Volume I

Part 1:       The Academy of the New Church, 1876-96

Part 2:       The General Church, 1897-37

by the Rev. Dr. William Whitehead



Preface       p. i
Abbreviations List       ii

PART I: The Academy of the New Church, 1876-96
Preliminary Steps, 1874, 75 - p. i.
Official Beginning, 1876, p. 7

1877       11              1989              53
78       14              90              57
79       17              91              67
80       20              92              74
81       23              93              81
82       26              94              87
83       30              95              97
84       34              96              105
85       38              Appendix:       
86       41              Meetings and Reports        p. i
87       45              Notable Memorials       v
88       49              Ordinations              vii

PART 2: The General Church of the New Jerusalem, 1897-1937.
1897              1              1918              149
98              9              19              154
99              18              20              159
1900              26              21              165
01              33              22              170

02              43              23              176
03              52              24              181
04              60              25              186
05              66              26              191
06              73              27              197
07              79              28              203
08              85              29              209
09              90              30              215
10              97              31              221
11              104              32              227
12              110              33              232
13              116              34              237
14              122              35              242
15              131              36              248
16              138              37              255
17                            143              Appendix for Part 2: p. 1

This volume begins the chronicle of a new body of the New Church, The Academy of the New Church (1876), later organized under the name of "The General Church of the New Jerusalem." (1897) We have, therefore, titled these two volumes under the latter name as being more general, and have made two parts of the first volume, viz. "The Academy, 1876-96", and "The General Church, 1897-1937". Vol. II is "The General Church, 1938-76".

It should be noted that we have not retained the former title, "Annals of the New Church," since the materials offered do not include items from other bodies of the Church, with a few exceptions.

In its beginning, the Academy was both a church and an educational institution. But by 1890, it was seen that the two uses should be more clearly distinguished. Accordingly and preliminarily, there was first formed "The Church of the Advent of the Lord". Finally, in 1897, there was formed "The General Church of the New Jerusalem" as the general religious body, the Academy becoming its educational institution.

Generally speaking, the material collected has been retained in its original form, style and content. There have been necessary, however, a large amount of editing, compacting, and some cutting as well as adding.

As in Vol. II of Annals of the New Church, there will be found the year-by-year chronicle of outstanding events, noteworthy articles, publications, and contemporary events. An Appendix lists Meetings and Reports, Notable memorials, and Ordinations. As previously, these are not complete by any means; they are selective, being lifted out of the main text. (cf, Preface to Vol. II, Annals of the New Church.)

Morley D. Rich, Ed.

for periodicals, books and libraries to which references are made in these volumes (Annals of the Academy of the New Church, and Annals of the General Church of the New Jerusalem.)

AA - Archives of the Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
AL - Academy of the New Church Library.
Anniv. Record - The Academy of the New Church, 1876-1926. AL.
Block - The New Church in the New World.
BSA - Bulletin of the Sons of the Academy.
Coll. Lres. - College Letters, AL, 1886.
I - Intellectual Repository. London, 1812-81.
JE - Journal of Education (of the Academy), AL, 1901-.
Journal - Journals of the General Church of Pennsylvania, 1845-89.
JPD - John Pitcairn Diary. AA.
L - New Church Life, Bryn Athyn, Pa. 1881 - date.
LM - The New Jerusalem Magazine, London, 1826-.
M - New Jerusalem Magazine, Boston, 1827-72.
Mns - New Jerusalem Magazine, new series. Boston, 1875-93.
Mess. - New Jerusalem Messenger (now New Church Messenger), New York, et al, 1855 - date.
ML - Morning Light. London, 1878-1914.
NCH - New Church Herald. London, 1920 - date.
NCM - New Church Magazine. London, 1882 - date.
NCQ- New Church Quarterly, 1910-18.
NCReview - New Church Review, Boston. 1882-1934.
NCT - New Church Tidings. Toronto. 1889-94.
NE - Early Days of the Immanuel Church. Glenview, III. S.G. Nelson, 1927. AL.
PES - Pastoral Extension Service. Bryn Athyn, 1944-. AL.
TA - Theta Alpha Journal. Bryn Athyn.
WNC - Words for the New Church, Philadelphia, 1876-86.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 2


Preliminary Steps




Chicago - During this year, the Rev. Dr. John Randolph Hibbard, who now conducts Sunday afternoon services in the Union Park Temple, Side, forms a Monday evening class for the systematic doctrinal instruction of 28 young people, ranging from 15 to 18 years of age. They meet at the home of Mr. C. F. W. Junge, at 77 Center Avenue. Among the earliest members are: Edward C. Bostock, Hugh L. Burnham, Wm. H. Junge and Seymour G. Nelson. The class grows in numbers and social significance. Adult doctrinal classes are added. This work is continued until Dr. Hibbard's resignation in 1877. For a detailed, interesting account, see Nelson, pp. 11-14.

Cleveland. Oct. 25. - The Rev. Benade dedicates the New Church Temple here. Mess. 27:261, 272.

Frankford, Jan.- March. - A series of missionary lectures is given here by Revs. Bowers, Pendleton, Tafel, and Barrett. Much public interest is aroused. Mess. 26: 152.

Philadelphia - During the year, the Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton effects more cordial relations between the Cherry St. and the Dread St. societies. Mess. 26:200.

July 6. - In the Broad St. Society, Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton is elected pastor, assisted by Rev. E. R. Keyes, for one year. Mess, 27:31.

Pittsburgh, Jan. 3. - The Rev. W. H. Benade receives a reply from Rev. J.P. Stuart, in which he states: "In re Academica: All right, Most Ancient Magnate, 40 forward. The way you mentioned is good. I would strongly favor a Quarterly at once. But you yourself must organize the movement and continue to be its head center. The young men of Pittsburgh will help into existence a splendid institution when they help to inaugurate this Propaganda. Therefore, buckle on the armor, - and on to the work!" A. A.

Jan. 12, (Monday). - John Pitcairn notes the following in his Diary: "Benade, Frank Ballou, Walter C. Childs and myself lunched together at the 'Atlantic Gardens' restaurant". They organize a "New Church Club" by electing Mr. Benade, President;


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 3 W.C. Childs, Secretary; and Frank Ballou, Treasurer. They resolve to found an "Academy" movement. J. P. D." A. A.; L. 1894:39; 1906:69-71; Anniv. Rec. p. 25. L. 1917:30.

Jan. 14. - John Pitcairn gives to the Treasurer a check for $500.00, the Academy's first "endowment". - For facsimile, see Anniv. Rec., p. 31.

Feb. 16. - In a letter to Mr. Benade, Rev. J.P. Stuart (Wyoming, O.) expresses pleasure in being given "a place in the, well, what do you call the body? It is well to keep the organization non scripta. Such constitutions are often the most potent. You ask me for a name, but how can I give it? Possibly 'The Academy', or 'The New Academy' would answer". L. 1906:70; A.A.

April. - The Rev. N. C. Burnham visits Pittsburgh, and probably agrees to join the new Academy group. L. 1906: 70.

April 11. - The Rev. Benade presides at the meetings of the Pennsylvania Association; Rev. Frank Sewall preaches. J. P. D.

May. - Messrs. Pitcairn and Childs leave for an extended European journey, and do not return until May 27, 1875. J. P. D.

Mount Vernon. Sept. - The Rev. Benade preaches to the Society here; Rev. J. P. Stuart is present. Mess. 27:139.

Aug. to Oct. - The Rev. Benade visits New Church centers in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy. J. P. D.

London, Aug. 17. - At the General Conference, a vigorous controversy is waged between the Revs. Rudolph L. Tafel and John Hyde on the "Authority of the Doctrines". See Journal of Gen. Conf.

Oct. 12. - A meeting of the Camden Road Society discusses "Authority in the New Church". 1:543.

Florence. Sept. 12, - The Rev. W. H. Benade attends the Oriental Congress in Florence; meets Maspero, Neville and Oppert. J. P. D.

Sept. - Messrs. John Pitcairn and Walter C. Childs visit the studio of the late Hiram Powers, and there meet his son and daughter. L. 1917:295; J. P. D.

Stockholm, Oct. 21-23. - At a meeting of New Church people in the Hotel du Nord, called by C. Laurell, 50 to 80 persons attend. Boyesen is present; a Society is formed. Mess. 27:295, 319.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 4

Nov.-Dec. B Boyesen makes a second visit to Stockholm, lectures to large audiences. Mess. 28:70.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 5

Chicago, June 27. - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard preaches on the subject of the "Conference of New Church Ministers". Mess. 29:37.

Baltimore. March 21. - Dedication of the new Temple; (Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton present). Mess. 28:200.

Catskill Mountains, Summer. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton preaches here. Mess. 29:163.

New York City. June 1-3. At the New Church Ministers' Conference, held in Brooklyn, the Rev. N.C. Burnham delivers an illustrated lecture on ADegrees@. J. P. D.

June 2. - At a meeting at St. Nicholas Hotel, attended by the Revs. W. H. Benade, N.C. Burnham, J. P. Stuart, J. R. Hibbard, S. H. Warren, and Messrs. John Pitcairn and Walter C. Childs, the name "Academy of the New Church" is tentatively adopted to designate the new movement for a center of systematic instruction in the Doctrines. Mr. Benade is elected president and secretary, and Mr. Ballou is re-elected treasurer. Anniv. Rec,. p. 26; L. 1906:70,

June 4. - At the 35th General Convention, held at 35th St., a copy of the photolithographed MSS. is presented to Mr. Benade in consideration of his faithful services in the work of the Committee on Swedenborg's MSS. He receives one vote for president. He leads the vigorous discussion on the revision of the Convention's Liturgy; also reads the Report of the Committee on Ecclesiastical Affairs, which is accepted and printed. Report in Mess. 28:272, 283, 295.

June 4. - Mr. John Pitcairn notes in his diary: "June 4, Friday... Dr. Burnham, Stuart, Saul, Warren, Hibbard and Benade spent evenings with us. Organized Academy". J. P. D.

Greenford. Dec. 12.- Dedication of the Temple at Greenford by Brickman and S. H. Spencer.
Mess. 30:20.

Philadelphia. - The Philadelphia Society (admitted in 1858), is reported for the last time. (It is amalgamated with the "Society of the Advent" in 1877). Mess. 30:19.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 6

April 12. - Organization of "The Pennsylvania Conference of New Church Ministers", with monthly meetings; Rev. Wm. H. Benade, President.

Oct. 11. - The monthly meeting of the "Pennsylvania Conference of New Church Ministers" is reported in Mess. 29:199.

Dec. - The Rev. S. F. Stearns resigns from the Cherry St. Society. Mess. 29:271.

Pittsburgh, July 2. - The Rev. J. P. Stuart proposes the adoption of a Mr. Herman C. Vetterling, (presently at Urbane), as the newly-formed Academy's first theological student. Anniv. Rec. pp. 26-27.

July 10. - The Rev. E. C. Mitchell, Mr. Benade's first theological student, supports Mr. Stuart's recommendation. Anniv. Rec. p. 26.

July 14. - The first appropriation, formally looking to the establishment of a new and distinct theological school, is approved by Mr. John Pitcairn and others. Anniv. Rec., p. 26.

Aug. - Mr. H. C. Vetterling studies, as the Academy's first theological student, under Dr. Burnham, (Lancaster) and Mr. Benade, (Pittsburgh), from Aug., 1875, to March, 1876, when he was licensed to preach, and became Mr. Benade's assistant. Anniv. Rec. p. 28.

Sept. 6. - The first of regular monthly contributions is paid to Dr. Burnham for his work on Discrete Degrees; and to Rev. J. P. Stuart to aid in the theological education of a young Chinaman, Wong Chin Foo, (who afterwards became editor of a Chinese newspaper in New York). A. A.

Dec. 2. - The Rev. L. H. Tafel reports that a Mr. Adolph Roeder has been studying under him intermittently for three years. Anniv. Rec. p. 28.

- During the winter, Rev. A. O. Brickman lectures in German; baptizes 5 persons. Mess. 30:22.

Renovo, - Beginning of the organized New Church in Renovo, with Messrs. Joseph R. Kendig and Robert B. Caldwell. Mess. 32:45. See also John Pitcairn's account in Mess. 1869, vol. 16, p. p. 169. Also L. 1977:91-92.


London. Jan. 21. - Meeting of the Swedenborg Reading Society. Discussion on Dr. Tafel's paper on "Authority"; only one agrees with the author. Critical account in 1:142.

Stockholm, April-May. - The third visit of Boyesen is described in Mess. 29:7.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 7

The miserable state of the New Church Society here is described in I. 1876:32.

The missionary work of Boyesen in Stockholm, Tarna, Christianstad and Copenhagen, is reported in I. 501; Mess. 30:224.

Oct. 21-23. - General meeting of the New Church in Sweden. Formation of "Nya Kyrkans Belkannare". Boyesen, Pres; Tyboni, Leader; Abrahamsen, Sec.; Prof. Cronhamn, Treas. Report in I. 99.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 8




Chicago, Oct. 27. - Formation of "The Young People's Class" of the Chicago Society; Rev. E. C. Bostock, President. Mess. 31:260.

Brooklyn, Dec. - Three students, studying under Dr. Leonhardt Tafel, decided to prepare for entry into the Academy's Theological School. A. A.: Anniv. Rec. pp. 28, 29.

Middleport. - The Rev. Wm. H. Benade visits here, introducing the Rev. Richard de Charms as their first resident pastor. (He remained for two years.) L. 1896:134.

Greenford, Spring. - The society adopts the Philadelphia Liturgy. Mess. 31:224.

Oil City, April- May, - The Rev. A. O. Brickman delivers missionary lectures in Wheeling, Allegheny, and Oil City. Mess. 30:272.

Philadelphia, June. - The Conference of Ministers of the General Convention meets in the Church of the Frankford Society; 27 ministers present. Rev. Rudolph L. Tafel, of London, England, reads an important treatise on "Authority in the New Church", which is unanimously recommended for publication. Account by Rev. John E. Bowers, pastor of the Frankford Society, in L. 1922:261.

June 9-13. - At the meetings of the General Convention a vigorous controversy, headed by Bishop Wm. H. Benade, breaks out over arbitrary decisions by the Board of Publications concerning two Liturgies, - one prepared by the Ministers' Conference, and another by the Executive Committee. The split centers on the accuracy of translations of the Word; also on the inclusion of doctrinal statements from the Writings. The Board is finally requested to publish both; and the protesting ministers are re-imbursed for printer's bills already incurred. Mess. 30:294, 306, 309; L.1906:72.

June 18. - At a preparatory meeting of ministers and laymen, at the house of Dr. Boericke, 222 Franklin St., steps are taken to organize "The Academy of the New Church". A Board of Finance is appointed; and the Rev. J. P. Stuart and Mr. Walter C. Childs are elected secretaries. The Revs. Wm. F. Pendleton, J. E. Bowers, Richard de Charms, also Mr. J. Gillespie and Dr. David Cowley, are nominated as additional members. L. 1906:73.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 9

June 19. - On Monday evening, a full quorum of the twelve members of the Academy Council, viz., Wm. H. Benade, J.P. Stuart, N.C. Burnham, J. R. Hibbard, S.M. Warren, Rudolph L. Tafel, Louis H. Tafel, John Pitcairn, Walter C. Childs, Franklin Ballou, F. E. Boericke, and David McCandless, meet to consider a "Declaration of Principles", drafted by Chancellor Benade, as the basis of the organization of "The Academy of the New Church". The twelve ministers and laymen present sign the written document, as "having for their end the building up of the Church in an ever more rational and intelligent reception of its Heavenly Truths". Afterwards the Sacrament of the Holy Supper is administered. The full text of the Declaration follows:

"In the work entitled "The True Christian Religion", written by the Lord, through Emanuel Swedenborg, His Servant, and containing the Universal Theology of the New Church, foretold by the Lord in Daniel VII: 13, 14; and in Revelation XXI:1, 2, it is declared: That at this day is the last time or end of the Primitive Christian Church, predicted in the Evangelists and in Revelation; that after this very night in which the preceding Churches have come to their end, there follows a morning, which is the Second Coming of the Lord; that this Second Coming of the Lord is in order that the evil may be separated from the good, and those may be saved who have believed, and who do believe in Him; and that a new angelic Heaven may be formed from them, and a New Church on Earth, without which no flesh could be saved:

That this Second Coming of the Lord is not in person, but in the Word, which is from Him, and is Himself, and that it is effected by means of a man, before whom He has manifested Himself, and whom He has filled with His Spirit, to teach the Doctrine of the New Church, by the Word, from Him:

That the man before whom the Lord has manifested Himself is Emanuel Swedenborg, whom He has sent on this office, having opened the sight of his spirit, let him into the Spiritual World, given him to see the heavens and the hells, and also to speak with angels and spirits; and, that from the first day of his call, this man received not anything which pertains to the doctrine of that Church, from any angel, but from the Lord alone, while he read the Word. That this is meant in the Revelation by the New Heavens and the New Earth, and the New Jerusalem descending thence.

That this New Church is the crown of all the Churches which have hitherto been in the World; which shall worship one visible God, in whom is the invisible God, and this conjunction of God with man be effected.

That this Church is to endure for ages of ages, as the bride and wife of the Lamb, as it is written: "Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and He will be with them their God. And the nations that are saved shall walk in His light, and there shall be no night there. I, Jesus have sent mine angels to testify to you these things in the Churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the bright and morning star. The Spirit and the Bride say, Come; and let him that heareth say, Come; and let him that is thirsty, come; and whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. Even so, Come; Lord Jesus. Amen." Rev. 21:3,4,5. Rev. 22: 16,17,20. T.C.R. 753-790.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 10

In the full and rational acknowledgment of the Lord Jesus Christ, who is Jehovah in His Divine Humanity, of His Second Coming into the Word in the revelation of the spiritual sense of the Word, of the spiritual things of Heaven, of Hell, and of the World of Spirits, made through the instrumentality of Emanuel Swedenborg; in the full and rational acknowledgment of the spiritual sense of the Word thus revealed, as the Lord's Divine Doctrine for the New Church, and knowing no other law, and no other authority except the Lord Himself in this His Second Coming. We, who have hereunto subscribed our names, devoutly praying that the Lord's will may be done as in Heaven, so on the Earth, do hereby convenant together, and constitute ourselves into a body of the Lord's New Church, to be styled, "The Academy of the New Jerusalem", to the end, that by mutual counsel and assistance, and by united action, we may be the better prepared and provided in spirit and in life, to see the Lord's will in the interior revelations of His Truth, at this day given, and to do it; to cultivate and to promulgate a knowledge of those divine revelations in their spiritual purity, and to engage in those uses of spiritual charity, which have respect primarily to the growth and development of the Spiritual Church.

And, of these uses of spiritual charity, do we name specifically, as ends proposed by our Union: The instruction and preparation of young men for the Office of the Priesthood: the collection, publication and preservation of the Manuscripts and of the original editions of those writings, which constitute the Second Advent of the Lord; the preparation and publication of works treating more particularly of the spiritual doctrines revealed by the Lord, and having for their end the building up of the Church in an ever more rational and intelligent reception of its Heavenly Truths, and leading to an ever more interior love of the Lord and the Neighbor; so that the Lord in His coming may be received by His own, and the New Jerusalem may be established as His celestial and Spiritual Kingdom on the Earth.

Wm. F. Benade
J. R. Hibbard
N. C. Burnham
J. P. Stuart
Sam'l M. Warren
R. L. Tafel
L. H. Tafel
F. E. Boericke
David McCandless
John Pitcairn, Jr.
Walter C. Childs
Frank Ballou

Philadelphia, June 19, 1876
The twelve Persons, whose names are appended to the foregoing Declaration, constitute, at this date,

The Council of the Academy of the New Jerusalem.
June 19th, 1876." L. 1917; pp. 423(e)- 425.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 11

Nov. 9. - The Academy Council takes steps to co-ordinate the theological studies, now being given in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Chicago, and New York, to Candidates Richard de Charms, Jr., Herman C. Vetterling, John Whitehead, Adolph Roeder, Gustaf Bonschur, Edward C. Bostock, E. J. E. Schreck, Andrew Czerny and W.H. Schliffer, with a view to a central Theological School. The instructors, at present, are the Revs. Wm. F. Pendleton, J. R. Hibbard, Wm. H. Benade and Dr. Leonhardt Tafel. Mr. Stuart is delegated to draw up a curriculum. - A. A.; L. 1917:426; Anniv Rec., p. 29.

- During 1876 and 1877, the Academy actively considers a project, (originally proposed by W. H. Benade to Mr. Stuart in July, 1875), to acquire property in New Jersey, and there establish "a school for the prophets", or theological school, where students could gather; and where Dr. Leonhardt Tafel, pastor of the German Society in Brooklyn, could come as a resident professor. Various properties in Staten Island and New Jersey are examined by Mr. Stuart and Mr. Childs, but no definite decision is reached. - A. A.; Anniv. Rec., p. 26.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 12



Chicago, Feb. - Mr. E. C. Bostock is studying the Doctrines under Rev. J. R. Hibbard. - Anniv. Rec., p. 28.

July 2. - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard resigns from the pastorate of the Chicago Society to take up the work of General Superintendent of the work of Church Extension. - Mess. 33:92; W. N. C., 1:72.

Sept. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton is reported to be preaching on the West Side, "with great acceptance". - Mess. 33:176.

New York City, June 30. - Rev. W. H. Benade and Mr. John Pitcairn sail for Europe and the East. - Mess. 33:8.

- During the year, there is considerable discussion here of the principles which should govern a new translation of the Word, for the use of the New Church.

Cincinnati, June 1-5. - At the General Convention, Rev. W. H. Benade, Mr. John Pitcairn Jr., and Rev. W. B. Hayden are appointed as official representatives to the General Conference in England; also to confer on the new translation. - Report in Mess. 32:314; W. N. C. 1:70-72, 145-150.

July. - Convention circles are disturbed by the news of the Academy's new theological school. - Anniv. Rec., p. 29.

Middleport, Jan. - The Middleport Society adopts the Philadelphia Liturgy. - Mess. 32:43.

Philadelphia, Jan. - The Academy's Divinity School is actually and officially in operation, though students are scattered. - See Anniv. Rec. 29.

March 23. - Dr. Geo. Starkey is initiated into the Academy. - A. A.

April. - The Academy decides to rent the basement of the Cherry St. school, now occupied by a private school. - Anniv. Rec., p. 29.

April 7. - At the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Association, held in the hall of the German New Church Society, Rev. W. H. Benade delivers the sermon. Mr. John Pitcairn is present, for the first time, as a delegate. - Journal. Pa. Assn.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 13

June. - The Rev. J. E. Sowers resigns from the Frankford Society, owing to the hard times. - Mess. 33:8.

Aug. 27. - Organization of the "New Jerusalem Society of the Advent", under the pastorship of Rev. Louis H. Tafel. Services are in English in the morning, and in German in the afternoon or evening. A Sunday School is established with 56 scholars and 20 adults. Doctrinal classes for adults on Wednesday evenings. Confirmation class for 15 young people on Monday evenings. Social meetings are held in the basement of the Temple. Total of 57 members; attendance about 80. - A. A.

Sept. 1. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton is forced to retire from his pastorate of the Philadelphia First Society, and takes up a pastorate in Chicago. He is succeeded by the Rev. Chauncey Giles. -Mess. 33:8; Anniv. Rec., p. 30.

Sept. 2. - The Advent Society officially opens public services in the upper story of the old Cherry St. building. The Academy-inclined members resign from the Philadelphia First Society. - A.A.; Anniv. Rec., p. 30.

Sept. J. - First public opening of the Divinity School of "The Academy of the New Church", in Cherry St. Vice-Chancellor Stuart presides, Chancellor Benade being in Europe. The faculty is represented by the Rev. Messrs. J. P. Stuart and L. H. Tafel, while the Rev. Frank Sewall, President of Urbana University is present as a distinguished guest. The school is opened purely as a Divinity School, its professors being: the Rev. Dr. Burnham, Systematical Theology; the Rev. J. P. Stuart, Mental Philosophy, Rhetoric, and Sermon-writing; and the Rev. L. H. Tafel, Languages and Church History. Mr. Stuart, however, who now resides in Vineland - though he moved to Philadelphia early in 1879 - teaches only once a week. - A. A.

The Rev. Alfred Acton writes (in 1926): "Thus, in the same room where Mr. Benade had commenced the work of New Church education with children, in the same building, the corner-stone of which he had laid thirty-one years before, and at the dedication of which to the use of New Church education, he had prophesied in eloquent language the growth of New Church education, - in that same room, thirty-one years later almost to a day, is opened the first public session of the Theological School of the Academy of the New Church". - L. 1917:521, 595, 605; Anniv. Rec., 30.

Oct. 3. - First announcement of the "Advent Society", by the Messenger. - Mess. 33:191.

Oct. 24. - In a letter to Mr. Benade, Mr. Stuart gives an interesting description of the Divinity School's actual operation. - Anniv. Rec., pp. 30, 32.

Nov. 3. - Under the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the Court of Common Pleas No. 2 for the County of Philadelphia, grants a Charter to "The Academy of the New Church", for "the purpose of propagating the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, and establishing the New Church signified in the Apocalypse by the New Jerusalem, promoting Education in all its various forms, Educating Young Men for the Ministry, publishing Books, Pamphlets and other printed matter, and establishing a Library." (For photo. facsimile, see Bulletin, S.A., Nov., 1910:76.)


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 14

Dec. 11. - The second number of Words for the New Church on "The State of the Christian World", is published after much delay, on account of prolonged discussion. - A. A.

Dec. 12. - The Messenger publishes a misleading account of the newly-incorporated "Academy of the New Church", in Mess. 33:330. Another account by Dr. Hibbard on p. 333.

Pittsburgh, March 30. - Ordination of Mr. H. C. Vetterling.

Dec. - Excitement here over the wearing of clerical robes.



Paris. Nov. - Bishop Benade in Paris. State of the New Church in Paris is described in I. 1877:603.

Dec. 23. - Bishop Benade baptizes 20 persons, among them Dr. Poirson and wife. "Mr. Benade's visit will mark a new era in the life of the New Church in France". - I, 1878:44, 90.

Birmingham. Aug. 13. - At the 70th General Conference, Bishop Benade delivers an address. - Report in I, 187:436, 354; W. N. C., 1:145. The Messenger calls the address, "a notable incident". - Mess. 33:162.

London. Dec. 12. - Meeting of the New Church Bible Society. Only 3 persons attend; Bishop Benade is present. Most of the former members are dead. The Society holds 527 in the Gateman and Watson trusts; funds grow by 2 a year. - I, 1877:88, 137, 479; 1678:45, 91.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 15



Clinton, Huron Co., Ont., N. d. - The Rev. J. E. Bowers begins to conduct services here as a part of his regular missionary tours. - L. 1909:616.


Chicago, April. - Conferences between Revs. Wm. F. Pendleton, L. P. Mercer, and Mr. Barber are held every Sunday morning. - Mess. 34:204.

