty to teach it to our young people as early and as far as we are able.
The advance of the Church ... demands from us increased means of instruction and an ample supply of instructors.
That our children and young persons need instruction during the week as well as on the Sabbath Day is obvious. Indeed weekday instruction is essential for the proper preparation for instruction on the Sabbath, and it is extraordinary that so little of continuous effort has been made to secure the advantages of a thorough New Church education to our offspring.1
1 IR, August, 1845, XX, 310.
In the process of reviewing New Church educational ventures, Bateman pointed out that a number of schools were operating quite successfully.
We need schools in London conducted on the New Church principles by New Church people and for New Church children of both sexes. It may be said that the experiment has been tried in London and has failed. To this I would reply, the experiment has never been fairly tried there and yet it has to a certain extent succeeded.2
2 Ibid., Batemans Italics.
Referring to the Woodford School, Bateman asserted that it did not need to fall: The failure of the Woodford School was therefore a certain consequence of its too magnificent commencement.3 Yet the Woodford School had served a purpose: Two of its masters are now on the list of our ablest ministers and, short-lived as it was, it helped to implant or to establish the principles of the Church in the minds of many of the children of the members....4
3 Ibid., Batemans Italics.
He referred to other schools in the vicinity, such as the one at Pentonville begun for New Church girls by Mrs. Hodson and Miss Poulson and said: if the causes of such failures are carefully investigated, their want of success may tend to insure the success of others.5
Although the school might not flourish at once, Bateman urged a courageous start, despite these discouraging facts:
London with a population of two millions contains perhaps not more than 200 families attached to the New Church, and of these, we fear, not more than 50 or 60 are earnestly desirous of having their children thoroughly educated in the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem and ... (are) willing to make considerable effort to secure such an object.
If we had, however; a good school, well-conducted, and based upon such plans as would, with the Divine blessing, secure to the people efficient moral training, and so build them up into the stature of perfect men in Jesus Christ, even this generation of New Churchmen could become gradually more and more impressed with a sense of the necessity of regarding the growth of our children in heavenly wisdom as the highest of all uses.1
1 Ibid., Batemans Italics.
Not that the New Church breed was superior, said Bateman in a burst of candor:
The present members of the New Church are as a body neither distinguished for their piety nor their zeal. A few there are amongst us who habitually receive all things from God with thankfulness and whose example instructs our children to feel that thankfulness continually.... This is not as it should be--this is not as it will be when our bodies have become living sacrifices, holy and acceptable to the Lord.
Now a New Church School, conducted by pious as well as intelligent teachers, would train our children in the way they should go. They would not only be told what to do, but by the force of example and the sympathy of numbers they would be led into the habit of doing it....
Are we, then willing to have our children trained for heaven? If so, and (if) our will is strong enough to resist all those selfish considerations which would prevent their being se, our Lord is powerful to bring about so blessed a consummation.2
Emanuel College having begun the 29th of April, 1845, with a subscription of 100, was ... already therefore planted and growing ... and, under the fostering care of the Author and Giver of all good things, we doubt not it will increase and bear fruit in His good time to the glory of His Holy Name.3
Bateman then mentioned the possibility of linking Emanuel College and London University, so that students might obtain degrees from the latter while they were studying under the aegis of the church.l
The year following, an unsigned statement, evidently written by Bateman himself, appeared in the Intellectual Repository, telling of the acquisition of a piece of ground, freehold, immediately adjoining the property of the New Church society in Argyle Square. Although the plot was too small by itself, yet the Argyle Square Society owned a piece of unoccupied ground between its church and the plot acquired, and the two together would enable the building of a school for 40 pupils and a college for twelve students, besides apartments for two professors and their families. At a meeting of the friends of the college it was resolved that the land be purchased for the purpose of building a school or college offered by Mrs. Chapple White, provided the cooperation of the Argyle Square Society can be obtained in the carrying out of the plan above mentioned. A Mr. Watson was to become treasurer of the project.2
2 IR, May, 1846, VII, 154. This plot was not used for the College; the property in Devonshire Street finally settled upon is at a considerable distance. Information supplied by the Rev. Claud H. Presland.
3. Ministerial Requirements
With an article on the necessity of our young men qualifying themselves for the ministry the Intellectual Repository in 1850 further pushed one of the purposes of the New Church College.
The article, signed Spes, gave three requirements for the ministry:
They must familiarize themselves with Swedenborg as a matter of course. The Arcana should be their common book. If they have read it and the Apocalypse Explained once through with. attention, and then an occasional volume as they felt inclined, and make reference for every discourse, they will be well furnished with material for thought. They should also be pretty familiar with the literature of the day, but especially with-history, and most of all with the history of the church. A minister should also be generally acquainted with the sciences.... 3
3 IR, January, 1850, XI, 22f.
A New Church man who knows the Writings need never fear discovery of any truth of science opposed to his theology, Spes continued. The New Church light is the soul, and science is the body of the great system of truth. The more he progresses in both, the more he will behold of harmony, wisdom, and beauty.1
The writer urged the study of Greek and Hebrew so that the Word might be read in the original. In December, 1852, the Intellectual Repository had a note, probably by Bateman, calling attention to the fact that 150 was being held by the treasurer of Emanuel College and that when the New Church mission room should open, a school room. 36 by 18 would probably be available. A Master of Arts of Cambridge was to commence the work of educating our own children. The mission room was duly opened in December, and Bateman noted several teachers available to launch the educational institution.2 There was a Dr. Roerig to teach German and Latin, expected soon to arrive in England. The Cambridge master, A. A. Beechy, was to undertake the classical and English department, and Monsieur M. Bayot would teach French. All this led Bateman to write: our Lord is rapidly preparing the way for it.3
2Ibid., January, 1853, XIV, 37.
The Board of Governors decided on September 29th, 1854, to change the name of the institution from Emanuel College to the New Church College. In the same month property offered to the College by Messrs. Roger Crompton and Bateman was accepted and conveyed to the trustees.4
4 Ibid., February, 1860, VII, 62-67.
By 1855 Bateman, as secretary and treasurer, reported that the New Church College in Islington ... now possesses in land, buildings, money, and books, about 2,000, and has an annual income of about 30 with no expenses at present.5
5 Ibid., December, 1855, II, 571.
4. Classes Begin
Early in 1856, A. A. Beechy, the Cambridge Master of Arts, began to teach in the New Church College at Islington. This come-on appeared in the Intellectual Repository:
The house belonging to the college in Devonshire Street, Islington, has been placed at the disposal of Mr. Beechy, as well as the school room occupied on the Sabbath by the Sunday School of the Islington Society, and a sum has been devoted to the purposes of advertising, and providing of such school apparatus as may be needed. There is an excellent playground adjoining the College, and the premises are situated in a comparatively quiet street in a very healthy situation.l
1 Ibid., May, 1856, III, 236f.
Bateman, ever the optimist, also pointed out, Should the progress of the school render such a step necessary, another house could be readily obtained at a moderate rental in an adjoining street....2
Beechys school, begun 15th February, 1856, was discontinued in September of the same year. Despite continual advertising the highest number of pupils obtained by Beechy was six, of whom two only were boarders.3 But the General Conference held at Birmingham voted to establish a student and ministers fund.4 In the autumn of 1857 it was voted by the managers to pay Rev. A. A. Beechy, the former school master, and a former Church of England minister, to deliver a course of 20 theological lectures in the college chapel. These were delivered between November 1st and March 14th, 1858.5
3 NCC Minutes, September 11, 1856.
5 IR, February, 1860, VII, 62-67.
A Rev. C. G. MacPherson then attempted to carry on the College, starting January 21st, 1858. MacPherson, also a former Church of England minister who had recently adopted the doctrines, had only three pupils and very little support, and so he determined to relinquish the school at mid-summer. Then a Mr. Coch, a German, thought of starting the school again, but the difficulties were too great.6
On August 2nd, 1859, Roger Crompton, a manufacturer of Kearsley, but no relative of that other New Church man, Samue7 Crompton., inventor of the spinning mule, died and left 10,000 for the establishment of the New Church College. Bateman saw this noble legacy as an insurance that the school would go forward towards its destined objective. He paused to tally the reasons which occurred to him for the schools lack of success to date.
The Crompton Will had specified that the General Conference was to direct the application of the 10,000 left by Roger Crompton for maturing and extending the New Church College at present situated in Devonshire-street.1
1 Ibid., September, 1859, VI, 419.
Henry Butter, author of the Etymological Spelling Book and Expositor, now raised numerous questions regarding Batemans proposed college. Butter suggested that maybe the Church would progress further if it did not try to establish its own college, but sent its students to the universities of the country, which are becoming more liberal in their relations, so that Dissenters can get their degrees. He suggested that New Church men would derive greater benefit from mixing with others than would be possible in a sectarian College of our own. Butter, who was also a member of the Board of Governors, felt that there might be legal difficulties because at the meeting where Batemans and the Crompton properties were accepted and the name of the College changed, the quorum consisted of Mr. Bateman and his family. He had high admiration for Batemans zeal and persuasive eloquence, and admired him as an intelligent, affectionate, and useful member of the church, hut he did not think him well-advised to push the College so fast. He said it would be pleasant to have such a College as contemplated, but he thought the time was far distant. Despite the 10,000, he doubted that the Conference would be able to find either students or professors to constitute a college.2
2 Ibid., March, 1860, VII, 118-123.
Dr. Jonathan Bayley of Accrington also gave his opinion. The Conference annual meeting was approaching, he said, and knowing that the New Church College would come up for discussion, he urged as the prime end, to relieve the pressing want of the church for efficient ministers by assisting to train young men who feel themselves called to serve the Lord in the ministry. The other departments of the college, he thought, should be subservient to that, and should be regarded chiefly as aids to the great end.1 He admitted that schools for New Church children were useful, but the ministry was of first importance, because every successful young man as a minister is a host in himself.
1 Ibid., July, 1860, VII, 339f.
5. Batemans Plan of Organization
Enthusiasm for the New Church College reached a high point at a meeting of the governors and friends of the institution at Islington on May 1, 1860. Bateman made an address in which he reviewed the schools history and ended by moving:
That this meeting fully recognizes the importance of possessing a New Church institution, which shall afford an efficient education to the children committed to its care, and shall assist in preparing pious young men to become ministers, so as to supply the present societies of the Lord Church in every part of the kingdom.2
2 Ibid., July, 1860, VII, 343f.
Bateman here presented the design of the institution in the order he always insisted upon: with the education of children of New Church parents coming first and the preparing of ministers as a second objective. Batemans eloquence dispelled objections of such men as the Rev. E. D. Rendell and Dr. Bayley at the May meeting, and a motion was passed to form a committee consisting of the governors, the ministers, and other members of the last Conference, to confer together as to the best method of carrying out the benevolent intentions of the donors to the New Church College, so as to meet the requirements of the New Church at large.3
Enthusiastic seconders of the motion included Messrs. Gunton, MacPherson, and Broadfield of Manchester as well as Dr. Spurgin, who advocated the duty of New Church education and proclaimed the advantages which had resulted from the effort at Woodford.
In a communication of June 8, 1860, Bateman took up the argument as to what Crompton had had in mind when he bequeathed the 10,000 and decided that the first object all along contemplated is the establishment of a New Church school for the education of children of members, and The second object is the education of such as are suitable for the ministry. Bateman then announced that a New Church boarding and day school for boys would be established on the College premises in Devonshire Street, Islington, probably commencing immediately after the Michaelmas term. Bateman reassured the membership as to the schools location:
... it is in a quiet and respectable street, situated in the southeastern part of Islington, near the City Road, and readily accessible by omnibus from all parts of town. It is far more salubrious than the sites of Westminster, Kings College, Merchant Taylors, City of London, St. Pauls, Christs Hospital, and many other schools. It is in a neighborhood in which houses may be obtained at very moderate rents by such New Church friends as may desire to live in its vicinity. Its playground adjoins the gardens of three streets....2
2 IR, July, 1860, VII, 346.
Note the germ of a community idea.
6. Conference Rebuffs Bateman
But the Conference held in August, 1860, did not accept the Bateman emphasis. Lengthy letters printed in the Intellectual Repository in the same month by the Revs. E. D. Rendell and Woodville Woodman contended that Crompton had had no idea of founding a school for children of New Church parents as Bateman supposed.3 And a resolution in keeping with this point of view was passed by Conference and thus reported:
3. Ibid., August, 1860, VII, 349-354; 396f.
The unanimous adopting of a resolution to fund the principal as soon as received, with the view of its forming a permanent source of income; second, the decision, with we believe only one adverse vote, to recommend that the application of the interest be postponed till the next Conference, with the suggestion that it ought to be applied solely to the education of the candidates for the ministry.1
1 Ibid., September, 1860, VII, 448.
The single adverse vote must have been Batemans, as the passage goes
It is due, however, to Mr. Bateman to say, that his opposition to the general view was characterized by a courtesy truly gentlemanly and Christian.2
Although Bateman had been outvoted, he was not defeated. The debate continued through the remaining numbers of Intellectual Repository for 1860, with Batemans contributions far outnumbering those of any single opponent. In the November issue he firmly pointed out to the Conference that whatever their sentiments might be as to whether or not there should be a boys school at the College in addition to the theological school, it was, after all, Cromptons will which would determine the question. And the Crompton will, he insisted, left the 10,000 for maturing or extending the College. Bateman then added,
Should then the Conference Committee recommend a plan for maturing or extending the College and for educating candidates for the ministry in the College, in addition to carrying out the other educational designs of the College, justice will be done alike to the memory of Mr. Crompton, to the Governors of the College, and to the New Church at large. Any attempts to divert the property of the College or to nullify its rights will assuredly bring down misery upon its perpetrators, and excite the righteous indignation of honest men.3
3 Ibid., November, 1860, VII, 554f.
In the same year the executors invested 10,738-5-06. of the Crompton bequest in the name of Messrs. Bateman, George Chambers, and H. F. Salter, in Consols--Consolidated or Government stocks.4
4 NCC Minutes, December 15, 1860.
In 1861 Redman Goldsack arrived from Australia to study theology, and the Board of Governors of the New Church College voted ten guineas to educate him. He was to take classics and mathematics preparatory to his study of theology.5
5 Ibid., April 30, 1861.
Plans for the college building had been discussed. There were four pupils in prospect, three of them children of Jonathan Bayley. In addition to Goldsack, three other theologs were in prospect. The Board of Governors drew up a set of laws for the New Church College on July 31, 1862. It was evident from the second rule that Bateman had by no means abdicated his position. It read:
That the object of this institution is to educate young members of the New Church in various branches of literature and science; and especially in the doctrines and life of the New Jerusalem, and to prepare such as are suitable for the Ministry.1
1 Ibid., August 28, 1862.
The third law reiterated the relationship with the University of London:
That the rules and regulations it is which it is governed shall be such as to encourage its students to matriculate and take degrees at the University of London.2
The fourth law clarified the nature of the institution envisioned by Bateman and the Board:
That like the Colleges of Eton and Winchester, boys of any age, beyond that of seven years, shall be admitted; but that all who have not either matriculated at the University of London, or arrived at the age of seventeen years, shall be called pupils; whilst those who have matriculated or have reached that age, shall be denominated students.3
7. Governors Declaration of Belief
The eleventh rule of the College guaranteed that only convinced New Church men should become members of the Board of Governors, for it read:
That the governors of the College, prior to voting for the first time at a General Meeting and the Members of the Council on taking office, shall sign the following declaration:
I, the undersigned, do hereby declare my belief that the Lord Jesus Christ is the only God of heaven and earth, in whom is the Divine Trinity: that His Word is the Divine Truth itself, and contains interior senses within the letter: that it is the appointed medium of mans regeneration which is effected by the Lord, in proportion as man shuns evils as sins against Him, and lives a life according to the Ten Commandments; that after death of the natural body, it is laid aside for ever;--and that man rises in his spiritual body into an eternal state of existence:
Those who subscribed less than one guinea annually were called contributors, whereas governors were those contributing more. A council was to be formed consisting of six or more of the male governors residing in London.
In October, 1862, R. R. Rodgers, the second student in the New Church College, was put to school at London University, and J. F. Potts was sent to the University College in the same institution. The Rev. D. G. Goyder was appointed Theological Tutor. In the following year, rules for the theologs were adopted, and Thomas Moss, son of the New Church schoolmaster at Manchester, asked for support while attending Manchester College, evidently intending to be a minister. In that year, in addition to R. R. Rodgers and Goldsack, a Thomas Colley was mentioned as a theological student. A ruling of the 56th Conference recognized the purchase of property out of the principal as allowable, and makes dividends available to College Governors as they see fit.2
2 Ibid., June 25, 1863.
In October of the same year two instructors were noted as becoming attached to the College, namely, Mr. Bull and Mrs. Galindo; and Mr. Goldsack, the first theolog, reported better progress under our New Church instructors than at the University College. It was resolved by the governors that the plan of giving the largest possible amount of instruction by means of-New Church teachers in our own College and thus helping to carry out the design of Mr. Crompton ... has the entire and cordial approval of this meeting.3 In November of the same year it was noted that Bateman, who was a surgeon and not a minister, delivered a series of theological lectures on the Apocalypse based on the Writings.4
3 Ibid., October 29, 1863.
4 Ibid., November 26, 1863.
1 Ibid., August 30, 1864.
In 1864, Hugh Becconsall left 1,000 in his will for the College endowment to be paid after his widows demise, and the library was further built up by gifts of books.2
Batemans old dream of a school for children of members of the New Church was pushed closer to realization with formulation of plans for maturing and extending the College for sixty children of members of the New Church, five of whom could be bearded, the rest as day pupils. The idea was broached of buying a house nearby, perhaps transforming parts of the present building.3 In 1864 four students were in attendance at the University of London and the Rev. O. P. Hiller was added to the staff as a theological tutor.4
3 Ibid., September 8, 1864.
4 Ibid., October 24, 1864; December 26, 1864.
8. Entrance Examination
A matriculation or entrance examination was outlined in the Intellectual Repository of 1864. Candidates for the theological scholarships were to be given a six-hour examination over a two day period under the following headings: 1) The reading of the Word and Bible History; 2) The general doctrines of the New Church; 3) The gospel according to St. John in the Greek; 4) The first book of Caesar de Bello Galfico; 5) The first book of the Aeneid of Virgil; 6) Arithmetic to decimal fractions; 7) Algebra, including simple equations; 8) the first book of Euclid. The examination was to be conducted partly by written questions and answers and partly vica voce. Students who passed were to be included under the Students and Ministers Aid Fund for a period not to exceed two years except under certain circumstances.1
1 IR, December 1, 1864, XI, 579.
In January, 1865, a meeting was held on behalf of the Students and Ministers Aid Fund, Bayley presiding. Dr. Bayley gave a laconic description of the ideal minister: A man eloquent in the pulpit and diligent out. Bayley said that there was a great need for ministers to spread the light and that the New Church was not to hide it under a bushel; nor were they a peculiar people, he felt. The Doctor went on to say:
No doubt in the millions around us in our own land, there are great numbers of honest souls; of excellent people who would receive the truth, if it were introduced to them as favourably as it has been introduced to us. There must be suitable mediums for this work, and the mediums must be multiplied. These mediums are pious, large-hearted, talented men, well-educated, and well-practiced in the art of bringing great principles home to the minds and consciences of men.
The meeting passed the following resolution:
Resolved: That this meeting desires to express its conviction of the increasing importance of the objects of the Students and Ministers Aid Fund, for the spreading of those great truths which we believe to have come down from the Lord out of heaven as the leaves of the Tree of Life, for the healing of the nations.2
2 Ibid., January, 1865, XII, 40.
In a memorial of 1862 to the 55th General Conference on behalf of the Governors of the New Church College, Bateman cleared up the legal aspects of the Crompton Will once and for all, and ended with a fervent appeal for the cause of New Church education:
...Mr. Crompton directed that this noble legacy should be paid to the trustees of conference and should be employed by them under the direction of Conference in maturing or extending this institution. The object of the College is purely educational; and as its rules have always shown, it embraces the education of young members of the New Church, and the preparation of such as are suitable for the Ministry.
The opinions of two eminent Barristers have been obtained. Sir Roundell Palmer, Her Majestys Solicitor General, and Mr. Richard Malins, one of Her Majestys Counselors. Both these gentlemen agree in identifying the institution mentioned in the will with the New Church College at Islington.
Both agree that the whole or any part of the legacy, may be applied to the Completion of the College Buildings as designed by Mr. Crompton and myself, and Sir Roundell Palmer expressly reports that maturing and extending certainty cannot be done, without the erection of suitable buildings.
With these facts before them.... Will the Conference check the generous ardour and chill the fervent love of their brethren by omitting or postponing an act of simple justice?...
The eye of the Lord is upon you. And the New Church College which has so well borne the yoke in its youth will, with your cooperation, advance to a vigorous maturity, and extending, as a true Alma Mater, as a tender nursing mother, her arms on the right hand and on the left, after clasping your children to her loving bosom, will restore them to their homes, improved alike in knowledge and in manners....1
1 NCC Minutes, July 29, 1862.
Having thus pretty well established his position with competent legal opinion, plus a potent appeal to the hearts of Conference, Bateman could declare at a meeting of the Board of Governors that Conference must come to terms or else the New Church College would refuse to educate their theological students for them.2
2 NCC Annual Report, 1865.
9. Entrance Requirements
The entrance requirements and rules for ministerial candidates at the New Church College were laid down in 1865, and have been substantially adhered to since that time.
I. Every such student shall be an acknowledged member of the New Church; and shall address a letter to the secretary in which he shall give some account of himself, and distinctly express in writing a desire to prepare himself for the ministry.
II. He shall furnish to the secretary of this college a testimonial of his moral, intellectual, and physical fitness signed by at least one Minister of the New Church, or one recognized leader of a New Church Society, or one Trustee of the General Conference.
III. He shall furnish evidence, if required, that he is at least seventeen years of age, and has either been baptized or brought up in the New Church, or has cordially received her doctrines for the space of at least a year.
IV. He shall furnish a written reply to the following questions:...
The questions include name, place of birth, status as to baptism; length of time of belief in the doctrines, education, acquaintance with English literature and mathematics, languages, need of support during time of studies, and agreement to study diligently and submit work to supervisors and instructors.
V. Every student shall sign the Declaration of Faith.
VI. Every student shall attend the College chapel at such times as may be arranged by the Council or Secretary.
VII. Every student shall lodge at and frequent such places only as are approved by the Secretary of the College.
VIII. Every student shall endeavor to prepare himself to matriculate and take a degree in the University of London.
IX. Every student shall have his connection with the College dissolved whenever the Council shall wish it.1
1 Ibid., 12ff.
10. New Buildings; Interim, 1866-1868
In 1866, plans were made for extending the building by taking off the tower, adding a chapel and south wing and other changes, all to be done at an estimated 5,000 from the Crompton bequest. The chapel was to seat between 200 and 300, and there would be a classroom and dormitories for seven or eight pupils.2
When the bids (tenders) for the new structure at Islington came in, they were about 2,000 more than the 5,000 voted by Conference from the bequest. The work was therefore held up while an additional appeal was made to Conference. After John Finnie had added 2,000, and other contributions had been received, the work went forward. By 1868 the College building was completed, housing; at first, two boarders and four day students below the theological level. The report referred to the noble library and beautiful chapel. The building was of white brick with stone dressings.3
3 NCC Annual Report, 1868.
During the alterations, the theological students were educated in Manchester, guided in their work by the principal of Owens College through the kind offices of E. J. Broadfield, a pillar of the Church in that area.4
4 IR, October, 1866, XIII, 473.
Apparently the transplanted theologs experienced difficulty, for in 1866 reference was made in the Intellectual Repository to educational difficulties which press heavily upon our present class. These students, the writer declared, need our warmest sympathy in the prosecution of their arduous labors. The difficulty lay in the students having had insufficient preparation for the work of theological students, and the writer, sounding very much like Bateman, expressed the hope that in the future the original plan of the institution would be carried out. Thus the students would be prepared in the lower years, and ministerial candidates selected therefrom.1
1 Ibid., February, 1866, XIII, 94.
Just what the nature of the too-arduous studies was, was not made clear. However, the nature of the theological work just before this interim period was described. In 1865 the Rev. O. P. Hiller reported on his classes with the theological students. He had them read aloud from the Bible and the liturgy while he corrected their pronunciation and emphasis. He then held conversations with them on some important doctrine or some point of ministerial conduct. The students then proceeded to read a portion of Swedenborg in Latin or of the New Testament in Greek. Some instruction in Hebrew was also given by Hiller, who reported that the students were making marked improvement, particularly in reading and speaking. Other requirements included a sermon from each. Apparently Hillers meetings with the students occurred only on Thursday evenings.2 Goldsack, the first theological student, was working toward a degree at the University of London at the same time that he was providing for the spiritual wants of his flock at Wivenhoe (near Colchester). 3
2 Ibid., July, 1865, XII, 330.
3 Ibid. December, 1865, XII, 566.
A theological student named Thomas Colley spent several months in the New Church College after which his departure was noted with the curt remark: Mr. Colley gave us some trouble and has since resigned.4 According to the Rev. R. R. Rodgers, a contemporary, Colley later became prominent as a Church of England archdeacon at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, and a colleague of the famous Bishop Colenso, after having been dismissed from the New Church College as unsuitable for the ministry.
4 NCC Annual Report, 1866.
1 Rodgers, Robert R., The Story of My Life, 32f. Colley later applied to the Academy for a degree.
In preparation for the reopening of the newly completed and altered building, the Rev. W. C. Barlow of Christchurch, Hampshire, was elected to the office of tutor and schoolmaster at a meeting of the Board of Governors on June 13, 1867. Barlow, it was noted, was an honor graduate of the University of London, 30 years of age, and married, and although ordained into the ministry of the Independent Church, had become a New Churchman. The securing of Barlow was thus announced:
He will (D. v.) [Deo volente - God willing] enter upon his duties at Michaelmas next, when we expect: not only to have students to prepare for graduation, but the children of New Church parents to instruct in all needful preliminary learning and discipline.2
2 IR July, 1867, XIV, 328f.
The same reference described the students apartments as commodious and comfortable rooms ... on the first floor of the south wing of the College. The boys schoolroom is beneath them, having its floor a little higher than the level of the street and the same as that of the College chapel. The College chapel was described as a beautiful building well-lighted from above by clerestory windows as well as from the east and west and north and south. The announcement ended with an exhortation to the parents of New Church children to take advantage of the means of instruction thus placed in their hands.3
11. The College Reopens
After the alterations and building had been completed, the New Church College reopened on Michaelmas Day with the Rev. W. C. Barlow as first resident tutor, or principal.4 Despite the public relations efforts of Henry Bateman, the enrollment did not increase very rapidly and Barlow was replaced by Dr. Beverly Bogg. Bateman wrote in the Intellectual Repository:
4 NCC Report, 1868, 12; n.
In the present principal, Dr. Beverly Bogg, we have both a gentleman and a scholar. One of my own sons is in residence and has already experienced Dr. Boggs skill as a teacher and power as the head of a house to make the College a pleasant home. I think we have now got the right man in the right place, and can confidently recommend New Church parents to avail themselves of the advantages of the New Church College. Students and pupils can be admitted any weekday in the morning from 9:00 to 2:00 and in the afternoons of Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday from 2:00 to 4:00.1
1 IR, November, 1868, XV, 521.
In 1869 the College Report noted that ten students were to be designated as foundation scholars, but in the same entry we find two boarders removed and only four pupils left in the school, two of them children of J. D. Beilby. Beilby had succeeded Bogg as principal, the latters health having caused him to resign after one year.2 In 1868 the first term commenced with one theological student and one pupil. Soon two lay students and two additional pupils were added. In the same year, a Mr. Chester was admitted as a resident theological student. Also at the school were Messrs. F. Bailey, Wilde, and A. G. Bateman.
2 NCC Report, 1869, 10.
These three young gentlemen are all the sons of Governors of the Institution, and are preparing for University degrees (in outside colleges, merely living at the New Church College) and for the profession of medicine.3
3 IR, February, 1868, XV, 90.
In this same year plans were mentioned for gymnastic apparatus in the room beneath the College chapel. The College now welcomed students at the University level in fields other than theology, though just what instruction they were to get from the New Church College is not clear. A commentator in the Intellectual Repository, probably Bateman, wrote:
Two only of the professions are at present represented by our students, theology and medicine, but we hope to have young lawyers also. A student of law would find our college useful to him not only as a place of instruction in arts whilst attending the Inns of Court, but as a religious home in which to dwell under the influence of the New Church. The association of good men of different worldly professions in the same college, is also calculated to give an enlarged view of life which may be useful to our future ministers and do away with the cramping effect of a merely theological institution.4
4 Ibid., March, 1868, XV, 136f.
Enrollment increased, although the cause may not have been Beilbys twenty-five years teaching experience, his diligence and skill, or his wifes looking after the comfort of the boarders.l Ten pupils were added by the end of the school year in 1871, bring enrollment to seventeen.2 On June 21, 1871, seventeen pupils were duly examined by the Conference visiting committee in Latin grammar, Caesar, English grammar, geography, history, and Scripture knowledge, as well as writing. The committee was pleased. But Beilby retired in 1871. Barlow returned for a second term until Michaelmas, 1873, when he became pastor at Paisley.3 J. J. Woodford followed and remained in office until Michaelmas, 1881. With him began the use of style Principal, which descended to his successor, the Rev. W. OMant, who remained Principal until Lady-Day, 1886.4
1 Ibid., July, 1869, XVI, 381.
2 Ibid., January, 1871, 40.
3 NCC Report, 1900, 11f.
On February 7, 1871, Rev. R. L. Tafel, minister at the Argyle Square Church in London, commenced as theological tutor at the New Church College.5 He had been called as pastor to the London Church in 1870 from America where he had been friend and catechumen of William Henry Benade and librarian at the United States Naval Academy. Tafel, member of a scholarly German family well known in the New Church, played a stormy role in the course of an astonishingly productive career in New Church circles. Although in 1876 he was one of twelve founders of The Academy of the New Church in Philadelphia, a few years later he had fallen out with the Academy leaders. Still, he espoused Academy strict constructionist policies in England, battled Conference opposition, and became president of Conference in 1887. In 1884 he organized his New Church Educational Institute in tendon to operate independently of both Conference and Academy. A prolific author and editor, he conducted the work of photolithographing the Swedenborg Manuscripts in Sweden, and published his Documents Concerning Swedenborg in three volumes, 1875-1890. He died in London, January 8, 1893.6
5 Ibid., 1871, 12.
6 NCL, February, 1910, 86f; Tafel, R. L., Letters, ANC Archives.
At this time there were three resident theologs and four others attending theological lectures. In an address at the College Tafel called true doctrine the heart and soul of an educational institution.
1 IR, March, 1874, XXI, 123.
12. The College Thrives
Batemans tireless and able promotion of the New church College in the previous years seemed to have yielded results, for by 1876, in J. J. Woodfords principalship, there were 44 pupils and ten boarders. cords note:
Besides ordinary scholastic teaching, the children of New Church parents and certain others whose guardians make no objections are systematically instructed in the doctrines and life of the New Jerusalem.3
3 NCC Reports, 1876, 11.
An advertisement in the Intellectual Repository for February, 1876, spoke of the growth of the College and noted that New Church catechism and doctrines were systematically taught. The line of secular teaching pursued was based upon the requirements for the matriculation examination at London University. Lectures in literature and in science, illustrated by experiment, were regularly given. The rates had been raised and the day pupils under twelve Years of age now paid three guineas per annum, and above that age, six guineas per annum, and boarders paid thirty guineas per annum in addition to the above. There was an open-air playground.4
4 IR, February, 1876, XXIII, front advertising pages.
1 Ibid., March, 1876, XXIII, 137.
An advertisement in the Intellectual Repository for November, 1876, names the following staff:
Professor of Theology Rev. R. L. Tafel, Ph. D., M. A.
Physiological Lecturer H. Bateman, F. R. C. S., Eng.
French Teacher M. de Stains, B. S.
Drawing Master M. de Stains
Music and Singing Teacher Mr. C. A. Field
Assistant Teachers Mr. Walter Leith
Mr. Robert Courtney
Drill and Calisthenics Sgt. Mag. Collins2
2 Ibid., November, 1876, XXIII, cclxxv.
A month later, this note occurred, with a faint undertone of Batemans restrained pride:
The original intention of the founders of the College, the practicability of which has sometimes been doubted, viz., to prepare such of the pupils as are suitable for the ministry, is now in a fair way to be realized. The two assistant teachers, both former pupils with us, are looking forward to, and are being prepared for, the ministerial work, pending their arrival at the age when they will be eligible for adopting upon the Conference funds as recognized students.3
3 Ibid., December, 1876, XXIII, 587f.
The same-account reported that there were 47 boys in the school and one student in residence.4 The following year the Governors listed three students and fifty pupils.5 This, the highest enrollment of the lower school, continued through 1878. The American Urbana Universitys thriving status under the Rev. Frank Sewall was noted with astonishment by Bateman, a personal friend of Sewall. Some of the many literary and scientific lectures by visitors given at the College were noted. In 1878, of three theologs, two, R. J. Tilson and W. A. Bates, were reported to be suffering from over study. Of the fifty pupils, approximately one-half were New Church. The assistant teachers were not New Church, but leaning that way, the College report stated.1
5 NCC Report, 1877, 12.
1 Ibid., 1878, 11.
2 Ibid., 1879, 16.
13. Bateman Resigns
In a letter dated April 27, 1880, Bateman resigned from his College positions as Secretary and member of the Council on account of his health.
In a warm-hearted review of the schools origins and progress, he excluded, great satisfaction on the work of the College school. He regretted that theological student had come up from the lower school, but, he concluded,
... Had I 20 more boys to educate, I should send them all to the College school. And I thank the Lord for the means of instruction which are thus provided, at an extremely moderate charge, for the children of the Church. Trusting that the same Divine Providence which has done so much for the Institution hitherto, may continue to bless it and keep it,
I remain, my dear friends,
(Signed) Henry Bateman3
3 NCC Annual Report, 1880, 7. Bateman died November 21, 1880, aged 74., IR, January 1881, XXVIII, enlarged series, 47.
14. Tafel-Barlow Dispute
In the Theological School the same year, a dispute developed between the Rev. W. Crosby Barlow and the Rev. Dr. R. L. Tafel, and the question arose, who was to take the students? Professor Tafel, a member of the Academy Council, had told the students not to listen to Barlow, according to Barlows letter to the Governors.4 But the real dispute was more fundamental. It had to do with Tafels views on the authority of the Writings. This issue was hidden beneath a dispute over the awarding of a degree by the Academy to one Of the Colleges theological students.
4 Ibid., 1880, 22.
Late in 1879 it became known that the Academy had awarded its degree of Bachelor of Theology--B. Th.--to R. J. Tilson, just then completing his course in the New Church College under Dr. Tafel.5
5 Benade, W. H., Letter to R. J. Tilson, Oct. 14, 1879.
1 IR, August, 1880, XXVII, 394f; October, 1880, 513f.; November, 1880, 594ff.
2 Messenger, October 13, 1880, XXXIX, 216.
3 Statement by the Council of the College, 1879, as quoted in a letter from C. H. Presland, December 3, 1958.
Some of the undercurrents moving darkly below this roiling of the waters are discerned in the correspondence of Dr. Tafel. The movement called the Academy, formed within the Convention in America, found the face of Convention set stonily against its attempts at internal propaganda. It had not yet abandoned, however, the idea of working with and within Convention, but had, in 1876, formed itself into a distinct body. It had obtained a charter from the state of Pennsylvania in the following year (November 3, 1877). It had begun its school in Philadelphia, and by the time the dispute arose between Barlow and Tafel in 1880, had both a college and a theological school in operation, and was about to begin a secondary school and a kindergarten.4
4 The Academy of the New Church, 1876-1926, 30ff., 40f.; Infra, Part III, 65.
Writing to Benade, Dr. Tafel said that the Eastern faction of the American Convention had influenced certain English Conference men against himself because he. represented the Academy Council.5
5 Tafel, R. L., Letter, London, November 21, 1879, to W. H. Benade, Philadelphia.
Tafel saw the conspiracy in three movements; his removal from his pastorship of the Camden Road Society, which he said, miscarried;
... You see, therefore, that the issue is working here in the very vitals of Conference, and unless all signs are deceptive, the Conference with an overwhelming majority will decide in favour of authority. (The authority of the Writings as Divinely inspired; as carrying equal weight with the Old and New Testaments, cornerstone of the Academys position) so that in future, Conference will acknowledge me as its expounder of New Church Doctrine to the students. All see that issue now, and the opposition is already caving in....1
15. Theological Students Removed
However, Tafels optimism was not justified by events. The Conference committee, finding the College Council adamant in refusing to pay Dr. Tafels salary from their funds,2 ordered that he be paid directly by the Treasurer of Conference instead. They did, indeed, keep Dr. Tafel on as theological tutor for the remainder of the school year 1879-1880, but at the start of the next year, they took the three theological students out of the New Church College, pending settlement of the dispute and clarification of arrangements between Conference and the Governors of the College,3 and placed them in Owens College, Lancashire, under charge of the Rev. Richard Storry as theological tutor. Meanwhile Conference cut down on funds allowed the College4 and set about to work out an arrangement whereby the Conference and the College could work together more harmoniously. This resulted in the formation of a joint committee of Conference and the Governors of the College, consisting of twelve members, six from each body which should thereafter,
2 Minutes of Conference, 1880, Appendix 54.
3 Ibid., 1880, 30.
4 Ibid., 31.
... appoint the Theological tutor and the Principal of the College, and shall arrange for the secular and theological education of the students, their board, dormitories, and all other matters connected therewith respectively; provided that no portion of such dividends shall be appropriated towards the expenses of boarding the students.l
1 Ibid., 1881, 53.
This joint committee would also make its own bye-laws and report to both the Governors and Conference annually.2 Having done this, the Conference then re-instated the payments of the usual funds to the College through the Joint Committee. These were the Crompton Legacy and the Finnie Gift.3 The Becconsall Bequest had been paid to the College during the interim, and was continued in the following year,4 all fund income amounting to some 348 in 1882.5 Fees from pupils and contributions brought the total budget of the College to 428 in the same year.6
4 Ibid., 1882, 64.
5 Ibid., 90f.
6 NCC Report, 1881-1882, 20.
But if Dr. Tafel was not to have the tutorship of the theologs, neither was the Rev. W. Crosby Bruce. In 1882, when the theological students were back at the College, and their affairs were handled by the new Joint Committee, the Rev. John Presland was appointed Theological Tutor, an office which he continued to fill for a number of years, although a number of other ministers assisted him.
In 1881, it was decided to give all new pupils of the lower school an entrance examination in order to bring it up to the level of a collegiate institution.7 Principal J. J. Woodford of the lower school reported that each of the forty-one pupils was taught according to his individual requirements. The elder ones doing the Iliad in Greek, Caesar and Livy in Latin, Voltaires Louis XIV in French, and chemistry, mechanics, Euclid, algebra, and the usual English subjects. The English subjects were listed in the 1681-1332 report: as Scripture, history, geography, composition, and reading.8 It was decided to raise the fees to six guineas per year for those under twelve and nine guineas for those above, plus an entrance examination for all.
7 Ibid., 11.
16. The Boys School Closes
At the same time the Conference and the Governors were disputing over the management of the theological division, the lower, or College School suffered a blow in the loss of its Principal, the Rev, J. J. Woodford, who left to be the pastor of the Snodland Society, at the end of the Michaelmas term, Christmas, 1881.
1 Ibid., 16.
2 Ibid., 19.
3 Ibid., 1883, 20.
4 Ibid., 1884, 9.
The Theological school continued with John Presland as theological tutor. William Buss was readopted by the College as a theological student, and new students W. H, Acton and E. S. Hyatt, later to be associated with the Academy movement, entered into residence in the College in 1884.
A determination to continue the New Church College for theological classes only was made in 1884 by the following resolution of the Governors:
Resolved that, the attempt to teach in the College and by College principles, subjects of general valueliterature, language, and the sciences--should be relinquished and that arrangement should be made for education of the students in these subjects in some of the principal educational institutions of the metropolis and according to the capacity and attainment of the students.5
5 Ibid., 12.
Although the use of the lower school was ardently urged in 1897 by James Speirs, then chairman of the Board of Governors of the New Church College, his arguments, no doubt influenced by his association with Dr. Tafel, brought no action. In his address as Chairman, Speirs emphasized that the school for boys was one of the original aims of the school, noting that the lower school had been closed because of the widely scattered prospective pupils and the difficulty of obtaining sufficient teachers. Moreover, he asserted, Conference parents generally had decided that the advantage of a New Church school was not worth the loss of their children from home.6
6 Ibid., 1897, 6f.
Although nothing tangible was done about resuming the school for younger boys, voices from time to time continued to be lifted in defense of the idea. In 1905, the Rev. R. R. Rodgers, as President of the New Church College, declared in his annual address:
Next to the college for the ministry, a high class New Church Public School would be the most vital institution among us. This institution is one of the crying needs of the Church. Our young people come home from other schools soaked with a worn-our faith. They are seldom, if ever, the same after and in many cases it has been their ruin as New Church men.1
1 Ibid. 1905, 9.
In 1915, David Wynter, making the Presidential Address of the New Church College, spoke of the need for some Carnegie ... to endow a New Church School so that a full and proper instruction could be given by competent masters.... I fear we must patiently wait.2
2 Ibid., 1915, 7. About this time Wynter had met with John Pitcairn when the latter was on a visit to London and had asked him, confidentially, What would it cost to hire a faculty such as you have at the Academy in Bryn Athyn? John Pitcairn, whose wealth had largely made the Academy project possible, replied, Mr. Wynter, you cant buy a faculty like the Academys for all the money in the world! Wynter, a wealthy man, had established himself in England as a laundry operator after a visit to America for the purpose of observing American methods--Information from Dr. W. Whitehead, 1958.