Dec. 2. - At an Academy meeting, Mr. John Forrest is initiated as a member. - J. P. D.

Boston. May 31-June 4. - At the 58th General Convention, determined opposition to the "Academy" group develops. Rev. Dr. J. R. Hibbard is not re-employed as General Missionary. In fruitless protest, the Rev. W. H. Benade is nominated for President of the General Convention. The Magazine denounces the "extremists and their small numbers... The sentiment of the Church is overwhelmingly opposed to all vagaries...", etc. - See Journal, Gen. Conv., pp. 10, 51, 71, 74. Cf. 9; M.11:189; Mess. 34:330, (full report).

Vineland. May. - A split occurs in the Society here. Mess. 36:3508 (obit.)

Greenford. May 18. - The Greenford Society is admitted into the General Church. Pa. Assn. Journal: Min. 7, 1878.

Philadelphia. N.d. - Considerable correspondence and discussion, throughout 1878 and 1879, by Revs. W. H. Benade, J. P. Stuart, Wm. F. Pendleton and others, concerning the curriculum of the College and Theological School. A projected "preparatory school, also one for girls", is considered. Students are authorized to take courses in chemistry in neighboring institutions. - See letters and "Council Minutes" in A. A.

Jan. - The Academy decides to add a college course for the pre-theological training of students; and the schools are now named, "The College and Divinity School". Students G. W. Lang and A. Czerny write interesting descriptions of the work during 1878. - Anniv. Rec., pp. 32, 33.

March. - The Rev. J. P. and Mrs. Stuart move from Vineland, N. J. to Woodstock St., Philadelphia. Anniv. Rec., p. 30.

May 14. - The Academy publishes its first printed eight-page "Curriculum", giving the names of the corporation and faculty, and outlining the courses.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 16 The faculty consists of the Revs. Messrs. Benade, Stuart, Burnham, L. H. Tafel, Leonhardt Tafel, Dr. Farrington, (anatomy), and Dr. Starkey, (zoology and botany). The courses now include a three-year academic course in languages, mathematics, science, and the Doctrines, and a two-year course in the Divinity School, to be taken "after completing the academic course". The curriculum closes with an "Announcement of the Academy of the New Church". Two thousand copies are printed for general distribution, and, in particular, for distribution in the Convention and the English Conference. The text of this rare pamphlet is reprinted in Anniv. Rec., pp. 45-49.

May 15. - The first commencement exercises of the Academy are held in the Cherry St. Church. All eight college and theological students, save one, take part. For the first time, Hebrew singing is introduced. - Anniv. Rec., p. 33; Block, p. 215.

May 18. - At the meeting of the Pennsylvania Association, the Advent Society of Phila. is admitted to membership. Pa. Assn. Journal, 1878: Min. 8.

June 19. - The first celebration of the Day by the Academy people is held at Dr. Boericke's summer home at Edge Hill. (36 members partake of the Holy Supper). - A. A. Full description in Gertrude Starkey's Diary, p. 82.

Aug. - A party of the young people of the Academy camp on White's Island, in the Delaware, three miles above Trenton; many of the older folks visit them. - A. A.; especially Gertrude Starkey's Diary.

Sept. 1. - Church services and Sunday School re-commence at Cherry St. A Young Folks' Club is started, to bridge the social gap between the Academy group and the congregation. Anniv. Rec., p. 91.

Sept. - The Theological School is reopened, with seven theological students and several "college" students. An "Intellectual Gymnasium" is organized by the students. - M. L. 429; Anniv. Rec., pp. 30, 34, 36.

Pittsburgh, Dec. 31. - The Academy group holds a New Year's meeting at "Oaknest", Mr. Walter C. Childs' residence. - A. A.


Paris, Summer. - Rev. W. H. Benade visits New Churchmen several times before and after the General Conference in England.

Dec. 25. - Mr. Benade arrives in Paris after four months in Italy; finds a split among New Churchmen. Miss Plummer is appointed librarian of the New Church Reading Room here. - A. A.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 17


Edinburgh, Oct. 24. - Annual meeting of the Scottish Association. Rev. J. Potts speaks up strongly for the authority of the Writings. - Reports in M. L. 447; L. 600.

Glasgow, May. - The Rev. J. Potts is fined 2.5.0 for refusing to allow his daughter Alice to be vaccinated. - M. L. 190.

London, Feb. 26. - Dr. R.L. Tafel delivers lectures at the New Church College on "The Use of Natural Science to the New Church"; (afterwards published in Words for the New Church). - M. L.: 109.

Aug. 10. - The Morning Light publishes a description and strongly recommendatory account of the Academy of the New Church. - M. L.: 318.

Oct. 5. - Rev. W. H. Benade visits Dr. R.L. Tafel; and Academy meetings are held. - A. A.

Dec. 15. - First public preaching of Mr. R. J. Tilson, a student under Dr. Tafel. - M. L. 519.

Aug. 11. - The Rev. W. H. Benade preaches at Peter St. - M. L. 1878:310.

Sept. - Dec. - Mr. W.H. Benade spends four months in Italy. As a member of the Oriental Congress, (Sept. 12), at Florence, he meets leading scholars. At Turin (Oct.), he arranges for the purchase, by Mr. John Pitcairn, of an unique and recently discovered collection of Egyptian antiquities, from Professor R. V. Lanzone, of the University of Turin. (This priceless collection is now part of the Academy Museum). Mr. Pitcairn also agrees to finance the first publication, in lithograph, of the famous Egyptian papyrus on the World of Spirits. - J. P. D.; A. A.

Milan.- New Church services are held here. The work of Scocia, and its difficulties, is described in I.: 284, 394.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 18




Chicago, Spring. - Mr. Orlando Blackman adopts the Academy views. Nelson, Early Days, p. 18.

March. - Messrs. T. L. Forrest, O. Blackman, and Swain Nelson, who are appointed as Council, guarantee the pastor (Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton), an annual salary of $l,000. - Ibid

July 27 - Oct. 12. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton delivers a course of twelve doctrinal lectures in the West Side Church, ("Union Park Temple"), Washington Boulevard and Ogden Ave. - Ibid, p. 19.

Sept. - The Council decides to support a day school. The first four pupils are: Harry E. Blackman, Adah J. Nelson, Alvin E. Nelson and Emelia Nelson. - Ibid. pp. 19-20.

New York City, May 24. - At the General Conference of New Church Ministers, at Brooklyn, the Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton gives an address on "Education". - W. N. C.: I. 572; L, 1929:471-481.

May 30 - June 3. - At the 59th General Convention, the Academy group is well represented. - See Journal Gen. Conv., (especially pp. 62-63). Reports in Mess., 36:323; W. N. C., I. 574. Cf. p. 361.

Philadelphia. Jan. - The Academy custom of publishing a "Calendar of Daily Readings from the Writings: begins in this year. - !, 1945: 271.

May 15. - Second annual Commencement of the Academy Schools. The Academy grants degrees for the first time, under the amended Charter. Messrs. John Whitehead and Edward C. Bostock are granted the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton, (Chicago), delivers the Baccalaureate Address on "Education" - Anniv. Rec., p. 36; Mess. 36:316; A. A. Text of address in L. 1929:471-481.

June 19. - The Academy celebration is held on an island in the Delaware River. The Holy Supper is administered while members sit at table, each one with individual plate and glass. - Full description in John Pitcairn's Diary; pp. 109-111.

June. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton is made a member of the Academy Council, in place of Rev. S. M. Warren. - A. A.

Aug. 20. - News from the Advent Society in Mess. 37:106. The Young Folks' Club (about 30 members), now issues a MS paper ("The Social Monthly": 1879-1880), which is circulated among the members of the General Church of Pennsylvania.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 19 This proves to be the precursor of New Church Life, in Jan. 1881. - L. 1930:105, 127; 1950:326.

Aug. 31. - Bishop Benade arrives from Europe. He now lives at 110 Friedlander St., Philadelphia.

Sept. 8. - Re-opening of the Academy Schools. The two theological students study under the Revs. Benade and Burnham. During the winter, Mr. Benade delivers 12 lectures on the "Antiquities of Egypt in the Light of the New Church". - Journal, Pa. Assoc., 1880: Anniv. Rec. p. 36; Mess. 37:204; 38:8. Synopses of Mr. Benade's lectures are also published in M. L.

Oct. 26. - An interesting letter by a student, describing the daily work of the Schools is quoted in Anniv. Rec., p. 36.

Pittsburgh, Jan. 12. - Death of Mr. David McCandless, in his 61st year. An early member and long time President of the society, he was also one of the founders and corporators of the Academy. His funeral, conducted by Rev. J. P. Stuart, was attended by very many prominent business men of the city. Memorial meeting at "Oak Nest"; also in Philadelphia. Society's tribute in Mess. 36:84.

Sept. - Resignation of Rev. W. H. Benade as pastor of the Society; he is succeeded by Rev. H. Vetterling. - Mess. 37:232.


Vienna, April. - Mr. Benade visits New Church people here. Private services are forbidden; but he baptizes 30 persons. He has a conference with Count Kinsky. - I..: 285; J. P. D. The state of the New Church in Vienna is reported in I.: 183.

Paris. Feb. 22. - Rev. Benade organizes the "Society of the Advent" in Paris. He ordains the Rev. Alfred Bellais into the priesthood. - A. A.; L 1885:96.

March 9. - Aug. - Mr. Benade, accompanied by Mr. John Pitcairn, visits New Churchmen in Frankfort, Nuremberg, and other cities in Germany, returning by way of Holland to London. - J. P. D.; A. A.

Liverpool. Oct. 15. - Reception of Mr. Robert Tilson as Pastor. - I, 1879:600.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 20

London. - The Morning Light publish favorable notices of the Academy of the New Church.

Stockholm, N.d. - In Pastor Boyesen's society, a group of young people, headed by C. Th. Odhner, C. Hj. Asplundh and J. E. Rosenqvist, start a young folks' "Immanuel League". It flourishes "greatly and joyfully for a few years". - L, 1902:179.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 21



Pietermaritzburg, Oct. 4. - Dean Thomas Colley, appointed as Dean of Natal and Archdeacon to the famous Bishop John William Colenso, (d. 1883), applies to the Academy of the New Church for a degree of Bachelor of Divinity or Doctor of Divinity. His request is not granted. For the very interesting correspondence between Dean Colley and Rev. W. H. Benade, see L. 1920: 290-295; Cf. Gen. Ch. Communique, June, 1948; Anniv. Rec., p. 37.


Toronto. - Unsound doctrinal theories are said to be disturbing the societies in Toronto and Strathroy. - L. 1881, June 4; 1931:28.


Jefferson Co., Aug. 18. - Death of ex-Governor Herschel V. Johnson, in his 68th year. Twice governor of Georgia, he ran for the Vice-Presidency with Stephen A. Douglas, in 1860. A member of the Secession Convention, of Georgia, in 1860, he vigorously opposed its policy, but remained faithful to the South. From 1873 to 1880 he was Judge on the circuit bench. He was baptized by Rev. A. O. Brickman. A contributor to the Messenger. - Biogr., Mess. 39:112, 344.

Philadelphia, April 1. - Death of Dr. Leonhardt Tafel, in his 80th year. Born in Leonberg, Germany, in 1800, he was the younger brother of Professor J. F. Immanuel Tafel, (1796-1863), Librarian of the University of Tubingen, and founder of the New Church in the German-speaking world. Leonhardt Tafel studied in Stuttgart and Tubingen, and became a distinguished Hebrew and Arabic scholar, teaching in Ulm, Schorndorf and Stuttgart. He is said to have mastered 24 languages. Being a radical reformer in methods of instruction, a Swedenborgian, and an active republican in politics, he became distrusted in Wurtemberg, and, in 1853, followed several of his older sons to the United States. Baptized by the Rev. Benade in Philadelphia, he taught several years in Urbana, but, in 1857, became a teacher in Mr. Benade's Cherry St. School. Ordained in 1871, he ministered to the newly-formed German New Church Society in New York, where Dr. N. C. Burnham and Messrs. John Pitcairn and Walter C. Childs studied Hebrew under him at his home In New Brighton, Staten Island. Author of Interlinear Translations of the Sacred Scriptures. and many other works, he also translated the entire Word into German, in the first New Church translation ever published. His last years were devoted to the chair of Sacred and Oriental languages in the Academy's Theological School. - Biogr., Mess. 38:290. Cf. L.1910:85; 1917:232.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 22

April. - The Academy decides to confer its first theological degree of Bachelor of Theology upon the Rev. R. J. Tilson, of London. This step has long and far-reaching consequences. See under "Liverpool" below.

June 3. - Fourth annual Commencement exercises of the Academy Schools. The first graduates of the Academy of the New Church are: Messrs. Czerny, Schreck, Lang, and Schliffer, (B.A.); and Messrs. Bostock and Whitehead, (B. Th.). The Rev. G. N. Smith gives the Baccalaureate Address. - Report in Mess. 38:330. Cf. , 1917: 595; Anniv. Rec., p. 38.

June 5-6. - 54th meeting of the Pennsylvania Association; the Rev. Benade presiding; 4 ministers, 14 delegates, and 25 visitors attend. Mr. John Pitcairn Jr. is appointed a member of the Executive Council. The Society of the Advent now numbers 65 members. - Journal, Pa. Assoc., 1880: J. P. D.

June 5. - Ordination of Revs. E. C. Bostock and J. Whitehead, by the Rev. Benade. Mess. 38:330.

June 9-14. - Meeting of the American Conference of New Church Ministers, in the Cherry St. Church. - Reports in Mess. 38:206, 331, 344; W. N. C. 11:70.

June 19. - The Academy people celebrate "New Church Day" at "Alnwick Grove", a favorite picnic spot for Philadelphians, (now part of the borough of Bryn Athyn). - A. A.

Sept. - The Schools open with 5 theological students - Anniv. Rec. p. 38.

Pittsburgh, April 2. - The young people of the Society organize a social club, naming it, "The Pickwick Club", (later changed to "The New Church Social Club of Pittsburgh"). - L, 1881, Jan.

May 30. - The Rev. H. C. Vetterling preaches his last sermon here, after a ministry of three years.
- Journal, Pa. Assoc., 1880:9.

Renovo, April 4. - Six adults and six children here are baptized by the Rev. J. E. Bowers. - L. 1924:503.


Colchester. - Recollections of the early Colchester society (1880-1897), by Mr. G. A. McQueen, appear in L. 1929:577, etc.

Liverpool, Aug. 9-14. - At the 73rd General Conference, a lively controversy breaks out concerning the Academy, especially as to the granting of a degree to Mr. Tilson. - Comments in Mess. 39: 150, 168, (by Revs. Potts and Giles); 2:6, (by "G. C.") W. N. C. 11:82, (by Rev. W. H. Benade). Also in I,: 453; and M. L., Vol. 3:331; cf. 171, 178, 188, 267, 268, 248, et al.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 23

London, April 22. - Dr. Rudolph Tafel confers the Academy's degree of B. Th. on the Rev. R. J. Tilson, at a meeting called for the purpose. Much feeling is aroused by the granting of this American degree. - I,: 513; Anniv. Rec., p. 37.

Nov. - The Rev. J. Potts defends the Academy. - I.: 534.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 24



Berlin. June 23-26. - The 9th annual meeting of the Canada Association meets in the stone temple of the Berlin Society. The Revs. Tuerk, Field, Bowers, Hibbard, Benade, L. H. Tafel and Kirk, - also delegates from the Toronto, Strathroy, Wellesley and Berlin Societies, - are present. After reviewing the reports of the recent General Convention, it is unanimously agreed that "the representative character of the General Convention ought to be maintained". See Minutes. (39 pp). Full report in L.1881, July, p. 4. Critical accounts in Mess. 41:34, 41, 65. Reply by Rev. L. H. Tafel, Mess. 41:74.


Washington. D. C., May 20-23. - The 61st General Convention is held, for the first time, in the nation's capital. The Rev. W. H. Benade's request to have his "Report on the Priesthood" referred to the Committee on Ecclesiastical Affairs is granted. - Reports in M. V: app.; and Mess. 40:337. A critical report by Rev. W. H. Benade in W. N. C. 11:232. A lively and entertaining report by Mr. E. P. Anshutz in L., June, 1881:6-12. Cf. p. 4.

Chicago. April. - A detailed description of the work done by the Revs. Wm. F. Pendleton, and E. C. Bostock, in the West and North Side societies, appears in, L, April, p. 6; and Mess. 40:274. Also Nelson, Early Days, pp. 21-23.

Summer. - An attempt to acquire the West Side Church property fails through objection to Mr. Pendleton's doctrinal teaching. - Nelson, Early Days, p. 22.

Philadelphia, Jan. 1. - The first number of New Church Life is announced as "designed to promote the culture of the Young People in the doctrines and life of the Church... Monthly Journal for the Young People of the New Church". The "Board of Editors" includes Andrew Czerny, Charles P. Stuart, E. J. E. Schreck, Geo. G. Starkey, E. P. Anshutz (Business Manager), "Terms - One Dollar per annum, payable in advance". (From 1881 to 1890, it was published by a volunteer staff of young people. Its name was first suggested by Mr. John Pitcairn). - See L, 1920:753; 1940:552; A. A.

Jan. 7. - Death of Mr. George David Lang, one of the students at the Academy. - Mess. 40:48.

Feb. - Rev. W. H. Benade begins to advocate the active organization of kindergartens and primary schools. Anniv. Rec., p. 38. Cf. Block, p. 268.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 25

March. - Leading New Church journals publish congratulatory words concerning the young New Church Life. - L. March, p. 4.

March 10. - Mr. N. Clark Burnham graduates as a physician from the Hahnemann Medical College. - L. April, p. 5.

April. - The Pastor of the Advent Society wears a priestly robe for the first time. - L., p. 6.

May 17. - The 55th meeting of the Pennsylvania Association, in the Cherry St. Church. Delegates and visitors are present from Pittsburgh, Lancaster, Allentown, Darby, New Jersey and Canada. Ordinations of Rev. John Whitehead (Pittsburgh), into the second degree, and Dr. Ellis I. Kirk as "a priest of the order of missionaries"; the Rev. Benade officiating. - See Journal. (5pp.); L., June, p. 15.

May 13. - The 4th Commencement exercises of the Theological School and College of the Academy are held in the Cherry St. Church. One degree of B. A. and one of B. S. are granted. - L. June. p. 5.

June. - The Society of the Advent reports a membership of 97, a gain of 27 over the previous year. - L., June, p. 15.

June 19. - The Academy group again celebrates "New Church Day" on the Delaware island nick-named (by the younger folk), "island of the Saints" and "island of the Blessed". Celebrations are also held by the New York German Society, the Philadelphia Society of the Advent, the Chicago Society, and the Allentown Society. - L., July, pp. 6, 7.

Sept. 7. - Re-opening of the Academy Schools. A "Boys School" is started at Cherry St. The Divinity School is held at 110 Friedlander St. The theological students aid in teaching. - L, Sept., p. 6; Anniv. Rec., p. 40.

Sept. 28. - Marriage of Rev. W. H. Benade and Mrs. Annie E. Barnes. - L. Oct. p. 6.

Pittsburgh, Dec. 20. - Differences concerning mixed marriages give rise to the expression, "the Pittsburgh heresy". - A. A.


Liverpool. Oct. - The Society welcomes Mr. Tilson and his bride. - L.: 542.

Manchester, Aug. 8-15. - Concerning the 74th General Conference, held in the Peter St. Church, W. H. Benade writes a critical report in W. N. C., 11:228. Cf. report in I. :453.

Salisbury, Sept. 11. - Mr. T. F. Robinson, late of the Congregational Church, becomes minister at Salisbury. - I. 545.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 26



New Church Life, vol. 1.

Historical sketch on the original portrait of Swedenborg. - June, p. 16.

"An Interesting Date". (Discussion of 19th of June and S. D. 3029) August p. 1.

Education - Aug. p. 5; Nov. p. 2.

"The Second Coming of the Lord" (editorial) - Sept, p. 2.

"Authority"- Sept. p. 5.

"The Doctrine concerning Authority" - Oct. p. 1; Nov. p. 1.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 27



July. - The state of the New Church in Capetown is reported. Twenty-four members in Durban, with Mr. A. Cockerell as leader. - N. C. M., I:368.



Chicago. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton is preaching alternately on the West and North Sides; Rev. E. C. Bostock assisting. Friday evening classes. L., 31, 47.

N.d. - Mr. Schliffer's work in the German Society is reported in L. 190.

May 31 - June 6. - The 20th meeting of the "American Conference of New Church Ministers" is reported, by Chas. Stuart, in L. 100; and in W. N. C.: 462, by Rev. L.H. Tafel. - A. L.

June 9-13. - At the 62nd General Convention, a controversy is waged on the Incorporation of the Board of Publication. - See Journal in M. VI:App. Reports of meetings in M. VI:388; W. N. C. 11:464, (by Rev. L. H. Tafel); L.:103, (by Chas. Stuart). See comments by Canadian delegate in Minutes of 20th Canada Association, p. 35.

Aug. - Rev. E. C. Bostock leaves Church on West Side, to become Headmaster of Boys' School in Philadelphia. - L.:144; Nelson, Early Days, p. 23.

Brooklyn. Dec. 20. - Death of Mr. William Roberts, of Phila., aged 85 years. For many years Secretary of the Pennsylvania Association, and historian of the New Church. - Mess. 44:28.

N.Y. City. - Difficulties in the German Society are reported in L.:111.

Greenford, Nov. 5. - A resolution is adopted disapproving of the Ohio Association, and approving the Pennsylvania Association. - L.: 190.

Middleport. - The Rev. Ellis I. Kirk becomes pastor; remaining about two years. - L, 1896:139.

Allentown. May 1. - Celebration of the anniversary of the reopening of New Church services here. Rev. E.J.E. Schreck becomes pastor. - L. :93.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 28

Dec. 10.- Dedication of the Temple by the Rev. Benade. History of the Society is reviewed in L.

Philadelphia, May. - The Academy purchases Mr. Benade's house at 110 Friedlander St., for the use of College, Theological School, Library, and Book Room. - Anniv. Rec., p. 40.

June 19. - The Academy people held their celebration of "New Church Day" on the Wissahickon River. - A. A.

June 29. - Death of the Rev. James Park Stuart, in his 73rd year. Born Jan 29, 1810, he became a prominent minister of the Presbyterian Church, which he left, in 1845, to join the Western Convention of the New Church. (See ANNALS:1:512). Ordained in 1847 by Rev. S. H. Wills, he ministered within the Ohio Association for over 20 years as minister for societies in Cincinnati, Urbana, Glendale, Wyoming and other places, but mainly as general missionary. With Col. J. James, he led in the establishment of Urbana University where, for some years, he was Professor of Rhetoric and Philosophy. In 1853 he founded the New Jerusalem Messenger, the first New Church weekly magazine in America, which he edited and published in New York until 1867. Afterwards he ministered to the St. Louis society and organized the "Missouri Association", of which he was the general pastor. In 1877 he removed from Vineland, N. J. to Philadelphia to take charge of the Academy theological school in the absence of Chancellor Benade. His unusual doctrinal and literary ability was also revealed in the "Missionary Liturgy" and the first "Academy Liturgy" of 1876; also as editor of and leading contributor to Words for the New Church. One of the original founders of the Academy of the New Church, he became its first Vice-Chancellor. As Professor of Rhetoric, he served the Academy to the end of his life, when, at his request, he was buried by the side of the Rev. David Powell in the old Delaware County Society cemetery at Upper Darby, Pa. A wise, far-seeing leader of spiritual integrity, his human charity, energy and wit endeared him to his own generation and entitled him to the gratitude of the church to which he gave his entire life. - Biogr. by Rev. Louis H. Tafel, in W.N.C. 11:473. See L. :97, 173; Anniv. Rec., p. 17; biogr. notes by C. T. Odhner, L. 1917:603; reminiscences by J. E. Bowers, L., 1921:491.

Sept. - The Academy Schools open with four theological students. - Anniv. Rec., p. 40.

N. d. - Miss Malvina Boericke conducts a Kindergarten for about a year. - Anniv. Rec., p. 40.

Pittsburgh, May 27-28. - 56th meeting of the Pennsylvania Association; Bishop Benade presiding. Representatives from Allentown, Phila., and Pittsburgh are present. Missionary work is discussed. Resolutions as to the nature of Convention's membership, and opposing the claim of the Board of Publication to Convention property, are unanimously passed. - See Journal, 1882, (6pp). Full report in L.: 94.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 29



Glasgow, Aug. 7-14. - The Rev. Benade reports on the 75th General Conference, which meets in Scotland for the first time since its formation. - W. N. C., 11:529. See Conf. Minutes, also L.:159.

London. Oct. 22. - Consecration of the Rev. Rudolph L. Tafel as an "ordaining minister", by Rev. J. F. Potts. - N. C. M. 1:602.

Manchester. Oct. 10. - A special, general meeting of the Peter St. Society, called to oppose the Academy, is reviewed in W. N. C. 11:586. See report in A. L.

Salisbury. Aug. - Mr. T. F. Robinson becomes Pastor here. - N. C. M., 1:511.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 30



New Church Life, vol. 2.

Authority versus Difficult and Unacceptable Doctrines - pp. 2, 19, 34, 53, 67, 133, 149.

Education - pp. 4, 21, 38, 68, 179.

"How a Man Lives" versus "What a Man Thinks" - p. 28; Cf. pp. 14, 42, 77.

"Baptism and the Holy Supper" (review of Rev. George Field's position). - p. 43.

"The Wine Question", (a review of Dr. Ellis' position). - p. 60.

"The Relation of New Church Ministers to the Sacrament of the Supper" - (Letters from Rev. George Field). - pp. 61, 75. Reply by "A Layman" - p. 121.

"The State of the Christian World" - pp. 69, 74.

"How the New Church is to be established", by Rev. R. de Charms, Sr. (Disproves the "permeation" theory). - p. 82.

"Baptism", by Rev. B.F. Barrett. - p. 89.

"What do the words New Church' mean?" by Rev. George Field. - p. 97.

"The Wine Question", by Dr. John Ellis, - p. 121. Reply by Editors. - p. (Cf. pp. 68, 118, 141, 142) Controversy continues on pp. 154, 155, 158, 168, 169.

"The Difference between the Old Church and the New", by Rev. George Field. p. 139.

"Baptism", by Rev. W. H. Benade. - p. 182. Cf. p. 172, 173, 188.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 31




Orange Park, Nov. 14. - Death of the Rev. George Field, aged 73 years. Born in Norfolk (or Huntingdon), England, Feb. 10, 1810, he emigrated to the United States, and became a member of the Pearl St. Society, New York City, in 1836. After missionary work in the West, he began to preach in Detroit on Dec. 9, 1843, and came to be regarded as "the father of the New Church in Michigan". Author of The Early History of the New Church in the Western States and Canada (1879), and The Two Great Books of Nature and Revelation; or, the Cosmos and the Logos (1870).

A man of firm conviction, earnestness, and courage, he was sometimes a controversial figure. But his able and bold advocacy of the Writings won the respect even of his critics, and was especially eulogized by the leaders of the "Academy movement". - Mess., vol. 45, p. 308; biogr. sk., 45:319. Cf. L. 1884:1, 13, 28, 29, 32.

Chicago, Oct. - Under the heading, "The Episcopal New Church", the New Church Review (Oct.) comments as follows upon the newly-formed General Church of Pennsylvania: "That an association of New Church societies should organize a general Church upon the only ecclesiastical polity clearly defined in the writings of Swedenborg, is not so surprising as the fact that not until a century after the first attempts at church organization, this step should at last be taken, and then only to be regarded in the light of a curious novelty. This step has been taken by the Pennsylvania Association in the adoption of a complete prelatical organization, the adoption of the title of a General Church and the election of a Bishop. Far from being a new or unrecognized principle of church organization, this has from the first beginning of our Church's existence been not only recognized as plainly indicated in the Writings, but as endorsed by the best judgment of the Church at large. Thus the late Dr. Thomas Worcester openly declared in an article entitled "A View of the Pastoral Relation", (New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. xix, p. 182), that the Episcopal order is recognized as the true order in the New Church, and that every member of the Committee and of the Convention' who voted for a certain Rule of Order adopted relating to the office of Ordaining Ministers did so because he believed it to be a part of the true order'... The movement of the Church in Pennsylvania is one of deep interest and significance. It means to us an honest putting-off of timid subterfuges by which the people are either flattered or deceived, in regard to the real nature of their Church organization, and a willingness to call things by their right names and let the people judge of their usefulness by seeing them openly and honestly practiced".

Boston, June 1-5. - At the 63rd General Convention, a momentous resolution is offered approving of the freedom of any society to choose any Association.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 32 - Journal (142pp) For other reports and descriptions see M, VII: App; also p. 444; Mess. 44:323; N. C. R. 1803, July, p. 442; L.:109; 1895:161 Cf. Block, p. 216.

N. d. - A Michigan correspondent, writing concerning the Instrument of Organization of the General Church of Pennsylvania, which was sent out as a supplement to the April number of New Church Life, expresses the following opinion: "This Instrument is a juster expression and exposition of a basis upon which the New Church may rest than any with which I am acquainted. L.:83.

Allentown. - Differences in the Allentown Society, arising from the doctrinal teachings of the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, are described in Mess. 44: 289; 46:37, 79, 107, 124, 134. See Bishop Benade's account in Journal of Gen. Ch. of Pa. 1885, p. 6.

Philadelphia, March 5. - Death of Mr. Benjamin F. Glenn, in his 68th year. Born April 27, 1815, near Frankford, Pa., his father was Robert Glenn, one of the founders of the Frankford Society. Under the leadership of Rev. Richard de Charms I, he became a leading lay spirit in the Central Convention. Later, he was an ardent supporter of Bishop Benade, and had a leading part in the building of the Cherry St. temple and schoolhouse. He was prominent in the Philadelphia real estate business. Father of Robert Morris Glenn (1849-1901) early president of the Academy. Obit., L. :49; biogr. sk., 1902:62.

March 17. - The last meeting (57th) of the "Pennsylvania Association" is held in the Advent Church; the Rev. W. H. Benade (General Faster) presiding. 37 persons are present, including delegates from Philadelphia, Darby, Pittsburgh, Lancaster and Allentown. The president explains that "the recent action of the Convention in changing its constitution had left the various Associations free to adopt such forms of government as they wished". On behalf of the "Ecclesiastical and Executive Councils", he therefore submits a new Constitution for the government of the Association. The new Constitution is entitled, "instrument of Organization of The General Church of Pennsylvania, heretofore known as the Pennsylvania Association of the New Church." This includes statements of belief and organization and ten "Canons" for the government of the Association. By it the episcopal form of government is approved; and the Rev. William Henry Benade (former General Pastor of the Pa. Association), is recognized as "Bishop". The new Constitution is discussed, amended, and unanimously adopted. Bishop Benade appoints a Consistory and a "Council of the Laity". Mr. John Pitcairn, Jr., delegate from Pittsburgh, is elected Chairman of the Council. The membership at this time is estimated at 396; with seven societies in Allentown, Philadelphia, Darby, Lancaster, Greenford, Pittsburgh, and Utahville and Sanborn, also including 75 isolated members.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 33 See Journal, (15pp.) Complete text of the Constitution, as finally corrected by Bishop Benade, on pp. 11-15; also published as a supplement in L.: 65-66. Report in L.: 62. Comment in Mess. 44:169. See Block, p. 217.

June 10. - Ordination of Revs. Andrew Czerny, E. J. E. Schreck and W. H. Schliffer. - L,:98.

N. d. - The Academy Schools on Friedlander St. are described in L. 1917:605.

Sept. 12. - Mr. Carl T. Odhner's work is described in Mess. 45:149. 177, 205, 332; 46:10.

- During the winter of 1883-1884, Bishop W. H. Benade begins a series of weekly classes, "for the closer study of the subject of education in the New Church". - L. 1885:17.

N. d. - A Correspondent from West Virginia writes: "I am agreeably surprised to read the Instrument of Organization of the General Church of Pennsylvania.... It is a perfectly clear, positive, comprehensive, and well-attested statement of New Church truths". - L,:83.


London. - In the Brixton Society, the offer of G. C. Ottley, Esq. to conduct evening services is accepted. - N. C. M.: Vol. 2, 189.


New Church Life, vol. 3.

"Hahnemann and his discovery" - p. 2. Cf. p. 17.

"Can Man Destroy a Divine Sacrament"? by Rev. Frank Sewall. - p. 12. Reply by Bishop W. H. Benade. - p. 5. Discussion continued by Sewall, Benade and others on pp. 12, 21,33, 39, 42, 47, 56, 83, 107.

"Aphorisms of the New Life", by Dr. W. H. Holcombe, causes extended discussion. - pp. 28, 70, 78, 99, 122-126.

"Endowing Churches", by Rev. John Whitehead. - p. 30.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 34

"Authority verses Unacceptable Doctrine: - p. 52.

"Suggestions on the Reformation of the Arts and Sciences": Music - p. 116; Poetry - p. 133; Architecture - p. 150; Natural Sciences - p. 170; Art and Science as applied to Man - p. 180.

"The Hebrew Language" - pp. 118, 139, 148.

"Martin Luther and his belief" - pp. 164, 169. Cf. p. 176.

"Priestcraft and Laycraft" - p. 184.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 35



Berlin, Ont., Sep. 5-7. - At the 21st annual meeting of the Canada Association, the "Rules for License and Ordination" are changed to agree with sections 16-21 of the Constitution of the General Convention. - Minutes of C. A., p. 8. Cf. 1877, p. 28; see report in L,:158.


Chicago, Feb. 24. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton preaches for the last time at the North Side Chapel. - L.:48.

N.d. - The Rev. G. N. Smith, M. D., takes charge of the congregations on the West Side and the North Side. - L.:48.

Concordia. - The Rev. E.J. Kirk, though practicing medicine and teaching school, holds meetings here each Sunday. - L.:112, 144.

New York City, April 26. - Seventeen members of the German New Church Society here separate to found the "First German New Church Society of Brooklyn". Mr. A. Klein is elected President. Services are held in a hall, corner of South Third and Fourth Street. (The Society is incorporated on Oct. 10). - L. :80, 96.

Oct. 31. - The First German New Church Society in Brooklyn applies for membership in the General Church of Pennsylvania, and is admitted by Bishop Benade, on the ground that the basis of association in the New Church should be one of spiritual sympathy rather than geographical proximity. This decision leads to marked tension and disturbance in the relations with the General Convention. - L. :176.

Jan. 1. - The Society re-engages the pastoral services of Rev. Dr. Kirk. L.:16.

Allentown, N.d. - The Allentown Society re-joins the General Church of Pennsylvania; but discussion continues over membership in the General Church. - L.:176.

Erie, April 29, - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard describes his work in Erie and vicinity, in L.:80, 96. (18 persons unite in forming the "Bethel Society of the New Jerusalem".) The Rev. E. J. E. Schreck continues the work. - L.:144.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 36

Philadelphia, Jan. 17. Membership of the Advent Society is reported to be 117; average attendance at English service, 90; at German service, 22. The constitution is amended to conform with that of the General Church of Pennsylvania. - L.:32.

Jan. 12. - Marriage of Miss Gertrude Starkey to Mr. John Pitcairn, Jr.; and of Miss Cara Starkey to Mr. Robert M. Glenn; Bishop W. H. Benade officiating. - L.:32.

March. - The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton begins duties as Professor in the Theological School of the Academy of the New Church. - L.:48.

May. - A "Scandinavian new Church Mission Society" is organized here by Mr. Carl T. Odhner and other Swedish New Churchmen. - L.:76.

May 24. - The Second annual meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania is held in the Temple of the Society of the Advent, Cherry and Clay Sts. The following members present represent the newly organized General Church of Pennsylvania: - Council of the Clergy: Rev. J. R. Hibbard, (Assistant Bishop); Rev. E. C. Bostock, (Secretary); Rev. L. H. Tafel; Rev. W. F. Pendleton; Rev. N. C. Burnham; Rev. E. J. E. Schreck; Rev. Andrew Czerny. Council of the Laity: Dr. G. R. Starkey, (Treasurer): Mr. Charles P. Stuart, (Secretary). Delegates: Mr. A. J. Tafel, Mr. E. S. Campbell, Dr. E. A. Farrington, Messrs. Arnold Steiger, William Denoven, Henry Schill, William Clendennon, Jacob Anschutz, R. M. Glenn, George Burnly. Visitors: Messrs. G. A. Macbeth, J. L. Koethen, Pittsburgh; J. W. Leadenham, G. M. Davison, Bennett Yarnall, E. S. price, C. T. Odhner, F. E. Waelchli, Dandridge Pendleton, Louis Pendleton, Homer Synnestvedt, William McGeorge, Mrs. E. J. E. Schreck, Mrs. E. L. Campbell, Mrs. Nathan Frame, Mrs. R. M. Glenn, Mrs. S. C. Smith, Mrs. G. R. Starkey, Philadelphia. The Rev. J. R. Hibbard presides, in the absence of Bishop Benade. His appointment as "Coadjuter or Assistant Bishop" is confirmed. In a written address, Bishop Benade urges "the necessity of giving the new organization a fair trial in order to discover its defects", etc. Objections by the Pittsburgh Society to the new order are fully discussed. The Bethel Society (of Erie county), and the Renovo Society, are received into the General Church; also 26 members from Allentown. Twenty delegates to the General Convention are approved. See Journal of Gen. Ch. of Pa., (8pp.). Cf. L.:80.

N.d. - The original portrait of Swedenborg, formerly the property of the Central Convention, is by action of the surviving Trustee transferred from Urbana University to the Academy of the New Church. (This now hangs in the Academy Library). - L.:96.

July. - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard pleads for an Orphanage building. - L.:112.

Sept. - A Girls' School and an Orphanage are opened on Vine St.; also a Boys' preparatory department, and a Kindergarten. - L. 1917:649.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 37

Pittsburgh, Nov. 28. - Death of Mr. John Pitcairn, Sr., aged 82 years. - L., 1885:48.

Renovo, May 4. - A new Society having organized here, with 7 members, it is admitted to membership in the General Church of Pennsylvania. - L.:96.


Copenhagen. - The Rev. Mr. Boyesen reports that the greater part of the New Churchmen here have separated from the old Society and formed a new one. - L.:32.

Birmingham, Aug. 11. - At the 77th General Conference held in the New Jerusalem Church Wretham Road, Bishop W. H. Benade and Mr. John Pitcairn are present. - Report in N. C. M. 1884:442; published minutes reviewed in L. 1885:11; full report by "a member of the Conference", in L.152.

Colchester, Feb. 1. - Mr. George A. McQueen makes his "first attempt at preaching in Colchester". - L. 1943:71-5.

The Hague. - Bishop W. H. Benade conducts what is said to be "the first New Church service ever held in Holland". - L.:128; 1889:200.

Stockholm. - The Society here, in charge of Rev. A. Boyesen, is said to consist of about 250 members. "The Society is composed mainly of poor people of the working class, who can do but little financially for its support". - L.:139.


New Church Life, vol. 4.

"Conflicts between Editors"; (first joust between New Jerusalem Magazine and New Church Life.) - p. 2.

"The New Church: Its Organization and Government", by Rev. John Whitehead. - pp. 60, 77, 93, 108, 124, 141, 156, 171, 189; 1885, p. 12.

"Universals and General Facts in Physiology", - pp. 84, 100, 122.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 38

"The Error involved in Total Abstinence", by Rev. G. N. Smith. - p. 118.

"Black Garments", (editorial) - p. 139.

On Episcopal versus One-Man government in the Church, by S. P. - p. 143.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 39



Berlin. - Members opposed to the Rev. Mr. Tuerk and the Academy separate from the Society. - L. 1891:191.

June 19. - "New Jerusalem Day" is celebrated in Pittsburgh, Brooklyn, Allentown, Urbana, Concordia and Philadelphia. - L. 112.

Oakland. - The Rev. L. G. Jordan is now entirely devoted to the prospects of the New Church here. - L. 112.

Chicago, July. - Resignation of Rev. G. N. Smith from the Chicago West Side and North Side Societies. The Rev. E. C. Bostock takes his place. - L. 112.

Nov. 5. - It is announced that the congregations worshiping on the West and North Sides have formed a Church, and united themselves with the General Church of Pennsylvania, (Sept. 5). They adopt the name, "The Immanuel Church of the New Jerusalem". - L. 193, 194.

Dec. 9. - The society of the Immanuel Church is ordered, by the Executive Committee of the Illinois Association, to cease using the Chapels on the North and West Sides, the former immediately and the latter by Jan. 1, 1886. - Mess. 49:317; L. 6, 16, 29, 76 (a satirical fable on the incident), 111.

Concordia, May 3. - The Circle here is admitted to membership in the General Church of Pennsylvania. - L. 124. Its origin is described in Journal of Gen. Ch. of Pa., 13-15. Cf. 7.

Boston, May 7. Mr. Wm. H. Alden graduates from the General Convention's Theological School. - L. 96.

Brooklyn, April 27. - The First German New Church Society here celebrates the first anniversary of its organization. - L. 95.

Allentown, April 19. - The Society having been formally dissolved, and its properties divided among the members, about 20 persons organize a new Society. They hire a hall and conduct services and Sunday-school. It is admitted into the General Church of Pennsylvania. - L. 80, 123, 176.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 40

N. d. - During the summer months, Mr. F. E. Waelchli, an Academy theological student, successfully leads in worship and conducts a Sunday School. - L. 112, 128.

N.d. - The full text of the "Instrument of Organization of the Church of the New Jerusalem in Allentown, Pa. "is printed in the Journal of the General Church (1885), also in L. 174.

Darby, July 5. - The Church here is reopened by Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton who preaches each Sunday. - L. 128.

Erie. - May 23. - The Circle here is admitted to membership in the General Church. L. 96.

Philadelphia, Jan. 5. - The annual meeting of the Advent Society reports a membership of 121, and that "the Society is harmonious and prosperous". - L. 32.

Jan. - Bishop Benade begins his second annual course of lectures on Education; they are well attended. - L. 16.

Jan. 8. - Marriage of Mr. John A. Wells and Miss Pauline Starkey; also of Mr. Chas. S. Smith and Miss Dora Starkey. - L. 32.

Summer. - The Academy rents a building at 1700 Summer St., for its Theological School, College, and Girls' School. The Boys' School remains at Cherry St. 1700 Summer St., is also the Home Office of the General Church of Pennsylvania. - L. 112.

N. d. - The Rev. Richard de Charms Jr. is appointed Headmaster of the Academy Boys' School, succeeding the Rev. E. C. Bostock. - L. 112.

N. d. - The Academy's corps of professors and teachers now numbers 12, with 50 students and pupils, 7 of whom are preparing for the priesthood. - L. 160.

Dec. 17. - Death of Professor Ernest A. Farrington, aged 38 years. Born in Long Island, N. Y., in 1847, he graduated from Hahnemann Medical College in 1868, to become a distinguished professor of that institution and a physician of wide reputation. A valued contributor to Words for the New Church, and New Church Life, he was also a professor in the Academy schools from 1877 to the time of his death. His oratorical and social gifts enriched the early life of his Church. The memorial meeting in honor of Dr. Farrington and Mr. Chas. P. Stuart (Dec. 20), was made the occasion for the first interesting College Letter. (March 30, 1886). - L.1886:1, 16; biogr. sk., 1914:688.

Dec. 18. - Death of Mr. Charles Park Stuart, aged 24 years. Born at Oxford, O., Aug. 24, 1861, he was the grandson of the Rev. J. P. Stuart.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 41 A graduate of the Academy's Collegiate department (1881), he possessed unusual literary gifts, and had a leading part in the publication of New Church Life and its predecessor, The Social Monthly. Instructor in the Academy, 1882-1885. His notebooks and letters in the Academy Archives convey a vivid picture of his too brief day. - L 1886:2, 16. For examples of his letters, L 1941:130. He was buried next to his grandfather in the old New Church cemetery at Upper Darby, Pa.

Pittsburgh, May 23-24. - Third meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania; Bishop Benade presiding. Four new societies are received, viz., Brooklyn, N. Y., Allentown, Pa., Erie, Pa., and Concordia, Kansas. This step ignored geographical limitations. Bishop Benade delivers an important address on the true modes of evangelization. The Rev. J. R. Hibbard is given charge of the missionary work for the General Church. The membership now totals 439, an increase of 35 over previous year. A very detailed statistical report is published. - Journal of Gen. Ch. of Pa., 1885, (17pp). Text of address, p.6. Cf. L. 96; (address) 123.

Oct. - 19. - An elementary school is opened by the Society. The ten pupils are taught by the Revs. J. Whitehead and A. Czerny, assisted by Misses Hogan, Pitcairn, and Cowley. - L. 176.

N.d. - The Rev. A. Czerny preaches in German alternately at Allegheny, Pa., and Greenford, Ohio. - L. 93.


London, N.d. - Mr. G. C. Ottley is now studying for the priesthood at the New Church Educational Institute. - L. 160.


New Church Life, vol. 5.

"Conversations on Education", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - pp. 17, 36, 51, 68, 83, 100, 116, 135, 148, 164, 182.

"The Teachings of the Writings concerning Conjugial Love and concerning Scortatory Love", by E. O. D. - p. 63.

"Total Abstinence to some a necessity" - p. 70. Cf. 81.

On the "labor question" (editorial) - p. 113. Cf. pp. 161, 173.

On the Extension of the General Church of Pennsylvania, by Bishop W. H. Benade. - p. 123.

"Chart of New Church Education", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - p. 177.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 42



Toronto, Parkdale, March 28. - The Parkdale Society is organized with 18 members, under the care of Rev. J. S. David. - L. 48, 96.


Jacksonville, March 14. - Twelve persons organize the "Florida Church of the New Jerusalem" Account in Gen. Ch. Pa. Journal, p. 73.

Chicago. N. d. - Of the 49 members of the Immanuel Church, about 12 were former members of the "Chicago Society of the New Jerusalem". - L. 16.

Sept. 15. An "Academy School" opens with 6 pupils. Headmaster, Rev. E. C. Bostock; assisted by Mr. O. Blackman, Miss Susan Junge, and Mrs. Mary A. Burnham. This school is later transferred to Oak Glen (Glenview). - Coll. Letters, No. 4:1; Cf. L. 1945:380.

N. d. - The North and West Side Societies begin to use the Philadelphia Liturgy. - L. 16.

New York, N.d. - Mr. W. H. Schliffer is called to be pastor of the German New Church Society. - L. 48.

- During the summer, the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, on behalf of the General Church of Pennsylvania, visits nine towns in the state, preaching in school houses and in private houses, in English and in German. - L. 144.

Lancaster. - The Society is visited quarterly by Revs. Hibbard, Wm. F. Pendleton, Wm. L. Worcester and E. J. E. Schreck. - L. 175.

Philadelphia, Feb. - The Orphanage Department of the Academy is active at this time, having full charge of ten children. - L. 32, 63; See Coll. Lres., No. 1:1; 4:10.

Feb. 19. - A "Badge Meeting" of 35 members of the Academy is described in Coll. Lres., No. 2:1-3. Chancellor Benade outlines the duties of Academy members.

March 18. - Another "Badge Meeting" of Academy members is described in Coll. Lres., No. 2:3-6.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 43

March 19-21. - Fourth (60th) meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania; Bishop Benade presiding. Present 7 ministers 5 members of the Council of the Laity, and 13 delegates. The Allentown and Brooklyn German Churches send full delegations. The Bishop's address reviews the history of the Pennsylvania Association from 1845 to 1883. The principle of unanimity is urged. An extended discussion is waged on the question, "Shall all Church property be vested in the general body?" Also the question of the extension of the General Church regardless of geographical limitations. The Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton presents a historical sketch of the Immanuel Church (Chicago), and its relation to the ruling of the General Convention in 1883, (Minute No. 49). He also reads a paper on "The Function of an External Church", (text in Journal, p. 62, and, L. 66-8), which clarifies the relation of the Academy to the General Church of Pennsylvania, and increases harmony. A College Letter notes: "There seems to be a recognition on the part of members of both the Academy and the General Church of Pennsylvania of the position of each body, the Academy being an Internal Church, and the General Church of Pennsylvania an External Church". The report of the Council of the Laity (John Pitcairn, Chairman), urges a more complete record of the speeches and addresses of every general meeting of the Church. (This resulted in a very much enlarged Journal etc., and set a precedent which has been followed in the General Church to the present time). - See Journal, (75pp.); and Coll. Lre. No. 4, p. 6. Full account in L. 59-63.

March 21. - Ordinations of Revs. A. Czerny and E. J. E. Schreck into the second degree of the Priesthood. - L. 63.

March 30. - First issue of the "College Letters", - a printed, private publication conveying news of the Academy to all its members, and compiled by the "College" at the request of the "Council of the Academy of the New Church". (Eight issues were sent out at irregular intervals, the last on Sept. 1, 1895.) Each copy was numbered and returnable to the Corresponding Secretary. The reasons for privacy are given in No. 1;2 Cf. No. 4:1-3; No. 5:2-3. - A. L.

N. d. - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard resigns as Coadjutor Bishop of the General Church of Pa., and as Director of the Orphanage. Mrs. Sarah de Charms Hibbard resigns as teacher in the Academy Girls' School. Rev. Richard de Charms Jr. resigns as Headmaster of the Boys' School, and is replaced by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - L. 96.

June 10. - The Academy Schools close. Three of the senior theological students do missionary work during the summer; Mr. E. S. Price in the South, Mr. F. E. Waelchli in Allentown, Pa., and Mr. Carl T. Odhner among the Swedes in Illinois. - L. 112.

June 20. - Death of Mr. William G. Clendon, an associate member of the Academy. Account of memorial in Coll. Lres., No.3:2-4. Interesting reasons for the simplicity of Academy funerals are given.

Sept. 15. - Opening exercises of the Academy Schools. The Faculty consists of Chancellor Benade, Professors Tafel and Pendleton, and Headmasters Schreck, Whitehead and Bostock.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 44 They are assisted by Messrs. E. S. Price, C. F. Browne, Misses Electa and Alice Grant, Miss Evelyn E. Plummer, and several of the students. College enrollment is 13, of whom 12 are preparing for the ministry. Of the 12 students preparing for the ministry, 4 are from the U. S., 4 from England, and 4 from Sweden. Boys' School, 16; Girls' School and Kindergarten, 21. The Chancellor's speech appears in L. 172, Nov. - See Coll. Lres., No. 4:1.

Oct. 4. - At a supper given by Councillor Starkey, at 1638 Green St., in honor of the 70th birthday of Chancellor Benade, (Oct. 3), a silver loving-cup is presented to the Academy by Messrs. Pitcairn and Childs, to be used at June 19th and decennial celebrations. Description and photo. in Coll. Lre. No. 5:6. For the complete text of speeches and songs, see Coll. Lre. No. 7:1-9.

Nov. 15. - At an Academy meeting, at the residence of Rev. John Whitehead, with 18 members present, speeches by Chancellor Benade, Mr. John Pitcairn, and the Revs. Wm. F. Pendleton, John Whitehead, and E. C. Bostock explain the status of the Academy movement at this time. - Account in Coll. Lres. No. 4:6-9.

Dec. - The "College" now has full charge of the support of ten orphans; and an appeal is made for the increase of financial support. - Coll. Lre. No. 4:9.

Dec. 10 - The College of the Academy of the New Church announces that "the Council has separated the Rev. J. R. Hibbard from the fellowship of the Academy for disturbing the order and peace of this body. (See H. 3. 318)." - Coll. Lre. No. 4:10.

N.d. - At the dedication of Hahnemann College, the prominence of New Churchmen on the board of trustees and the faculty is a marked feature of the institution. - L. 175.

- The practice is established in the General Church of publishing a Calendar of Daily Readings from the Writings. - L. 8 1945:271.

Pittsburgh, Sept. 15. - The Academy Schools opens with 12 pupils. Headmaster, Rev. John Whitehead, assisted by Rev. A. Czerny, Miss C. Hobart and Dr. Wm. Cowley. - Coll. Lres. No. 4:1.

Oct. 30. - Death of Dr. David Cowley, a highly valued member of the early Academy movement, and a respected member of the Penna. State Medical Society. - Obit., L.1886:178; memor. mtg., Coll. Lres., No. 4:4. Cf. Journal, Gen. Ch. Pa., Nov., p. 40.

Nov. 12-14. - Fifth (61st) meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania; Bishop Benade presiding. This signalizes a change of the annual meeting from the spring to the fall. The orderly financial arrangements of the Church and its legal incorporation are very fully discussed; and the sixth edition of the Liturgy is ordered reprinted, until an entirely new Liturgy can be prepared.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 45 A committee is appointed to support the project of the photo-lithographing of the Spiritual Diary. The principles and methods of a true evangelistic work are fully debated. - See Journal. Gen. Ch. Pa., (81pp.); also lengthy report in L. 188; 1887:11; and Coll. Lres., No. 4:6.


Madras. - The Rev. C. H. Vetterling, M.D., contributes a series of articles on, "Studies in Swedenborg" to The Theosophist. the organ of Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society. - L. 169.


Colchester, May 23. - A New Church Sunday School opens here, with 30 present. The Academy movement begins here at this time. - L. 112, 144.

May. - The Rev. R. J. Tilson, formerly of Liverpool, takes over the pastorate of the Camberwell Society. - M. X:248; N. C. M. 291.

June 19. - Annual meeting of the New Church Education Institute. Dr. R. L. Tafel is re-elected President; Rev. J. F. Potts, Vice-President; Mr. Whittington, Secretary; and Mr. Gibbs, Treasurer. - L. 144.