17. Theological Correspondence Courses
New Church theological instruction by correspondence, begun in a small way in 1887, developed into a fairly extensive procedure in 1889 and years following. Since some prospective students found it difficult to attend school in London, it was decided to send out materials in the mails, and in some cases, have visiting ministers conduct classes in areas at a distance from the New Church College. In 1889 fifteen men were adopted as theological students, only three of whom were in residence at the College. Ten of these were working by correspondence, and two were taught by ministers in other areas, who met with them two hours a week. In 1881 eighteen students were adopted, with minister-directed classes meeting in Accrington, Birmingham, and Bradford plus correspondents in scattered places.4
3 Ibid., 1889, 11.
4 Ibid., 1891, 15.
1 Ibid., 1901, 6.
In 1902 there was something of a theological debate during a discussion on the curriculum. The Rev. Joseph Deans spoke for more New Church courses and fewer of other courses. He preferred a single, definite statement in the Writings to all the poetry in this building. Deans here referred to the College Library, built by the first librarian, the Rev. D. G. Goyder, and his successors. He advocated that the curriculum be made as full of theology as possible.2
2 Ibid., 1802, 15.
To this remark of Deans, Professor G. W. Baynham replied that David Garrick, when questioned by an archbishop as to the success of the stage compared to that of the pulpit, remarked, We teach fiction as if it were truth; you teach truth as if it were fiction. The Rev. Isaiah Tansleys rejoinder was ... the supreme subject of the college curriculum is the Writings of Swedenborg, but there (are) subjects connected with ministerial culture to which serious attention (is) given.3
3 Ibid., 17.
In an address in 1903, Clowes Bayley, Esquire, contended that the preaching gift in embryo is not difficult to discern. The qualifications for a minister were, he said,
... readiness and fluency of speech in early youth, a natural persuasiveness, and an interest in elocution. When to those are added a religious temperament, an unimpeachable character, and a love of study for ministerial work, young men with such disposition may be safely encouraged to train for the ministry.4
4 Ibid., 1903, 7.
The College needed an adequate maintenance fund, said the same report, and the parents of the middle and higher classes should realize an obligation from the Lord to encourage such of their sons to study for the ministry who show desire and aptitude for its studies.5
5 Ibid., 8.
The Rev. J. R. Rendell, President of the New Church College, argued in 1904 for our advantage over denominational colleges. We are not disturbed by new knowledge ... of modern research ... archaeology ... teleological differences.1 He advised that the ministers study science. In the same year a resolution was passed making for a closer union between the College and the General Conference, and a set of rules was adopted.
1 bid., 1904, 7.
Sounding a rallying try for loyalty to the Writings, the Rev. Joseph Deans said, None of the men of the New Church College will ... lower the flag ... (nor) water down the teachings of the Church for the sake of pleasing anybody, either inside or outside the Church.2
2 CC Report, 1906, 7.
18. War and the College
Impact of the First World War in 1915 resulted in two of four students in the college going to war and two staying in school. David Wynter spoke of their being in freedom according to reason. After noting a common opinion against clerical participation in war, he quoted Swedenborg: on defense of country thus: ... If ruin threatens ones country ... it is noble to die for it, and wars which have as their end the defense of ones country and the Church are not inconsistent with charity....3
3 Ibid., 1915, 10.
Wynter alluded to the license and abominations to which all warfare leads, and said that these were not confined to the German nation. However, he felt that in the total picture, In great wars material things recede, but man advances....4
4 Ibid., 12.
The year 1916 found David Wynter still in the chair as president, but considerably more partisan than in the previous year, and more ready to put blame on the enemy. He identified German acts as outrages inspired by the lust for power, and spoke of their horrible intellectual ideas and militarism. In seeking a reason for the war, he wondered if somehow Providence had permitted those to be killed whose hereditary natures, passed on to the next generation, might have stood in the way of the development of the Church.l
1 Ibid., 14.
2 Ibid., 18
In 1917, the Rev. H. G. Drummond, President, said that the College had had two students at the start of the war, but that they had been called to the colors, and so there was none.3 Local and correspondence work also suffered from the students entering the army, the Principals report said.4
3 Ibid., 1917, 10.
4 Ibid., 26.
With the war at an end in 1919, there were four students, one a short-term student from Sweden. Three of them were back from the war, in addition to Maurice de Chazal from the Island of Mauritius.5 In 1928., six students were enrolled, including W. Cairns Henderson, who later left the theological school and became a minister in the General Church.6
5 Ibid., 19.
6 Ibid., 26.
19. Removal to Woodford Green
In 1930 it was jubilantly reported we have found a larger place! The larger place was at Woodford Green, where a country estate of a Justice of the Peace was for sale. Local tradition had it that Sir Winston Churchill had once been entertained there. The house, placed on a narrow but very deep lot, was equipped with tennis lawn and gardens, both fruit and vegetable; roses, and once an extensive greenhouse where orchids were raised, now used for raising tomatoes and other vegetables for the college table. The cost of the Woodford Green freehold was 4,800, while 3,600 was realized from the sale of the Islington building. The latter price was so low because of the dilapidated condition of the property and the district, according to the treasurer. In any event, the sale and purchase were carried through.7
7 Ibid., 1930, 9.
In 1931, the report of the College Council noted that W. C. Henderson in December announced that on doctrinal grounds he did not feel able to continue his association with the General Conference. Various members interviewed Henderson, and it was decided that in view of his evident determination to sever his connection with the Conference, that the Council had no alternative but to permit him to resign. He left the College at the end of January.1
1 Ibid., 1931, 16.
In 1937, with the College as a center, four classes were conducted as extension efforts, in East Lancashire, Birmingham, Manchester, and Yorkshire, as well as a correspondence course with Africans in The True Christian Religion.2 Comparatively heavy enrollments occurred in 1930, with eight in the College in 1933and again in 1938. Two students from overseas entered the College in 1937, Ladislaus Fay and H. T. K. Amedjo.3 In 1939, among the five Conference students at the College was Paul V. Vickers, later Principal.4
2 Ibid., 1937, 21.
3 Ibid., 1933, 16; 1938, 22.
4 Ibid., 1939, 5.
Outbreak of the Second World War, more particularly the destructive Battle of Britain in the air, brought drastic changes in the peaceful life of the College. On September 27, the day the College was to open, heavy air raids drove Principal E. A. Sutton and his students to the cellar throughout the night. Since the Revs. Clapham and Drummond were living at a distance, they were not called to the College, and Sutton conducted all the classes for the first week or two. Continued savage bombing by the Luftwaffe soon caused the New Church College to remove to Glasgow, where it occupied the premises of the Glasgow Society, reopening there on October 21st, 1941. In this same year London University was evacuated from London.5
5 Ibid., 1941, 17.
20. The College in World War II
In 1941 the theological students were scattered by the Battle of Britain, but the work went on. Four young men commenced the year at Woodford Green: Messrs. C. H. Presland and A. A. Bain, in their fourth year; D. J. Sutton, third year, and P. V. Vickers, second year.
1 Conference Minutes, 1941, 110f.; 1942, 103; 1943, 105; 1944, 60.
In 1943, the College building suffered from air bombardment, but repairs were made. In one heavy raid, an incendiary bomb fell through the roof, but happened to land in the main water tank, which extinguished it.2 Apart from window damage, the only serious loss was part of the Chapel ceiling, since repaired to match the original Adam style.3
2 During a raid in 1943, Mr. Vickers, the only man in the building at the time, went to the basement to prepare the air-raid shelter, urging several ladies in the building to follow immediately. Whilst they delayed to find handbags, etc., a plane released a stick of bombs. The stick dropped across the area, but the one which fell at the College gates did not explode. Blast from the others blew in the windows, but fortunately none of the ladies was hurt. Later the windows were replaced, only for a V. 1 rocket to strike in the village and draw them out of the soft putty with its blast. P. V, Vickers, Interview, June, 1956.
3 Vickers, P. B., Letter to R. R. Gladish, December 1, 1958.
21. Developments Since World War II
In 1947, the Ministers Summer School, a weeks refresher course for the active ministry, was established. Six students were in residence at the College in theological classes that same year.4 In 1950, there were five students; in 1954--eight students; in 1955--three students, and only one correspondent.5 In 1946, Easter week-end Schools and in 1956 Whitsun Schools were established for Young People, in order to give New Church children and young people an opportunity to know more about the Church and the doctrines. The average age of the students was 20 years.6
4 NCC Report, 1947, 18.
5 Ibid., 1950, 1954, 1955.
6 Ibid., 1955.
The ministerial meetings at the College, held in the summer, were begun by the Rev. Eric Sutton when he was Principal of the College, and featured guest lecturers on such subjects as science, evolution, archaeology, and psychology. The effort was made, through such presentations, to aid the ministers in answering questions bearing upon these fields. A lay school for young people was held at the Easter week-end with lectures and services going on from Saturday to Monday. There was a school at Whitsun held by Vickers, with an average age of eighteen for the groups attending. The discussions stressed application of the doctrines to life.l
1 Interview with Rev. P. V. Vickers, June 22, 1956.
The Ministers School for 1956 planned the following presentations: The Early Stages of Regeneration, by the Principal, The Rev. Paul V. Vickers; The Spiritual Meaning of the Twelve Sons of Jacob, by the Rev. E. C. Howe; Anthropology and Primitive Man, by the Rev. B. Kingslake; discussion on Providence and the Control of Evil in the World, introduced by Mr. Vickers; The Significance of Numbers in the Word, by the Rev. Dennis Duckworth, then the Conference President; Evolution, by Mr. W. I. Stopher, and a discussion on Church Unity, introduced by the Rev. E. R. Goldsack.2
2 Schedule of the Ministers School, 1956.
Program for the Whitsun Young Peoples week-end of 1956, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, included:
A Service of Prayer, classes on Providence, The True Origin of External Manners, Sunday evening discussion on Our Service in Life, based on ... The theme of Martha and Mary, and classes on Worship and Science and Miracles, Interspersed were services of worship, coffee breaks:, and social gatherings. The Easter School of 1956 had planned lectures on Ministry in the Church, The Personal Approach to God, The Two Sacraments, Gethsemane to Emmaus, the Doctrine of Uses, Swedenborgs Preparation and Fulfillment, and The Correspondences of Egypt. The speakers included Rev. Messrs. Paul Vickers, Wynford G. Whittaker, Dennis Duckworth, and Claud H. Presland.3
3 Schedule of the Whitsun. Young Peoples week-end, 1956.
22. Modern Curricular Requirements
A recent statement by Principal P. V. Vickers noted the changes brought about since l865 in the curriculum of the College:
The curriculum calls for a knowledge of three languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, one at full standard, for example, the ability to translate Swedenborgs Latin at a level useful for publication, and the other two at a standard which ensures that the accurate meaning of any passage can be arrived at as a basis for teaching. There is a course in Sermon Preparation taught by Mr. Vickers and the Rev. Rupert Stanley, B. A., of London. Mr. Vickers also teaches a course in Pastoral Theology which applies the principles of the Writings to the pastoral function. It includes methods of encouraging appreciation of the Writings and teaching the truth at all levels: a study of the appearances in which the child, etc., is taught and the level to which the minister should direct his teaching. The usefulness of stating doctrine as seen in matters which engage the public mind is carefully distinguished from political argument. Students are advised that they can acquaint themselves with ministers of other denominations in fraternal organizations, but shown the difficulty of joining Church Council movements. A New Church minister cannot join unity movements, lacking unity of doctrine as a joining medium. Mr. Vickers observed that, apart from a vigorous small group who appear to have gone almost to extreme Calvinism, the Church of England, in common with the Free Churches, seems to be drifting rewards American Protestantism in that it is not emphasizing doctrinal preaching. The four-year curriculum has two subjects in the Doctrines each year. There are three courses each with two parts, the first giving the main outlines of the doctrine, and the second concerned with detail, either in the exposition of a continuous section of the Arcana on that topic or in the derailed study of some volumes with immediate bearing. These courses are the Doctrine of the Lord, the Doctrine of the Word, and the Doctrine of Regeneration, (the first taken by Mr. Stanley and the last two by the Principal). There are also courses on the Spiritual World (Mr. Stanley), and the Doctrine of the Church (the Principal). In all this work, other volumes of the Writings are woven in as they apply. A four year course on the Word is given by the Principal, discussing the general background and textual criticism of the various books and presenting the attitude of and the text used by the Writings wherever possible. Further courses deal with the Uninspired Scriptures and Ancient History and Archaeology. Church History is taught in a four-year course which views the history of the Christian Church and Non-Christian religions from a New Church standpoint, (Mr. Stanley). There is a single course in the Life and Mission of Swedenborg (The Principal).
Philosophy and Psychology are taught under the Rev. George T. Hill of Accrington. Teaching here comes as occasional lectures over a period of four years. For the first two years, Philosophy is taught and in the second two years, Psychology.
The staff of the College consists of the Rev. R. Stanley, B. A., assistant tutor in Theology and assistant tutor in Church History, and instructor in Sermon Preparation; the Rev. Dennis Duckworth, tutor in all three of the Sacred Languages.
1 Vickers, P. V., to R. R. Gladish, December 1, 1958.
During the 1960s financial support for the College continued to be a vexing prob1em.2 In 1964 Principal Vickers announced recognition of the College by London University for the external bachelor of divinity degree. This, he felt, was a signal mark of progress, since it meant that London. University had placed the work done at the College on a par with its own.3 Field work took the form of student preaching at various societies of Conference, commencing sometimes as early as the second year. This activity was both appreciated by the societies served and use fill in establishing contacts and acquaintances for the student ministers.4
2 New Church College - The Hundredth Annual Meeting, N. C. Herald, July 4, 1964, XLV, 106; Conf. Yearbook, 1967-68, 46.
3 Principals Report - New Church College, N. C. Herald, Sept. 12, 1964, XLV, 144.
4 Duckworth, Dennis, Report of the Assistant Tutor in Theology and Tutor in Hebrew, Conference Yearbook, 1964-65, 55f.
That the New Church College was making its influence felt increasingly in Conference through student contacts, lectures by its principal, and a series of taped lectures on doctrinal subjects was the testimony of the Rev. Rupert Stanley in his College Presidential Address in 1964. The College has become more and more in its later period the main agency for stimulating doctrinal study throughout the church, Stanley declared.
Yet how many of our people make any effort to study these Writings; how many are content merely to accept without question the pronouncements of our Church by its leaders, and how many are there who still think that theology is the concern of the clergy only?
How especially important was not this study for the New Church man, the speaker said, who must take up the promise to enter with the understanding into the mysteries of faith.l
1 Stanley, Rupert, New-Church College Presidential Address, 1964 N. C. Herald, July 4, 1964, XLV, 107f. The same issue of the Herald carried news of Mr. Stanleys death.
23. Purley Chase Summer School
A summer school for Young People, lasting a week, was held during recent summers at Purley Chase, in the region of Birmingham. Although it is not connected officially with the New Church College, it performs similar work to the College Schools for lay people, but emphasizes Sunday School teaching. A recent account in the New Church Herald told of a group of 24 students who had the course in the summer of 1957. The course began on August 3rd. The Principal of the school was the Rev. G. T. Hill, M. A., who conducted a service of worship on Sunday.
The work included a series of lectures on the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; Hebrew lectures, primary and advanced levels; lectures on The Preservation of the Word, The History of the Church; The Education of Children, and The Psychology of the Child Mind, as well as two lectures on Church extension.
After the lectures each afternoon the students relaxed in games, tournaments, and fun, concluding with a variety show on Friday night.
1 Ellis, Valerie J., 1957 Purley Chase Summer School, New Church Herald, September 7, 1957. XXXVIII, 144.
TWILIGHT OF ENGLISH DAY SCHOOLS
1. Day Schools Declare Terminated
After eighty-five years of struggle, Conference in 1907 admitted the defeat of its day school efforts. Nevertheless the New Church College continued to educate ministers, and with the aid of outside universities helped them to secure requisite secular degrees. The official statement read:
Inasmuch as there is now no New Church day School to participate in the proceeds of the educational fund, resolved, that the Conference Council be requested to Prepare a Scheme for future application of the Fund.l
1 Minutes of the 100th General Conference, 1907, 29.
The Conference Council of the same year noted the fact as follows:
The Council are of opinion that the attention of the Conference should be called to the fact that there is no longer a day school in which religious instruction, according to the doctrines of the New Church, has any place. But the wills of those who left the legacies which constitute the Education Fund specify that such instruction shall be given, and some of them restrict it to poor children in day schools with distinct reference to the True Christian Religion. The Council are of opinion that the grants to the Sunday School Union are usefully employed, but they think that the time has come when the intentions of the pious founders should be seriously considered.2
2 Ibid., Appendix, 63.
Several of the day schools retained a tenuous connection with the New Church through the presence of New Church members on their boards of control. However, as the minutes of 1907 attest, there was no longer any real attempt to teach the New Church doctrines in the day schools after 1907, as the accounts of various schools3 indicate. This cessation of religious teaching was not a sudden, but a gradual thing. Although in 1891 more than 1,000 children were listed as receiving same doctrinal instruction under Conference, this was a far cry from the 6,326 pupils in the Conference schools in 1878. Moreover, the amount of religious instruction received in the latter years was minimal, consisting of the childrens learning a portion of the Conference catechism plus some lessons in the Bible.
3 Supra, Chapter IV.
In 1891, the Conference Committee on Religious Education expressed some distress with the way things were going.
Your Committee carefully examined the Minute Books and other documents relating to the eleven schools which received the Conference Grant last year. From these it appears that the religious instruction required by Conference has been regularly given in all the schools during the past twelve months.... Your committee again find in most of the schools an enormous disparity between the number of children in attendance and the number under religious instruction. In one school more than half the children study the Scriptures and Catechism appointed by Conference, in several nearly half, while in others not one child in ten is brought under the same influence. Without troubling the Conference with the names of the Schools, the following figures are offered giving the average number presented to the Conference Visiting Committee for examination since last August: 16, 23, 37, 47, 50, 60, 93, 120, 150, 200, 232.1
1 Conference Committee on Religious Education Report, 1891. Total, 952.
This meant that as early as 1891, Conference was, in some schools, realizing relatively little return on its investment of effort and money.
That all was not sound with New Church education in the Conference day schools was indicated by President Richard Storry as early as 1874 when he reported:
This hasty review of the work of our day schools shows that they are sensibly affected by the spirit of the times. The doctrines of the Church are not taught in many of them, one has gone over to the School Board, and others pursue their path with less confidence than formerly. It would be a hasty judgment, however, to conclude that they are not religious in tone and character. The Word is more or less taught in all, and the teachers are men of religious character, who both by precept and example seek to instill into the minds of their pupils the principles of truth, honour, and morality, and a sense of duty as owing to the Lord. We should be glad [if] more could be done for the direct religious instruction of the children in our day schools; let us rejoice that something in this direction is still accomplished....2
2 IR, September 1, 1874, XXI, 434f.
An attempt to cope with the changed conditions brought in by the Act of 1870 was recorded earlier.3 A committee headed by Jonathan Bayley submitted the following recommendation to Conference in June, 1874:
3 Supra, Ch. IV.
Your Committee deem it necessary that the whole system of administering the Education Fund should be reconsidered, and adapted to the alterations made by parliament in the Elementary Education system of the country and exigencies of the Church, so as to induce all the day schools to cooperate in the religious instruction of children. Your Committee therefore beg to submit the following scheme for the consideration of the Conference.