Aug. - After fourteen years of preparation, announcement is made of the forth-coming publication of Potts' Concordance, in monthly parts, to fill four volumes. The General Church of Pa. pledges enthusiastic support. - L.123, 128, 129; Journal, Gen. Ch. Pa., 13.


New Church Life, vol. 6.

"Conversations on Education", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - pp. 4, 19, 36, 49, 68, 84, 116, 132, 148, 164, 181.

"Wine at the Holy Supper", by Rev. W. A. Presland. - p. 14, 47. Cf. pp. 2, 38, 142.

"The New Jerusalem Magazine on the Immanuel Church", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - p. 29.

"Representative"- pp. 40, 69, 85, 115.

"The Essence of True Freedom: What is it?" by Rev. G. C. Ottley. - p. 50.

"The Function of an External Church", by Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton. - p. 66. Cf. p. 63.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 46



- Only two Societies now remain, viz., at Cape Town and Durban, Natal. The Society at Graaff Reynet, in the interior of Cape Colony, disappears owing to deaths and removals. All services are held in private houses, and conducted by lay leaders. - Mess. 53:218; L. 192.


Berlin. N. d. - During the summer, Messrs. Tafel and Schreck visit the Berlin Society. This led to a desire for a New Church School; the pastor, Rev. F. W. Tuerk, agrees, but insists upon a parochial school, instead of an "Academy" School. - L.1891:192.

Aug. 17. - An "Academy" meeting is described in Coll. Lre. No. 6:18.

Denver, N.d. - The Rev. Richard de Charms resigns from the Academy. Coll. Lre. No. 6:19.

Chicago, Jan. 12. - Meeting of the members of the Academy at the house of Hugh L. Burnham, Esq. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 5:7.

June 19. - The celebration is described in Coll Lre., No. 6:17.

Dec. 25. - Dedication of the School-House of the Immanuel Church on Carroll Avenue, West Side, by Bishop Benade. - Report in L., 1888:30.

Concordia, March 23. - The work of Rev. Ellis I. Kirk here, is described in Mess. 52:163.

New York City. - The Rev. W. H. Schliffer is ordained Pastor of the New York German Society, by Rev. C. Giles. - L. 48.

June 27. - The Rev. W. H. Schliffer resigns from the pastorate of the New York German Society. - 1, 127.

Middleport, April 12. - Death of Mr. John Grant, 77 years; one of the pioneers of the New Church in Pomeroy and Middleport. - Obit., Mess. 52:280.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 47

Summer. - The five authorized candidates of the General Church perform missionary uses in Clearfield region, Renovo, Allentown, Erie, and Williamsport. - L. 127.

Philadelphia. - The Academy of the New Church gives aid to a family of five orphan children, leaving the mother in charge. - L. 45.

N. d. - A General Church Committee issues a circular on behalf of the photo-lithographing of Swedenborg's MSS, giving an interesting resume of the preservation of Scriptures from most ancient times. - L. 8.

Jan. 28. - First celebration of Swedenborg's birthday by the Academy Schools. - L. 62.

Feb. 22. - At a general meeting of the Academy, at the home of Mr. John Pitcairn, (40 members present), Chancellor Benade states that the rules of procedure for the selection of Councillors and officers of the Academy, "heretofore unwritten, will now become, when sanctioned by the Body, the written laws of our order" - Coll. Lre. No. 5:3.

April 13. - At a social meeting of Academy members, at the house of Councillor Pitcairn, Chancellor Benade explains why the Academy meetings and affairs are at present private, but not secret. - Coll. Lre., No. 6:2.

N. d. - The Academy purchases property at 1821 Wallace St., thereby bringing all its schools and uses together. The General Church offices also move from 1700 Summer St. (April 3) to the same address. Description of property, etc. in Coll. Lre. No. 6:2. Cf. L. 80; Anniv. Rec., p. 42.

May. - New Church Life denies that it is the "organ" of the Academy, or of the General Church of Pennsylvania; but "is a private enterprise owned and conducted by two of its original founders, who are alone responsible for it". The editors state, however, they are volunteer supporters of the principles and uses of the Academy of the New Church. - L. 66.

May 2. - The Boys' School is transferred from the building in Cherry St., above 20th, to the new Academy building. - L. 80.

June 15-17. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. Messrs. Price, Odhner and Waelchli receive the 8. A. degree from the College. - Full description in Coll. Lre. No. 6:4. Cf. 127.

June. - The following theological students in the Academy become authorized candidates: Messrs. Price, C. T. Odhner, Waelchli, Hyatt, W. H. Acton, N. D. Pendleton. - L. 96.

June 20. - New Church Day is celebrated at "Paul Brook", the home of Mr. Glenn. - Full text of speeches, etc., in Coll. Lre. No. 6:6-17.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 48

Oct. - The Academy Schools reopen at 1821 Wallace St. Description of the remodeled premises in L.160.

Nov. 10-13. - The Sixth (62nd) meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania is held in the house of worship of the Society of the Advent; Bishop Benade presiding. Present: Council of the Clergy, 6; Council of the laity, 7; Delegates, 13; Other Members, 54; also a number of visitors. A documented history of the Lancaster Society, by Dr. S. S. Rathvon, is reported. The definition of "Societies", "Circles", and "Stations" is discussed. The nomination of the Rev. Louis H. Tafel, as Bishop's Assistant, presented by Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton, is unanimously accepted. After lengthy discussions, a more adequate "Calendar" of readings is sanctioned. The raising of funds for the preservation of Swedenborg's MSS is expedited. The scanty support of the episcopal office; - the provision of evangelistic literature; - a proposed "rite of confirmation"; - are debated at length. After an important paper by Rev. Louis H. Tafel, it is decided to prepare and publish "a new translation of the Word, based upon the translation given in the Writings". A documented paper, by Rev. E.J. E. Schreck, on: "Man's State when arriving at Adult Age and Thereafter", is a feature of the meetings. - See Journal. (111pp.); also report in L. 184-188.

Nov. 13. - Social meeting at the home of Collegiate A. J. Tafel, 1724 Green St. It is agreed that the Academy should celebrate the 19th and the General Church the 20th of June. - Report in Coll. Lre. No. 7:9.

Nov. 19. - Death of Mrs. Annie Benade, wife of Bishop Benade. - L. 1887:192. Full account of memorial meeting in Coll. Lre. No. 7:10.

Dec. 1. - Last meeting of the Advent Society in the Cherry St. Temple. The building is sold to St. Clements Episcopal Church for a hospital. A new building is to be erected. A crisis arises in the Society. - Mess. 53:362.


Vienna. - The expelled members here are nicknamed "Pennsylvanians", on account of their acceptance of the Church order of the "General Church of Pennsylvania". - L. 178, 192.

Aug. 17. - The Rev. J. n. Hibbard visits Paris, and describes at length the conditions of the New Church in the city. - Mess. 53:93.

- The jubilee Year of Queen Victoria's reign is celebrated by various New Church societies; and especially by the Swedenborg Society. - L. 127.

N. d. - Steps are taken by the New Church general bodies in Britain and America to assure financial support to the Rev. J. F. Potts, so that he may "devote all his time to the completing and editing of the Concordance". - L. 81, 97, 110, 182.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 49

London, Feb. 28. - Academy meeting at the residence of Mr. Gibbs. All members in England, save one, are present. Revs. R. J. Tilson and R. L. Tafel officiate. Meetings are to be held every two months. - Coll. Lre. No. 5:8.

Northampton, Oct. 23. - Ordination of Rev. T. F. Robinson, by Rev. R. L. Tafel. - L. 192.



New Church Life, vol. 7.

"Conversations on Education" by Bishop W. H. Benade. - pp. 5, 21, 37, 53, 68, 85, 116, 133, 150, 181.

"Liquor Legislation" - pp. 18, 45, 141.

The Church in Sweden (A review of Sundelin's History of Swedenborgianism) - p. 27.

"New Church Orphanage" by Rev. W. F. Pendleton. - p. 44.

"The New Church Christmas", (discussion by Rev. Frank Sewall and others). - pp. 49, 53, 94. (Cf. Mess. March 2, 1887) vol. 52:115.

"The Reconstruction of the Sciences", by Mr. C. T. Odhner. - p. 188.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 50



Berlin. Ont. - The Berlin Society continues efforts to make a New Church School here "the educational centre of the New Church in Canada". - L. 112.

Sept. 3. - Opening of the New Church School here, with the Rev. F. E. Waelchli as headmaster. - L. 159.


Denver. - A number of members formally withdraw from the Denver (Convention) Society, to form a second society, the "Denver Society of the Lord's Advent", at 2558 Stout St.; Rev. Richard de Charms, Jr., pastor. - L. 12.

Concordia, N. d. - Owing to hard times, nearly all members of the Concordia Circle move away, including the Pastor, Rev. Ellis I. Kirk. The building is sold. - L. 175.

Athens. July 15. - Death of Mr. John M. Hibbard, a licensed New Church preacher; uncle of Rev. J. R. Hibbard. - Obit., Mess. 55:238.

Middleport. - The attendance at worship here is 60. The Society is reported to have "a large number of young people connected with it". Dr. W. A. Hanlin is superintendent of the Sunday School. - L. 32.

Summer. - Candidate N. D. Pendleton does missionary work in the Clearfield region. - L. 175.

Allentown. Jan. 29. - Celebration of the 200th anniversary of Swedenborg's birthday. - L. 40.

July-Sept. - The work of Rev. C. T. Odhner in Allentown and Bethlehem is described in Mess.

Oct. 1. - Death of Mr. Eli Y. Saeger, aged 70 years; one of the founders of the Allentown Society. - Mess. 55:254.

Philadelphia, Jan. 3. - Dedication of the buildings of the Academy, on Wallace St., and North St., by Bishop Benade. Full description and address in L. 27-30.

N. d. - Early in the year, serious disturbances begin to be manifested in the Advent Society, arising out of differences between Rev. Louis H. Tafel and his followers and others in the Academy. A statement by Bishop Benade in L. 181.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 51

N.d. - The Advent Society buys a lot on 21st St., running from Wallace St. to Fairmount Ave. - L. 32.

Jan. 29. - Celebration of the 200th anniversary of Swedenborg's birthday, by the Academy of the New Church. - L. 32, 39, 40.

May 9. - Ordination of Rev. W. F. Pendleton into 3rd degree by Bishop Benade. - L. 101; L. 1891:8; Coll. Lre. VII:14-18.

June 10. - Ordination of Revs. E. S. Price, C. T. Odhner, F. E. Waelchli and E. S. Hyatt, by Bishop Benade. - Described in Mess. 54:406; L. 112, 114.

N. d. - Thirteen of the students in the Theological School and College are reported to be preparing for the priesthood. - L. 32.

June 21-22. - Closing exercises of the Academy Boys' and Girls' Schools, the College, and the Theological School. - L. 112.

N. d. - Bishop Benade and Rev. E. S. Price sail for Europe, to attend the Orientalist Congress at Stockholm, - L. 128.

Sept. 13. - The Rev. Louis H. Tafel lays the foundation-stone of an intended Temple for the Advent Society, at 21st St., near Fairmount Ave. (This movement was given up. The building became a sub-post office). - L. 160, 191; Mess. 55:184.

Oct. 1. - Opening of the Academy Schools, (the 12th year of the College and Divinity School). New members of the faculty include Messrs. Schreck, Price, and C. T. Odhner. - L. 175; (address), 174.

Dec. 6. - The Rev. Louis H. Tafel is enjoined from exercising his functions within the limits of the General Church of Pennsylvania. He begins preaching in Milton Hall, North St., above 19th, to a number of members who follow him from the Advent Society. The Advent Society continues to hold services at Glenn Hall, corner of 17th and Brandywine Sts., under the charge of Bishop Benade. - L. 16.

Dec. 30. - In the Advent Society, the rite of "Coming of Age" is performed for the first time in a service entirely devoted to it. - L. 14.

Pittsburgh, N. d. - Dedication of the new School building by Bishop Benade. - Account by Walter Childs in it. - L. 30.

Oct. 1. - Opening of the Academy School, with 23 scholars. - L. 175.

Nov. 15-18. - The Seventh (63rd) meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania is held in the house of worship of the Pittsburgh Society, (Allegheny City); Bishop Benade presiding. Present: Council of the Clergy, 6; Council of the Laity, 5; Delegates, 16; Other members, 40; Visitors, 8.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 52 The Rev. Louis H. Tafel resigns as Bishop's Assistant, and reports that, "my experience in the past year has convinced me that the concentration of power as taught and practiced in our body is not conducive to good effects". He urges following the teaching in D. P. 71, etc., which calls for the "greatest freedom in the operations of church societies, families, and individuals which may be compatible with...the preservation of order..." Bishop Benade interprets the doctrine to mean that "every man is at liberty to think and to will, but not to speak or say what he thinks, nor to do what he wills. Liberty is not in speech and act, but in will and thought..."

- It is unanimously resolved that the General Church accepts Mr. Tafel's withdrawal from the candidacy for the office of Assistant Bishop, and also from the "Commission for the translation of the Word"

- Nearly three sessions are devoted to the financial support of the ministry. Gratitude is formally expressed to the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden for their zeal and cooperation as to the work on Swedenborg's MSS. - Journal for 1888; (87pp); also L.181-186.


Paris. N.d. - The Rev. J. R. Hibbard holds services and classes for English-speaking members in private apartments. - L. 48

Colchester, June 19. - The Society celebrates "New Church Day". - L. 128.

London. N.d. 32 adults baptized in year 1887 by Rev. R. J. Tilson, in the Camberwell Society. - L. 96.

Stockholm. N.d. - Sunday morning services, by Rev. A. T. Boyesen, are attended by 200 to 400 persons. - L. 176.


New Church Life, vol. 8.

"Conversations on Education", by Bishop W. H. Benade. pp. 5, 20, 37, 52, 68, 84, 100, 117, 135, 164.

"Prudence in the Marriage Relation". - pp. 6, 47.

Discussion on "Wine in the Holy Supper". - pp. 6, 38, 46, 55, 129, 141, 145.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 53

"Light breaking in the East", (a plea in Massachusetts Association for return to fundamental doctrines). - p. 7.

"Imagination", by Rev. E. S. Hyatt. - p. 20.

"On the Relation of the Scientific Works to the Writings", by Rev. W. H. Acton. - p. 21.

Discussion on "Vestments in Heaven and the Church". - pp. 31,46, 47, 62, 114, 127, 184.

"That Love is Life and that Life is Eternal", by N. D. Pendleton. - p. 57.

"Rewards and Punishments in Schools" - pp. 72, 85, 105.

"The Desire for a New Translation of the Word" (A history of the movement). - p. 73. Cf. p. 95.

Early History of the Church in Iowa, by Rev. Stephen Wood. - p. 77.

Concubinage and New Church Doctrine (Beginning of a prolonged discussion by Revs. E. J. E. Schreck, J. F. Buss, Mr. C. W. C. Barlow and others). - pp. 81, 146, 148, 188, 189, 190).

The Name "Jehowah" by "O". - pp. 129, 151, 165.

"Is the External of the Word separate from the Internal Divine". - p. 167.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 54



Toronto, Ont., Jan. - The Rev. E. S. Hyatt is invited to take charge at Parkdale for three months, Mr. David having resigned. - Mess. 56:40.


Chicago, March 3. - In the Immanuel Church, the practice of strictly voluntary offerings begins. - Description in. L. 58.

Nov. - The Rev. N. D. Pendleton becomes assistant to Mr. Bostock in the Immanuel Church. - L. 200.

Cambridge, Oct. 22. - The Rev. T.F. Wright writes to New Church Life protesting against the statement that no other New Church Schools but the Academy recognize the authoritative character of the Writings. The Rev. E. J. E. Schreck replies. - L. 195.

Brooklyn, March 13. - The First German Society severs its connection with the General Church of Pennsylvania. A group of the members secede, and hold meetings in the home of Mr. Klein, 172 Broadway. This Circle is admitted to the General Church. - L. 104; Mess. 56:248.

Cincinnati, Aug. 13. - Death of Samuel Sangston Carpenter, Esq., aged 66 years. A prominent lawyer, and the first U. S. Commissioner to refuse, on constitutional grounds, to enforce the "Fugitive Slave" Act. For many years the most active New Churchman in Cincinnati and a fearless advocate of the Academy of the New Church. - Biogr., 167; Mess. 57:206, 207. See Coll. Lre. No. 11:2.

Middleport, April 1. - The "Swedenborgianism" of Dr. W. A. Hanlin becomes a political issue at his election on the School Board. - Mess. 56:248.

Philadelphia. - Throughout the year, the question of "Wine in the Holy Supper" is vigorously discussed. - L. 6, 38, 46, 55, 129, 141, 142, 145.

Feb. - A communication to New Church Life, by Rev. G. N. Smith, on "The Evil of Concubinage", with reply by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, arouses a heated controversy in the English Conference. - L. 28, 62.

Feb. 17. - The Rev. L.H. Tafel's group of seceders from the Advent Society secure the use of Mitten Hall, 707 North Broad St.: 60 attend the new Society. - Mess. 56:136; L. 16.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 55

March 12. - The Academy Council accepts the resignations of Rev. L. H. Tafel and Dr. F. E. Boericke, Edward S. Campbell, Esq., Mr. Arthur Faraday and Mr. Charles A. Ahrens are "separated from membership in the Academy". Coll. Lre., No.9:3. (See also list of other resignations).

April 25. - On the initiative of the First Society, (Rev. C. Giles, pastor), a new "Pennsylvania Association of the New Church" is formed. A constitution is adopted. President, Rev. C. Giles; Vice-President, Rev. L. H. Tafel. Societies in Philadelphia, Frankford, Vineland and Allentown are represented. The Advent Society (General Church) is not invited. The relation to the "General Church of Pennsylvania" is discussed. - Mess. 56:281; Full report in L. 73-77.

June 16. - Ordination of Revs. N. D. Pendleton and Wm. H. Acton, by Bishop Benade. - L. 120.

June 20. - A group of Academy young men (Rev. N. D. Pendleton, and Messrs. H. Synnestvedt, H. Schill, J. Burt, A. Nelson, and D. Klein), leave for a bicycle tour in England and Europe. - L. 136, 149; A. A.

July. - The Rev. L. G. Jordan is called to the pastorate of the Advent Society. - L.120.

July 19. - A cable from England reports that Bishop W. H. Benade has suffered a severe stroke of paralysis. - L. 136.

Sept. 26. - Bishop Benade arrives home, in the care of Mr. John Pitcairn and Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - L. 168.

Oct. 1. - The Academy Schools re-open, with a service and address by the Acting Superintendent, Rev. Wm. F. Pendleton. - Report in L. 181.

Nov. 21-24. - The Eighth (64th) annual meeting of the General Church of Pennsylvania is held in the place of worship of the Advent Society; Bishops Wm. F. Pendleton and W. H. Benade presiding. Present: Council of the Clergy, 4; Other Pastors and Ministers, 7; Council of the Laity, 5; Delegates, 16; Other Members, 44; Visitors, 37. Four sessions are devoted to an intensive discussion of: (1) The condition of the General Convention; and (2) The principles of the Church bearing on the case. The General Church unanimously confirms Bishop Benade's stand at the last meeting of the General Convention in regard to the injunction of the Rev. L. H. Tafel. (This discussion proved to be a prelude to the formal break with Convention in the following year). - Journal, 1889, (101pp); also full account in L. 1890:2-13. Cf. p. 45.

Nov. 24. - Installation of Rev. L. G. Jordan into the pastorate of the Advent Society, by Bishops Benade and Pendleton, in the hall of the Academy, 1826 North St. - Journal, :66.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 56

Pittsburgh, Sept. 23. - The Academy Day School re-opens, with 36 pupils; Headmaster Rev. John Whitehead is assisted by Revs. A. Czerny, W. H. Acton, Dr. Cowley and Miss C. Hobart. - L. 183.

Watsontown, July 2. - Death of Mr. Ansgarius Boren, aged 40 years, in a railroad accident. A gifted Swedish writer and poet. As a boy, he took part in the Danish-Prussian war; and during 13 years in U. S. service he was in historical encounters with the Indians. He was one of the Academy's senior theological students. - L. 136.


Bangalore, Feb. 29. - Death of Major General Coghill Glendower Ottley, aged 84 years; a very earnest member of the Church, and father of Rev. G. C. Ottley. - Biogr., N. C. M. 1889:240; Mess. 56:216; L. 64.


Helsingfors, May 22. - Death of Professor Nils Carl Nordenskiold, aged 52 years; an active New churchman, and Director of the "Metereological Institute". - L. 136.

London, June 21. - 6th annual meeting of the New Church Educational Institute; important speeches by Tafel, Potts and Tilson. - Report in L. 147, 152.

July 19. - Bishop Benade is stricken with paralysis in London. The Rev. Jabex Fox describes his illness. - Mess. 57:72; L. 136, 149.

July. - The Camberwell Society welcomes the American Academy visitors. - L. 149.


New Church Life, vol. 9.

"Conversations on Education", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - pp. 3, 21, 37, 53, 69, 84, 107, 124, 140, 156.

Concubinage and New Church Doctrine, (discussion continued). - pp. 8, 28, 29, 62, 153, 199.

Expositions of the Internal Sense of Genesis, (Chaps. 12-18). - pp. 22, 38, 50, 70, 108, 173, 186. Cf. p. 49.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 57

The Wine of the Lord's Supper and Church History, by Stephen Wood. - p. 31. Cf. pp. 46, 47, 78, 81, 121, 196.

"Solemnizing Marriages of the Divorced", by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - p. 128.

"The Priesthood", by Mr. N. D. Pendleton. - p. 131.

"On What Does the Success of New Church Societies Depend", by Rev. G. C. Ottley. - p. 132.

"Mythology in the Light of the New Church", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 141, 157, 177, 191.

"Principles of Government", by Rev. W. H. Acton. - p. 165.

The "Progressive Illumination" of Swedenborg. - p. 172.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 58



Berlin. Ont., Spring. - Disturbances occur in the Berlin Society over the Academy principles and policies of the pastor, the Rev. F. W. Tuerk. Account in L. 1891:191-193.

June. - The Rev. Joseph E. Rosenqvist is engaged as assistant-pastor of the Berlin School. - L. 96.
July 24-27. - At the 27th annual meeting of the Canada Association of the New Jerusalem, a split arises in the Association in regard to the Academy. - Full report, by Rev. Alfred Acton, in L. 153-171; further details, 193-194.

Sept. 1. - The Academy School opens with 47 pupils. - Account in L. 1890:204.

Dec. 30. - An "Academy" meeting is presided over by Rev. Tuerk. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 9:1-3.


Denver. - Concerning the split in the Denver Society, Mr. George W. Tyler corrects the account by Rev. H. C. Dunham. - Mess. 58:106, 220.

Chicago, June 21-28. - At the 70th General Convention, held in the Temple on Van Buren St., the report of the General Church of Pennsylvania is rejected. Its cause is lost by one vote. This open affront to the General Church hastens the ultimate separation. - See Journal of Gen. Conv. 1890; also reports in Mess. 59:1-14. Full verbatim report, by Rev. Alfred Acton, in L.117-131; comment by Rev. N. D. Pendleton, 191; editorial, 113. Full text of the rejected report appears in Journal, Gen. Ch. Pa., 1890:115-120. Because of its historic significance, it is reprinted in Appendix I of this volume.

June. - In his report as Chairman of the "Committee on the Publication of Swedenborg's MSS", Bishop W. H. Benade tenders his resignation. - L. 141.

Sept. 12. - The Immanuel Church holds a farewell meeting in honor of Rev. and Mrs. E. C. Bostock; a silver loving cup marks its esteem. - Account in L. 203.

Sept. 17. - The Rev. E. C. Bostock leaves for England, to "establish the first New Church Schools in England under the auspices of the Academy". - L. 172.

Sept. - Under the direction of Bishop Benade, Rev. N.D. Pendleton takes charge of the Immanuel Society. - L. 172.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 59

Oct. 6. - The Rev. Wm. H. Acton, B. Th., of Allegheny City, becomes Headmaster of the Academy School, assisted by Rev. N. D. Pendleton, Professor Blackman, Mr. Paul Synnestvedt, and Miss Susie Junge. - L. 197.

Greenford, Jan. 15. - A civil court renders a decision in favor of the Society, "since it was an integral part of the General Church of Pennsylvania, (and) no other doctrines than those held by that Church should be preached in their house of worship". - See Journal, Gen. Ch. Pa., 1889:78-80. Cf. 1890:106. Also L. 45, 75.

Huntingdon Valley, Summer. - Services of the Church of the Advent are held at "Knight's Hill". A number of members, including Bishops Benade and Wm. F. Pendleton, are summering in this vicinity. - L. 132.

Philadelphia, Jan. 7. - The Rev. Louis H. Tafel's group (named the "Philadelphia Union"), organize permanently under the name of "North Philadelphia Society of the New Jerusalem". - L. 48.

Feb. - Beginning with its February issue, the New Church Life is controlled and conducted by "The Academy of the New Church". (It was not taken over by the General Church until August, 1899). - L. 17.

Feb. - In an editorial in New Church Life, the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck asserts that "the Academy of the New Church is a Church - called into existence for the performance of specific uses of charity, according to the Doctrines.... It differs in this from most, if not all, existing New Church societies, whose principal object is the maintenance of the uses of piety and devotion. Another difference arises from its greater universality; its membership not being restricted to any one country or continent". He then describes the specific uses of the Academy. - L. 17-18.

Feb. - New Church Life complains that "the old pagan traditions of Santa Claus and the Christmas tree, with its anomalous fruit, still prevail". - L. 32.

Feb. - The Rev. Louis H. Tafel pleads for a "larger development of individuality, and independence of thought". - M. XIV:122.

March. - The work in the Academy Schools is described by Rev. E. S. Price. - L. 38.

- The Academy of the New Church asks for contributions of all documents, letters and reports of historical value to the New Church, for safe keeping in its growing Archives and Library. - L. 39.

April. - In a strong editorial in New Church Life, the Rev. Carl T. Odhner urges renewed activity on behalf of the preservation of Swedenborg's MSS. Out of 17 thousand pages of MSS., only 7 thousand have been photo-lithographed. - L. 49.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 60

N.d. - Changes are made in the Constitution of "The Church of the Advent". - L. 63, 64.

June 16-17. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. The degree of B. Th. is granted to Messrs. H. Synnestvedt, J. Rosenqvist, and Rev. E. S. Hyatt. - Described by Rev. C. T. Odhner in L. 108.

Aug. 2. -Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton returns from his visit to England. - L. 148.

Oct. - New Church Life publishes a letter from 17 ministers of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ministers' Association (England), emphatically condemning a correspondence on "Laws of Marriage and Pellicacy", printed in its June issue, (pp. 85-86). Revs. E. J. E. Schreck and C. T. Odhner reply. - L. 149-150.

Oct. 1. - Opening of Academy Schools by Bishop Pendleton. 57 students are enrolled; 9 are studying for the ministry. The "Boys' School" includes boys from about 8 or 9 years. Rev. O. Homer Synnestvedt, B. A., B. Th., is added to the Faculty. - L. 197.

Nov. 6. - At a meeting of the Council of the Clergy of the General Church, the relation of the General Church to the General Convention is discussed, in preparation for the forthcoming Joint Council meeting at Pittsburgh. The "Statement and Resolution" presented to the General Church in 1899, (see Minute 56, Journal of Eighth (64th) meeting), is reviewed. It is finally agreed that "the proceedings last year were in the nature of preparation for separation, which latter, was not to be effected till one more opportunity had been given the Convention to take the proper steps to right its wrongful action and attitude toward the General Church and the principles advocated and represented by it". Bishop Benade takes a strong stand on the point that "the separation already exists, and by the act of the Convention itself", and explains his reasons. - See report of the meeting in Journal, Gen. Ch. of Pa.,

Dec. - New Church Life publishes a classified "Table of Contents" for the first ten years of its existence, (1881-1890). - Appendix to L. 225-234.

Pittsburgh, Oct. 20. - The Rev. Andrew Czerny, B. A., B. Th., becomes Headmaster at the opening of the Academy Schools. 33 children are enrolled. - Journal Gen. Ch. Pa., 1890:104; L. 197.

Nov. 12. - Meeting of the Joint Council of the General Church, at the house of Mr. G. A. Macbeth; Bishop Benade presiding; 21 members present. In a lengthy and searching discussion of the relation between the General Church and the General Convention, the majority view prevails that separation is necessary and immediate. But further steps are left to the General Church in annual meeting. - For minutes of proceedings, see Journal, Gen. Ch. of Pa., 1890:13-27; also verbatim report in L. 1891:1-6.


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Paris, N.d. - Mrs. Sarah de Charms Hibbard opens a school for young ladies, at 8 Villejust, Paris. - L. 172, 208.

Colchester. Nov. 12. - The Rev. E. C. Bostock becomes non-resident Pastor of the Colchester Society, succeeding Rev. Chas. Griffiths. - L. 78, 80; 1891:55, M. L., vol. 13:127.

Liverpool, - By majority vote, Mr. James Caldwell, local agent of New Church Life, is expelled from membership in the Liverpool Society. - L. 222.

N. d. - Seventh annual meeting of the "New Church Education Institute"; Revs. J. F. Potts, J. R. Tilson, and Messrs. Whittingdon and G. C. Ottley, resign as officers of the Institute. - L. 132.

London, Aug. 7. - Meeting of ministers and leaders of the New Church in Great Britain; Rev. Joseph Deans presiding. Controversies concerning the Academy and the Trine in the Ministry. Full and interesting reports in Mess. 59:153; L. 175-180. Comment by Bishop Benade in L. 1891:31.

Oct. 6. - The Rev. E. C. Bostock arrives in London to take charge of an Academy School there. - L. 197, 219.

Nov. 3. - Opening of an Academy School in the Surrey Masonic Hall, Camberwell, by Rev. E. C. Bostock, B. Th. - Account in L. 220.

N. d. - The 29th annual report of the Camberwell Society, Flodden Road, reviews the recent history of the Society. - L. 1891:99.

Nov. 30. - Death of Mr. William Gibbs, a strong supporter of the Academy in England. - Full account of memorial meeting in Coll. Lre. No. 8:1-4.

- During the summer, Rev. E. J. E. Schreck visits Hague, Leyden, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam, in search of Swedenborg's missing work on marriage. Nearly 2,000 copies of a circular are sent to all ministers, Archives and Libraries in Holland. The results are described in L. 212-218.

New Church Life, vol. 10.

"Mythology in the Light of the New Church", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. (Assyria and Babylonia), - pp. 20, 39, 59, 104, 138 (Egypt).


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"Preservation of New Church Documents", by Mr. Walter C. Childs. - p. 39.

"Order among the priests", by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - p. 45.

"Are the words "The Coming of the Lord", inscribed on all of Swedenborg's books in the spiritual world?" (Editorial) - p. 53.

"Manuscripts of Swedenborg not yet photo-lithographed", (a detailed list) by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p.69. Cf. p. 141.

"The voice of the People versus The Voice of God", by Rev. John Stephenson. - p. 75.

"Laws of Marriage and of Pellicacy" (extended discussion) pp. 85, 110, 148, 173, 184, 190; (discussion in General Conference), 192, 209.

"Tulkism Revived", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 89.

"The Faith of the New Church", (diagramatic view). - p. 102.

"Artopeism and the New Church in Central Europe", (history of the heresy). - p. 198.

History of Swedenborg's Reply to Ernesti. - p. 213.


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Rejected Report of the General Church to Convention.

The General Church of Pennsylvania to the General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the United States of America.

FOLLOWING is a list of Churches and Circles connected with the General Church of Pennsylvania:

CHURCHES                            PASTORS                            NUMBER OF

Church of the Advent
(Philadelphia),                     Rev. L. G. Jordan,                            73
Pittsburgh,                            Rev. John Whitehead,                            89

                            Rev. Andrew Czerny, Assistant

                            Rev. Wm. H. Acton, Assistant
Immanuel Church
(Chicago),                            Rev. E. C. Bostock

                            Rev. N. D. Pendleton, Assistant              59
Allentown,                            Bishop General Church, Penn.,                     27
Greenford (Ohio)                     Rev. A. Czerny,                                   21
Lancaster,                            Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Leader,                     18
Concordia (Kansas)
Delaware County,                     Mr. Geo. Burnley, Leader,                     13
Bethel,                            Mr. Uriah Evans, Leader,                     15
Renovo,                            Mr. J. R. Kendig, Leader,                     8
Erie,                                   Dr. Edw. Cranch, Leader,                     8
Brooklyn (N.Y.),                     Mr. A. Klein, Leader,                            12
Isolated,                            Bishop General Church, Penn.,                     31

                            Total                                                 374

Note - The membership reported is to November 1st, 1889.

2. The Clergy of this General Church are: Bishop, the Rev. W. H. Benade; Pastors, the Rev. W. F. Pendleton, the Rev. L. G. Jordan, the Rev. John Whitehead, the Rev. E. C. Bostock, the Rev. N.C. Burnham, the Rev. Ellis I. Kirk, the Rev. Andrew Czerny, the Rev. Eugene J. E. Schreck; Ministers, the Rev. Enoch S. Price, the Rev. C. T. Odhner, the Rev. Wm. H. Acton, the Rev. N. Dandridge Pendleton. Of these the last two named were ordained into the first grade of the Ministry, June 16th, 1889, by Bishop Benade. The Rev. Ellis I. Kirk is at work in the Clearfield District as a Missionary.


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On June 7th, 1890, Bishop Benade authorized Mr. Homer Synnestvedt and Mr. Joseph E. Rosenqvist as Candidates for the Ministry.

3. The General Church has suffered very greatly during the year, in consequence of the severe illness of our beloved Bishop, the Rev. W. H. Benade, who was prostrated during his visit to Europe last summer, on missions of the Church. Two or three times it has seemed as if he had nearly recovered, but on attempting work he was thrown back in each case, so far that now absolute rest is enforced. Although much of his work has been taken up and done by other hands, there remains a great deal which he alone could do, and the loss of his extensive knowledge, and wise counsel is seriously felt throughout this body of the Church.

4. As to Particular Churches, those not specially spoken of below have undergone no material changes, but have maintained their interest and activity in the uses of the Church.

The Church of the Advent was under the direct care of the Bishop of the General Church from the time of our last report to the middle of last summer, when the Rev. Leonard G. Jordan was called to and accepted the Pastorate. The Church has continued in a prosperous condition since that time. It has adopted a new Constitution more in harmony with that of the General Church of Pennsylvania, and changed its name from "New Jerusalem Society of the Advent", to "Church of the Advent". At present the Church is very harmonious and united.

The Pittsburgh Society has now the additional assistance of the Rev. Wm. H. Acton. In the report of this Society special mention is made of the custom of using wine at the social meetings of the Society. It is stated that this is done upon principle, on the ground that it is especially useful in inducing a sphere of brotherly feeling among the members, and as a true means to avoidance of excesses. It may be stated that this custom is general throughout the General Church of Pennsylvania.

The Rev. N. Dandridge Pendleton has been called to the assistance of the Rev. E. C. Bostock in his pastorate of the Immanuel Church, Chicago.

In the Greenford Society there were certain disturbances growing out of the disaffection of some members, associated with others not members, who proceeded in a most disorderly and violent method to carry out their purposes. Resort was had by the General Church to the civil courts for protection, and this resulted in the complete vindication of the Society. In all probability, affairs would not have proceeded to such extremes but for the unwise and uncharitable interference of representatives of the Ohio Association*.

5. At the annual meeting of the General Church, in November, 1889, the principal subject of discussion was that of the relation of the General Church to the General Convention, taken up in accordance with the recommendation to that effect, of the Council of the Clergy. It would not be practicable or desirable, perhaps, to present even an abstract of the proceedings, but it is proper that the Convention should be informed of certain of the facts and especially of official action taken.


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The discussion was full and free, and, we believe, although in the nature of a family consideration of the situation, characterized by a desire to deal fairly and justly and in true charity with all. To this end there was a distinct intention and effort to keep out mere personalities, to state only what could be substantiated, and, above all, to apply the pure principles of the Revelation for the New Church of the LORD. The result was what appears to us to be a serious arraignment of the Convention for unkind, unbrotherly, and disorderly action toward this General Church.

Bishop Benade has recalled to our minds that some years ago, acting under the Constitution of the Convention as it then existed, a minister was suspended by the General Church of Pennsylvania. This act was offensive to certain members of the Convention, and an attempt was made to revise the action, evidently with a view to nullify it. Our representatives showed that this attempt was contrary to the law and order of the Convention itself but it was not until legal counsel of Massachusetts passed upon the question that the attempt was abandoned. Then so strong was the feeling against this action of the General Church taken under the provisions of the Convention's Constitution that the Convention determined to alter its Constitution so as to prevent a repetition of such action. In the course of this operation a committee was appointed and a compromise agreed upon. The right of suspension of a minister was thereby reserved to the Convention, but the right to enjoin a minister from acting as such within the limits of an Association was especially granted to the respective Associations.

In the course of time, the General Church saw fit to act In accordance with the powers thus conferred upon it by a compromise article formally adopted by the Convention. Against the earnest protest of representatives of this General Church being in violation of the Constitution, an attempt was made to revise the action of the General Church in this case. This was breaking a compact agreed upon not in ignorance, but after experience and as a compromise.

Also against the Constitution of Convention, and, as before, against the protest of the General Church, the matter was referred to the General Council of the Convention. That Council reported that an investigation into the facts and principles involved was impracticable and not likely to lead to the best results. Then the Convention proceeded to nullify this action of its Council and, without the least investigation, adopted a resolution implying censure of this General Church.

It is now proposed to take out from the Constitution the provision granting this right that was secured to Associations as a compromise. This proposition will be before you for action at this meeting.

On the other hand, another proposition has been made, which will also be presented for your consideration, to establish a court of appeal in all, such court to consist of the General Pastors of the Convention. We believe this to be in accordance with the order of the doctrine on ecclesiastical government quoted in the Constitution of Convention.

The Council of the Clergy of the General Church, in view of the disorder of the Convention, called attention to the following words of the Bishop of this General Church:


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"The Convention's relation to the associated bodies needs to be considered and regulated. This cannot be brought into order until the Convention has one order for all or is willing to give to each Association the right of independent action in its own affairs. We are actually divided into three parties, and if we are to be governed by majorities, and not by the Constitution, we can only go forward to dissolution. The law must be recognized and have all power. Otherwise we shall have anarchy".

The Council of the Laity of the General Church presented the following expression of its views of the Convention:

"The members of the Council of the Laity, who represented the General Church, as delegates, at the recent session of the General Convention (at Washington), unanimously wish to express their protest against the manifest animosity shown toward this General Church of Pennsylvania, by the attitude and action of the General Convention, and to deplore that body's lack of adherence to its own Constitution, its lack of freedom in discussion, and its tendency to place human prudence above the doctrine of the Church".

The General Church as a body, by a rising vote, adopted the following resolution:

"The General Church of Pennsylvania, in annual meeting assembled, hereby unanimously confirms the statement made by Bishop Benade, at the last meeting of the General Convention, in regard to the injunction of the Rev. L. H. Tafel, formerly pastor of the New Jerusalem Society of the Advent, in which statement occur the following words:

"We objected to the injunction being considered by the General Council, not because we did not desire an investigation, but because the manner of the proposed investigation was unconstitutional. It was our desire that there might be the fullest possible investigation of this subject, and we proposed in the Council of Ministers that a tribunal of General Pastors should be formed by which such cases should be tried. I think it is right to the General Church that this should be stated here. Our action was taken under the law of our Church and of the Convention. We wish to be in order, and to proceed according to order. The act was not an act of the Bishop of the Church alone, but of the General Church of Pennsylvania by its constituted authorities, and it is not right to fasten it upon the one official. It must be understood that the action was the action of the law of the Church, to which the General Pastor, or Bishop, is subject just as much as any other member. There is no distinction in what is called the prelatical order of the Church between the subjection of the ministers and that of laymen to the law of the Church. They look to that which they believe to be the LORD'S revelation whether they hold this, that, or the other position. I think it is due to the General Church of Pennsylvania to state this".

In reference to the action of the Convention in this matter, the General Church adopted the following statement and resolution:

"The Constitution of the General Convention gives the Associations the right to enjoin a minister from the exercise of his functions within its own limits.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 67 Acting under this law the General Church of Pennsylvania enjoined the Rev. L. K. Tafel.

"The General Convention, at its last meeting, held in Washington, passed a resolution which implied censure to the General Church of Pennsylvania for this act, and this in the face of the report of the General Council that a thorough investigation of the case in all its details of fact and principle was hardly practicable, and not likely to lead to the best results.

"Thus the Convention acted without any attempt at investigation and without any knowledge of the facts of the case except from the biased statements of the enjoined minister and his adherents.

"The Convention and the General Council in the various proceedings bearing on this matter, acted contrary to the plain letter of the Constitution and to the Act of Incorporation, which requires that the General Council shall be governed by the Constitution.

"The Divine law of the Church teaches that to act according to the law is to act from good, and to act contrary to the law is to act from evil: as may appear from n. 4444 of the Arcana Coelestia.

"The General Church of Pennsylvania, in its proceedings, has acted in conformity with the plain provisions of the Constitution and of the Divine law of the Church given in the Heavenly Doctrines: but the Convention has acted contrary to its own laws and to common justice.

"In view of these facts, be it

"Resolved, That the acts of the General Convention, enumerated above, merit and receive our condemnation; and that we deplore the lack of charity, of common justice, and of equity manifested by the majority in Convention".

Many are the principles of doctrine from revelation applicable to these affairs, but how can we enter upon a consideration and application of principles of internal truth and good while the law of the Convention itself, plainly stated in its Constitution, is not regarded or perpetuated if we act thereunder?

By order of the Joint Council of the Clergy and Laity.

PHILADELPHIA, PENNA., June 13th, 1890 - 120.


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Berlin, Jan. - At the annual meeting of the Society, strong opposition to the Academy School, and its headmaster, Rev. F. W. Waelchli, is expressed, with the open support of the Pastor, Rev. F. W. Tuerk. - L. 192.

March. - At a meeting of the Society's Council, by a 3 to 2 vote, the teachers of the Academy School are notified of their dismissal in June. - L. 192.

April. - At the Society's quarterly meeting, by a vote of 40 to 1, a resolution of confidence to the Headmaster is passed. The meeting unanimously transfers the School's property to a new School to be opened in the Fall. - L. 193; N. C. T., (May).

June 16. - Closing exercises of the Berlin New Church School. - L. 136, 164; N. C. T., (July).

July. - Separate Sunday services are begun by Revs. Waelchli and Rosenqvist; attendance, including children, numbers 90 persons. - L. 193.

July 30. - It is announced that the separate services and schools will be under the direction of the Church of the Academy. Services are given alternately in English and German. - L. 193.

Sept. 16 - the recent history of the Church in Berlin is described at length by Rev. F. W. Waelchli. - L. 191-193.

Sept. 17-20 - At the 28th meeting of the Canada Association, the Academy members separate themselves from the Association. - Account by Rev. Louis H. Tafel in Mess. 61:234; Cf. L. 193-195, 200. Full account in N. C. T.

Aug. 25 - Academy members meet; also on Sept. 14, 22, Dec. 3. Description in Coll. Lres. No. 11:2; No. 12:1.

Oct. 5 - Opening of the separate Academy school, with 27 pupils. - L. 206; description of school building, 187.

Oct. 7 - The Parkdale Society withdraws from connection with the Canada Assn., and from the General Convention. - L. 1892:16.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 69


Denver, April 5. - The Rev. Richard de Charms, Jr. ~ describes a "memorial service" custom as observed among Academy people. - L. 119.

Chicago, May. - At the General Convention, the following resolution is adopted: "Resolved: That the General Convention regrets the action of the General Church of Pennsylvania in withdrawing from the Convention, believing that the Church should be one in the cooperation of its organization as it is one in the general elements that constitute it, but we acquiesce in what is beyond our control, with the sincere prayer and trust that the Lord may overrule all our doings to promote the freedom, the activity, the usefulness, the spiritual life, and the final unity of the Church as a whole". - L. 119; editorial, 121.

March 29. - Ordination of Rev. N. D. Pendleton into the second degree of the priesthood, by Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton. - L. 104.

La Porte, July 22. - Death of Rev. N. C. Burnham, aged 78 years; one of the first professors of the Academy; author of Discrete Degrees. - L. biogr. by Rev. C. T. Odhner, 160. Remarkable tribute by Rev. L. P. Mercer, in Mess. 61:315. (Reprinted in M. XVI:270-279.)

Middleport. - During the summer, Candidate Alfred Acton ministers to the Society. - Report in L. 196.

Urbana, Jan. 6. - Death of Mr. John Cranch, aged 84 years; a New Churchman for 50 years, father of Dr. Edward Cranch and of the wife of Professor Moses, of Urbana University. - L. 56.

Huntingdon Valley, June 19. - For the third time, the "19th of June" is celebrated by the Academy at "Cairnwood". A full account of the celebration, including addresses by Chancellor Benade and others, also a charming description of the environment, is given in Coll. Lre. No. 10:2-10. Cf. No. 11:4.

June 19. - Vice-Chancellor Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton ordains the Revs. O. Homer Synnestvedt and Joseph E. Rosenqvist into the first degree of the priesthood. Also the Revs. Price, Odhner, and Waelchli are installed into the pastoral degree. - Coll. Lre. No. 11:4; also L. 152.

June 19. - Chancellor Benade announces the decision of the two Bishops of the Academy that "the Priesthood of the Academy as at present constituted was vested in the following Priests:


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 70

Bishop Benade, Bishop W. F. Pendleton.

Pastors Edward C. Bostock, Eugene J. E. Schreck, Andrew Czerny, Enoch S. Price, C. T. Odhner, Fred E. Waelchli, Edward S. Hyatt, N. Dandridge Pendleton.

Ministers of the first grade: William Henry Acton, Joseph E. Rosenqvist, O. Homer Synnestvedt.

Accepted Candidates: John Stephenson, Alfred Acton, and Joseph E. Boyesen. - Coll. Lre, No. 10:4.

(Later, on July 2, Chancellor Benade comments that: "The Academy being a Church of the LORD, established according to the order revealed by the LORD, is under a Hierarchy or Priestly Government. After some delay, owing to the necessities of the case, the Hierarchy or Priesthood of the Academy has come into a complete trinal form, with two Priests in the third or highest degree, eight in the second or Pastoral degree, and three in the first degree".) - Coll. Lre. No. 10:10.

June 20-26. - Meetings of the Joint Council of the General Church of the Advent are held at "Cairnwood". Almost the entire active force of both Councils is present. Instead of a Constitution, the Joint Council adopts a simple "Declaration of Principles", as follows: "The General Church of the Advent of the Lord declares its purpose to proclaim and teach the Everlasting Gospel that the Lord Jesus Christ reigneth. as that Gospel is set forth in the Books written by the Lord through His Servant Emanuel Swedenborg". See Journal of Joint Council (148pp); also L. 149; 1892:92, 97.

July 3. - At a meeting of the Academy, at Councillor J. Pitcairn's temporary residence, Chancellor Benade announced that the Church of the Academy had formed a chartered corporation, with a Board of Directors and a Council of 12. "The body of Associate members constitute the Church of the Academy", and from them a number of persons have been drawn to constitute a College embracing the Professors and Head-Masters of Schools, and also the Orphanage of the Academy. The Council announced that "there should be a differentiation between the Church of the Academy and the Corporation of the Academy. The entire membership of the Academy with its priesthood constitute the Church, but only the Council and Directors constitute the Corporation, which exists for civil purposes". - Coll. Lre. No. 10:10.

Philadelphia, Jan. 23. - The Bishop of the General Church of Pennsylvania forwards to the General Convention a communication declaring "the severance of its past connection with the Convention, and its assumption of the position of an independent and coordinate Church, having its own order and government, and pursuing its own ends and uses...without antagonism to any other organization of the Church, and, as far as may be, at peace with all..." - Full text in L. 119.


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Jan. 23. - After much deliberation, the Joint Council of the "General Church of Pennsylvania" changes the name to "THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE ADVENT OF THE LORD". - See Journal of Joint Council; also L. 50; Mess. 60:88.

Jan. 29. - An interesting description of early efforts toward "distinctive social life" in the Academy Schools, including "Friday suppers", and a Swedenborg's birthday "feast of charity", appears in L. 62-68, 82.

April 17. - At a "common supper" held in the Hall of the Academy, Vice-Chancellor Wm. F. Pendleton describes the internal conditions that will determine "whether the Academy will continue to exist permanently" - Coll. Lre. No. 10:1.

June 11-12. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. The Revs. E. S. Price, C. T. Odhner and F. E. Waelchli, are granted the degree of B. Th.; the Rev. E. S. Price is appointed Professor of English language and Literature; and Rev. C. T. Odhner as Professor of Church History. - L.136, 143-145.

July 20. - The resignation of Rev. Tuerk, both as Councillor and as member of the Academy, is accepted. - Coll. Lre. No. 10:12.

Sept. - The Rev. J. F. Potts and family arrive in Philadelphia from Great Britain. - L. 200.

Sept. 16. - An Academy "Baptismal Service" is described in L. 215.

N. d. - A typical marriage ceremony of this time is described in L. 135.

Oct. 5. - The Rev. L. G. Jordan preaches a sermon on "The Academy and the General Church", in which the two uses of external and internal evangelization are said to be performed by the "two Churches" each involving distinct public worship, in a "mutual and brotherly division of uses". (This point of view, shared by others, later resulted in much confusion). - L. 210-212. Coll. Lre. No. 10:6.

Oct. 18. - The first public service of "The Academy of the New Church", as a Church, is held in the Hall of the Academy building, in charge of Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton. The practice of a period of silence before and after worship is introduced. 128 persons are present. - L. 207. Cf. Coll. Lre. No. 11:1; also L. 1895:95.

Nov. - The General Church of the Advent undertakes to provide pastoral service for isolated members. - L. 210.

N. d. - Swedenborg's own copy of the True Christian Religion is presented to the Academy of the New Church by Bishop Benade, who purchased it, in 1870, from the antiquarian, H. Klemming, of Stockholm. Its successive owners (from one of Swedenborg's heirs to 1870), are described in L. 83-84.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 72

N. d. - The Rev. Wm. H. Alden begins the preparation of a lexicon of Swedenborg's Latin. - L. 227.

Pittsburgh, June 17. - Closing exercises of the Academy School. - L. 136.

N. d. - The Constitution of the Pennsylvania Association is abrogated, in order to broaden the basis of association. Dr. N. C. Burnham is elected temporary Chairman. The attempt at wider union fails. - L. 162.

Sept. 14. - Opening exercises of the Academy School, with 25 pupils. - L. 185.

Nov. 6-8. - Celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Society. - Report, also reminiscences by Mrs. (Anna) Aitken, in L. 227-230.


Colchester, March 27. - The Society unanimously resolves to withdraw from all connection with the General Conference. - L. 104.

N. d. - Some of the members separate from Mr. Bostock's society. - L. 152.

Liverpool, May 3. - The newly-formed (General Church) Circle here begins services at Bold St., Rev. R. J. Tilson officiating. - L. 136.

London, Jan. 23. - 27th annual meeting of the Camberwell Society. History of the struggle in the society, as seen by the Pastor, in the 27th annual report of the Camberwell Society. - A. L.

Feb. - The Rev. R. J. Tilson reports that a self-constituted "Protest Committee", in the north of England, recently appealed to Her Majesty's Public Prosecutor to prosecute him and other agents of New Church Life for circulating immoral literature. After perusing copies of Life, the Public Prosecutor declined to oblige. - New Church Monthly (Feb.); L. 58, 87.

March 8. - A special service for "Coming of Age" is celebrated at the Camberwell Church. This is the first service of its kind held in England. - L. 88.

March 16. - At a special meeting of the Camberwell Society, the Pastor (Rev. R. J. Tilson), Treasurer, Secretary, Committee, Deacons, and other members withdraw from the Society; 59 members leave. - L. 104; Cf. 1917:668.

March 28. - The Rev. R. J. Tilson holds services in the Masonic Hall (Camberwell); 69 persons attend the first service. - L. 104.

May 7. - The Rev. R. J. Tilson resigns from the General Conference, for reasons stated in a letter sent to the periodicals of the New Church. - Text in L. 116-118; editorial, 121. Cf. 134; New Church Monthly (July).


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June 19. - 8th annual meeting of the New Church Educational Institute. - L. 152.

Aug. 31. - Opening exercises of the Academy School. Mr. John Stephenson is engaged as Assistant-Master, - Report in L.186, 200.

Northampton, Sept. - The Rev. T. F. Robinson resigns from the Conference and the Northampton Society, and leaves for Philadelphia to study in the Academy. - L. 200.

Street, Somerset, N. d. - The West of England Missionary Association refuses to minister to the small group of receivers here, if the Society "supports the position taken by the Academy". The Society declines further aid. - L. 231.

Hjerrljunga, July 8. - Death of Dean Sannfrid Odhner, aged 71 years. Though a clergyman of the Established Church, he was a receiver of the Doctrines, which he introduced to his nephew, the Rev. C. T. Odhner. - L. 191, 200.

June 22. - Mr. Seymour G. Nelson (Chicago) examines Swedenborg's MSS. in the library of the Academy of Sciences, and reports their excellent state of preservation to the Joint Council at "Cairnwood" in June. - Detailed report in L. 166.


New Church Life, vol. II.