The proposed new rules. 1) A Class or Classes shall be formed in each New Church Day School to be taught after ordinary school hours, either for one hour or two half hours per week during the ordinary School term; admission of scholars thereto to be free, and not to be exclusively confined to scholars actually in attendance at the day-School. 2) The teacher of this Class shall be appointed by the Day School Committee, either a Day School Teacher, a Minister of the Society or other competent person, who shall receive the Conference Grant. 3) The Minutes of the organization of the Class and appointment of the Teacher shall be recorded in the Minute Book; to be supplied by the Conference. 4) The Teacher of the Class will keep in the Minute Book a correct register of the attendance of the scholars. 5) The Glass shall be taught systematically the Conference Catechism, Scripture History, the Doctrine of the Lord, and the Doctrine of Life. 6) The Conference shall appoint a Minister, or other suitable person, not being the Teacher of the Class, to be the Inspector of each School, who shall once or twice in each year examine the scholars, and pass those who exhibit a reasonable proficiency. 7) The Inspector shall give to the Teacher at least one calendar months notice of his intention to visit and examine the Class, specifying the date and hour. 8) The Inspector shall record in the Minute Book of the School a report of his visit, the number of scholars examined, and the number who have passed. 9) For every scholar who has been thus passed by the Inspector, the sum of 5s. shall be granted, provided the scholar so passed has made not less than thirty attendances of one hour, or sixty attendances of one-half hour each at the class during the year. 10) The Inspector shall receive from the Conference a sum of 6d. for every scholar examined; but if his expenses in visiting and examining the school amount to more than the number of sixpences he receives for examination fees, the Conference shall pay the balance of his account, for which he must present his bill. 11) On receipt of the Minute-Book containing all the above-named particulars, the Conference shall authorize its Treasurer to pay the Pass fees to the Treasurer of the School for the Teacher, and the Examination fees and other expenses, and to charge said payments to the Education Fund. The balance, if any, of Educational Fund in each year shall be allowed to accumulate for the future purposes of this Fund. 12) The Day-School Committee of Conference (Committee A) shall compile a tabulated statement of the number of scholars examined and passed, these to be paid, and recommendations of Inspectors to be appointed, and present the same for adoption to the Conference.1
1IR, June, 1874, XXI, 277f.
2. Reasons for the Decline of the Day Schools
An important reason for the decline of the Conference religious day schools grew out of the fact that England during the 19th century was creating a national system of education. Almost every step toward national education threatened the doctrinal education originally envisioned by the Swedenborgians.
While the Act of 1833, establishing an eight-hour day for children under thirteen in textile factories and making schooling prerequisite to employment, acted to send the children to school, most of the laws which followed tightened government control upon the originally voluntary schools.1 In 1843 a law establishing grants for heads of schools was established. Training schools were encouraged for teachers, and six Government Inspectors were appointed.2 In 1846 grants to apprentice pupils and their teachers were authorized.3 In 1853 the so-called Capitation grants were established. For each boy four to six shillings were paid, and for girls three to five shillings, when these students attended school a minimum of 176 days a year. Teachers were issued certificates of merit if they could pass certain examinations and there were also regulations covering the half-timers.4 In 1862 there were further regulations governing grants to scholars, limiting the full grant to those who successfully passed examinations covering the three Rs, and reducing the grants for any failures.5 In 1867 further encouragement was given by in-service training to pupil teachers, and success was rewarded in subjects other than the three Rs. Nevertheless, as Matthew Arnold, himself a school inspector, said, It was possible to get children through the Revised Code examination in reading, writing and ciphering without; their really knowing how to read, write, and cipher....6
1 Smith, Frank, A History of English Elementary Schools, 204.
4 Ibid., 227.
5 Ibid., 261.
6 Ibid., 274.
In 1870 a national system of compulsory education was established.
1 Holdsworth, W. A., The Elementary Education Act, 1874, Popularly Explained, 101.
2 Ibid., 16.
The Act of 1902 encouraged but did not compel local authorities to provide higher or secondary education out of taxes. It also abolished the school boards, and made County Councils and Borough Councils the local education authorities.3
3 Casson, Wm. A., and Whitely, G. Cecil, The Education Act, 1760-1902, 86; Education in Britain, 6.
At least half the schools under Conference faced a constant struggle to survive, and the availability of Government grants promised to keep their doors open. This indeed it did; but control follows the purse, and since it required extra effort to maintain distinctive religious worship and instruction, in time inertia and the easier way won out. Gradually the schools lost their independence, and with it their freedom to teach a distinctive religion. As the national system developed, the religious individuality of the schools in it declined.
Although a contemporary New Church man heading an English school still connected with the New Church has stated that there is no reason why a private school could not be set up in England if there were sufficient money for the purpose,4 the influence of the inspectorial system and the Government control of the schools in England generally would certainly have to be taken into account in organizing and operating such a school.
4 Stones, Harold, Interview, July 16, 1956, at Ramsbottom, England.
Not only did these acts and regulations of Government have a blighting effect upon New Church education as such, but the manner in which these regulations were enforced frequently had something to do with the case.
Documents of the former Conference day schools, of other contemporary educators in the 19th century, and conversations with teaching personnel formerly connected with the Conference schools all tend to establish the presence of a peremptory quality in the English inspection system as noted above in the account of the Clayton-le-Moors School.l An inspector might not only drop in unannounced, but the public education authorities could demand new construction on pain of closing the school, and they could dismiss for as many as three years from all teaching under the British national system a school master who did not keep his accounts straight. These factors added to the irksomeness of school-keeping and made it easier to abandon the effort.2
1 Supra, Ch. IV.
2 Supra, Ch. IV.
3. Nature of Government Supervision
More than one former educator under Conference expressed dissatisfaction, sometimes amounting to bitterness, in regard to relations with public education officialdom. Under the Act of 1902 these were the local education authorities, county and borough councils, known as LEAs.3 The voice of British inspection is heard in these regulations from a twentieth century handbook.
3 Education in Britain, 9.
Schools must be easily accessible to the childrens homes and must be open at least 200 days a year. Managers may name two days for religious instruction, but no child who has been withdrawn from religious instruction need attend. Each school and department must have a responsible head teacher.
1 Moulton, H. F., The Powers and Duties of Educational Authorities, 70, 32, 152, 160.
A modern British teacher wrote in 1958 as follows:
Private schools may choose whether or not they are to be inspected, but very often the ones which desire to be recognized as good schools do have inspections. All types of schools are inspected by inspectors who specialize in their own subjects. Infant and junior schools have a general subject inspector; secondary schools have one inspector for each subject. At a General inspection, there is one inspector in charge of all these.
In State Schools, apart from General Inspections, inspectors are [likely] to visit the school at any time they choose. The inspectors are looking out for the methods of the teacher--the teacher is under inspection, and often the children are questioned to see how much they have been taught. The Head bears ultimate responsibility in the results of the inspection.
Inspectors come from the County Council. Inspection of private schools is the same as the State Schools. Very rarely are teachers sacked as a result of inspection. Improvements are suggested and the inspectors return later to see if they are being carried out. A report is given to the Head and to the Education Officer. The Head may or may not choose to pass on the criticism of his staff.2
2 Wilson, Mrs. Judith, former teacher at Merchant Taylors School, Liverpool, more recently teaching in London, Letter, January 9, 1958.
Whether New Church schools, in their full scope, including secondary education, and with freedom to teach religious principles and doctrines ad lib as well as in formal religion classer, could exist today in England will remain a question until the experiment is fully tried. Another contemporary Englishman compared British government control with American control by accrediting associations in these words:
Our English state grants and your accreditations seem like horses out of the same stable, but we hope that the latter will not in the end be the winner as was the former. I grant that while you retain the school you can engender feelings of loyalty to the organization, but this will not preserve the essential purpose if the weightier matters of distinctive thought and sound knowledge of New Church principles have to give place to the more pressing needs of generally accepted standards required by the outside world.1
1 Dawson, Percy, Letter to R. R. Gladish, July 16, 1944.
Another reason for the decline and fall of the Conference day schools lay in the influence of class feeling. Parents of New Church children often did not want their children to mingle with the children of the poor in the free schools or, as in the case of the Woodford School, they did not wish them to work with their hands, fearing this had a menial connotation. As the previous correspondent wrote, In order to get a true perspective and understanding of the atmosphere of education in those days it must be remembered that the English were very class conscious and a gentlemans sons and daughters were not sent to school with the children of the lower classes.2
4. Lack of Theoretical Development
Another reason for the fading of the day schools is connected with the lack of growth and development of educational theory and distinctively New Church practice among the New Church schools. Each school operated as a separate organization with its own head. The only common element was given through the efforts of Conference to supervise religious instruction, but the actual teaching and the philosophy of the schools was left to the school head and was not directly under ministerial guidance. There was some discussion of the principles of education and of distinctively New Church concepts, as is evidenced in the periodicals of the 1830s to 1850.3
3 IR titles: On Parental Love Truly Human and the First of Its Duties, September, 1830, V, 226-231; On the Means of Imparting Religious Instruction to Children, July, 1830, I, 1735.; On the Stimulus of Rewards in Education, January, 1831, I, 326f.; On Appealing to Selfish Principles in Education, May, 1830, I, 125.
However, later, from the 1870s to 1900, there seems to be less evidence of interest in discussing principles of education. While hymn books and song books and a catechism were published, these had very little of distinctive New Church instruction in them.
1 Sutton, E. A., The Work of the College Student, New Church Herald, January 24, 1948, XXIX, 12f.
One of the reasons given by Smith2 for the establishment of the Sunday schools and the elementary schools in nineteenth century England was the growing juvenile delinquency on the part of children who had no occupation and no supervision. By 1907 this situation had been largely cured by the installation of the national education system, and so one of the great incentives under the Conference for the establishment of day schools no longer existed. Again, the Conference churches of the Nineteenth Century very often enjoyed considerable community solidarity, almost as if they possessed exclusive and separate grounds. This fact eased Church operation of schools. However this close-knit quality of the church-community, according to the Rev. Dennis Duckworth, no longer obtains as it did in the Nineteenth Century.3
2 Smith, History, 1.
3 Interview, June 17, 1956.
Another reason for slacking off in the New Church emphasis upon schools was the idea that times had changed--that the world was now ready to accept the New Church--that its principles were recognized. Expressions of such men as the Rev. Jonathan Bayley in 1857 indicated a feeling in Conference that the battle for the establishment of the New Church was at that time already largely won.4
4 Supra, Ch. VI.
Perhaps the widespread English attitude reflected in generally low attendance at church services has affected Conference also.
1 General Conference Yearbook 1958-1959, Statistical Table, 113f.
5. Loss of Conviction
Perhaps the most fundamental of all the reasons lies in the decline of a conviction of the distinctiveness and authority of the theological writings of Swedenborg. The strict constructionists (regarding the Writings as Divine Revelation) began to withdraw from the loose constructionists (regarding the Writings as human commentary) by 1876 with the formation of The Academy of the New Church in Pennsylvania. And the same current was evident in British waters. With the growth of the loose or liberal point of view in Conference the Writings lost status. It is difficult to see how any one can pass on to his children, or any society can pass on to its rising generation, an educational system based upon principles regarded as optional.
The struggle between the loose and the strict constructionists came to a head in the rejection of the Rev. Rudolph Leonard Tafel from the New Church College in 1879.2 Tafel did nothing to quiet the waters when he obtained from the Academy in Philadelphia the degree of Bachelor of Theology for the Rev, R. J. Tilson. Tilson, Tafels prize student at the New Church College, had been carefully nurtured with Academy views, and had left the College at: the end of the summer term, 1879, to take the post of pastor to the Liverpool Society of Conference. Tafel arranged a special ceremony for April 6, 1880, at the Horological Institution in Liverpool with a guest list and printed program.3 Tafel opened the program with a discourse called Aims of The Academy of the New Church, followed by his conferring of the degree in the name of the Academy, by action of The Academy Council of October 7, 1879, of which he was a charter member.
2 Supra, Ch. VI.
3 The Academy of the New Church: printed program for award of degree to R. J. Tilson.
This was a demonstration in favour of the Academy and an opportunity in England to tell the people what it really means.2 And yet, in three or four years, this battling polemicist for the Academy had fallen out with the Academy, and launched a new organization in England (1884) called The New Church Educational Institute. Part of the reason for the falling out was the fact that the editors of Words for the New Church, a publication of the Academy in Philadelphia, had been so presumptuous as to edit some of Dr. Tafels contributions without his permission.3 Another reason for Tafels defection was identified by Tilson ten years later as family feeling, owing to the resignation from the Academy of his brother, the Rev. L. H. Tafel, in a dispute having to do with corporal punishment of children in the Academy School at Philadelphia.4
2 Tafel, R. L., Letter to W. H. Benade, London, November 21, 1879.
3 Tafel, R. L., Letter to W. H. Benade, Philadelphia, May 28, 1879.
4 Tilson, R. J., London, Letter to John Pitcairn, Philadelphia, May 12, 1890; Block, Marguerite B., The New Church in the New World, 226f.
6. The New Church Educational Institute
The New Church Educational Institute had its first annual meeting June 19, 1884, in tendon, elected Tafel president and theological tutor, and declared its objectives, which were principally to be: 1. Education and training of persons for the ministry of the New Church, 2. Establishment of a New Church school for boys and girls, 3. Publication of New Church educational literature or other works.5 It will be seen that these objectives were very similar to those of The Academy of the New Church College. Meetings of the Institute were held annually, sometimes in the school rooms of the Camden Road Church, where Tafel was then minister, through 1890. At the 1890 meeting, four members of the organizations Council resigned and withdrew because they felt that Tafel had led the organization into strife with the Academy in publishing a pamphlet attacking the Academy, and in other ways.
5 Memorandum of Association of the New Church Educational Institute, n. d.
1 Tilson, R. J., London, Letter to John Pitcairn, Philadelphia, June 21, 1890.
Although the Institute did not manage to start a school for boys and girls, it did apparently educate several theological students, as the report of 1885 notes three in attendance, and that of 1886 claims applications from five new students. In 1888, two graduates, Arthur Faraday and Lewis A. Slight, were announced as now occupying important positions. The positions were not named, but both were ordained ministers of Conference.3
3 Presland, C. H., Letter, December 3, 1958; NCL, August, 1885, V, 128; September, l888, VIII, 144; September, 1889, IX, 147f.
The Institute also issued a number of publications, mostly pamphlets containing addresses delivered at the meetings of the Institute, by the Rev. Messrs. Tafel, Ottley, and Potts, 1889-1892, on such topics as, The Writings and Their Relation to the Word (Tafel); Is Marriage Lawful and Conjugial Love Possible between People of Different Faiths? (Ottley); New Church men Leaving their First Love and the Present State of the Christian World as the Cause of It. (Potts) Its largest work was Tafels Swedenborg and the Doctrines of the New Church, published in 1889.
The New Church Educational Institute was essentially an English transplantation of the Academy idea. To the fundamental premise of the Academy, namely, the Divine Authority of the Writings of Swedenborg, Tafel was essentially loyal, although he was accused of straddling.4
4 See review of Tafels The Writings and Their Relation to the Word in The New Church Monthly, March, 1892, I, 173f.
1 Tafel, R. L., London, Letter to R. 3. Tilson, London, June 13, 1890.
One sees the appositeness of Walter Childs song for the early Academy, sung to the tune of May He Live in Peace and Clover, after following the struggles of those days, which were no less bitter for being internecine:
May he live in strife and battle,
Till the time comes for deaths rattle;
Then in spite of earthly prattle
He will be all right!2
2 Childs, W. C., Academy Songs, ANC Archives.
7. More Recent Conference Thought on New Church Education
Although Conference Minute 88 of 1907 sounded the knell of day schools under Conference, Conference In 1910 appointed a special committee to consider and report on the question of establishing a New Church boarding school. The next year the committee reported that it does not consider that the time is ripe for the establishment of such an institution.3
3 Conference Minutes, 1911, 118.
In 1944, following a discussion of education in Conference, a committee appointed by the College Council to consider the principles of New Church Education brought in a report, later discussed in a Conference periodical.l
1 Hill, Rev. G. T., Education, New Church Magazine, January-March, 1950, LXIX, 6ff.
2 Ibid., 8.
In 1948 the Annual Conference engaged in a rather thorough-going discussion of the need for schools of the Church. Dr. N, A. C. Friend, Secretary of the College, said that the College Council was firmly convinced that New Church schools were absolutely imperative for the Churchs future, but that to start them would be exceedingly expensive.... The members of the church should be led to think on this matter from the principles expounded in the Writings.3 The Rev. 3. G. Dufty opposed the establishment of New Church schools and argued that to rear children in separate schools would be to make hot-house plants of them through shielding them from necessary struggles.4 The majority of the speakers favored the idea of New Church schools for reasons allied to those of the Rev. Frank Holmes, who declared that his three children had been compelled to face unbelieving teachers in well-nigh every course of every year that they had attended school so far. Contempt had been continually poured on the Word, and had it not been for their environment, he would not have been sure of holding them within the church. Holmes declared: Of course, it is a heathen world. We must go ahead.5 At the close of the discussion, the Conference resolved to appoint a committee under, the Council to explore the situation further. According to the Rev. Claud H. Presland, Secretary of Conference, however, little has followed yet for a variety of reasons.6 No doubt the large expense involved was one of the most important reasons for the lack of results.
3 New Church Herald, August 7, 1948, XXIX, 131.
4 Ibid., 132.
6 Presland, Rev. C. 11., London, Letter, May 10, 1958.
A proposal looking toward the setting up of a day school under Conference was turned down by the Conference Council in 1967 because of high financial cost.
Alternative propositions, which may be more within the resources of the Church, have been submitted to the Council and are receiving active consideration: It is recognized that the education of the youth of the Church is a very important matter.1
1 New Church Education, Conference Yearbook, 1966-67, 29.
CONFERENCE-AIDED AFRICAN MISSION SCHOOLS
I. South Africa
At Orlando, on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa, stand Mooki Memorial College and a day primary school. The college today operates as a theological school for non-European ministerial candidates, and has usually about six students each year under tutelage of the Conference Superintendent of the Mission. The day school is operated by the government and exists primarily to teach non-European children to read and write. In 1955, when the government took over management of the day school, enrollment was 505, with nine qualified teachers. Of these teachers, no less than 7 were keen members of the Orlando Society of the New Church, so we can be confident that the interests of the Church will be cared for under the new regime.1 Other native schools aided and partially operated by the Conference Mission exist in a number of places in South Africa. Ten such schools were reported in 1932.2
1 Kingslake, Brian, Report of the Superintendent of the New Church Mission in South Africa, Yearbook of the General Conference, (hereinafter Conference Yearbook) 1955-1956, 55.
2 Conference Minutes, 1932, 131.
Mooki College came into being in 1931 under the Rev. P. H. Johnson, Superintendent, and has been supported by Conference funds. Its name and inspiration came from the Rev. David H. Mooki, a native whose chance reading of a Latin copy of the Writings in a South African bookstore led to a conviction which eventually established the mission and secured its connection with Conference. Mooki discovered the Writings in 1915, and died in 1927.
College classes are scheduled each year for only two or three months; three sessions are required for ordination, and an important part of the training is the delivery each day of a students sermon, with criticism by the superintendent.3 Native ministers often aid in the teaching at Mooki College. Methods of enrollment, informal by non-African standards, are described in a recent Superintendents report as follows:
3 Ibid., 1955, 53.
In order to restrict the number of students, and thus save expense, no general notice was given of the opening date, but private invitations were extended to four selected evangelists and probationary ministers. However, as soon as news leaked out that the College was in session, three others turned up, and we hadnt the heart to send them home....1
1 Ibid., 1958, 45.
The College and school buildings were diagramed and described in another account which showed a Swimming bath in process.2 That mission money was not being expended for princely accouterments, however, was indicated in the recent report of a bathroom being installed in the College, along with a sink and running water in Mrs. Mookis kitchen.3
2 Mooki Memorial Premises, New Church Magazine, LX, January-March, 1941, 40f.
3 Conference Minutes, 1958, 44.
The fact that about 18,000 South African natives allied themselves with Conference, February 18, 1960, would suggest considerable additions to present educational commitments. This large body was obliged by recent Apartheid legislation to incorporate with an officially recognized body, and chose to ally itself with the Conference Mission. The new native division of Conference was founded in 1904 as the Ethiopian Catholic Church in Zion, and had in 1960 sixty ordained ministers, forty substantial church buildings, and many less substantial ones. They were headed by an archbishop, the Right Rev. P. M. Sedoaba of Heidelberg, South Africa. Its ministry was to be given a course of instruction in the doctrines of the New Church in 1960.4
4 Report of the Superintendent of the New Church Mission in South Africa, Conference Yearbook, 1960-1961, 53ff.
Although Archbishop Sedoaba repudiated the merging of his church with Conference after the government of South Africa relaxed its policy toward unrecognized African churches,5 and this action resulted in something of a split among the some 18,000 added members of the Ethiopian Catholic Church in Zion, a fairly large proportion of the newcomers remained under Conference.