Discussion on the Concubinage and Pellicacy question - pp. 37, 42, 45, 48, 73.

On recognizing the Writings as the Word. (Controversy between the Magazine and the Life). - p. 59. Cf. pp. 89, 201.

"Is a change impending?" (A discussion between Rev. G. N. Smith and New Church Life). - pp. 114, 146, 150, 187.

"Nathan Clark Burnham", (biographical sketch). p. 160.

"The state of the Swedenborg Manuscripts", by Rev. J. G. Jordan. - p. 166.

"The Attitude of the New Church to its Doctrinal Standards", by Mr. C. J. Whittington. - p. 173.

"Recent History of the Church in Berlin, Canada", by Rev. F. E. Waelchli. - p. 191.

"Notes on Ecclesiastical History", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 225 (The Church).

"Reminiscences of the Formation of the Pittsburgh Society, by Anna Aitken. - p. 230.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 74


ODHNER, REV. C. T., (compiler) and translator): What are the Writings of the New Church? What do they witness of themselves? Stockholm: Boyesen. 24pp. In Swedish. - Rev. L.1891:86; Mess. 60:366; M. XV:762. A collection of striking passages from the Writings, translated into Swedish, concerning their own Divine origin and nature. - A. L.

The Bulletin, Official organ of the Athletic Assn. of the Academy of the New Church. A bi-weekly. 1821 Wallace St. Philadelphia. May 1, 1891-May26, 1893. 1 v., 37 nos. Eds.: David H. Klein, Franklin Ballou. Bound with Copy 1 is The Juvenile.

Swedenborg Society: Rules of the Swedenborg Society. London: Swedenborg Society 19pp. -Tilson.


America. International copyright law enacted (Mar. 3).

New lands in Oklahoma thrown open to settlement (Sept. 22).

Germany. Renewal of the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy (June 29).

Announcement of Dr. Robert Koch's remedy for tuberculosis (Oct. 22).

Great Britain. Discovery in the British Museum of the MS. of Aristotle's Athenian Constitution (Jan.).

House of Commons expunges resolution of June 22, 1880, preventing Charles Bradlaugh, the atheist, from taking his seat (Jan. 27).

Telephone between London and Paris opened (April 1).

Opening of first section of Manchester Ship Canal in England (June 19).

Russia. The construction of the Trans-Siberian railway begins (May 24).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 75



Durban. N.d. - The Durban Society appeals to the English Conference to send them a minister on a missionary visit. - L. 1893:1 6.

May 1. - Former opening of the first Church building of the "First African New Church"; Mr. A. S. Cockerell officiating in absence of a minister. For 12 years, New Church people had worshiped in Mr. Cockerell's home. - L. 112; 1918:241.


Berlin, Ont., June 12. - The cornerstone of a school-house is laid at Waterloo, by Rev. F. E. Waelchli. - L. 112, 121, 130; description of property, 134.

June 17. - Closing exercises of the Academy School. - L., 121.

July 4. - An Academy meeting considers the Orphanage. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 13:18.

Oct. 30. - Opening of the new School building of the Academy. - Description (with photo), in L. 1893:10.

Nov. 4. - A "Feast of Charity" is held to celebrate the opening of the Society's new home. - Ibid.

Dec. 24. - A "Festival of the Incarnation" is described in L. 1893:24.

Milverton, Ont., - The Rev. T. F. Robinson holds services here during the summer. - L. 179.

Toronto, Parkdale, Ont. Sept. 4. - At the first Academy meeting to be held in Parkdale, Chancellor Benade presides. (Members are present from Berlin, Chicago, Parkdale and Philadelphia. (Bishop Benade is in Parkdale from July 27 to Sept. 21). - Full account in Coll. Lre. No. 13:19.

Oct. 5. - The Parkdale Society abolishes its Old Constitution, and adopts the Writings in its place. - L. 1893:16. History of the Parkdale Society in N. C. Tidings. Nov., 1892.

N. d. - An Academy School is opened in a rented house. Headmaster, Rev. E. S. Hyatt; Assistant teacher, Miss Carswell. - L. 1893:9.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 76


Chicago, Feb. 25. - The Revs. N. D. Pendleton and W. H. Acton are made "Councillors" in the Academy Corporation. - Coll. Lre. No. 12:2.

Feb. 28. - Bishop Benade ordains Rev. W. H. Acton into the second degree; also installs Rev. N. D. Pendleton as Pastor of the Immanuel Church. - L. 64.

June 20. - Important meeting of the Immanuel Church, at which the new order of government, proclaimed by the "General Church of the Advent of the Lord" is adopted after presentation by the Pastor, Rev. N. D. Pendleton, and full discussion. - Full report in L. 140-146.

N. d. - A description of the property, 17-1/2 miles from Chicago, to be (later) the home of the Immanuel Society, appears in L. 1893:16.

Allegheny, April 19. - Death of Mrs. Anna Morrison Aitken, aged 80 years; the only surviving member of the original Pittsburgh Society of 1841. - L. 80. For biographical details, see L. 1916:154; her reminiscences in L. 1917:13; also L. 1891:228.

Allentown. Candidate Joseph E. Boyesen sustains the Church activities here during the summer. L. 179.

Oct. 27. - Death of Mr. Frederick Christian Bohlen, aged 92 years; one of the pioneers of the New Church in Allentown. - Biogr. Mess. 63:297.

Huntingdon Valley, June 20. - At an important Academy meeting at "Cairnwood"; 53 members present; Vice-Chancellor Wm. F. Pendleton, who presides, makes an interesting statement as to the government of the Academy as a Church and as an educational use, e. g., "As the Academy is constituted a Church it must necessarily take on a trinal form. The Priesthood has three degrees, the Academy has three corresponding degrees, - the Council, the College, and Associate membership. As the Church consists of Priests and laymen, they are associated in these three degrees to counsel and assist in all the workings of the Church. The Council acts as the brain of the body. The College as the heart and lungs.... The Associates make the body of the Academy"

The tentative site for the proposed University buildings is visited, viz., the crest of a hill below "Cairnwood". (Today occupied by "Cairncrest").

At the celebration dinner, held in a tent, important addresses are made by Bishop Pendleton, the Revs. E. J. E. Schreck, R. J. Tilson, E. S. Hyatt, L. Jordan, and Messrs. J. Pitcairn and Robt. Carswell. The full text of all speeches, and the musical score of songs, may be found in Coll. Lre. No. 13:1-15.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 77

Dec. 11. - An important Academy meeting, at "Cairnwood", attended by 53 members, is marked by: (1) the elevation of Collegiate Schreck to the Council; and (2) a significant address by Chancellor Benade on the nature of the government of the Academy as a Church, and "claiming a celestial quality for this Church", in its use of education. An important but harmonious discussion ensues, in which the following members take part: Vice-Chancellor Pendleton, Revs. Potts, Schreck, Starkey, Jordan. - A full, verbatim account appears in Coll. Lre. No. 14:1-10.

Philadelphia, Jan. - At the annual meeting of the Advent Church, it is decided to discontinue the public services, as all the members attend the Academy worship. The pastor, Rev. L.G. Jordan, engages in General Church work. - L. 29.

Jan. 29. - A special celebration of Swedenborg's birthday is held by the Academy Schools. - Full report and speeches in L. 41-45.

April 11. - At an Academy meeting, Bishop Benade speaks on the mission of the "Church of the Academy". (Text in Coll. Lre. No. 12:8-9). A full discussion of the Orphanage also ensues. - Ibid., 9-12.

May. - The Rev. R. J. Tilson, of London, England, arrives. - L. 93.

May 27. - Celebration of the 20th wedding anniversary of Bishop and Mrs. Wm. F. Pendleton. - L. 111.

June. - The Rev. L.G. Jordan is appointed "Bishop's Assistant". - L. 92.

June 13-14. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. For the first time, the Academy grants the degree of M. A., to Messrs. E. J. E. Schreck, E. C. Bostock and A. Czerny, who were the Academy's earliest divinity students who still remained in its sphere. (Note: the College and Divinity School at this time are still organically one.) The first graduation of young ladies is marked by gifts of gold medallions. Five young ladies graduate from the "Normal School", begun in 1890. At a special dinner, the song to the "Academy Colors" is sung for the first time. Professor C. T. Odhner delivers lectures on the "History of New Church Education". The custom of a "Class Banner" begins. - L. 112, 124, 147; Anniv. Rec. p. 43.

June 14. - The Rev. L. H. Tafel resigns the pastorate of the North Philadelphia Society, and accepts a professorship at Urbana University. - Mess. 63:8.

June 19. - Ordination of Rev. Robert J. Tilson into the pastoral degree, by Bishop Benade, in the Hall of the Academy, on North St. - Coll. Lre. No. 13:1; L. 112.

July. - The Chapel of the Advent Society is sold for a sub-post office. - L. 128.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 78

Dec. 24-25. - Elaborate ritual observances of the "Festival of the Incarnation": six priests take part. - Described in L. 1893:10.

Dec. 29. - Farewell meeting in honor of Rev. Homer Synnestvedt as he leaves to take charge of the Pittsburgh Society. - L. 1893:16.

Pittsburgh, Feb. 7. - The Rev. John Whitehead, Pastor of the Allegheny Society, at the annual meeting of the Society, arraigns the General Church for the actions of the Joint Council's meeting in June, 1891. - L. 63.

Feb. 18. - The Society, by a majority vote (36 to 22), severs its connection with the General Church. The loyal members open separate worship in a private house in Shadyside (East End), as Bishop Benade is refused admission to the church building by Mr. Whitehead and his adherents. The case is laid before the civil authorities. - L. 63. Comment on "the Pittsburgh troubles". L. 93; Mess. 62:136, 168; 65:40, 328.

Feb. 23. - The Rev. John Whitehead is suspended by Bishop Benade from duties in the General Church. He is also dropped from membership in the Academy. - L. 60. See comments in Coll. Lre. No. 12:7.

March 15. - Academy meeting at home of Associate G. A. Macbeth. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 12:7.

N. d. - Regular Sunday services are now conducted by the General Church Society, various ministers alternating under the direction of Bishop Benade. - L. 80, 96.

June 17. - Closing exercises of the Academy School. - Full report in L. 122.

June 20. - Celebration of the day. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 13:15.

June 23-26. - First general meeting of "The General Church". - See Journal.

June 26. - An Academy meeting discusses the Orphanage. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 13:16.

June 27-28. - Third general meeting of teachers connected with the Schools of the Academy of the New Church. - See G. M. Teachers; Journal pp. 29-53; also L. 155.

N. d. - Services are held by Rev. J. E. Rosenqvist, during the summer months, in a private house pending the erection of a new building. L. 179.

Oct. 21. - A corner-stone is laid for a new school building on Wallingford St., Shady Side. Bishop Benade delivers an address. - L. 179, 180.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 79

Nov. - Bishop Benade re-organizes the Church here. The former order of government, based on a civil chapter, is abolished. A new name, "The Church of the Advent", of Pittsburgh, is adopted. The Rev. Homer Synnestvedt is placed in charge. - L. 189; 1893:16.

Renovo. - The Rev. Ellis I. Kirk now holds regular services here. L. 1893:16.


Paris, N.d. - Senor Levindo Castro de la Fayette, Chancellor of the Brazilian Consul-General in France, receives the Doctrines, and is baptized by M. Humann. - L.1901:567.

Colchester. - Mr. John Pitcairn and the Revs. Tilson, Ottley and Bostock visit Colchester. - L. 1892:95.

London, March 4. - At an Academy supper at the home of Mr. C. J. Whittington, Broughton Lodge, Shepherd's Hill, Highgate, London N., "Collegiate" R. J. Tilson reviews the important Church history events connected with "Broughton Lodge", including the origin and history of the "New Church Educational Institute". - Coll. Lre., No. 12:4-6.

April 20. - Academy meeting at St. Pancras Hotel. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 12:12.

Sept. 4. - Opening of a new building on Burton Road for the worship of the Church of the Academy and for Academy School uses, by Revs. Tilson and Bostock. Miss Florence Warland is the first lady teacher. - Full description in L. 171; 1947:424.

Stockholm, March 23. - Librarian Ahlstrand writes to Prof. C. T. Odhner, on the date of Swedenborg's introduction to the Academy of Sciences; and on some early Swedish Latin Lexicons. - L. 1893:58.


New Church Life, vol. 12.

"The Writings are the Soul of the Word" (Discussion between Rev. G. N. Smith, N. C. L., and N. C. Mess.) - pp. 10, 33, 56, 58, 94.

"Notes on Ecclesiastical History", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 8 (The Four Churches); 39, 54, 70, 87, (Most Ancient Church).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 80

"The Dynamis' of Hahnemann, and the Doctrine concerning Life", by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - pp. 76, 94.

"The Wedding Garment: A Tale", (in 23 chapters) by Louis B. Pendleton. - pp. 102, 125, 135, 158, 176, 190.

"Music for the New Church", by Mr. C. J. Whittington. - p. 109. (Continued in 1893, pp. 11, 29, 45, 60, 77, 91, 106, 124, 133).

"The Rejection of Internal Things" (A controversy between the editors of New Church Light and New Church Life). - p. 113, 149. Cf. - p. 60.

On early New Churchmen in Africa, and Mohammedanism, by Dr. Edward W. Blyden, - p. 192, (concluded in 1893, p. 14).

PLUMMER, MISS EVELYN E.: Lessons in Anatomy. for Children of the New Church, Philadelphia: Academy of the New Church. 40pp. Rev. M, XVI:558; L. 1892:74. A text-book for children in the Academy Schools.

ROBINSON, JONATHAN: The Supremacy of Holy Scripture: Being a Review of Dr. Tafel's Pamphlet on "The Writings and their Relation to the Word" London: Speirs. 70pp. - Rev. L. 92:174; Mess. 62:406; M. XVI:369. Directed against the Academy position. A. L.

TAFEL, REV. RUDOLPH L.: The Clergy and the laity of the New Church. London: N. C. Educational Institute. 57pp. - Rev. Mess. 64:62; N. C. M. 1892:596; M. XVI:755. (New Church Issues, No. 2. Takes a middle ground between the Academy and the radicals).

TAFEL, REV. RUDOLPH L.: The Writings and their Relation to the Word. London: N. C. Educational Institute. 57pp. - Rev. L. 1892:24; Mess. 62:126; M. XVI:180. (New Church Issues, No. 1). "An attempt at a "golden mean" between two alleged extremes". A. L.


America.       Professor Charles Augustus Briggs, theologian and educator, convicted of heresy by the Presbyterian General Assembly and suspended from the Presbyterian ministry.

Charles E. Duryea runs the first American gasoline automobile (April 19).

Hurricane destroys half of Port Louis, Island of Mauritius, with a loss of more than 1200 lives (April 29).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 81

The World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago formally opened by President Cleveland (May 1).

       Discovery of a MS. Syriac version of the four gospels on Mt. Sinai by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson (Feb.).

Railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem completed (Sept. 13).


Conflict between government and Catholic bishops owing to the participation of the latter in political affairs (March).

       Death of Ernest Renan (French historian and critic; author of Life of Jesus).

Great Britain.
       Great strike of coal miners in Northern England, about 200, 000 men participating (March 12).

The Salisbury ministry resigns and is succeeded by a Gladstone cabinet (Aug. 12).


The pope issues an encyclical on Columbus and the discovery of America (July 18).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 82



- Senor Levindo Castro de la Fayette returns from France, and settles in the village of Lamim, in the State of Minas Geraes, where a few converts are made. - Mess. 65:184; L.1901:567.

Berlin, Ont., Aug. 6. - Dedication of the new Academy School building, by Vice-Chancellor Wm. F. Pendleton. - Full account of service and banquet in L. 139-143.

Aug. 7. - At the largest Academy meeting ever held in Canada, significant speeches are made by the Revs. Synnestvedt, Rosenqvist, Waelchli, Hyatt, Schreck, Vice-Chancellor Pendleton, and Mr. Jacob Stroh. - Account and full text of speeches in Coll. Lre. No. 15:5-1.

Dec. 24. - The "Festival of the Glorification" is celebrated. Selections in Hebrew, Greek and English are used in connection with the new music. On Christmas Day, the Communion service is in German. - L. 1094:31.

Milverton, Ont., June 24. - The Rev. F. E. Waelchli retires from the pastorate here, and from General Church work, to devote himself to Academy uses. The Rev. Alfred Acton takes up the work during the summer. - L.123, 138.

Parkdale, Aug. 27. - Laying of the cornerstone for the new Academy school-house in Parkdale by the Pastor, Rev. E. S. Hyatt. - Full account in L. 154.

Toronto, Ont., Jan. 16. - Opening of the first New Church Day School in Toronto, in a rented house, under the leadership of Rev. E. 5. Hyatt as pastor; with Miss Emeline Carswell as teacher, and an enrollment of eleven pupils. - Described in L. 9, 25; 1943:46.


Oakland. - The Rev. Richard de Charms Jr., spends a year laboring here on account of his wife's health; afterwards moving to Pasadena. - L. 130.

N. d. - The Oakland Society withdraws from the Pacific Coast New Church Association. - L. 176.

Mystic, April 3. - Death of Rev. J. A. Lamb, a friend of the Rev. J. F. Stuart and of the Academy. - L. 1895:15.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 83

Chicago, Feb. 3. - An Academy meeting discusses affirmatively Bishop Benade's new teaching that "the Academy is a Celestial Church"; but "seemed desirous of further rational light upon this". - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 15:1-2; No. 16:6.

June 19. - At the Day's celebration, on the chief topic of "the mutual relation of the two Churches, the Academy and the General Church,...the minds of the members seemed far from clear". - See Coll. Lre. No. 15:3.

Aug. 19. - An Academy meeting is held at 434 Carroll Ave.; Vice-Chancellor Pendleton presiding. The Academy's uses of charity and their support, the "new music", etc., are discussed. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 15:13-14.

Oct. 2. - Opening exercises of the Academy School, with 19 pupils. - L. 67.

Oct. - Dec. - In the Immanuel Church, the new Whittington music is zealously studied, accompanied by instruction in Hebrew and Creek. - L. 1894:31.

Nov. 30. - "Tableaux", representative of the five Churches, are devised by the young people of the Immanuel Church. This custom becomes general and frequent in the various Academy centers. - L. 1894:31.

Oak Glen. Jan. - A description of the ten acres of land set apart for the Immanuel Church and School in the country, appears in L.16. Already more lots have been sold than necessary to pay for the entire tract. (During the summer of 1893, several families camped on their chosen premises.) - L.138.

N. d. - During the summer, the Immanuel Church holds services both in the city and at "Oak Glen", the prospective home of the Society in the country. The name is that of the nearest Post Office. - L. 1894:31.

Greenford, Feb. 19. - The Greenford Society adopts the new order of the General Church of the Advent; and adopts the name, "The Church of the Advent, of Greenford". - L. 80.

Philadelphia, Jan. 29. - Swedenborg's birthday is celebrated by the Society and the Academy Schools. Professor C. T. Odhner gives a lecture, "A Visit to Emanuel Swedenborg". - L. 38-41. The event is also celebrated in Berlin, Parkdale, Pittsburgh and Chicago. - L. 41-45.

- According to the custom of the past two years, adult classes meet each Friday afternoon for instruction in Hebrew and the new Whittington music. - L. 1894:15.

March 26. - The "Festival of the Glorification" is celebrated by the Church of the Academy, with new ceremonies. - Description in L. 76.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 84

May. - "Church orchestras" are organized in the Societies in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Berlin and Chicago. - Described in L. 75-76.

June - The Academy of the New Church announces its decision to create a University center in the country, by moving its Philadelphia schools, publication office, and book-room to the country, some 18 miles away, on land selected in May, near Huntingdon Valley. Four buildings are to be erected; and some of the Academy officials intend to erect homes in the vicinity of the University. - L. 96.

June. - Organization of the "Alumni Association" of the Academy Schools; Rev. E. J. E. Schreck, president; ecclesiastical forms are introduced. - L. 1894:79.

June 12-13. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. The B. Th. degree is granted to Messrs. G. G. Starkey, A. Acton, and T. F. Robinson; and the degree of B. A. is conferred upon Messrs. J. E. Boyesen, C. E. Doering, H. Farrington, R.H. Keep, and J. Stephenson. (Note: This is the last school year in which Chancellor Benade taught in the College and Theological School. Full charge of this department was then handed over to Vice-Chancellor Pendleton, Mr. Benade confining himself to religious instruction in the Girls' School). - L. 112, 103, 118, 156, 184; 1894:23, 28. Cf. Anniv. Rec., p. 43.

June 18. - New Church Day is celebrated with elaborate ritual. - Account in Coll. Lre. No. 15:2.

June 20. - Bishop Benade sails for England. - L. 96, 112.

Sept. - The work of the General Church of the Advent is described by Rev. Jordan in L. 139.

Oct. 1. - The Church of the Academy resumes worship, after the summer vacation, in the Assembly Hall on North St., Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton officiating. - Account in L. 167.

Nov. - A New Church nuptial ceremony is described in full in L. 172.

Dec. 23. - The Schools of the Academy celebrate the "Festival of the Incarnation", with use of the Whittington music in the forms of worship. An orchestra accompanies the singing. - L. 1894:31.

Pittsburgh, Jan. - The Rev. H. Synnestvedt is appointed minister of the Pittsburgh (Advent) Society. - L. 16, 138.

Jan. 15. - Dedication of the new building of the Church of the Advent, by Bishop Benade. Description in L. 25.

Aug. 1. - The law-suit in the Orphan's Court, by the minority against the majority of the Pittsburgh Society, on the question of which of the two parties is considered to be the Society, results in a decision in favor of the majority.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 85

A legacy of Mrs. Anna Aitken, of $1,000, is also involved. - Mess. 65:40, 105; L. 138.

Sept. 28. - Mr. George A. Macbeth and others appeal to the Supreme Court of Penna., in the Whitehead case. The judgment of the lower court is sustained. Both the church property and the legacy are given to Rev. John Whitehead and his followers. - Mess. 65:328; L. 176, 192.


Colchester, Sept. 24. - The Rev. T. F. Robinson takes charge of the Colchester circle. - L. 144, 176; N. C. Standard (Oct.).

- Bishop Benade presents to the Colchester Circle the question whether they wish to be organized into "a particular body of the General Church, or of the Academy". - Account in N. C. Standard (Oct.); also L. 176.

N. d. - A small, experimental New Church School begins here. - N. C. Standard; also, 1894:15.

London Jan. 9. - Death of Rev. Rudolph L. Tafel, A.M., Ph. D., aged 62 years. One of the original members of the Academy of the New Church, and a contributor to Words for the New Church. - Biogr., (by Rev. L. H. Tafel), Mess. 64:91; also biogr. in L. 28.

June 19-20. - Celebration of New Church Day, by the Academy and General Church members, at Brixton and at Bickley Park, Kent. - N. C. Standard (July); L. 144; Coll. Lre. No. 15:3-4.

June 28. - Bishop Benade arrives in London and is present at the Academy School closing exercises. - L. 128, 144.

July 13. - The Society at Brixton holds a reception for Bishop Benade. - L. 144.

July 23. - Installation of Rev. Robert James Tilson as "Pastor of the particular Church of the Academy of the New Church" in London. - Full account in L. 153-154.

-Ordination of Revs. Glendower C. Ottley and John Stephenson, at Burton Rd., Brixton, by Bishop Benade. - L.144; full account, 151-154. Also N. C. Standard, (Sept.); and Coll. Lre. No. 15:5.

July 25. - At an Academy meeting at Brixton, Chancellor Benade "gave a very earnest address, in which he stated that the Academy was once more passing through troubled waters, as difficulties had arisen in the minds of many members; but he saw no need of fear for the body....


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 86 He warned all against the pernicious habit of personal criticism, which he feared extent in the Academy. Confidence should be cultivated in all..." Report in Coll. Lre. No. 15:5.

Sept. - Miss Kate Madeline Dowling, L. L. A. (Cambridge), commences a 32-year career as teacher in the Michael Church Day School, owing to the retirement of Miss Warland on account of ill health. L. 1947:288.

Sept. 21. - At a meeting of the congregation at Burton Road, Bishop Benade announces that the School and the Church are each to have its own priestly head and government; the headmastership to be held by Rev. E. C. Bostock, and the pastorate by Rev. R. J. Tilson. The uses of the Academy and the General Church are defined by Mr. Tilson. - L. 167.

N.d. - Mr. Bostock having declined the nomination to the bishopric of the General Church of the Advent in Great Britain, Bishop Benade resumes his administration of the same. He appoints Revs. R. J. Tilson and G. C. Ottley as an advisory Council. - L. 168.

Dec. 24-25. - Bishop Benade is present and takes part in the Christmas services. - L. 1894:31.


New Church Life, vol. 13.

Language: its Esse, Essence, Existence, and Theories, by Prof. E. S. Price. - pp. 6, 22,55, 87. (See also 1894, p. 56).

Bibliography of Summary Exposition of the Prophets and Psalms. - p. 26.

"A Visit to Emanuel Swedenborg", (A documented story), by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 38.

"Musical Instruments in the Word". - p. 71.

"History of The True Christian Religion", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 105.

"The Development of Conjugial Love in Use", by Rev. A. Acton. - p. 118.

"Early History of the New Church in Berlin", by Rev. F. E. Waelchli. - p. 143.

"A Summary of the Infernal Sense of Genesis", - p. 146.

"The Land of Canaan", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 155, 186.

Geometry, by Mr. Charles E. Doering. - p. 156.

History of the Arcana Coelestia, (original edition). - pp. 171, 188.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 87


BJORCK, REV. ALBERT: Emanuel Swedenborg's Betydelse for Framtiden (Emanuel Swedenborg's significance to the Future). Stockholm: N. C. Book Association. 42pp. Rev. L. 1893:105, 169. A lecture delivered at Stockholm to a distinguished audience, on Jan. 29, 1893. A. L.

GRAHAM, WILLIAM: The Seat of Power in the New Church. and the Effective Organization of its Forces. London. Pamphlet. - Rev. L. 1894:12. Favors the abolition of representative or centralized government, and the establishment of control by the direct vote of members. A. L.

ODHNER, REV. C. T.: A Brief Account of the Life and Work of Emanuel Swedenborg. With A Sketch of His Personality, Philadelphia, 40pp. With portrait. Rev. L. 1893:187.

New Church Standard. Colchester, England. 1893-96. 2 vols. in one. Vol. 3
1922-23. Eds.: G. A. McQueen, 1893-96. A. Bjorck and F. E. Gyllenhaal,
1922-23. Formerly New Church Monthly.


America.       General amnesty for all polygamists who had abandoned the practice after Nov. 1, 1890 (Jan. 4).

Revolution in Hawaii; Queen Liliaiokalani dethroned, provisional government recognized by American minister (Jan. 17).

World's Fair (Columbian Exposition) opens in Chicago (May 1); "Parliament of Religions".

Financial crisis reaches its climax; and President Cleveland issues call for extra session of Congress (June 30).

Suspension of banks and business houses continues throughout July.

Colorado grants complete suffrage to women (Nov.).

Great Britain.        Mr. Gladstone introduces Irish Home Rule Bill in House of Commons (Feb. 13).

The Home Rule Bill passes the House of Commons; bill rejected by the Lords; Mr. Gladstone denounces the House of Lords as an anachronism (Sept. 1).

General strike of coal miners (July 20 - Nov. 13).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 88



Cape Town, N.d. - A New Church Circle is formed here. - L. 160.

Durban. - A "Brotherhood of the New Church in Africa" is formed, to further "Thorough instruction in the Writings". - L. 144.

N. d. - A hall is erected for the uses of Church and School. It is named in honor of the late Rev. Jonathan Bailey. - L. 160, 176.

N. d. - Miss Florence Warland, lately a teacher in the London School, opens a Girls' School and Kindergarten for New Church children. She is assisted by the Misses Cockerell. - L. 176; 1895:48.


Rio de Janeiro, April. - Senor Levindo Castro de la Fayette, after the close of the Civil War in Brazil, settles here and begins an active propaganda for the New Church. A circle of about 20 receivers gathers about him; French translations of the Writings are imported from Paris, a New Church library is collected, and a lecture hall secured. - L. 1895:16; 1901:567.

Berlin, Ont., Jan. 29. - Swedenborg's birthday is celebrated by a supper. - L. 47.

Feb. 15. - Death of Mrs. Elizabeth Rothaermal, aged 73 years; one of the early pioneers in Berlin; she leaves 30 grandchildren. - L. 47.

N. d. - The young men of the Society organize a "Gymnasium" for intellectual exercise. - L. 63.

June 19. - The congregation decides to observe the 19th of June hereafter as "a New Church holiday". One member (a manufacturer), employing 80 persons, closes his factory on this date. - L. 111-112.

June. - Mr. Henry Stroh, architect and builder of the school-house here, moves to Oak Glen, and later to Huntingdon Valley, to erect a number of buildings for the new "colonies". - L. 112.

Sept. 17. - Opening exercises of the fourth year of the Academy School, with 26 pupils. - L. 159.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 89

Dec. 23-25. - Celebration of the festival of the Incarnation, by school and congregation. - L.

Toronto, Parkdale, Ont., Jan. 22. - The school in Parkdale is re-opened with 10 boys, in a new building. Worship also is held here. Members of the Academy meet to celebrate. - L. 15:14.

- General financial distress in the country. - L. 143.

Chicago, April 25. - The Academy School is temporarily suspended pending removal to the country. Classes are held in homes of teachers in Chicago and Oak Glen, until June 14. - L. 111.

June 27. - Death of Rev. Dr. John Randolph Hibbard, in his 79th year. Ordained in 1839, he was for many years pastor of the Chicago Society. "A pronounced Authority man'", he was "the intimate friend of Mr. Benade and Mr. Stuart and a solid member of the Pre-established Harmony, - a group of New Church ministers who, year after year, and decade after decade, had found themselves in unexpected harmony on all the mooted issues discussed in the periodicals of the Church and on the floor of the General Convention". - Mess. 67:1; L.1894:127; 1917:280.

July 1. - Memorial services for Dr. Hibbard in the Chicago Society's temple. Interesting historical reminiscences in addresses by Revs. Jabez Fox, L. P. Mercer, and Thos. King. - Addresses in Mess. 67:34, 41; portions in L. l27.

Sept. - The Immanuel Church services are held alternately in Chicago and Oak Glen, by Revs. N. D. Pendleton and W. H. Acton. - L. 159.

Oak Glen. - During the summer the Immanuel Church holds all its services here. More than half of the members now reside in the new colony. - L. 15.

June 17, 20. - Special services and a "feast of charity" commemorate "New Church Day". - L. 111, 143.

June. - By the end of the month, 11 families, including 62 persons, have moved to Oak Glen. - L. 111.

N. d. - Dedications of various new homes are described in L. 1895:15, 79, 127. Some of the houses are built under the supervision of Mr. Henry Stroh, who built the Berlin and Parkdale School- houses.

Oct. 22. - The Academy School opens with 20 pupils. - L. 175; 1945:380.

Oct. 14. - Dedication of the new building of the "Immanuel Church Club", by the Pastor, Rev. N.D. Pendleton. The "Club House" is designed to house temporarily all the uses of the Society and School. - L.170-172.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 90

Dec. 20. - The Academy School celebrates Christmas; Mr. Herman Faber, the artist, presents sketches for use in the school. - L.1895:15.

Dec. - The first member of The Park Gazette appears. - L. 1895:15.

Trenton. Jan. 14. - Death of Mr. William M. Carter; an associate member of the Academy. - Coll. Lre. No. 15:17.

New York City, Feb. 3. - Death of Mrs. Rosina Klein, wife of Mr. Andrew Klein, aged 56 years; a pioneer member of the German New Church in New York and Brooklyn, from 1869. - L. 47.

- During the year, the Rev. J. E. Bowers does voluntary missionary work in Ohio, Michigan and Indiana. - L. 112, 143, 159, 176, 191.

Middleport, March 10. - The Middleport and Pomeroy Society dissolves its connection with the Ohio Association. - L. 63.

N.d. - Death of Mr. Lemuel Powell (brother of the late Rev. David Powell), aged 83 years; he was mainly responsible for the building of the house of worship here. - L. 48.

July. - Candidate Joseph E. Boyesen, late of Pittsburgh, is ministering here. - L. 143; 1895:80.

Pomeroy, April 6. - Death of Colonel Cyrus Grant, aged 77 years. - Obit., Mess. 66:170; L. 80.

Allentown. - The Allentown Church now meets for worship only when a visiting minister is present. - L. 143.

Huntingdon Valley, March 10. - Breaking of the ground for the residence of the Rev. J. F. Potts, compiler of the Swedenborg Concordance. A symbolic flag, displaying a white horse on a red ground, is hoisted, and the father of the family cuts the first sod. - L. 1895:31.

April 10. - Laying of the cornerstone of the residence of Mr. Robert M. Glenn; Rev. E. J. E. Schreck officiating. - L. 1895:31.

May 7. - Death of Mr. William B. Aitken, aged 70 years; an early member of the Academy. - L. 95, 96.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 91

N. d. - During the summer vacation, simple Sunday services are held by Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton and Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - L. 127.

Sept. 16. - The first dedication of a completed house here (Dr. G. R. Starkey's), by Bishop Pendleton, is described in L. 1895:31.

Oct. 9. - A small private New Church School is opened in the home of Mr. Chas. S. Smith, to meet the needs of children of Academy parents now moving to the country. - L. 1895:63.

Dec. 16. - The pastor of the local Presbyterian Church, to meet the questions of his members regarding the new colony of "Swedenborgians", lectures on Swedenborg and his doctrine. - L. 1895:47.

Philadelphia, Jan. - In leading editorials in New Church Life, (Jan. and May), the Rev. E. J. E. Schreck takes the position that the "high priest" of the New Church is responsible to the Lord alone; is subordinate to no other authority; and is subject to no "court of appeal". The only "provision against the abuse of his office by the chief ecclesiastical governor" is that "the Lord is the Priest". - L. l, 65, 113; Cf. pp. 2-5.

Jan. 14. - At a "Feast of Charity", given by Mr. and Mrs. John Pitcairn, Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton announces that, in commemoration of the initial meeting twenty years ago, which led to the organization of the "Academy of the New Church", January 14 will henceforth be known as Founders' Day' ". - L. 31. Full account with speeches, 39-44. Cf. Coll. Lre. No. 15:17.

Jan. 29. - Celebration of the 206th anniversary of Swedenborg's birthday, by the congregation and school. - L. 47.

N. d. - The Academy professors adopt gowns while teaching. - L. 47.

March 20. - College Letter No. 15 (p. 17), notes that "during the two years just passed the progress of the school use had been marked by the development of an associated though subordinate use, the establishment of external worship under Academic auspices, in Philadelphia, Berlin, Canada, and London, England". (For the relation of these respective uses, see N. C. Standard (Oct.), and L. 1893:167.)

April 9. - The first general meeting of the Alumni and Alumnae of the Academy Schools is held in the Academy's Hall at 1826 North St., with 30 members present; Professor Schreck presiding; Harvey Farrington, Secretary. - L. 79; full account on pp. 91-94.

N. d. - A "Pause of Silence" is introduced into the Academy worship, for the sake of "composure, meditation, and silent prayer". - L. 63.

N. d. - During the summer, a camp for Academy students and young men from Philadelphia and Pittsburgh is established on Ganoga Lake, Sullivan County; Rev. H. Synnestvedt supervising. - L. 127, 159.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 92

June 17. - Celebration of the "institution of the New Church" by a choral service; (the only observance of "June 19th" this year). - L. 111.

July 21. - Bishop Pendleton and Pastors Schreck, N. D. Pendleton and Waelchli sail for London. - L. 127.

Sept. - The Rev. Homer Synnestvedt resigns from the Pittsburgh Society to return to Philadelphia. - L. 159.

Oct. 1. - Opening exercises of the Academy Schools; with 55 pupils. The work is described in L.

Nov. 8. - Vice-chancellor Wm. F. Pendleton presides at a meeting of Academy members called to give opportunity for views on the recent instruction given by Bishop Benade in London as to the government of the Church. An important discussion ensues which, though generally affirmative, raised a number of questions and doubts. The editor of Coll. Lre. No. 16:1 precedes his account of this discussion by saying: "The recent promulgation of the doctrine concerning the Celestial quality of the Church of the Academy, culminating in the emancipation of the Priesthood from the personal assumptions of men, whether priests or laymen, marks an epoch in the Church, the momentousness of which appears plainly to the eye able to receive the light through which those doctrines have come". (The report is headed "Subordination of the High Priest to the Lord Alone"). - For full text, see Coll. Lre. No. 16:1-5; also L. 186-190; Cf. 1895, Jan. p. 10; Feb. p.27; and April p. 55.

Nov. - The new ritual in the Academy centers in Philadelphia, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Berlin, Toronto and London, is described in detail in L. 168-170; Cf. 63.

Dec. 21. - Bishop and Mrs. Benade arrive from England; formal reception by the Academy congregation, on Dec. 18. - L. 1895:15, 29-30.

Dec. 22-23. - The "Festival of the Incarnation" is celebrated by Schools and Church. - L. 1895:15.

Pittsburgh, June 15. - At the closing exercises of the Academy School, the Headmaster delivers a notable address. - L. 151-153; 145 (ed.).

July 13. - At a men's meeting, the Rev. Messrs. Synnestvedt and C. T. Odhner present doctrinal teachings on strikes and the relations of capital and labor; the laymen afterwards consider the financial and social aspects. - L. 143.

Nov. - The Rev. John Stephenson, of London, is now preaching to the Church of the Advent in Pittsburgh. - L. 191; Cf. 159.


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Colchester, May 13. - Bishop Benade meets with members of the Rev. J. F. Potts' former Society. - L. 127.

London. Feb. 6. - A meeting of priests, with Bishop Benade presiding, considers the subject of order. Coll. Lre. No. 15:16. See A. A.

Feb. 7. - The first meeting, for members only, of the Particular Church of the Academy of the New Church in London is held at Burton Road, Brixton. 12 new members are received. Chancellor Benade makes a highly important speech, announcing a new development in the Constitution and government of the Academy. Because of its consequences, portions of the speech are here published: -

"The Academy has not a limited Constitution. Its law being the Divine of the LORD, and co-extensive with the Divine, is infinite, and leaves us in a state of wonderful freedom, and in a state from which we can advance step by step. The Academy has not receded; it has gone steadily on, and is going on: What was the law as we understood it ten or twelve years ago is not the law today, because the conditions have altered, and the law is applied according to the altered condition of things, and must continue to be so applied.

"The Constitution of the Academy as originally adopted has long since ceased to be operative as to many particulars. Hitherto we have had a certain form of government, in which the Chancellor was assisted in his administration by a mixed council of clergy and laity. That council has ceased to exist, and for a very simple reason. It was found that we needed to have our Board of Direction, or Finance Board, placed in a relation more conformable to the law of the State. Our own Constitution seemed to have carried us a little way from those laws, and it was seen that we should not be able to buy and sell property for our use, because we should come into conflict with the law of the State, as we were then constituted. For that reason we determined to divide the body into two great divisions, one, the Church, and the other, the Corporation. But the Chancellor has declined to have for his counsellors those who are obliged to conform their actions to the civil law. The Chancellor's office is an ecclesiastical office. This change in the Constitution of the Council has not been fully carried out yet, but will be, and the Chancellor has determined to choose a Council of Priests.

"The necessity of providing for the spiritual needs of adults, as well as providing schools for the children, led to the formation of a Particular Church of the Academy here, and will do so elsewhere. In the past, members of the Academy were selected by the Chancellor, with the Council. Now and hereafter they will be selected by the Priests of the Particular Churches, with the sanction of the Chancellor.

"This is a radical change. Minds have been disturbed. I think that disturbance will cease. A meeting of Priests was held yesterday in which we considered the subject of order, and we have come to a fuller understanding, think, of each other and each other's minds, in respect to all that is required (of us) as Priests of the Church.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 94 I may here add that one of the things that has come to us is the desire for the practical carrying out of a principle which exists in the heavens, from which is formed the Church on earth, viz., that of openness and frankness of intercourse. In the heavens hearts speak. Whatever is loved and felt the thought utters in speech. In the heavens the angels have no fear of speaking with the utmost freedom and confidence, to each other, and there ought to be no fear of speaking or withholding of confidence in the Church, which is the heavens on earth. In the Academy this ought to prevail and have no doubt it will be the effort of all our Priests to carry this into practice. We have been considerably disturbed in our minds with reference to the changes that have taken place in our movement, but we have spoken to each other in a brotherly way, and I am convinced that we are ready to go forward hand in hand in the work that lies before us; and allow me to say to you brethren, go and do likewise. Let us have no unfriendly criticism of each other's way of acting. If there is any fault to be found go to your brother, give him full freedom to say all he thinks and use that freedom yourself. If we act on this principle we shall have more of heaven within us and without us.

"It has been the practice to keep the matters of our organization very much to ourselves, but I think the quality of the Academy ought not to be withheld. When I spoke of the celestial quality of the Academy it was after very long consideration of the matter, and I was convinced that it was the one to give us existence and permanence, and carry us forward into a state of freedom. The celestial angels, whether of the celestial heavens or of the spiritual heavens, are the freest of all angels. If we love our Academy and the members who constitute it, we shall come Into greater and greater freedom, individually in ourselves and in our connection with each other. If, then, there is anything in the minds of the members of the Academy, let them speak, and speak freely. We are ready to listen and respond as the Lord gives us power and ability to respond.

"Having made this commencement here in the older country, I think we shall be able to continue it in the newer country. It seemed to be fitting that it should have had a commencement here. The Academy, by its very nature and constitution, is not confined to any nationality. It is a universal Church; it can exist in any national church and perform its uses there. Like the kingdom of the heavens, it can come into all nationalities, and is to come there. We are of one spiritual nationality. Our brothers are to be those who love the LORD above all things and their neighbor as themselves. This is celestial. The essentially celestial is, love to the LORD and charity toward the neighbor. It is the simplest of all simple things, viz., this, that the good of love to the LORD and of charity toward the neighbor, makes the Church within us and forms the Church without us. Let us strive, by the power of the LORD to become this good, and so members of the LORD'S Church on earth and hereafter in the heavens and thus come into conjunction with Him who is our LORD and Saviour"

April 23. - Wedding of the Rt. Rev. Wm. H. Benade and Miss Kate Gibbs, of London; Rev. R. J. Tilon officiating. - L. 95.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 95

June l7, 19. - Celebration of "New Church Day"; Bishop Benade, and Rev. Messrs. Tilson, Bostock, and Ottley officiating. - L. 143.

June 30. - Closing exercises of the Academy School. - L. 143.

Aug. 8. - A silver loving-cup is presented to Mr. C. J. Whittington, composer of the new Psalmody music, (published as "Academy Church Music"), by grateful members of societies in America and England. - Full account in L. 137.

Aug. 8, 10,14, 17. - Important meetings of priests of the Church of the Academy from the United States, Canada, and England. Lengthy discussions on Church government; the relations of general churches to each other and education; Bishop Benade presiding. - Full reports in L. 186-1 90; 189;:10-13, 27-28 55-58, 70-72. Cf. , 143,177 (ed.)

Aug. 16, 20. - At Burton Road. an illuminated address is unveiled and presented to Chancellor Benade. from the Church of the Academy in London. Full description in L. 153-157.


New Church Life, vol. 14.

"The Lord alone is Priest" (editorial). - pp. 1, 65. Cf. p. 113.

History of the editions of the Arcana Coelestia. - p. 13.

Robert Hindmarsh: A Biography, by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 58, 72, 104, 120, 133, 167, 185.

Instructing Children concerning Generation by Rev. F. E. Waelchli. - pp. 70, 86, 118. Cf. p. 173.

On the "Divine origin" of the priesthood (editorial). - p. 177. Cf. pp. 186-190.


MERCER REV. L. P.: The New Jerusalem in the World's Religious Congress of 1893: Chicago; Western N.C. Union. 454pp. Rev. N. C. Rev. 1:626; Mess. 67:206; L. 1894:172. A handsome volume, containing a complete collection of New Church addresses and papers. A. L.

ODHNER, REV. C. T.: Robert Hindmarsh: A Biography. Philadelphia: Academy Book Room. - Rev. N. C. Rev. 11:303. A. L.

PENDLETON, LOUIS B.: The Sons of Ham; A Tale of the New South. Boston: Roberts Bros. - Rev. L.1895:58. In a story, the author propounds the merits of "The African colonization societies of the future.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 96

PENDLETON, LOUIS B.: The Wedding Garment. Boston: Robert Bros. Rev. N. C. Rev. 1:460; L. 1894:90. A classic of the other life, which originally appeared as a serial in New Church Life for 1892-3.

The Juvenile. Academy of the New Church, 1821 Wallace St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1894, Feb. 4-Easter. Vol. 1, Nos. 1-3. (Bound with The Bulletin, cop. 1)

Y Cendwr (The Missionary), 1894, published in Wales. See NC Life, Sept. 1894. p. 139.

New Church Review. A quarterly journal of Christian thought and life set forth from the Scriptures by Emanuel Swedenborg..., Boston, Massachusetts New Church Union, 1894-1934, vols. 1-41. Eds.: 1894-1907, T. F. Wright and others; 1908-09, W. H. Mayhew and others; 1910-34, H. C. Hay and others.

PLUMMER, EVELYN E.: Lessons in Anatomy for Children: No. 2. The Tongue, Philadelphia: Academy of the New Church. 34pp. Rev. N. C. Rev. 111:313; L. 1894:60. A. L.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 97


America.       The "Commonweal" army under J. S. Coxey starts from Massillon, Ohio, for Washington (March 25); his army dispersed while attempting a demonstration on Capitol steps (May 1).

Asia.              The King in Korea applies to China for protection; Japanese troops occupy Seoul; crisis with China precipitated (June 6).

       Japan declares war on China (Aug. 1).

Japanese drive Chinese from Ping Yang; Chinese fleet destroyed in first battle of modern iron-clads (Sept.).

Japanese defeat Chinese on the Yalu and invade Manchuria; advance against Port Arthur (Oct. 24-26).

France.              Capt. Alfred Dreyfus found guilty of selling military secrets to a foreign power; degraded and sentenced to imprisonment for life (Dec. 22).

Great Britain.       Opening of the Manchester Ship Canal (Jan. 1).

Lord Rayleigh announces the discovery of the atmospheric element, argon.

Premier Gladstone resigns office and is succeeded by Lord Roseberry (March 2).

Successful trial of Maxim's flying machine at Brexley, England (Aug. 2).

Russia.              Death of Czar Alexander III (Nov. 1); he is succeeded by Nicholas II.

Turkey.              British, French, and Russian ambassadors present note to Sultan demanding reforms in Armenia (May 11).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 98



Berlin, Ont., Jan. 14. - The Society celebrates the Academy's "Founder's Day". - L. 63.

Jan. 29. - Swedenborg's birthday is celebrated by the school and congregation. - L. 63.

May 21, June 4, July 11. - At three Academy meetings, the members all "expressed themselves affirmatively toward the doctrine that the High Priest must be subordinate to the Lord alone". - Coll. Lre. No. 17:9.

Sept. 2. - Opening of the Academy Schools, with 26 pupils; (Boys' School, 7; Girls' School, 9; Primary, 10). - L. 160.

Sept. 10. - The Society discusses its relations to the "Church of the Academy" - L. 160.

Sept. 30. - Bishop Benade visits the Berlin Society as Chancellor of the Academy. In an address on the functions of the priesthood, Mr. Benade stresses the duty of the priest to interpret the will of the Lord, and to teach accordingly, with the authority of, "Thus saith the Lord" (This address, as reported in New Church Life, was, later, one of the grounds of challenge and confusion as to the powers of the episcopal office). - L. 168-169.


Atlanta. - The Rev. E. I. Kirk holds regular services, at the request of Atlanta and Cascade New Churchmen. - L. 111.

Chicago. N. d. - The Rev. N. Dandridge Pendleton and Dr. King deliver addresses at the graduation exercises of the Hering Homeopathic College. - L. 95.

Glenview. May. - A description of the New Church settlement here appears in - L. 79.

June 19, 20, 26. - Celebration of New Church Day; all the houses are draped with red and white bunting, and a Church flag is raised. The Pastor pays tribute to the work done, in founding the new community, by Rev. Wm. H. Acton and Messrs. Hugh L. Burnham, T. L. Forrest, Swain Nelson, H. S. Maynard and O. Blackman. Each is given a red and white rose. - L. 110.

July. - The name of "Oak Glen" is changed to "Glenview". - L. 127.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 99

Oct. 5-13. - Chancellor Benade visits the Society. After full discussion, the congregation decides to become a "local Church of the Academy". The Rev. Dandridge Pendleton is re-installed as Pastor. - L. 169; 1896:31.

- During the winter, the re-organization of the Society into a local "Church of the Academy" is completed. Fiscal affairs are no longer conducted by a committee or council, but each officer is directly responsible to the Pastor. Distinction is made between the uses of Church and School; each has a separate Treasurer. - L. 1896:31.

Rockford, N. d. - Swedish New Churchmen here organize a small group; Mr. C. V. Urbom is leader. It is hoped that "the first Swedish New Church in America will come into existence". - L. 96, 143.

June. - The Rev. J. E. Rosenqvist ministers here during the summer. - L. 110.

Middleport. April 1. - Death of Mr. William H. Grant, aged 75 years. One of the pioneers of the New Church in Middleport; father of Miss Alice Grant, New Church educator. - Obit., Mess. 68:411.

June 19. - The Rev. Joseph E. Boyesen, who ministered to the Pomeroy and Middleport Society since July, 1894, leaves for Sweden, where he remains. - L. 80, 111.

- During the summer, Candidate Chas. E. Doering ministers to the Society. - L. 176.

N. d. - Messrs. S. B. Hanlin and George M. Cooper of Middleport, are graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College, (Phila.), and are appointed resident physicians at Hahnemann. - L. 95.

Dec. - The Rev. C. T. Odhner conducts services in Allentown, Scranton, Renovo, and Erie. - Described in L.1896:28.

Dec. 31. - In a railway train, en route to Erie, the Rev. C. T. Odhner engages in a semi-public "debate" on doctrine, with a prominent Irish Catholic priest. - L. 1896:28.

Allentown. June 23. - "New Church Day" is celebrated. - L. 111.

- Monthly services are held by Rev. L. G. Jordan, (Phila.). - L. 127.

Huntingdon Valley, Jan. 1. - One new home here is now completed and occupied, and three others nearly finished, including "Cairnwood", the residence of Mr. John Pitcairn. - L. 15.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 100

Jan. 30. - Dedication of Mr. Robert M. Glenn's home ("Glenhurst"), by Bishop Benade. - L. 31.

Feb. 1. - The small private school for children is transferred to Mr. Glenn's residence. - L. 63.

May 22. - Dedication of "Cairnwood". - Full account in L. 95.

June 19. - At a dinner in Mr. Pitcairn's large new barn, some 45 Academy members celebrate the day. An interesting discussion on songs and hymns. Account in Coll. Lre. No. 17:6-9.

July. - Services are now held in a barn, known as "Mr. Pendleton's barn". - L. 127.

Sept. 16. - Dedication of Dr. Gee. R. Starkey's home. This is the first dedication of a completed home in the new "colony" - L. 31.

N. d. - A frame building for school and church purposes, is erected by Mr. Henry Stroh. It is financed by the sale of "bonds" issued by the "Civic and Social Club", and purchased by members of all of the families here. (Years afterwards, the building was known as the "Club-House".) - Described in L. 160.

Oct. 8. - The Academy School re-opens. - L. 176.

Oct. 20. - Dedication of the Chapel and school-house, by Bishop Pendleton; followed by a meeting at "Cairnwood", - Described in L. 176.

Nov. 15. - Friday evening becomes the customary appointed time for: (1) a doctrinal class for young unmarried people; (2) a picnic supper; (3) a singing class; also a lecture on education in the home. - L. 192.

Leechburg, May. - The Rev. J. E. Sowers arouses interest in the New Church here. The publisher of Leechburg Record champions the cause. - L. 111.

Philadelphia, Jan. - The editor of New Church Life in a leading editorial, extols the office of "high priest and claims that "especially must the Church look to the high-priesthood, to which is committed the supreme human government in the Church.... The priesthood is essentially in the office of the high priest, and is with the lower ranks of the clergy only derivatively". - L. 1-2.

Jan. 13. - Ordination of Rev. Homer Synnestvedt into the pastoral degree, by Bishop Benade. - Full account of the ritual in L. 24-27, 31.

Jan. 15. - Meeting of the Academy Alumni Association to consider the uses of that body; about 50 members present. - L. 31.

Jan. 16. - At a significant meeting of 61 Academy members, at 1826 North St., Chancellor Benade presents the problem of the legal requirements of the Academy's charter, involving majority rule, versus the principle of church government.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 101 After discussion it was unanimously decided that, in order "to leave the hands of the Chancellor free to administer legally the civil affairs of the body - by means of qualified and competent lay officials of his selection - the members...tendered to the Chancellor their resignation, retaining, however, membership in the Church of the Academy, with all ecclesiastical rights, privileges, and duties as before". As those present number considerably less than half of the total membership of the Academy, individual resignations are tendered; and a circular letter sent to all other members for information and individual action. (Later, on June 19, it was announced that all members had resigned, with one exception. Chancellor Benade stated he had asked Messrs. Pitcairn, Glenn, Hicks, Asplundh, Burnham and Macbeth to remain in and constitute the Corporation of the "Academy of the New Church". - see A. A.; also Coll. Lre. No. 16:5-6; 17:9.