5 Conference Yearbook, 1962-63, 46.
1 Ibid., 1966-67, 44f.
Signs of healthy growth in the Conferences South African Mission late in 1967 appeared as increased enrollment in the Colleges regular session (nineteen students), a two-weeks refresher course for ministers, a correspondence course, improvements to the library, added publications in African languages, and finances solidly in the black. Support by the African membership was sufficient to pay the entire cost of operation for the year, enabling the overseas contributions to be relaxed.2 The Conference continued to send a representative to South Africa in the person of Rev. E. J. Jarmin, but he would not be superintendent; this post would be filled by Mooki. Thus both in West and South Africa Conference was moving in the direction of turning over its operations to the management of native Africans. (Vide p. 169, infra.)
2 Ibid., 42f.; The Mooki primary school was reported in 1964 as one of the leading schools of the district. N.C. Herald, August 15, 1964, XLV, 130.
2. New Church Origins in Nigeria
In a booklet published in 1947, the Rev. Brian Kingslake of the Conference Overseas Missions Committee gave a lively account of the origin of the New Church among the Nigerians and of the founding of schools there.3 According to Kingslake, in 1915 Africanus Mensah, then aged 40, a native of the Gold Coast, saw an advertisement of Swedenborgs works in an American journal. He sent at once for a volume containing extracts from Swedenborgs works which he digested with great excitement and illumination.4
3 Kingslake, Brian, Africanus Mensah and the New Church in Nigeria.
4 Ibid., 12.
New Church mission centers were later established at five additional locations, and, in time, schools were established there also. But the first school was established at Owo on a plot of land 300 feet square, presented to the Church by the Olowo, the ruler of the village. The school building, completed in a year of work, in which it is presumed that the Africans themselves assisted, measured 135 feet long with two end sections 45 feet wide and a central hall 30 feet wide with verandas front and back. Kingslakes account continues:
The walls were of whitewashed mud, cement plastered inside, with large square window openings and black shutters. The roof was of corrugated iron. The building cost the members between 300 and 400. It was dedicated to the sole worship of the Lord Jesus Christ on July 3, 1937.1
1 Ibid., 24.
The day school was opened the following month, August 5th. Mensah christened it The Swedenborg Memorial School--an excellent title, which has made the name of Swedenborg better known in Owo than in almost any other town in the world! It began with eight teachers and 128 scholars, and cost about 200 per annum to maintain. All the expenses were paid at first by the members themselves, without any financial assistance whatever from Great Britain. As other day schools developed in the Mission, each took the name of The Swedenborg Memorial School.2 A day school was opened at Emilagan in September, 1941.3
2 Ibid., 26.
3 Ibid. 41.
Emilagan is located on the mainland, north-west of Degema. The language here is Abua. The New Church Schools in their various locations embrace at least three different languages. Africanus Mensah, coming from the Gold Coast, never bothered to learn the dialects and languages of Nigeria but spoke to Nigerians in English with a translator.
In 1941, there was considerable difficulty at Owo when the polygamists attached to the Owo New Church Society as associate members (they could not become members of the Church because of their polygamy), revolted and seized the Church and school premises by force and deposed Mensah, who was thereafter forced to conduct Church services in his own house. In March, 1942, when Mensah returned to Owe, he found the school in an appalling condition. However, a letter from the Chief Inspector of Education at Enuga declared that in the eyes of the department, Mensah alone was the proprietor and manager of The Swedenborgian Memorial School. There were further difficulties when he attempted to gain possession of the building--the polygamists contending that the land beneath the building was still theirs. After considerable difficulties including a law trial, a ruling by the Chief Commissioner of the Western Provinces at Ibadan settled the matter with the following dictum:
The old Scottish case of the Free Church of Scotland vs. Lord Overtoun has long established the principle that property given for one purpose to an associated body holding a particular form of faith shall not be devoted to another purpose while there are adherents to the original body who have not abandoned the particular form of faith. On the authority of that case, the present seceders are clearly not entitled to the land and building. (Signed) H. F. Marshall, for Secretary, Western Provinces.1
1 Ibid., 50f.
Africanus Mensah, the pioneer for the New Church in Nigeria, died August 24, 1942, at the age of 67, and was buried at Owo before the Church-school which he had founded and protected. In addition to the Owo School he left a legacy consisting of a New-Church mission of thirteen Societies (Owe, Impele, Umuana Ndume, Aba, Degema, Buguma, Arimogola, Minama, Egbolom, Emoh, Elok, Iyak, Emilagan, and Oghora); three day schools (at Owe, Emilagan, and Minama); seven Womens Leagues, and a Young Peoples Association. Total membership of the mission embraced 1,000 adults, 100 associates, and 700 children.2
2 Ibid., 53.
Successor to Mensah was the Rev. Michael O. Ogundipe, who by 1946 saw the mission nearly doubled in size, and by 1958, to judge by the size of the school population, doubled yet again. However, Ogundipe was removed from his post as superintendent of the West African Mission by action of the Conference Council in January, 1959.
1 Report Of Proceedings, 152nd General Conference. N. C. Herald, October 10, 1959, XL, 149, 151.
Lawson, in his report of the next year, without specifying the number of schools in his field, mentioned addressing 21 schools, as well as laying foundations for eight school buildings. He also opened a New Church Secondary Modern School at Owo on January 29, 1960, with 52 children and three qualified staff members.
In the same report, Acting Superintendent Lawson stated:
There is a great need for education, and in order to strengthen the New Church in an independent Nigeria, (Independence achieved 1960) it will no doubt be essential to open a Teacher Training College and Secondary Grammar Schools.... the Olowo of Owo has graciously given us a piece of land measuring 50 acres for educational purposes, and the Medical officer of Health has approved of the site, which lies on a drained, plain and level ground.... We are sincerely and sacrificially striving to establish a New Church College at Owo in January, 1961, for Secondary Education. We still emphasize the need for a Teacher Training College at Opu-Degema which would precede a Secondary Grammar School in the Calabar Section of the Mission.2
2 Report of the Acting Superintendent of the New Church Mission in West Africa, Conference Yearbook, 1960-1961, 57ff.
Because of numerous personnel changes, secession of some portions of the West African Mission of Conference, and, on the Nigerian national scene, a still-unresolved civil war, in late 1967 the situation of the Conference-related native schools remained unclear. However, this much is fairly clear: between 1959 and 1967 there occurred maladministration in the Eastern section of the Nigerian mission, resulting in non-payment of many teachers with resultant disaffection, and surrender of school control to the government by the Conference authorities.3
3 See reports of Overseas Mission Committee, West African Mission, and Acting Superintendents of New-Church Mission in West Africa in Conference Yearbooks, 1959-1967.
However, in the reports for 1965-66, the situation in regard to the schools in West Africa had stabilized sufficiently so that something of a tally of the schools could be presented.
In the Western Region, the following tally was reported:l
1Report of the Overseas Mission Committee, Section B.--West Africa, Conference Yearbook, 1965-66, 43f.; Okon Udofa, a Nigerian teacher attending the Academy of the New Church College during the school year 1967-68, reported that only one secondary modern school now exists, but that the Grammar School, at Owe, was flourishing with 360 scholars and seventeen teachers as of fall, 1967. The secondary modern designates a post-primary school for those going into government work or nursing; the grammar school is the equivalent of the American high school, and prepares for college.
Schools (Western Region only)
4 Primary 675 19
2 Secondary Modern 107 4
1 Grammar School 222 8
Totals 1,004 31
Along with the lost fifteen schools in the Eastern section went some 130 teachers whose back pay was in arrears as of 1964 by about 9000. It was announced that Conference would not be able to make up the deficit, and that the blame for the condition was attributable to the local communities and possibly certain Nigerian under-administrators. The Nigerian Mission Committee won praise from the Conference committee in London when they declared that they would undertake to make up the deficit. The most strenuous personal efforts were expended on the scene by the Rev. Eustace R. Goldsack of Conference in an effort to effect a solution.
2 Goldsack, Eustace R., Report of the Superintendent of the New Church Mission in West Africa, Ibid., 1964-65, 48f. Giving a different view, U Udofa suggested in Fall, 1967, that the financial debacle in the Eastern region was caused in part by Goldsacks unfamiliarity with the situation. However, Udofa approved other actions by Goldsack. Such conflicting testimony points up the logic of the current relativist concept of history whereby, as one scholar said, facts are never brute facts, but interpretation of facts.
However, it remains to note that, to a young Nigerian teacher from the disaffected Eastern region, the failure of the Conference to take full responsibility for the schools was, in 1967, a puzzling and somewhat frustrating mystery. This teacher reported however, that late in 1967, one school in Eastern Nigeria, at Eket, retained the name of Swedenborg Memorial School although it was not associated with Conference.1
1 Information from Udofa, Okon, November 29, 1967, at Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Just how much distinctively New Church influence is brought to bear in the best-run schools ostensibly operated under the Conference mission is extremely difficult to assess. Okon Udofa, the Nigerian teacher, stated that none of the teachers at the Swedenborg Memorial School at Owo was New Church except himself, and that he had been hired by Mr. Goldsack to teach religion there. He taught 21 periods a week to all classes and reported good success in spreading knowledge of the doctrines, as far as he knew them. He did not know if there were any other New Church teachers operating in the other schools of the mission.2
It should be added that some Conference educational influence is exerted through Sunday Schools, and occasional Mission schools for leaders and native ministers, in addition to the organized day schools. Five ministers and seventeen leaders took part in two such schools in a recent year.3 In 1967, the Rev. Simeon K. Osawo, a Nigerian, was in charge of the West African Mission as Superintendent, successor to Goldsack.4
3 Section B. -- West Africa, Conference Yearbook, 1966-67, 39f.
4 N. C. Herald, February 18, 1967, XLVIII, 28.
3. Nigerian Schools5
5 This information was principally derived by interview from the Rev. Michael O. Ogundipe when he visited Bryn Athyn, in May, 1958.
Nigerian schools in 1958 in the sphere of the General Conference numbered 25, with enrollment of over 4,000 pupils, representing a considerable growth from 1935, when there were only three schools. As to schools at various levels, the first is the primary--pupil ages 5 to 12covering standards one to six.
Chart of Organization of Nigerian Schools
Infant Kindergarten & Nursery schools to age 5
and Class I age 6
Primary Class II 7
Schools Standard I 8
Standard II 9
Standard III 10
Standard IV 11
Standard V 12 Form I
High Standard VI 13 Form II
Schools Standard VII 14 Form III
Standard VIII 15 Form IV
Standard IX 16 Form V
Standard X 17 Form VI
University Graduate and undergraduate levels.
In the United States, secondary school level would comprise Standards VII to X or Forms III to VI inclusive.
Pupils pay no fees in primary school, but in the secondary modern schools, they do. Of the 25 schools of the Conference which include both primary and secondary levels, four have enrollments of 350 to 400. These schools teach the three Rs - Arithmetic, English, and Writing. Specific teaching about the New Church is confined to religious exercises held dally, and doctrinal classes held on Friday afternoon. Religious lessons issued by The General Church Religious lessons program in Bryn Athyn have been distributed and used in the schools. The schools are located in two areas--east and west of the Niger--a two-mile-wide river which must be crossed by ferry, as there is no bridge.
Some 300 miles stretch between the easternmost and westernmost schools.
The curriculum includes agriculture, in which the students are encouraged to use their hands; physical education; and English, in which the Oxford beaks, grades one to six are used. Health and sanitation are also taught.
Girls education has recently received more attention. For many years the education of girls was neglected, largely because they were required to care for their younger brothers and sisters. Because of the wide-spread practice of polygamy, girls were valued chiefly as dowry-bringers. Kingslake commented, Only through education can we hope to destroy superstition and abolish the corroding social evils of child marriage and polygamy ... and understand the Word of God and the heavenly doctrine of the New Church....1
1 Kingslake, Brian, West African Mission School, New Church Herald, September 4, 1948, XXIX, 150f.
According to the regulations of the Nigerian Government, each denomination must have its own teachers and its own teacher training school. Since 1960, the New Church in Nigeria has been faced with a crisis owing to the lack of a teacher training institution for post-primary education. The Rev. Michael O. Ogundipe, then acting head of the mission, sought aid in the United States in 1958 to establish a teacher training school or else to obtain permission to send normal-school candidates to the Academy at Bryn Athyn. However, Ogundipes removal from his post by Conference action early in 1959, plus a refusal of General Church officials to trespass on the preserves of Conference, brought these plans to a halt. Moreover, Conference made it clear that it intended to maintain its interest in the mission and its schools.2
2 New Church Herald, October 10, 1959, XL, 149f.
NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH FREE SCHOOL
Charles Street, Westminster Road
NEEDLE-WORK IS EXECUTED IN THIS SCHOOL AT THE FOLLOWING PRICES
s. d. s. d.
Shirts from 1 1 6 to 2 6
Night ditto 0 9 1 3
Cravats 0 1 0 2
Pocket handkerchiefs per dozen 0 6 1 6
Shifts 0 9 1 6
Ditto caps 0 4 0 6
Table cloths 0 2 0 4
Sheets per pair 0 8 1 0
Pillow cases per pair 0 0 0 3
Hemming per yard 0 0 1
Wristbands per pair 0 0 0 3
Collars 0 0 0 3
Towels per dozen 0 0 0 6
Petticoats 0 6 1 6
Marking per letter 0 0 0
Boys Shirts 0 9 1 3
Infants Shifts 0 2 0 4
Night gowns 0 4 0 6
Ditto caps 0 2 0 3
Petticoats 0 3 -- 0 6
Bibliography to Accompany
A History of New Church Education
by Richard R. Gladish
I. Manuscript Sources i
II. Printed Sources xv
III. Secondary materials xxxv
IV. Newspapers xliii
V. Magazines xlv
VI. Letters xlvii
VII. Interviews l
Letter symbols used in the Bibliography to identify location of Bibliographical items:
ANC - The Academy of the New Church Library, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 19009
Newton - New Church Theological School, 48 Sargent St., Newton, Mass. 02158
CPL - Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio
NCC - New Church College, Woodford Green, Essex, England
PN - Penniman Library, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
RRG - In possession of author, Richard R. Gladish, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 19009
If no other location is indicated, refer to the Academy of New Church Library
Abington, Massachusetts. Minutes of the First Society of The New Jerusalem in Abington, 1835-1859. (Cambridge New Church Theological School Archives.)
The Academy of the New Church Alumni Association. Minutes, 1896-1920. ANC Archives.
___ Athletic Association. Minutes, 1889-1928. ANC Archives.
___ Board of Directors Minutes, 1896 to present. At L. Pitcairns office, Jenkintown, Pa.
___ Book of Letters of W. C. Childs, Treas., 1877-1879. ANC Archives.
___ Bylaws, Charter, etc. ANC Archives.
___ Council Minutes, 1874-1893. Vol. 1, to 1884, in safe, ANC Library
___ Expansion Program 1946. ANC Archives.
___ Gymnasium Minutes. ANC Archives.
___ Knights of the Midnight Pitcher. Minutes. ANC Archives.
___ Minutes of Teachers Institute. ANC Archives.
___ Register, Academy Schools, Volumes I and II. ANC Library.
___ Songs. ANC Archives.
Accrington Education Committee Minutes, August 23, 1841 - September 30, 1903. Accrington New Jerusalem Church.
___ Accrington Educational Committee Minutes, 1863-1870. Swedenborg House, London.
Accrington Log Book, Boys School, March 30, 1863 - February 28, 1917. Accrington New Jerusalem Church.
___ Log Book, Girls School, March 30 1863 - February 28, 1917. Accrington New Jerusalem Church.
___ Log Book, Infants School, March 30 1863 - February 28, 1917. Accrington New Jerusalem Church.
___ New Jerusalem Church Minutes, 1835-184. New Jerusalem Church, Accrington, England.
Acton, Elmo Carmond. Educational Work among the natives of South Africa. Ms. n. d., c. 1925, in possession of Rev. A. W. Acton.
___ Religion Curriculum in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Paper delivered to Educational Council in Bryn Athyn, August 19, 1952.
Acton, W. H. Statement of January 2, 1888. ANC Archives.
Alden, K. R. Teaching Religion in the Secondary Schools. Delivered to Educational Council, Bryn Athyn, August 21, 1952.
Alden, Edward Franklin. The Inhabitability of the Planets. Paper to General Faculty, ANC, Bryn Athyn, 1938. ANC.
___ Reflections on the Teaching of Modern Physics in the Academy. Paper to General Faculty, ANC, Bryn Athyn, 1938. ANC.
Ashton-under-Lyne Educational Committee Minutes, 1868-1892. Swedenborg House, London.
Bellinger, Celia C. The Spirit o the Classroom. Paper to ANC General Faculty, may 9, 1939. ANC.
___ A Womans Preparation as a Teacher. Paper to ANC General Faculty, November 5, 1935. ANC.
Benade, W. H. Address at the Laying of the Cornerstone of the Schoolhouse, Cherry Street above 20th. Ms. ANC Archives.
___ Declaration of Principles. In his sermon to the 1st New Jerusalem Society, 1854, 24-31.
Benade, W. H. Notice of June 21, 1888. ANC Archives.
___ Prospectus of a School for Boys. 1848. ANC Archives.
___ The Standard of Authority in the New Church, 1873. ANC Archives.
Bergstrom, Vera. The Freshman Year in the Girls Seminary. Paper to ANC Seminary Faculty, 1935.
Besses o th Barn New Jerusalem Church Educational Committee Minutes, 1873-1892. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Minutes, 1880-1889; 1889-January, 1906. Besses New Jerusalem Church, Whitefield, Lancashire, England.
___ History - unpublished excerpts - In letter from Thomas Holt to author, June 13, 1956.
Birmingham New Jerusalem Church Account Book, 1854-1881. Wretham Road New Church, Birmingham, England.
___ Minutes, 1843-1857. Wretham Road New Church, Birmingham, England.
Girls School Pupil Roll Book, 1856-l861. Wretham Road Church, Birmingham, England.
___ and Oswaldtwistle Educational Committee Minutes, 1803-1832. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Minutes, 1864-1867: 1567-1872; 1872--1875. Wretham Road Church, Birmingham, England.
___ Scrapbook of Church notices and reports, both Ms. and Printed; included reports of Day School Committee, circa 1885-1871. Wretham Road Church, Birmingham, England.
Bostock, Margaret, The Course of Study for Art. Paper to ANC Educational Council, Bryn Athyn, August 21, 1952.
___ The Function of Art and Handwork in New Church Education. Paper to ANC Educational Council, Bryn Athyn, August 19, 1952.
Boston, Minutes of Boston Society. Copy in folder for 1839, at Boston New Jerusalem Church.
___ Report of Building Committee for Temple, December 11, 1838. Boston Church Archives.
___ Guarantee of School Support, signed by some 30 men of the Society, November 30, 1838. Boston Church Archives.
___ Ms. Sheet of Society Resolutions, containing several on schools. 1842. Boston Church Archives.
___ School Committee Minutes. Boston Church Archives.
Bryn Athyn Church of the New Jerusalem Minutes. 1897-1955. ANC Archives. Current Minutes with Ariel Gunther, Secy.
Buell, Frances margarita. Aims of Education. Paper to ANC Seminary Faculty, October 23, 1935. ANC Archives.
___ Cooperation between elementary and high school. Paper to Teachers Institute, Toronto, June, 1922. ANC Archives.
___ Education of Girls. ANC Seminary Faculty, February, 1935. ANC Archives.
___ Notes on Lillian Beekman in Miss Buells possession.
Burnham, Dorothy. The English Course in the Third Year in the Seminary. ANC Joint Meeting of Faculty. April, 1937. ANC Archives.
___ A New Church Dormitory for Girls. ANC Seminary Faculty. November, 1935. ANC Archives.
___ The State of Junior Girls. ANC Seminary Faculty, February, 1936. ANC Archives.
Burton Road. Indenture. Deed to property. Dated originally 1893, April 12, 90 year lease. (Transfer to Albert Orme, Harrison, Mission, and Rev. Tilson, November 22, 1926. Noted on outside sheet.) At Burton Road Church.
___ Minutes of the Executive Council of the New Church Congregation worshiping at Burton Road, Brixton, London, S. W. 9. November 17, 1897-July 23, 1908. At Burton Road Church.
Caldwell, Jeannette P. The Seventeenth Year of Mental and Physical Growth. Paper to ANC Seminary Faculty, January, 1936.
___ New Church Education through Physical Education. Paper to ANC General Faculty, October 4, 1938.
William Beebe Caldwell. Early Educators III. Typescript manuscript by Dr. Caldwell. ANC Library.
Carmel School (Kitchener) Records: School Registers, etc. 1891 to present. AT Carmel School.
Carter, Robert, of Nomony Hall. Papers: Letters, notes, summaries. Photostats at Theological School, Cambridge (48 Quincy Street).
Childs, Rev. G. S. The Kitchener School in Educational Council papers, 1960. ANC Archives.
Childs, Randolph W. the Need for Publication of Developments in New Church Education. General Faculty, May 2, 1994. ANC Library.
Childs, Walter C. The Future of the Academy in Its Present. Address, 1886. ANC Archives.
Clayton-le-Moors Account Book, 1869-1880. In possession of Albert Sager, Manchester Road, Clayton-le-Moors, Lancashire, England.
___ Account Book, 1886-1894. New Jerusalem Church, Arthur Road, Clayton-le-Moors.
___ School Account Book, 1894-1903.
___ Day School Committee Minutes, 1889-1903. New Jerusalem Church, Arthur Road, Clayton-le-Moors.
___ Educational Committee Minutes, 1874-1892. Swedenborg House, London.
___ New Jerusalem Minutes, 1887-1890, for both Church and Day School Committee. New Jerusalem Church, Arthur Road, Clayton-le-Moors.
___ New Jerusalem Minutes, 1890-1920. New Jerusalem Church, Arthur Road, Clayton-le-Moors.
Colchester. Letter from Rev. E. Whitehead, Secretary of General Conference, May 16, 1891. In Colchester Church Archives.
___ The Colchester New Church Society (1816-1901). Manuscript history compiled by A. Godfrey, Secretary of Colchester Society, 1900. In Colchester Church Records.
___ The Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) by Colley Pryke, a brief history for a book to be published by Alderman E. A. Blaxill. January 12, 1946. Copy in Colchester Church.
___ Minute Books of Colchester Society on the New Jerusalem. (March, 1897-present). Manuscripts in Colchester Church.
___ Pryke, Martin. Material for the Preparation of a History of the Colchester Society of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Collected by Martin Pryke, 1938. Typescript, in notebook Colchester Church Archives.
___ School Reports - Annual. At Colchester Church.
Cole, Wertha P. Teaching Mythology in the ANC. ANC Seminary Faculty, May, 1925.
Conference, Reports of the Committee of Education 1823-1914. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Schedule of Ministers School, 1956. Photocopy: R. R. Gladish.
___ Report of the Ordinary Committee on the Educational Committees Reports, 1863-1892. Strong Room Collection, Swedenborg House, London.
___ Report of the Sessional Committee On Education,1891. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Schedule of Whitsun Young Peoples School. Photocopy: R. R. Gladish.
Cromer Street School. Minutes of Day School Committee, 1868-1878. (Argyle Square Church). Swedenborg House, London. R. R. Gladish has microfilm.
Cronlund, Rev. E. R. Correspondence with Bishop W. F. Pendleton, 1903-1919. ANC Archives.
DeCharms, George. The Aims of the Secondary School. ANC Seminary Faculty, November, 1935. ANC.
___ The Development of the Rational by Education. ANC General Faculty, march, 1934, ANC.
___ The Direction of Further Progress in the Study of the Educational psychology of the Seminary. ANC Seminary Faculty, April, 1936. ANC.
___ The Importance of the Study of the Curriculum. April, 1932. ANC Faculty Address. ANC.
___ New Church Secular Teaching. ANC Boys Academy Faculty, December, 1932. ANC.
___ Notes on talk at Girls Seminary Faculty. October 18, 1934. ANC.
___ The Policy of the Academy on Post-Graduate Teacher Training. Presidents Council and General Faculty Address, February, 1938. ANC Archives.
DeCharms, Richard, Autobiography of. Philadelphia, August 4, 1857. Photostat copy. ANC Archives.
___ Sermons illustrating the Doctrine of the Lord and other fundamental Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church. c. 1840.
DeCharms, Richard, 2d (?). Sketch of Sarah DeCharms Hibbard, in possession of Richard DeCharms.
Doering, A. A. What ANC College meant to me. Sons of Academy Banquet Speech, February, 1958, at Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. ANC.
Doering, Charles Emil. The Girls Seminary. Address to 34th Annual Meeting, Theta Alpha, Pittsburgh, June 30, 1937. ANC.
___ Teaching Geometry to Girls. January, 1935. ANC Seminary Faculty. ANC.
___ The Teaching of Geometry. ANC General Faculty, January 10, 1939. ANC.
Ebert, Stanley F. The Problems of Vocational Guidance in our Secondary Schools. Joint Meeting of Council of Clergy and General Faculty, March 31, 1938. ANC.
Elphick, F. W. A brief History of the Academy of the New Church under the General Church of the New Jerusalem in London, England, 1876-1925. 2 Typescript Notebooks. ANC Archives.
Embasy. Embasy Day School Visitors Book, 1849-1871. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Annual Reports of the Committee of the Embasy New Church Day School, July, 1949; 3d, 5th, 22d, 26th reports, n. d. Miss B. Davy, Embasy New Jerusalem Church, Embasy, Skipton, Yorkshire.
___ Report of Society, including Day School. Pencil Ms. B. Davy, n. d. estimated at mid-1850s. Miss B. Davy, Embasy.
___ Address at School Celebration. Unassigned, n. d. Miss B. Davy, Embasy.
___ Treasurers Account for the New Church Day School, July, 1867-June, 1868. Miss B Davy, Embasy.
___ Education Committee Minutes, 1884-1892. Swedenborg House, London.
Failsworth Educational Committee Reports, 1863-1871. Swedenborg House, London.
Farley, Eugene S., Inspection Committee for the College n. d. Report of Middle States Association Visiting Committee, 1952.
Foster Hill School. Specifications for a school house on Foster Hill near Glendale. Original Ms. in First New Jerusalem Church, Cincinnati.
___ Plat of survey for J L. Wayne and others, Trustees of School. First New Jerusalem Church, Cincinnati.
Foster Hill School. Deed of Agreement for construction of Foster Hill Building. First New Jerusalem Church, Cincinnati.
___ Apparent Subscription list containing names and amounts. First New Jerusalem Church, Cincinnati.
Fryeburg, New Church Camp. Visit August 16, 1935. Lecture by Rev. Wm. R. Woofenden, than New York Pastor.
Gaskill, Jennie M. Religion in the Primary Grades. Educational Council, August, 1952, ANC.
General Church Joint Council, Journals, Minutes, 1918-1958. ANC Archives.
General Church Minutes, May 5, 1905 - September 25, 1916. ANC Archives.
Gladish, Richard R. Witchcraft in Shakespeares Day and in Macbeth. Lecture to College English 21, December 5 and 6, 1946, Bryn Athyn, 1946. ANC.
Glendale, Ohio, New Jerusalem Church Minute Book. January 1887-October, 1899. AT Glendale.
Glenview. Abstract of Title to Glenview Property. At Glenview.
___ Annual Reports of Principal to the Society. (Miss Blackman). At Glenview.
___ Future Parent Teacher meetings. (See Minutes of Teachers - single sheet signed Dave Gladish). At Glenview.
___ Immanuel Church, 1885-1887. Board of Finance Minutes. At Glenview.
___ Immanuel Church Secretarys record. September 24, 1885-March 30, 1887. In Maynard House, Glenview.
___ Instrument of Organization of the Immanuel Church of the New Jerusalem, in Chicago. In Maynard House, Glenview.
___ Principles, Rules, and Present Practices of the Immanuel Church School. At Glenview.
Glenview, Memoranda typed manuscript of memoirs by William Hubbard Junge dated March, 1948. In possession of James F. Junge, Bryn Athyn.
___ Minute Book of the Gymnasium of the Immanuel Church of the New Jerusalem. Includes constitution and by-laws. January 26, 1890. Record goes only to May, 1890. In Maynard House, Glenview.
___ Minutes of Regular Teachers meeting. Immanuel Church School. 1943-1945. Glenview, Illinois.
___ Minutes of the Immanuel Church Society (includes teachers reports). Reports of pastors, finances, etc.
___ Records of the Immanuel Church, 1903-1932. (Bound volume of Minutes and reports, in Library of Immanuel Church).
___ Records of the proceedings had at the meetings of the Council of the Immanuel Church of the New Jerusalem in Chicago, selected by the Rev. N. D. Pendleton, pastor. Record book in Maynard House, Glenview.
Gyllenhaal, Charles P. and Peter R., Future Attendance Survey, The Academy of the New Church. Research sponsored by Sons of the Academy, Spring, 1957. ANC.
Gyllenhaal, F. E. New Church Education and Missionary Work. Paper delivered to Council of Ministers, General Church, February 5, 1929. Manuscript typescript in possession of Mrs. F. E. Gyllenhaal.
Half-Timers Certificate. Certificate for Elizabeth Melling, Clayton-le-Moors. At Clayton-le-Moors.
Henderson, Wm. Cairns. The College Religion Program. Educational Council, Bryn Athyn, August 21, 1952. ANC.
___ The Theological School, 1957 Charter Day Address. ANC.
Heywood Educational Committee Minutes, 1863-1891 or 1892; last entry undated. Swedenborg House, London.
Hinkley, E. D., Summary of Carter papers, Cambridge Photostats, Swedenborg School of Religion, Newton, Mass.
Hooker, Maggy, Failsworth. Recollections of the Day School of the Failsworth New Jerusalem Church, November 26, 1956. R. R. Gladish
James, Alice Archer Sewall. Biographical Glimpses of Frank Sewall, Typescript, James Estate.
James, John H. Diary, 1837-1880; Correspondence, papers, U. of Ohio Archives, Kent, Ohio.
Klein, A. J., and Committee. Report to the Trustees of Urbana University; authorized February 14, 1931. At Urbana.
Klein, David R Annual Address of the Pastor of the Immanuel Church, September 30, 1904. ANC Archives.
___ Pastors Report, Immanuel Church. ANC Archives.
Klein, E. S. Education: First Year in the Boys Academy. Boys Academy Faculty, 1933. ANC.
___ Reflections on Latin in the Curriculum. General Faculty, May 1929. ANC.
___ Some Aspects of Education for Use. Faculty and Clergy, February, 1933. ANC.
___ Standards in New Church Public Speaking. English Faculty, March 20, 1941. ANC.
Kuhl, Joan. Report of Toronto School, Educational Council Papers, 1960. ANC.
McQueen, Daniel B. What ANC College Meant to Me. Sons of the Academy Banquet, January 18, 1958.
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Manchester, Minutes of Subcommittee in Reference to Proposed New School for Moss Side, 1887-1888. E. Monk, Manchester.
Manchester. Peter Street Schools Visitors Book, 1872-1871. Manchester Central High School for Boys.
Mary Allen School. Last Will and Testament of Mary Allen, Deceased. Hamilton County Courthouse, Cincinnati.
Middleport, Ohio. Annual Report of Pastor of Society for 1912. Society Minutes. ANC Archives.
Newcastle. Yellow poster advertising New Church Pestalozzian School, High Friar Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Swedenborg House, London.
Newcastle-on-Tyne. New Church Pestalozzian Day School, Percy Street. Minutes, 1832-1847. Three letters pasted in. Swedenborg House, London.
New Church College Declaration, signed by Governors of the College, 1845. In [first] Minute Book. New Church College, Woodford Green.
___ [Emanuel College] Minutes, April 1845-December 27, 1864. New Church College, Woodford Green.
New Church Educational Institute papers; Correspondence of Rudolph L. Tafel. Swedenborg House, London.
New Church Institute of Education Minutes, 1866-present, Waltham, Mass.
New Church Theological School - Cambridge. History of the Theological School of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem. At Swedenborg School of Religion, Newton, Mass.
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Oldham Educational Committee Reports, 1877-1892. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Society Agreement with Day School Teacher, November 27, 1867. Swedenborg House, London.
Olivet Church, Toronto. Minutes of Society, 1888 to present. At Toronto.
___ Record of Official Acts. Toronto.
Olivet Church. School Reports, Annual, 1888 to present. At Toronto.
Oswaldtwistle Educational Committee Minutes, 1876-1879. Swedenborg House, London.
Peckham Rye Society. Minutes, 1898-1925. ANC Archives.
___ Minutes, Reports. 1903-1928. ANC Archives.
___ Elphick, Derik. History of Peckham Rye Society. ANC Archives.
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Pendleton, Willard Dandridge. The Development of the Junior College of The Academy of the New Church. Address - May, 1946. ANC.
___ The Future of the Academy, Charter Day Banquet Address, Oct. 21, 1961.
___ Immanuel Church Beginnings, Account of. ANC Archives.
___ Notes on the Education of Infants and Children. ANC.
___ The Teaching of the Letter of the Word to Children. ANC.
Peter Street School Visitors book, 1836-1871, at Central High School for Boys, Manchester.
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Pitcairn, Michael. What ANC Education Meant to Me. Sons of the Academy Banquet, January 18, 1958. ANC.
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___ Class Record Sheets from 1922-1934. Pittsburgh School.
___ Individual students record of time spent on homework. Pittsburgh School.
___ Minutes of Executive Committee, November 19, 1946 to present. Pittsburgh Church.
___ Minutes of the Pittsburgh Society of the New Jerusalem, and of its Council, November 17, 1885-December 29, 1901. Archives of 1st Society of New Jerusalem, Pittsburgh.
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___ Rollbook of school for 1944-1945. In Pittsburgh Church.
___ Roster sheets for various years. In Pittsburgh School.
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___ Report on Mars Wager. November 1, 1900, December 21, 1900.
___ Reports of Principal of Boys Academy to Parents, 1900-1905. ANC.
___ Statement of January 6, 1888. ANC Archives.
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___ Record Book of the First New-Church Society in Providence, 1837, Cambridge Theological School.
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Radcliffe New Church Day School Educational Committee Minutes, 1863-1891. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Society Minutes, 1872-1881. Radcliffe New Jerusalem Church.
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___ Unity in the Universe. Mimeographed. ANC, 1959.
Smith, Besse Edmonds. Classroom Practice. Seminary Faculty, October, 1926. ANC.
___ Education Course in the College. College Faculty, January, 1936. ANC.
___ Note book on Music Education. Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, 1946. ANC Archives.
___ Some Aspects of the Education of Girls in the Seminary. Seminary Faculty. ANC.
___ The Spirit that Animates the Teacher. General Faculty, March 1, 1938. ANC.
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Theological School. The Inter-Seminary Plan in Use at the School of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem. In Cambridge Fire-Proof room.
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___ Rollbooks, etc., of Day School. At Olivet Church.
Urbana. By-Laws of Urbana University. Typescript. Copy, R. R. Gladish.
___ Charter granted by the General Assembly of Ohio, March 7, 1850. Copy, R. R. Gladish.
___ Correspondence of J. H. James, Milo G. Williams, and Rev. Chauncey Giles 1858-1860 relative to running of Urbana. James Papers, Ohio U. at Kent, Ohio.
___ Facts Connected with Urbana University, Handwritten Ms. in possession of R. R. Gladish. No name, no date.
___ James Manuscripts. Extensive Correspondence of John Hough James. Also Diary of James in several Ms. volumes 1837-1880. At Urbana, James House.
___ Letters written to Milo G. Williams, February 11, 1834-October 26, 1877. Urbana.
Urbana. Minutes of the Trustees and Executive Committee of Urbana University:
Vols. 1 and 2 missing
Vol. 3 - July 6, 1874-February 27, 1885
Vol. IIIb - June 25, 1885-January 7, 1919
Vol. IV - June 3, 1909-January 14, 1931
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Urbana, Pausch, George. Memorandum regarding Convention and Religious Education; and Urbana. General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the U. S. A., Vice-Presidents Office. 209 Southway, Guilford, Baltimore 18, Maryland, c. 1952-1953. No date.
___ Pledge not to drink - student. Signed: Llewellyn P. Gwynne, March 18, 1851. At Urbana.
___ Pond, Millard E. A Proposed Community College Program for Urbana Junior College. (Seen at Urbana; probably in author Ponds possession now.)
___ Record of the Endowment and Sustaining Fund of Urbana University ... June 19,1876, pp. 1-10. (Contains, pp. 8-10, The Need of a New Church College.)
___ Reports of the President of Urbana University. Reports from the Faculty to President. Letters on finances; Memorials of Faculty to Board. Printed flyers and pamphlets calling for support, etc., on behalf of Urbana University. At Urbana.
___ Rich, Morley D. Letter to conduct of Urbana 1926-1928; from students viewpoint ... Morley Rich, London, to R. R. Gladish, Bryn Athyn, June 1, 1953.
___ Shetter, Glenn B. Letter to the Board of Trustees, Urbana University, may 13, 1926. At Urbana.
___ Students registered at Urbana University in all Departments 1853-1933. 80 years. At Urbana University.
Urbana and Waltham Schools. Prospectuses, appeals for students, funds, etc. History of the new Church in Urbana (longhand Ms.) A part concerning 1950s. ANC Archives.
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___ Articles of Incorporation of the New Church Institute of Education (and Waltham Schools governing body). In Waltham, Joseph Caughey, 435 Lexington Street.
Whitehead, William. Education in the Post-War World. Sons of the Academy, September 26, 1943. ANC.
___ Our Educational Heritage. Charter Day Banquet, October 21, 1938. ANC.
___ The Teaching of the History of the Most Ancient Man. Educational Council, 1938. ANC.
Wigan. [LEA] Building and Repairs Sub-committee Minutes. Typescript copy.
___ Educational Committee Minutes, 1888-1890. Swedenborg House, London.
___ [LEA] Education Committee Minutes. Typed copies sent by Reese Edwards, Director of Education, Wigan, .
___ [LEA] Elementary Education Sub-committee Minutes. Typescript Copy.
Wigan. History of Wigan Society. F. Middlehurst. In possession of R. R. Gladish.
___ Lease of New Jerusalem School to Corporation of Wigan, September 6, 1906. (Copy.)
___ Notice Record Book, 1873-1881. F. Middlehurst, Wigan.
___ Society Minutes, 1870-1874. F. Middlehurst, Wigan.
Williams, Milo G. Manuscripts, Vols. 1-9, to 1879. In Mr. Williams handwriting, carefully written and paged with table of contents. Vols. I-III contain his autobiography and account of all schools with which he was associated, pp. 1-274-1/2 take him to his resignation. 275-370 includes accounts of books he has read, letters of sympathy, etc., the last entry, characteristically, November 14, 1879, is of astronomical observations, meteors, prayer, 369. The other volumes are class books, notes, Journals in which he placed his daily reflections, or information and his reactions thereto.
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Academy of the New Church, The. An Anniversary Record. By members of the Faculty of the Academy Schools. The Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, 1926. ANC.
___ Alumni Association Organized. NCL, May, 1894, Vol. 14, 79.
___ Alumni Association. Statement Concerning Meeting. February 4, 1896. ANC Archives.
___ Bishop Benade Resigns as Chancellor. NCL, September 1882, Vol. 2, 144.
___ Catalogue of the Schools of the ANC, 1890-1891, Year of the New Church 121. Also other catalogues. ANC Archives.
___ Catalogue of Schools of the ANC, 1890 to date. ANC.
___ Charter of the ANC Recorded November 5, 1877 ANC Archives.
___ College Letters. For private use of members of the Academy. No. 1-17, 1886-1895. ANC.
___ Commencement Exercises. NCL, June, 1881, Vol. 1, 5.
___ Curriculum. Philadelphia, 1878. ANC Archives.
___ Documents concerning the disturbances caused by the Rev. Louis H. Tafel, 1890. ANC Archives.
___ Endowment Received. NCL, August, 1899, Vol. 19, 121.
___ Expansion Program, pamphlet, 1916. ANC Archives.
___ The first three General Meetings of Teachers connected with the Schools of the ANC. ANC Book Room, Philadelphia, 1892. ANC.
___ First Inception, NCL, March, 1894, Vol. 14, 39f.
___ Girls' School. NCL, October, 1888, Vol. 4, 160.
___ Journal of Education of The Academy of the New Church. 1901-1958. 32v. Plates. (Continued as Academy Journal, 1958.). ANC.
___ Kindergarten Established. NCL, March, 1894, Vol. 2, 160.
___ Organization of. NCL, March, 1894, Vol. 14, 39f.
___ Principles of. W. F. Pendleton NCL, August, 1899, Vol. 19, 117ff.
Academy of the New Church, The. Printed program for award of degree to R. J. Tilson, April 6, 1880. ANC.
___ "Programme, First Annual Commencement, May 15, 1878." ANC Archives. Also other Commencement programs.
___ Property on Summer Street rented. NCL, July, 1885, Vol. 5, 112. Wallace Street dedication NCL, February, 1888. Vol. 18, 27. Cherry Street sold. NCL, February, 1888, vol. 18, 32.
___ "The Relation of the General Church to the Academy," by George deCharms. Genera. Church, Bryn Athyn, 1940. (Pastoral Extension Series.) ANC.
___ Schoolhouse Dedicated, Huntingdon Valley. NCL, May, 1898, Vol. 18, 14.
___ Schools, Baptism necessary for entrance into. NCL, November, 1894, Vol. 14, 175.
Schools in Philadelphia closed by the Corporation. NCL, March, 1897, Vol. 17, 43.
___ Schools Opened. NCL, October, 1881, Vol. 1, 5.
___ Schools reopened in Huntingdon Valley. NCL, November, 1897, Vol. 17, 175.
___ Songs, ANC. See also Childs, W. C. in ANC Archives #523.
___ A Statement Concerning Recent Disturbances in the Church of The Academy of the New Church and in the General Church of the Advent, ANC, Philadelphia, March 1, 1897. Signed by Glenn, Robert M., Hicks, Samuel H., and Asplundh, Carl Hj., as Directors of the Academy. ANC.
___ Teachers' Institute established. NCL, November, 1897, Vol. 17, 175.
___ Theological School established. NCL, January, 1888, Vol. 8, 13.
___ Uses of. NCL, February, 1880, Vol. 10, 17.
___ What it is and What it is not. NCL, June, 1881, Vol. 1, 9.
Accrington. Annual printed reports of Day Schools and Sunday Schools, 1872-1901. Bound Volume at Accrington Church.
___ Celebration of the Centenary of the Sunday School, 1801-1901. RRG.
___ The Sixteenth Annual Report of the New Jerusalem Church Day-Schools, Accrington, 1856-1857; also 1860; 1861; 1866; 1867; printed by Jno. Edwards, Abbey Street, NCC.
___ Souvenir Booklet. Celebration of the Centenary of the Sunday School. 1801-1901. Accrington, 1901. RRG.
___ Verses by a. B. A Goodbye to the Old School and a Greeting to the New. J. Broadley, Clayton-le-Moors, 1887. RRG.
Acton, Alfred. "Debating. Has it a Place in New Church Education?" NCL, May, 1927, Vol. 47, 269-282.
___ Introduction to the Word Explained. The Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, 1927.
___ Nature of the Spiritual World. ANC Book Room, Bryn Athyn, 1914.
___ "New Church Education and the Growth of the Church." Journal of Education, June, 1912. E. ANC.
Acton, Alfred (Translator) Letters and Memorials of Emanuel Swedenborg, 2 vols., Swedenborg Scientific Association, Bryn Athyn, Pa., 1948-1955.
Arnold, Matthew. Reports on Elementary Schools, 1852-1882. (Edited by Sir Francis Sanford), Macmillian, London, 1899.
Bateman, Henry. History and Objects of the New Church College, Cave and Sever, Manchester, 1859.
Bath. Perkins, David Page. History of the Portland Society of the New Jerusalem ... Printed for the Society, Portland, Me., 1883.
___ Second Reading Book, Spottiswoode & Shaw, n. d.
Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England (Edited by Giles, J. A.) George Bell and Sons, London, 1907.
___ The Return Kingdom of the Divine Proceeding, Swedenborg Scientific Association, Bryn Athyn, 1917.
Bell, Andrew. An Experiment in Education, Murray, London, 1797.
___ Madras School, or Elements of Tuition, etc., London, Murray, 1808.
Bellinger, Celia C. "Moral Training in Elementary School." Journal of Education, April, 1916. ANC.
___ "The Problem of the Ungraded School." Journal of Education, June, 1916. ANC.
Benade, W. H. Animals and Their Correspondences, New Church Bookstore, Philadelphia, 1851.
___ Conversations on Education, Vol. I. The Academy of the New Church, 1821 Wallace Street, Philadelphia, 1888.
___ Conversations on Education, Second Series. Journal of Education, The Academy of the New Church. n. d.
Benade, W. H. Education of Boys and Girls. Extract of a letter to E. C. Bostock, in Bryn Athyn Post, 1920, ANC.
___ The Establishment of the Church by the Self-Evidencing reason of love. London, J. Speirs, 1881. ANC.
___ The Government of the Church. (In Words for the New Church, Vol. 3, 51-92.)
___ Notes from Lectures on Education. ANC Archives.
___ Resignation Sermon. Sermon to the First New Jerusalem Society of Philadelphia, preached on Resigning as Minister in Connection with that Society, published by particular request, Boericke & Tafel, Philadelphia, 1854.
___ "Report on the Nature of Swedenborg's Illumination." Report to the Pennsylvania Association of the New Jerusalem, 1861. ANC.
___ Truths for Children, in Stories told again. ANC.
Benade, W. H. and N. C. Burnham, Circular of 1855, Philadelphia, 1855. ANC Archives.
Bewley, Thos. J. "Mr. Benade's First New Church School." ANC Archives.
Bible, The Holy. American Bible Society, King James Version, New York, n. d.
Birmingham, Report of the Committee of the Birmingham New Jerusalem Church Free Day Schools (established June, 1833). NCC. The Report for 1847 is at Swedenborg House, London.
Bjorck, Albert. The Hague Position, a Defense. No publisher, 1933. ANC Pamphlet Collection.
Block, Marguerite Beck. "Swedenborg and the Romantic Movement." New Christianity, Winter, 1938, Vol. 4, 3f.
___ Prospectus of the London School, ANC, Burton Road, Brixton, London, S. W. 9. ANC Archives.
Boston. Act of Incorporation of the Boston Society of February 13. At Boston Church.
___ New Church Union, Boston, printed for (above), 1866, 16 pp.
Boston School. Report "Respecting the week-day Schools" plus Mr. Beaman's Statement" ... 398 ff., July, 1839, New Jerusalem Magazine and Journal of Proceedings.
Bowers, Rev. J. E. "The Academy of the New Church." NCL, September, 1910, Vol. 30, 642-646.
Brockton Declaration. "The Declaration of the General Convention." NCL, August, 1909, Vol. 29, 450-459.
Brown, Reginald W. "Laws of Motion of the Solar Vortex." Journal of Education, April, 1916, Vol. 15, 148-177.
___ "Positive Element in Education." Journal of Education, January, 1931, Vol. 25, 12-26.
___ "Uses and Place of the Natural Sciences in New church Education." Journal of Education, July, 1912, 31-39.
Buell, F. M. [Editor] Communication. Monograph for New Church English Teachers. 1938. ANC.
___ "Natural Laws of Composition." Journal of Education, October, 1913, Vol. 13, 99-107.
Burnham, Hugh L. "To the Parents of Scholars Attending The Academy School in Chicago, and to the Friends of the School." Printed leaflet, n. d..
Buss, James Frederick. The New Church Movement among South African Natives. General Conference, London, 1918.
___ The Romantic Story of the South African Mission. General Conference, London, 1924.
Butler, Henry. The Etymological Spelling Book, being an introduction to the spelling, pronunciation, and derivation of the English language. 1st Edition, London, Simpkin & Marshall, 1830. ANC.
___ The Gradual Primer, 10th edition, London, Simpkin & Marshall, 1839. British Museum Library, London.
Caldwell, William B. "Academy Education in the Home." NCL, July, 1926, Vol. 46, 463-476.
Carter, Robert. New Church Messenger, may 6, 1891, Vol. 60, 281; Ibid., April 20, 1892, Vol. 62, 249ff.
___ New Church Messenger, June 13, 1917, Vol. 112, 466 f.
A Catechism for Children of the New Church, Allen, Boston, 1833.
A New Church Catechism for Children, Clapp, Boston, 1856.
Cherry Street School, Advertisement for. New Church Messenger, September 19, 1857, Vol. 3, 55.
Cincinnati, W. N. H. (W. N. Hobart?) Outline History of the New Jerusalem Church of Cincinnati, 1811-1903, Published by Society, 1903.
___ Resolution of the Western New Church Convention of 1832, "On the proper mode of educating the rising generation." In Proceedings of that session, 5f; also copied in Milo Williams Ms. at pp. 98-99.
Cincinnati, Smith, Ophia D., [Editor] The Giles Richards Family Letters, Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio.
Clayton-le-Moors. Government circular explaining Religious regulations of Act of 1870. Robert L. Morant, H. M. I., as signatory. At Clayton-le-Moors Church.
Clowes, John. An Address from the translator to the readers of the theological writings of Baron Swedenborg ... Second edition, London, C. F. Alvey, 1868. ANC.
___ Memoirs of the late Rev. John Clowes ... J. S. Hodson, London, 1849. ANC.
Colby, Charles W., [Editor] Selections from Sources of English History, Longmans Green, London, New York and Bombay, 1899.
Collard, C. E. Practical Hints on the Preparation of Schools for Examination under the Revised Code. Fourth Edition. Simpkin & Marshall, London, 1863. PN.
Comenius, John Amos. The Great Didactic. (Edited by M. W. Keatinge), Adam and Charles Black, London, 1896.
___ Orbis Sensulium Pictus. A Nomenclature and pictures of all the chief things that are in the world, and of men's employments therein ... (Translated by Charles Hoole). Twelfth Edition, S. Leacroft, London, 1777.
___ School of Infancy. (Originally printed in German, Lissa, 1633, Poland). Boston, D. C. Heath, 1901, Ed. And intro. By Will s. Monroe. (Heath's Pedagogical Library #27).
Conference Minutes of the General Conference of the New Jerusalem, 1789-1961. ANC.
Ebert, Stanley F. "The Problems of Vocational Guidance in our Secondary Schools." Joint Meeting of Council of Clergy and General Faculty, March 31, 1938. ANC.
Elphick, F. W. "A brief History of the Academy of the New Church under the General Church of the New Jerusalem in London, England, 1876-1925." 2 Typescript Notebooks. ANC Archives.
Embasy. Embasy Day School Visitors' Book, 1849-1871. Swedenborg House, London.
___ Rules for the Chester Legacy Committee. In appendix to the minutes of 26th General Conference, London, 1833.
Conjugial Heresy. Wm. Schlatter. Documents of New Church History. Letters from William Schlatter to the Hon. John Young, NCL, May, 1909, Vol. 29, 99.
Convention Camps, Andre Diaconoff, Rev. Split Mountain Camp - 1954 "A Silver Jubilee." Messenger, October 30, 1954, Vol. 174, 263.
___ Horen, Gutvedt. "From the Youngest Camp," Messenger, October 30, 1954, Vol. 174, 362.
___ Helen Hathaway, "Worship, Study, and Play at the Almont Summer School," Messenger, October 30, 1954, Vol. 174, 361.
___ Mrs. Clark S. Nichols, "A Rewarding Vacation at Fryeburg," Messenger, October 30, 1954, Vol. 174, 362.
___ Journals of Central Convention, Vol. I, 1847. ANC.
___ Journals of Massachusetts Association of the New Jerusalem. Salem. ANC.
___ Journals of the Western Convention of the New Jerusalem. ANC.
Convention Camps. Proceedings of. General Conventions of Receivers of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem in the United States. ANC.
___ F. Gardiner Perry. "The Story of the Fryeburg New Church Assembly," Messenger, October 30, 1954, Vol. 174, 360.
Cromer Street School. Report of Day School Committee. 1847; 1877. Photocopy - RRG.
Curriculum of Bryn Athyn Elementary School, by teachers of the School, compiled by Eo Pendleton. 1915. ANC.
___ of Bryn Athyn Elementary School. Bryn Athyn School Print Shop, 1926. ANC.
Cushman, Thos. And others. Addresses delivered at 50th Anniversary of Society of New Jerusalem at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, May 29, 1883, Boston N. C. Union, 1883.
David, Llewellyn Warren Towne. "The Case for New Church Education." Addresses to Sons of Academy (Pittsburgh), June 22, 1921. ANC.
Day, Willard G., Rev. Early Recollections of the New Jerusalem Church in Ohio and Maryland, Baltimore, 1919.
DeCharms, George. "The Education of Girls." Women's Guild, April 11, 1939. ANC.
___ The Growth of the Mind. Revised Edition, 1953. ANC Book Room, Bryn Athyn, 1932.
___ "The Life of the Lord." ANC Press, Bryn Athyn, 1948.
___ A New Goal of Education. No. 6 in a series of 7 doctrinal classes delivered in Bryn Athyn, January-February, 1944. NCL, March-June, 1944. ANC.
___ "The Old Testament and Education." Journal of Education, April, 1930. Vol. 24, 176-184. ANC.
___ "Plan to initiate a study of the interior development of President's Council," November, 1936. ANC.
___ "The Present Problem of Academy Education." General Faculty, March, 1936. ANC.
___ The Tabernacle of Israel. Bryn Athyn. ANC.
___ "The University Idea." Journal of Education, January, 1917, Vol. 16, 75-80. ANC.
DeCharms, Richard. Memorial from Rev. R. De Charms. In Journal of 16th Annual Meeting of New Church Western Convention, Cincinnati, May 17, 1848. ANC.
De Charms, Richard J. "Child Ethics." Journal of Education, October, 1914, Vol. 14, 50-56. ANC.
Doe, Mrs. A Woman's Thought on the Education of Girls. F. Pitman, London, n. d.
Doering, Charles Emil. "Child Training." Journal of Education, January, 1931, Vol. 25, 1-11. ANC.
___ "Homework." Journal of Education, July, 1914, Vol. 24, 3-7. ANC.
___ "Living Mathematics." Journal of Education, February, 1927, Vol. 23, 65-79. ANC.
___ "New Church Higher Education." Journal of Education, June, 1916, Vol. 16, 44-58. ANC.
Doughty, John. A Manual of New Church Doctrine Designed for Sunday School and Home Instruction. J. P. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1871.
Eaton, Russell. "What Knowledge is of Most Worth?" New Church Review, January 1918, Vol. 25, 59-72.
Ebert, Stanley Faulkner, [Editor] The Faculty's Choice. Selected Literary Efforts of Secondary School Students of The Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, 1941. ANC.
Education in Britain. Pamphlet. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1955.
Educational Beliefs Current. NCL, January, 1955, Vol. 75, 43, under "London, England."
Emile, or Treatise on Education, Jean Jacques Rousseau, (abridged, translated, and annotated by William H. Payne), D. Appleton, New York, 1906.
Failsworth. Fourth Report of the New Jerusalem Church Day School, Croft Street, Failsworth, for the year ending June 30, 1866, and for 1867. Printed by Wm. Shackleton, Hollinwood. NCC.
Field, George. Memoirs, incidents and reminiscences of the early history of the New Church in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and adjacent states, and Canada. R. Carswell & Co., Toronto; E. H. Swinney, New York; J. Speirs, London, 1879.
Findeldey, Frederick Adam. "Scale Determination of Ability in the Classroom." Journal of Education, February, 1930, Vol. 24, 199-206. ANC.
General Church Mission in South Africa. Prospectus Alpha School, Ladybrand, O. F. S. ANC.
Gladish, R. R. "Distinctive New Church Education." NCL, September, 1940, Vol. 60, 421-427.
Glenview. Early Days of Immanuel Church, by Seymour G. Nelson, Glenview, 1927. ANC.
Goddard, A. E. "The Newchurchman's Part in the Education of the Day." New Church Review, July, 1915, Vol. 22, 345-354.
Goddard, John. "New Church Education - Report of the Church Council of the First New Jerusalem Society of Cincinnati." Read at a Social Meeting, March 28, 1883, by Rev. John Goddard, Chairman. ANC.
Goyder, D. C. The Autobiography of a Phrenologist, Simpkin & Marshall, London, 1857. ANC.
___ Concise History of the New Jerusalem Church, Simpkin & Marshall; Thos. Goyder, Westminster, London, 1827; 1871. ANC.
___ Manual of the System of Instruction Pursued at the Infant School, Meadow Street, Bristol, Fourth Edition, Longmans Green, London, 1825. ANC.
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Casson, Wm. A., and Whitely, G. Cecil. The Education Act., 1902, Fully Explained, Knight, London, 1903. PN.
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Conklin, Edwin Grant. Heredity and Environment in the Development of Man, 5th Ed. Revised, Princeton University Press, 1922.
Cooke, Mrs. Robert. History of the New Jerusalem Church, Kearsley, Robert Cooke, Ltd., Farnsworth, 1908.
Cooper, Dorothy Pendleton. "The Affectional Life in the Mental Growth of the Pre-School Child." Educational Council, August 19, 1952. ANC.
Cubberly, Ellwood P. Readings in the History of Education, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1920.
Dobbs, A. E. Education and Social Movements, 1700-1850, Longmans, Green, London, 1919.
Doering, C. E. History of New Church Education. Lecture notes (Mimeographed), General Church, Bryn Athyn, 1960.
"The Movement for New Church Education in New England," General Faculty, March 5, 1940.
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Goerwitz, Emanuel. "Swedenborg in Goethe's Faust." New Church Review, Vol. 9, Boston, April, 1902, 222-244.
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Handbook of Private Schools, 1960, 1961, [Ed. by Porter Sargent], F. Porter Sargent, Boston, 1961
Hans, Nicholas. New Trends in Education in the Eighteenth Century, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., London, 1951.
Harrison, Constance Cary. "My Lord Fairfax of Virginia," Scribner's Monthly, 1879, Vol. 18, 715-728.
Hatcher, Harlan, Price, Robert Murdoch, Florence, Stockwell, J. W. Smith, Ophia, Marshall, Leslie. Johnny Appleseed, A Voice in the Wilderness, Swedenborg Press, Paterson, N. J., 1953.
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Henderson, William Cairns. "The Formation of the Natural Mind." Educational Council, 1952. ANC.
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Higham, Charles "James Buchanan." New Church Magazine, Hay, 1915, Vol. 34, 211-219;
"The First Day School." New Church Magazine, 1900, Vol. 19, 385-394.
"The Rev. D. G. Goyder and Infant Education" New Church Magazine, October, 1915, Vol. 34, 445-450.
"New Church Educational Fund." New Church Magazine, November, 1915, Vol. 34, 498-505.
"Samuel Wilderspin." New Church Magazine, March, 1915, Vol. 34, 106-112; 166-172.
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Hodson's Lists. Catalogue of New Church Rooks published and sold by James S. Hodson ... with an introductory notice and some account of the several authors. J. S. Hodson, London, 1849. ANC.
Holdsworth, W. A. The Elementary Education Act, 1870, Popularly Explained, George Routledge & Sons, London, 1871. PN,
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Leitch, James. Practical Educationists and their Systems of Teaching. Maclehose, Glasgow, 1876.
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Liturgy and Hymnal for the Use of the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Fourth revised edition, Academy Book Room, Bryn Athyn, 1939.
Ludwig, Emil. Goethe, The History of a Man (Trans. by E. C. Mayne), Putnam, N. Y., 1928.
Manchester. Smith, Francis. History of the Peter Street Society of the New Church, Manchester. James Speirs, London, 1892.
Markham, Edwin. Edwin Markham on Swedenborg and other papers, reprinted from New Church Quarterly, January-April, 1925. ANC pamphlet collection.
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Mayhew , Katerine, and Edwards, Anna. The Dewey School, The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago, 1896-1903. Intro. by John Dewey, Appleton-Century, N. Y., 1936.
Meiklejohn, J. M. D. An Old Educational Reformer, Dr. Andrew Bell, Edwin Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1891.
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"The Sub-conscious as a Factor in Education." Journal of Education, February, 1928.
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Oxford Universal Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Revised Edition, 1955.
Porter, Katherine H. Through A Glass Darkly, Spiritualism in the Browning Circle, Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1958.
Price, Robert. Johnny Appleseed, Man and Myth, Univ. of Indiana Press, Bloomington, 1954.
Quick, Robert Hebert. Essays on Educational Reformers, Cincinnati, Robert Clarke,1883.
Radcliffe. New Jerusalem Sunday School Centenary Souvenir, Radcliffe Printing Company, 1913. In Author's possession.
The Stand Lane Society of the New Jerusalem Church, Radcliffe, Jubilee Celebrations, 1880-1930, Radcliffe, 1930. In Author's possession.
Reed, Samson. Observations on the Growth of the Mind, Cummings and Hilliard, Boston, 1826.
Reisner, Edw. H. Nationalism and Education since 1789. Macmillan, N.Y., 1928.
Robinson, Cyril E. England, A History of British Progress, etc., Crowell, N.Y., 1928.
Robinson, Gladys N. "Conference a Hundred Years Ago," New Church Herald, December, 1954, Vol. 35, 206 f.
Salmon, David and Hindshaw, Winifred. Infant Schools, Their History and Theory. London, 1904.
Joseph Lancaster, Published for the British and Foreign School Society by Longmans Green, London, 1904.
"Some Fresh Facts about Wilderspin," The Teacher's Times, Reprinted in The Swan for December, 190.
Scharf, J., and others. The New Jerusalem Church (in his History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884, Vol. 2, 1432, 1935.)
Schreck, E. J. E. Early History of the New Church in Birmingham, including an account of the first New Jerusalem Temple erected in the World. New Church Press, London, 1916.
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Sewell, Frank. "Swedenborg's Influence upon Goethe," a paper read before the American Philosophical Convention. Reprinted from the Harvard Illustrated Magazine in New Philosophy, January, 1906, Vol. 9, 12-26.
Sigstedt, Cyriel Odhner. The Swedenborg Epic, The Life and Works of Emanuel Swedenborg, Bookman Associates, New York, 1952.
Silver, Ednah C. Sketches of the New Church in America, Massachusetts New Church Union, Boston, 1920.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 3 Vols., T, Dobson, Philadelphia, 1796.
Smith, Francis. History of the Peter Street Society of the New Church, Manchester, James Speirs, London, 1892.
Smith, Frank. A History of English Elementary Education, 1760-1902, Oxford U. Press, 1937. PN.
Smith, Ophia. Adam Hurdus and the Swedenborgian in Early Cincinnati; Reprinted from The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Vol. 53, April-June, 1944.
The New Church in Ohio, Reprinted from The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, July, 1952 to January, 1953.
Smith, Ophia D. "The Story of Johnny Appleseed," In Johnny Appleseed, a Voice in the Wilderness, Paterson, 1947.
Smith, Wm. E., and Ophia D. A Buckeye Titan, (Col. John Hough James, founder of Urbana University), Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, Cincinnati, 1953.
Stoeber, D. E. Vie de J. F. Oberlin, Pasteur a Watbach au Ban-de-la Roche, Truettel et Wurts, Strasbourg, 1831, Library of Congress.
Stones, E. "The New Jerusalem Church School," - chapter in; unpublished Master's thesis on the Voluntary Schools of Accrington, 1957. RRG.
Stroh, Alfred H., and Ekelog, Greta. Kronologisk Frteckning fver Emanuel Swedenborgs Skrifter, 1700-1772, Almquist & Wiksells, Upsala and Stockholm, 1910.
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Ueberweg, Friedrich. History of Philosophy. (Trans. by George S. Morris with additions by Noah Porter) 2 Vols., Scribner, Armstrong & Co., New York, 1876.
Uttley, W. V. History of Kitchener, privately published, Kitchener, 1937. At Carmel Church, Kitchener.
Very, Frank W. An Epitome of Swedenborg's Science, 2 Vols., Four Seas Co., Boston, 1927.
Vickers, Paul V. (Editor). Graded Syllabus Manual of Lessons, Second Year Junior, New Church Sunday School Union, 1952. Contains teaching instructions for Conference Sunday Schools. NCC.
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery. Doubleday, Page & Co., N. Y. and Toronto, 1922.
Webster's Biographical Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass., First Edition, 1943.
Weisenburger, Francis P. A Brief History of Urbana University (Urbana Junior College) Urbana, Ohio, 1850-1950, n. d. RRG.
Whitehead, William. "What Are the Responsibilities of New Church Educators in a World at War"? Educational Council, April 9, 1942. ANC.
Williams, E. I. F. Horace Mann Educational Statesman, Macmillan, N.Y., 1937.
Williams, Milo. Foote, Jno. O., Schools of Cincinnati and its Vicinity, C. F. Bradley, Cincinnati, 1855. CPL.
History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio. S. B. Nelson, 1894, 128. Rev. Practical School of Mile Williams - before 1836 - account in Cincinnati Mirror, June, 1832. CPL.
Williams, Milo. A History of Education in the State of Ohio - Centennial Volume, Columbus, Ohio, 1876, Published by Author Gen Asij (Account of Milo Williams, Esp. Dayton School, 419-420 1st Manual Labor Inst.) CPL.
Williams, Oscar. A Little Treasury of Modern Poetry, English and American, Chas, Scribner's Sons, N. Y., 1946.
Woodward, W. H. Vittorino Da Feltre and Other Humanist Educators, Cambridge University
Bryn Athyn. Bosman, May. "Swedenborgian Borough a Model Community." Philadelphia Sunday Ledger, February 27, 1916. ANC Archives.
Bryn Athyn. "Novel Village of Bryn Athyn Incorporated by Judge Swartz." Philadelphia Public Ledger, Sunday, January 23, 1916.
"Consecration of a New Jerusalem Church." Dedication of Cherry Street Church and School of September 20, 1857. Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, September 21, 1857. Quoted in New Jerusalem Messenger, October 3, 1857.
Easter, Don. "An Education that is not in the Books." Columbus Citizen, May 23, 1964. Columbus Citizen Magazine, 16.
"Emanuel Swedenborg." Editorial in the Chicago Journal of Commerce and La Salle Street Journal, Saturday, June 2, 1923.
"A Forbidden Subject." Portland Oregonian, July 19, 1908.
"Free Love Isn't Taught Children." Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, July 16, 1908.
"Guard Against Smallpox." Philadelphia Inquirer, February 18, 1906.
"Moral Code of Girls' School Repudiated." Philadelphia No. American, July 16, 1908.
"New Church Convention in Threes of its Greatest Sensation." Daily Herald, Laporte, Indiana, Nov. 5, 1910.
"Says Swedenborgian Church Here Has No Immoral Doctrines." Philadelphia No. American, March 10, 1909.
"State Takes a Hand in Smallpox Scare." Philadelphia Ledger, Feb. 18, 1906.
"Swedenborg's Theory." Philadelphia Record, July 2, 1910.
"Swedenborg Case Decision Reversed." Philadelphia Public Ledger, June 23, 1909.
"Swedenborg's Love Creed." Philadelphia Public Ledger, Dec. 23, 1908.
Urbana Citizen, 1838, 1860, 1862.
Urbana Country Collustrator, 1831-1835.
Urbana Daily Citizen, July 29, 1954.
Urbana Free Press, 1860-1861.
Urbana Mad River Courant, 1828, 1831, 1834.
Urbana Ohio State Democrat, 1855.
Urbana Record, 1835.
Urbana Union, 1862-1870.
"Urbana University." Article in Urbana Citizen, June 24, 1853.
"Urbana University." Springfield Republican, June 23, 1853.
Urbana Western Citizen and Urbana Gazette, 1839-1842, 1845, 1854, 1862.
"Vaccination at Bryn Athyn." Price, E. S., Letter to the Editor, Harrisburg Star-Independent.
"Wants Town Quarantined." Philadelphia Press, Feb. 18, 1906.
Wilderspin, Samuel. "Letter to the Times," The Times, London, August 8, 18$6.
Academian. Published Monthly by [Secondary School] students of the ANC, Bryn Athyn, 1937. Published twice a month in 1939. Currently a monthly. (Mimeographed)
Bryn Athyn Post. Bryn Athyn, Feb. 11, 1920 to present. Now printed on p. 2 of The Breeze of Northeast Philadelphia.
Carmel Church Chronicle, Kitchener, Ontario, October, 1941, to present.
Chatter-Box. Published by the Olivet Society, Toronto, October, 1941, to present.
The Commoner. Students of the ANC College. October, 1950, Vol. I to present. (Mimeographed)
The Communique Monthly, General Church Military Service Committee, Bryn Athyn, Vol. 1, March, 1942 - Vol. 7, August, 1948. Name changed to General Church Communique, May, 1946.
Dawn of Light and Theological Inspector. Jan.-Dec., 1825 London. Thos. Goyder Monthly. Continued as the New Jerusalem Magazine & Theological Inspector.
The Dewdrop. Periodical for children and their parents, twice a month, Ed. by W. H. Benade, published by Boericke & Tafel, Philadelphia, November, 1852-November, 1854.
Durban Society Adviser. Durban, South Africa, June 10, 1937 to present. (Mimeographed).
Intellectual Repository and New Jerusalem Magazine, 56 vols., various series, 1812-1881. General Conference of the New Church, London, 1812-1881.
Journal of Education of the Academy of the New Church, 1911-1958, Bryn Athyn, 32 Volumes. Continued se the Academy Journal, 1958 to present.
The Little Truth-Teller, Monthly Magazine for New Church children, Ed. by W. H. Benade, Philadelphia, 1845-1852.
Mirror of Truth, Cincinnati, July 5, 1845, Vol. 1, 103.
Morning Light, a New Church Weekly Journal, James Speirs, Publisher, London, 1878-1914. Changed to New Church Weekly, January, 1915-1920. Changed to New Church Herald, 1920.
New Christianity, Philadelphia. Vol. 1-19 in ten volumes. 1888-1906. ANC.
The New Church. "Brief Account of Proceedings Connected with the First Centenary Session of Conference." Manchester, August, 1857, Cave and Sever, Manchester,1857.
New Church Education. General Church Religion Lessons Committee, Bryn Athyn, Sept. June each year. Vol. 1, 1936, entitled Elementary School Journal Vols. 2-15, called Parent-Teacher Journal. Vol. 16. Vol. 16, above 1951. December, 1961 is Vol. 26.
New Church Herald, London, 1920 to date. Formerly Morning Light and New Church Weekly. Currently, bi-weekly.
New Church Life, a monthly magazine devoted to the teachings revealed through Emanuel Swedenborg. Vol. 1, January, 1881 - to date.
New Church Magazine, 1882-1958, London, General Conference, of the New Church.
New Churchman, Central Convention, Philadelphia, 1841-1844, 2 Vols.
New Churchman-Extra, Central Convention, Philadelphia, 1843-1848.
New Church Monthly, Colchester, England, 1887-1892. 1 Vol. Early numbers entitled, Colchester New Church Monthly. Continued as New Church Standard, 1893-1895.
The New Jerusalem Church Repository. Printed and sold for Dissemination of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church. Printed by Lydia Bailey, 1 Vol., Philadelphia, 1817-1818.
New Jerusalem Magazine, General Convention, Boston, Vols. 1-44, Sept. 1827 June 1872, Monthly. Continued as New Jerusalem Magazine, New series, 1877-1893.
New Jerusalem Messenger. Bi-weekly Organ of the General Convention of the United States. Vol. 1, May 26, 1855 to Vol. 47; Vol. 48 called New Church Messenger; August 30, 1958 is Vol. 178
New Philosophy, quarterly devoted to the interests of the Swedenborg Scientific Association. 1898 to present. Pub. in Urbana, Ohio, March, 1898 Oct., 1899; Boston, Dec., 1898 - July, 1900; Lancaster, Pa., Bryn Athyn by Swedenborg Scientific Association, Oct., 1900 to present.
The Novitiate's Preceptor, or Religious and Literary Register for the New Church, 3 Vols., London, 1827-1829.
Pittsburgh Reporter, Pittsburgh Society of the General Church, 1948 to present.
The Plough, a magazine for the young men and women of the New Church, issued by the British New Church Federation, 8 Vols., London, 1931-1933; 2d series, Vols., 1935-1949. No issues 1934. Now discontinued.
The Precursor, 1836-1842, Cincinnati, Book Committee of the Western Convention. Editor: Richard De Charms. Vols. 1-3.
Sharon Report, Chicago Society of the General Church, 1955 to present. Formerly the Sharon Church Bulletin, 1945-1954.
Sons of the Academy Bulletin, August, 1912 to present.
Theta Alpha Journal, Bryn Athyn, 1908 to present.
Words for the New Church, 1879-1886. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, Vols. I-III. ANC.
Acton, Alfred, 1888-1950 ANC Archives 450
Alden, Wm. H. ANC Archives 840
Ballou, Franklin ANC Archives 473
Beaman, Edmond A. ANC Archives 483
Beekman, Lillian ANC Archives 813
Bellinger, Doering, Pittsburgh, March 8, 1907 to Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, Bryn Athyn.
Bellinger, Irene (Farrington) and Celia C. Letter to 25th Ontario Assembly, October 4, 1938. At Carmel Church.
Benade, W. H., 1845-1903. ANC Archives 400-416
Boericke, Felix A.1 ANC Archives 465
Bostock, E. C. ANC Archives 468
Brown, R. W. ANC Archives 506
Burnham, Hugh L., Glenview, to General Council of the General Church, November, 25, 1915.
Burnham, N. C. ANC Archives 508
Caldwell, R. B., Sr. ANC Archives 510
Caldwell, W. B. ANC Archives 511
Carswell, Robert ANC Archives 517
Carter, Robert, Photostats at New Church Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.
Chapman, Jonathan ANC Archives 1312
Childs, W. C. ANC Archives 523
Colley, Thomas, Durban, So. Africa, October 4, 1880, to W. H. Benade. In Benade correspondences.
Cooper, F. R., Everett, W. E., Appleton, A. H., Bedwell, J., Locke, W. W., Colchester, January 14, 1901 (Joint) letter to Rt. Rev. W. F. Pendleton, Bryn Athyn. ANC Archives.
County Council of West Riding of Yorkshire, Educational Department, Wakefield, to Robert E. Dawson, Es4., New Church, Embsay, 30th July, 1925. Emsay.
Czerny, Andrew ANC Archives 546
De Charms, George ANC Archives 1346
De Charms, Richard ANC Archives X524
Dixon, Samuel G., Harrisburg, Pa., September 1, 1905. etc. "Letter to Principals, etc."
Doering, Rev. C. E. ANC Archives 528
Elphick, F. W. ANC Archives 931
Grant, Alice E. ANC Archives 1400
Greenwood, R., Marple, England, to Miss Annie Storey, Manchester, October 26, 1957. Annie Storey, Manchester.
Hibbard, J. R. ANC Archives 600
Hibbard, Mrs. J. R. (Salley De Charms) ANC Archives 605
Hyatt, E. S. ANC Archives 592
Hyatt, Hubert ANC Archives 1360
Iungerich, E. E. ANC Archives 788
James, John H., Correspondence, 1837-1878, at Univ. of Ohio Archives, Kent, Ohio.
Kirk, Ellis I. ANC Archives 620
Klein, Rev. David R. ANC Archives 621
Lechner, Harvey L., Pittsburgh, March 15, 1907, to Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, Bryn Athyn.
ANC Archives 620
Macbeth, George A. ANC Archives 469
McGeorge, William, Jr., Philadelphia, September 20, 1913; September 16, 1916 to E. E. Iungerich. ANC Archives 631
Merrell, C. G. ANC Archives 793
Mitchell, E. C. to W. H. Benade, July 2, 1875. In W. H. Benade's correspondence.
ANC Archives 400-416
Odhner, C. Th. ANC Archives 654
Pendleton, N. D. ANC Archives 674
Pendleton, W. F. ANC Archives X1500-X1599
Pitcairn, John ANC Archives 666
Pitcairn, Raymond ANC Archives 860
Plummer, Evelyn ANC Archives 677
Rathbun, R., Washington, D. C., October 25, 1906, to Principal of the Academy. ANC Archives
Price, E. S. ANC Archives 681
Schetter, Glenn B., Urbana, May 13, 1926, to the Board of Trustees of Urbana University. Among Urbana papers at Urbana University.
Schlatter, William ANC Archives 683
Schreck, E. J. E. ANC Archives 687
Smith, Besse E. ANC Archives 872
Starkey, G. G. Huntingdon Valley, Pa., April 5, 1901, to F. R. Cooper, W. E. Everett, W. H. Appleton, J. Bedwell, W. W. Locke, Colchester.
Storry, Rev. R., Heywood, to Wm. Dodds, Newcastle-on-Tyne, January 15 1846. Swedenborg House, London. (Pasted in Newcastle Minute Book No. 2)
Stroh, Emil F. ANC Archives 859
Stuart, Chas. P. ANC Archives 717
Stuart, J. P. ANC Archives 671
Synnestvedt, Homer, Philadelphia, January 26, 1884, to W. F. Pendleton, Chicago. ANC Archives 721
Tafel Disturbance ANC Archives 27
Tafel, L. H. ANC Archives 725
Tafel, R. L. ANC Archives 727
Tafel, R. L., London, to W. H. Benade, Philadelphia, May 28, 1879. ANC Archives
Tafel, R. L., London, to R. J. Tilson, London, June 13, 1890. ANC Archives
Tilson, R. J., London, May 12, 1890; June 21, 1890, to John Pitcairn, Philadelphia, ANC Archives.
Waelchli, F. E. ANC Archives 736
Whitehead, E., Huddersfield, May 16, 1891, to "Mr. McQueen." At Colchester Church.
Worcester, W. L., January 8, 1908; February 6, 1908, to John Pitcairn, Bryn Athyn.
ANC Archives 666
Acton, Bishop Alfred, Bryn Athyn, September 29, 1953.
Asquith, Fred, and others of Clayton-le-Moors Church, at Clayton-le-Moors, July 15, 1956.
Barnitz, Rev. Harry, Secretary of Hemelsche Leer Group, Bryn Athyn, February 17, 1959. (Telephone)
Bates, C., Brightlingsea, July 2, 1956.
Blackmer, Rev. Franklin H., Bryn Athyn (telephone), June 19, 1958.
Blackmer, Horace B., Boston, August 10, 1955.
Bostock, Mrs. Frank G., Bryn Athyn, October 4, 1960.
Brown, Mrs. R. W. (Augusta Pendleton), Bryn Athyn, January 1, 1957.
Buell, Frances M., Bryn Athyn, December 29, 1954; November 6, 1957.
Campbell, Mrs. Robert Igler, at Glendale, Ohio, July 11, 1955.
Carpenter, Mrs. Paul (Venita Pendleton), Bryn Athyn, April 8, 1957.
Caughey, Joseph H., Waltham, July 13, 1955.
Chace, Miss Carrie, Cincinnati, July 12, 1955.
Clough, Mrs. Eva, Failsworth, July 16, 1956.
Cooper, Miss Muriel, formerly of Warrington Lane; Bryn Athyn, February 8, 1958.
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. William, Bryn Athyn, April 6, 1954.
Davy, Miss B., Embsay, England, July 17, 1956.
De Charms, Rt. Rev. George, Bryn Athyn, October 20, 1960.
de la Perelle, Dr. L. P., Headmaster, Central High School for Boys, Manchester, July 11, 1956.
Eagle, Noble, at Brightlingsea, July 2, 1956.
Farrington, Dr. Harvey, Bryn Athyn, December 26, 1953.
Gill, Rev. Alan, Colchester, July 26, 1956.
Gladish, Mrs. David F., Sr. and Mrs. Percy Brown, at Linden Hills, Mich., August 31, 1958.
Glenn, Mary, Record of Interview, ANC Archives, May 29, 1913.
Gyllenhaal, Rev. F. E., Bryn Athyn, November 7, 1953.
Gyllenhaal, Leonard E., Bryn Athyn, November 8, 1956; February, 1959.
Hanlin, Miss Clara H., Bryn Athyn, December 26, 1957.
Hayes, W., at Clayton-le-Moors, Lanes., August, 1956.
Longstaff, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, Sr., at Toronto, June 28, 1955.
Lowe, Miss Kathleen, at Birmingham, July 9, 1956.
Memmot, Edw. F., at Urbana, July 8, 1955.
Merrell, C. G., Bryn Athyn, 1955.
Middlehurst, F., former teacher in Wigan Day School, and son of former Headmaster and teacher in school, at Wigan, July 14, 1956.
Odhner, Mrs. Hugo Lj., Bryn Athyn, August 11, 1957.
Odhner, Rev. Hugo Lj., Bryn Athyn, August 18, 1960.
Odhner, Rev. Philip N., Bryn Athyn, December 28, 1960.
Pendleton, Dr. C. R., Bryn Athyn, October 11, 1960.
Pitcairn, Mr. and Mrs. Raymond, Bryn Athyn, November 19, 1960.
Reuter, Rev. Norman, Kitchener, July 1, 1955.
Richardson, Mrs. Annis, Glendale, Ohio, July 12, 19J5.
Rounds, Mrs. Marjorie L., Waltham, August 13, 1955.
Schnarr, Dr. Robert, Kitchener, July 28, 1955.
Simons, Rev. David R., Bryn Athyn, January 23, 1961.
Simons, Mrs. Gertrude (later Mrs. W. R. Cooper), Bryn Athyn, December 31, 1937.
Skinner, Arthur, at Brightlingsea, July 2, 1956.
Stones, Harold, Ramsbottom, England, July 16, 1956.
Synnestvedt, Mrs. Hubert, Bryn Athyn, December 23, 1960.
Vickers, Rev. Paul V., at New Church College, Woodford Green, June 22, 1956.
Waters, Miss May, Colchester, July 1, 1956.