Feb. 9. - Bishop Pendleton begins a weekly class for instruction in the "Home Education of Children". - L. 47, 63; Cf. 49, 65.

Feb. 21. - At a meeting of the members of the Academy of the New Church, called by Chancellor Benade, an independent local "Church of the Academy" is organized for worship. Heretofore there had been no organized Church, but only "a congregation of persons attending the worship instituted by the Academy of the New Church". - Full account of important discussion in Coll. Lre. No. 17:1-4. Cf. L. 47, 63.

March 9. - Death of Mr. Adolph Julius Tafel, aged 56 years; one of the nine sons of Rev. Leonard Tafel, and a member of the firm of Boericke and Tafel. A very active member of the Advent Society and the Academy, until the separation in 1888. - Obit., Mess, 68:238.

March 22. - Bishop Pendleton accepts Bishop Benade's nomination of him as Pastor of the Philadelphia "Church of the Academy". He is assisted by Rev. Geo. R. Starkey. - Coll. Lre. No. 17:4; L. 63.

April 7. - At an Academy Alumni meeting, the Treasurer (Mr. Chas. E. Doering), announces a "Scholarship Fund". - L. 79.

May 4. - The Rev. C. T. Odhner leaves for England and Sweden, to engage in Church history research. - L. 95.

May 9. - Installation of Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton as pastor of the Particular Church in Philadelphia; Chancellor Benade officiating. - Full account in Coll. Lre. No. 17:4-6.

June 13. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. The B. Th. degree is granted to Candidate Chas. E. Doering. - L. 110.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 102

- Meeting of the Academy Alumni Association. Representatives from Berlin, Parkdale, Pittsburgh, Middleport, Oak Glen, and Scranton are present. Its central use of supporting scholarships is considered. 101 members are reported. - L.108.

Oct. 1. - Reopening of the Academy Schools, which are now divided between city and country; 35 students in city, and 34 in Huntingdon Valley. - L. 176.

Nov. - New Church Life, in a leading editorial, says: "There are signs that the outward separation and free development of (the) two general bodies of the New Church", (i.e. the General Convention and the General Church), "have enabled the acerbities of former days to soften, and the distinctive uses of both to be recognized in a more fraternal spirit". - L. 161.

Nov. - Professor C. T. Odhner contributes a lengthy and interesting account of his observations and researches in England and Sweden, from May 4 to Sept. 14. - L. 174, 185; 1896:15, 26, 29.

Nov. 23. - Resignation of Rev. L.G. Jordan, as Secretary of the General Church and as Bishop's Assistant. Rev. C. T. Odhner takes his place as Secretary. - L. 191; 1896:28.

Dec. 24. - Celebration of the Festival of the Incarnation, by congregations and schools, in city and country. - L.1896:9, 10, 12, 13, 16.

Pittsburgh, April. - The Rev. John Stephenson is called as minister of the (General Church) Society. - L. 80.

Oct. 15-16. - Last meeting of the "General Church of the Advent of the Lord;" Bishop Benade presiding. Only eight members from outside of Pittsburgh attend. The relation of the General Church to the "Church of the Academy" is discussed. The Council of the Laity is abolished. Mr. Walter D. Uptegraff is appointed Treasurer, and made directly responsible to the Bishop. Lengthy account in L. 170-174.

Nov. 1. - Celebration of the Decentennial of the Pittsburgh Academy School; speeches on: "The Object of New Church Schools; Science; Literature, History and Art". - Full account in L. 188-191.

Nov. 15. - The new Treasurer of the General Church of the Advent of the Lord, (Mr. W. D. Uptegraff), reports cash in hand: $49.96; Debts, $346. - L.160.


Paris, Sept. 1. - The Rev. G. C. Ottley conducts services in a small Circle here. Revs. C. T. Odhner and R. H. Keep are present. - L. 160.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 103

London, Jan. 29. - Swedenborg's birthday is celebrated by the Academy School and society. It is claimed that this is observed "for the first time in the history of the Church in England". - L. 63; N. C. Standard (March).

June 16, 19. - Celebration of New Church Day by the Church of the Academy. - N. C. Standard (Aug.); L. 143.

June 20. - Closing exercises of the Academy School in Brixton. - Account in L. 143.

Stockholm. - During a visit on historical and editorial missions, the Rev. C. T. Odhner attends a meeting of the Revs. A. Th. Boyesen, Albert Bjorck, Joseph E. Boyesen, R. J. Tilson and C. J. N. Manby. This is said to be "the largest number of New Church ministers ever present in Swedenborg's native land". - L. 143; Mess. 69:139.


New Church Life, vol. 15.

"Angelic Language", by Prof. E. S. Price. - p. 8.

A Bibliography of the Apocalypse Explained. - pp. 46, 59.

Stephen Penny: the first reader of the Writings, by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 73.

Relation of the Argyle Square Society to the Great East Cheap Society, (London) by Rev. John Presland. - p. 76.

Societies originating in the original Church in Great East Cheap, by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 77.

William Cookworthy, by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - p. 86.

On the opposing views of the Writings (a significant correspondence). - p. 92.

"The first New Church Composer" (F. Hippolite Barthelemon, violinist). - pp. 102, 153.

"James Glen: the Apostle of the New Church to America", by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 105, 120.

"Woman is celestial and man spiritual" (discussion). - pp. 106, 155.

"The Harmony of Angelic Speech", by Prof. E. S. Price. - p. 134.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 104

Thomas Hartley, by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 135, 151. Cf. p. 159.

Egypt, by Rev. Andrew Czerny. - pp. 150, 166.

The trial of Drs. Beyer and Rosen. - p. 177.

Documents in the Royal Archives of Sweden, (List of 58 recently discovered documents), by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - p. 182.


ODHNER, REV. C. T.: Robert Hindmarsh. A Biography. Philadelphia: Academy Book Room. With three Appendixes. Illustrated. - Rev. Mess. 68:126; L. 1895:44. A popular sketch, with valuable documentary selections, including a compiled chronological list of the first 100 New Church ministers in Great Britain. A. L.

New Church, The. III. Assn. Manual; Chicago, III. May 1895- Oct. 1896. Ed.: Rev. L. P. Mercer. Changed to Western New Church Union Bulletin, Chicago, Oct. 1899- Oct. 1900, vols. 1, 2. Changed to New Church Bulletin, Nov. 1900, continuing V. 2 to V. 5, Sept. 1904 all in 1 vol. Vols. 6-7 in 1 vol.

New Church Monthly. Rev. A. J. Bartels, ed. and publisher. May, 1895 to Mar. 18, 1897. Chicago. 2 v. (in 1). 23cm.

Silver Trumpet, The. Published and edited by J. E. Collom. Littleton. Cole. 1895-97. Monthly.

Speler, The. Devoted to the worship and luv ov the Lord God and Saivier Jesus Christ. Kond'ukted bei Ser Elizak Pitman, Bath Endgland. ..vol. Janiueri.1895. (Ed.: Isaac Pitman, as above)

Spencer's Weekly. Sydney, Australia. (1895?)


Africa.              The king of Ashanti rejects the ultimatum of Great Britain demanding the establishment of a British agent at Coomassie; hostilities follow (Oct.).

A raiding force under Dr. Jameson invades the Transvaal from British Bechuanaland to cooperate with the Uitlanders in Johannesburg (Dec. 29); they are defeated and captured (Jan. 2, 1896).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 105

America.       The "National Baptist Convention of America" organized.

Cuban Revolution begins (Feb. 20).

President Cleveland recommends to Congress the appointment of a commission to investigate the question at issue between Venezuela and Great Britain; the message brings about the possibility of war (unincorporated) is with Great Britain (Dec. 17).

Asia.              Treaty of Shimonoseki between China and Japan; independence of Korea recognized; Formosa, Pescadores and peninsula for Liao Tung ceded to Japan (April 17).

Germany.       The X-ray is discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen.

Great Britain.       Resignation of the Roseberry ministry; succeeded by a Salisbury ministry including Joseph Chamberlain and the Duke of Devonshire, Liberal Unionists, (June 24).

Italy.              The Italian army in Abyssinia defeated by King Menelek at Ambalagi (Dec. 8).

Turkey.              Confirmation of Turkish atrocities in Armenia reaches Europe (Jan.).

The powers reiterate their demands upon the Sultan for reforms in Armenia (Aug. 21).

Massacre of Armenians at Trebizond followed by promulgation of reforms demanded by powers (Oct.)


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 106



Berlin, Ont., June 16. - Closing exercises of the Academy School. - L. 126.

Sept. 1. - The Academy School opens with 27 pupils. - L. 159.

Nov. 30. - Bishop Benade approves the Society's choice of Rev. J. E. Rosenqvist as Pastor of the local "Church of the Academy"; also as Superintendent of the school. - L. 1897:16.

Dec. 3. - The Rev. J. E. Rosenqvist assumes pastoral charge.

Milverton, Ont. - The Rev. C. E. Doering ministers to the Circle. Services are held at the home of Mr. Henry Doering, Sr., during the summer. - L.124, 171.

Washington. D.C., May 4. - At the 76th General Convention, Prof. C. T. Odhner and Mr. C. H. Asplundh are received as messengers from the Academy of the New Church, to report on the inauguration of the work of prototyping Swedenborg's MSS, and to effect arrangements for future work. - L. 80, 95; C. T. O.'s address, 87.

Denver. - The Rev. Richard de Charms, Jr., pastor of the Denver Society, opens a school for kindergarten and primary grades. - L. 60.

Bridgeport. Nov. 8. - A public lecture by Rev. C. T. Odhner brings together a number of isolated
receivers. A Circle of 11 adults and 8 children is formed. - L. 1897:12.

Marietta, May 1. - The Rev. E. I. Kirk, M.D., does missionary work in North Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky. - L. 89.

Glenview, July. - The majority of the members join the Church of the Academy, but retain their membership in the General Church. - L. 124.

N. d. - The Rev. W. H. Acton, former head-master of the Academy School, is engaged as assistant-pastor. - L. 1897:16.

- A description of the society life appears in L. 1897:16.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 107

Middleport, March. - The state of the Middleport Society is described in L. 47.

July 19. - All of the members of the Middleport and Pomeroy Society sign applications for membership in the General Church of the Advent. The history and state of the Society described by Rev. C. T. Odhner in L. 133.

- During the summer, ministers of the General Church are assigned as follows: Allentown, Candidate D. H. Klein; Erie. Rev. A. Acton; Renovo, Rev. E. I. Kirk; North Bend, Candidate H. B. Cowley; Milverton, Ont., Canada, Rev. C. E. Doering. - L. 124. (For their reports, see 135, 171-172).

Allentown. - The Allentown Circle decides to give up the Hall on Hamilton St., used for worship since 1885, to hold monthly services in members' houses. - L. 89,124.

Huntingdon Valley, Jan. 19 (?)- Seven members found the "Civic and Social Club", which obtains a Charter from the State of Pennsylvania in Feb. - L. 1946:141.

April 6. - A meeting of the congregation considers the plan of the newly-incorporated "Civic and Social Club". - L. 80.

June 18. - Death of George Roger Starkey, M. D., aged 73 years. - Obit. and biogr., Mess. 71:40; L. 112,128; biogr., 135.

June 19. - Fifty new members are received into the "Particular Church of the Academy in Philadelphia". - L. 128.

July 20. - The Civic and Social Club purchases the church and school building from its owner, Mr. John Pitcairn, and issues four per cent bonds for $10. 00, which are taken up by families of the congregation. - L. 128.

Oct. 12. - A primary school is opened under the auspices of the pastor of the Phila. Church of the Academy, Bishop Wm. F. Pendleton. The 27 pupils are taught by Misses A. E. Grant and J. I. Moir. - L. 175.

Philadelphia, Jan. 29. - The Academy Schools celebrate the 208th anniversary of Swedenborg's birth, at a dinner. One of the speeches is on "Swedenborg as a Medical Philosopher", by C. L. Olds, M. D. - L. 31; speech, 24.

Jan. 30.- Feb. 1. - Reorganization meeting of the Corporation of The Academy of the New Church. A Board of Directors is elected, viz., Messrs. Robert M. Glenn (President), S. H. Hicks (Secretary), and C. H. Asplundh (Treasurer). - L. 48.

Feb. 20. - The Secretary of the General Church reports that many members express "doubt as to the propriety or necessity of belonging to two Churches". - L. 46.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 108

March 9. - Each of the four departments of the Academy Schools (Theological School; College; Boys' School; and Girls' School), is to have its own Principal, with power of appointment and policy-making. - L. 64.

May 27. - A circular letter is sent out by four Academy graduates, viz., Messrs. E. S. Price, C. T. Odhner, H. Synnestvedt, and A. Acton, in open revolt against Mr. Schreck's leadership of the Alumni Association, and calling for the formation of a new Alumni Association, "upon the basis of fellowship in the common love of our Alma Mater" - L. 136. See A. A.

June 16. - Closing exercises of the Academy Schools. Messrs. Cowley, Klein and Stebbing are the last students to obtain the degree of B. Th. from the joint "College and Divinity School". (See below). Interesting report in L. 112, 122. For report of "Maschil College", (1895-6), see L. 122.

N. d. - It is decided to separate the two departments; the Vice-Chancellor (Wm. F. Pendleton) retaining charge of the Theological School, and the Rev. E. S. Price being put at the head of the College. - Anniv. Record, p. 43.

June 24. - Organization of a new "Alumni Association", at 1826 North St; 19 present. Officers elected: E. S. Price, President; D. H. Klein, Secretary-Treasurer. Membership is open to all graduates of the Academy's Theological School and College. All graduates of the Girls' School may become associate members. - Official report in L. 136. Cf. A. A.

June 24. - The Rev. E. J. E. Schreck resigns the editorship of New Church Life; Rev. George G. Starkey is appointed to succeed him. - L. 119, 128.

June 24-26; 29-30. - An important Council of Priests of both the "Church of the Academy" and the "General Church of the Advent of the Lord" is held (by invitation of Bishop Benade), to consider the "order of succession in the office of High Priest"; also the relation of the Academy and the General Church; the relation of Pastors and Head-Masters; and the future of New Church Life. 18 priests and 4 candidates attend. An (unpublished) address, by Pastor C. T. Odhner, summarizes the problems created by the two Churches. Bishop Benade declares that "the High Priest is the only one who is in the function of the supreme government, and in its illustration; therefore he is the one qualified to nominate his successor. Acceptance by the priesthood is essential to an effective reciprocal relation; but they have not a veto power... In the case of sudden removal of the High Priest, by death or otherwise, before he has nominated a successor, the power to choose its own head resides in the priesthood..." As to "the former three degrees of the Academy" - Council, College, and Associate membership" - in each of which were priests and laymen,... when the Council had been spoken of as the governing body, it was as when the Presidents' Cabinet is similarly spoken of..." (The) "...effort to establish order on a lower plane, - that of the civil law" (had) "necessitated a change and brought about the abolishment of the Council. Those who willed the change did not see the outcome".


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 109 He again affirms the use of the "Church of the Academy" to be a celestial use; the use of the "General Church of the Advent" is a spiritual one. - See A. A. Also a lengthy account of these important discussions, - written by Rev. G. G. Starkey, - is published in L. 119, 132, 128. For appraisals of Bishop Benade's position, see Bishop N. D. Pendleton's "Selected Papers and Addresses" pp. 49-63; also C. T. Odhner, in L. 1904:415-417.

Dec. 2. - The Rev. Alfred Acton is chosen as Assistant Pastor of the Philadelphia Church of the Academy. - L. 1897:52.

Dec. 25. - Bishop Benade administers the Holy Supper here for the last time, assisted by Pastors Acton and Odhner. - L. 1897:16.

Dec. - The interesting curriculum of the Academy's collegiate department, ("Maschil College"), is published for the first time in L. 184.

Dec. - Resignation of Mr. Walter D. Uptegraff, of Pittsburgh, as Treasurer of the General Church of the Advent; Mr. Charles D. Weirbach, of Allentown, is appointed his successor. - L. 1897:11.

Scranton, Jan. 19. - The first New Church public services ever held in Scranton, are inaugurated by Rev. C. T. Odhner. - L. 45; Scranton Tribune, Jan. 20.


Caterham, Surrey, Dec. 6. - The Caterham Circle receives Rev. G. C. Ottley as Pastor. - L. 64.

Colchester. Feb. 4. - The Rev. T. F. Robinson is compelled to give up the pastorate here for lack of support. He goes into secular work. - L. 46.

London, Sept. 1. - Opening exercises of the Academy School in Brixton. - L. 175; N. C. Standard. Sept.

Street, Somerset. - During the summer, Candidate E. J. Stebbing ministers to the Circle here. - L.


New Church Life, vol. 16

"Studies on Reflection", by Rev. N. D. Pendleton. - p. 5. (Cf. 1895, p. 166).

Egypt, by Rev. A. Czerny. - pp. 8, 22, 58, 54. (Cf. 1895, pp. 150, 166).

"Causes of the Advent", by Bishop W. F. Pendleton. - p. 12.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 110

"The Lord assumed the Human from Love", by Bishop W. H. Benade. - p. 13.

"Swedenborg as a Medical Philosopher", by Dr. C. L. Olds. - p. 24.

"The Tabernacle", by Rev. E. J. E. Schreck. - pp. 27, 43, 56.

"Disease and its Cure", by Dr. C. L. Olds. - p. 30.

"Nations bordering on Canaan", by Rev. Andrew Czerny. - pp. 84, 101. (see 1895, p. 41).

Francis Bailey (biographical sketch), by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - p. 85.

William Hill (biographical sketch), by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - p. 103.

George R. Starkey, M.D. (biographical sketch). - p. 135.

New Documents concerning Swedenborg, by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 151, 166, 186.

Ralph Mather (biographical sketch), by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - pp. 154, 168.

History and Mythology of Chaldea and Babylonia, by Rev. Andrew Czerny. - pp. 165, 182. (Continued in 1897, pp. 6, 22, 37).

"Annals of the New Church: 1688-1710" ("The beginning of a chronological digest of materials for the History of the New Church"), by Prof. C. T. Odhner. - p. 187.

Rev. Albert Bjrck, (biographical and portr.) - vol. 70, p. 313.

The early history of the New Church in Sweden, by C. T. Odhner. - vol. 71, pp. 335, 350, 389, 409, 430.

Swedenborg's Manuscripts, their Preservation and Reproduction by C. T. Odhner. vol. 71, pp. 174, 195, 214, 252.


PENDLETON, REV. WM. F. (Compiler): A Book of Doctrine, containing Summaries of Doctrine from the Writings of the Church. Philadelphia: Academy Book Room. 320pp., with Index. - Rev. N. C. Rev. IV/:474; 1,1897:30. "The entire Doctrine and Theology of the New Church have been put together in summary form for the uses of reading, study, instruction, and worship". A. L.


Montschrift der Neuen Kirche, Die. Heraus gegeben vcn A. J. Bartels... Chicago, III. 1140 Division St. 1896-97. V. 1. May 1896-Apr. 1897.


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 111

Smatt for de Sma B-numret Kyrkans Tidning. Aug. 1903. Stockholm Systrarna Lundborg, 1896-1903. Ed.: C. J. M. Manby. After 1896, this magazine was incorporated in Nya Kyrkans Tidning.

PENDLETON, LOUIS B.: Brllopsklderna. Stockholm: N. K. Bokfrlaget. 295pp. Rev. L. 1897:62. A. L.



Cecil Rhodes resigns premiership of Cape Colony because of his connection with the Jameson raid (Jan. 6).

British occupy Coomassie, capitol of Ashanti (Jan. 18).

The Italian army under Gen. Baratieri overwhelmed by the Abyssinians at Adowa (March 1).


Secession from the Salvation Army headed by Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth and organization of "Volunteers of America" (March).

Discovery of gold in the Klondike region, Alaska.

William McKinley, Republican candidate for President of the U. S., elected by a great majority (Nov. 3).

Utah and Idaho grant complete suffrage to women (Nov.).


Reichstag passes a new and comprehensive civil code providing for compulsory civil marriage to go into effect in 1900 (July. 1).

Great Britain.

Lord Salisbury announces that agreement has been reached with the United States in regard to Venezuela (Nov. 9).


Nicholas II crowned at Moscow; during festivities thousands of people are crushed to death in panic (May 26).


ANNALS OF ANC 1876-1896 p. 112

Annals of the Academy


1. Meetings and Reports.
Key: -

C - Church Life, - civil, social, ecclesiastical.

E - Education

G - Government and Organization

M - Evangelization, Missionary

P - publication and Translation
2.        Notable Memorials.
3.        Ordinations

Conference, General Journal C
New Church Club ("Atlantic Gardens" meeting) J. P. O. A. A. L.194:39 L.1906:69-71 Anniv. Record p. 25
Pennsylvania Assoc. J. P. G.

"Academy of the New Church" Anniv. Record p. 26 L.1906:70
Convention, General Mess. 28:272, 283, 295 P
New Church Ministers Conference, New York J. P. D. C
Pennsylvania Conference, N.C. Ministers Mess. 29:199
Swedenborg Reading Society 1:142
Swedish New Church 1:99 P

Academy Council A. A. L.1917:426 Anniv. Record p.29 E
Academy Council L.1917:423-5 G
Academy of the New Church L. 1906:73 G
Academy project A. A. Anniv. Record p. 26
Conference of Ministers, Gen. Conv. L. 1922:261 C
Convention, General Mess. 30:294, 306, 309 L.1906:72 P C

Conference, General 1:436, 354 WNC 1:145 Mess. 33:162
Convention, General Mess. 32:314 WNC 1:70 145-50 C P
New Church Bible Society 1:88, 137, 479 I. 178:45, 91
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal

Convention, General Journal 10, 51, 71,74 Cf. 9 M. n. s. 11:189 Mess. 34:330 G
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal Minutes 8 C
Scottish Assoc. M. L. 447 1:600 C

Convention, General, Journal Mess. 36:323 W. N. C. 1:574 Cf. 361 C
General Conference N. C. Ministers W. N. C. 1:572 L.1929:471-81 E
Swedish "Immanuel League" L. 1902:179

American Conference N. C. Ministers Mess. 36:206, 331, 344 W. N. C. 11:70
Conference, General Mess. 39:150,168, 216 W. N. C. 11:82 1:453 M. L. 3:331 Cf. Anniv. Record p. 37 C
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal J. P. D. G

Canada Assoc. Minutes L. 181:4 Mess. 41:34, 41, 65, 74 G
Conference, General W. N. C.11:228 Cf. 1:433
Convention, General M. V:App. Mess. 40:337 W. N. C.11:232 L. '81:6-12 Cf.4 C
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal L:15 C M

American Conference N. C. Ministers L. 11:100 W. N. C. 11:462 A. L.
Conference, General W. N. C. 11:529 Minutes L:159

Convention, General Journal M. VI:App. M. VI:338 W. N. C. 11:464 L:103 Minutes, Can. Assoc. p. 35 P
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal L:94 M P
Convention, General Journal M. VII:App. p. 44L, Mess. 44:323 N. C. R. July p.442 L:109 L. '95:161 Cf. Block p. 216 C
Pennsylvania Assoc. Journal L:65, 62 Mess. 44:169 Block p.217 G

Canada Assoc. Minutes, P. 8 Cf. 1887 p. 28 L:158 G
Conference, General N. C. M:442 L. 85:11 L:152
First German N. C. Society of Brooklyn L:80, 96 L:176
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal Cf.L:80 G C
Scandinavian N. C. Mission Society L:76

Allentown, Pa - Instrument of Organization, Church of the New Jerusalem Journal L:174
First German N. C. Society L: 95
Immanuel Church of the New Jerusalem L:193, 194 Mess. 49:317 L. '86:6, 16, 29, 76, 111 C

Academy "Badge Members" Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 2:1-3, 3-6 C
Academy Meeting Coll. Lres. No. 4:6-9, 10
Colchester Sunday School, Academy Movement begins L:112, 144
Florida Church of the New Jerusalem Journal p. 73 G
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal Coll. Lres. No. 5 p. 6 L:59-63 G C
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal L:188 L. '87:11 Coll. Lres. No. 4:6 G P
New Church Education Institute L:144

Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 6:18 No. 5:7,3,8, No. 6:2
General Church Committee L:8 P
General Church of Pennsylvania L:184-8 G C P M

Denver Society of the Lord's Advent L. '89:12 G
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal L:181-6 G C

Academy Council Coll. Lres. No. 9:3 G
First German Society L:104 Mess. 56:248 G
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal L. '90:2-13 Cf. 45 G
New Church Educational Institute L:147, 152 C
Pennsylvania Assoc. Mess. 56:281 L:73-7 G

Academy Meeting Coll. Lres. No. 9:1-3
British N. C. - Ministers and Leaders Mess. 59:153 L:175-80 L. '91:31 C
Canada Assoc. L:153-71,193 G
Convention, General Journal Mess. 59:1-14, 115-120 G
General Church, Council of the Clergy Journal L:3-15 C
General Church, Joint Council Journal:13-27 L. '91:1-6 C
General Church of Pennsylvania Journal L:221 L. '91:6-30 Mess. 60:9
New Church Education Institute L:132 G
North Philadelphia Society, N. J. L:48 G
Publication Committee L:141 P

Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 11:2 No. 12:1 No. 10:10
Canada Assoc. Mess. 61:234 L:195, 200 L:191, 193 N. C. T.
Convention, General L:119, 121 C
General Church, Joint Council Journal L:149, 50 Mess. 60:88 L. '92:92, 97 G
New Church Education Institute L:152
West of England Missionary Assoc. L:231 M

Academy Corporation Coll. Lres. No. 12:2 G
Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 13:19 L. '93:16       N. C. Tidings Nov. '92 G
Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 14:10 No. 14:1-10 No. 13:1-15 No. 12:8-9, 7 G C
Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 12:4-6 No. 12:12 E
Academy Teachers Meetings Teachers Journal pp. 29-53 L:155 E
Advent Church (Benade) L:189 L. 193:16 G

Academy of the New Church (Bryn Athyn) L:96 G
Academy Meeting Coll. Lres. No. 15:5- C
Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 15:1-2 13-14 No 16:6
Alumni Assoc. L. '94:79 C
Britain - Academy Meeting Coll. Lres. No. 15:5 C
Greenford - Church of the Advent L:80 G
Michael Church Society Meeting, London L:16: G

Academy Meeting Coll. Lres. No. 16:1-5 L:186-190 Cf. '95:10, 27, 55
Alumni Meeting L:79, 91-4
Britain, clergy meeting Coll. Lres. No. 15:16 A. A.
Britain, clergy meeting L:186-190 L. '95:10-13, 27-28, 55-58, 70-72 Cf. 143,177 G C E
Brotherhood of the New Church in Africa L:144 E C
Canada, Gymnasium L:63 E
London, Particular Church meeting (Benade) Annals G
Ohio Assoc. L:63 C

Academy Alumni Assoc. Meetings L:79, 31, 108
Academy Meetings Coll. Lres. No. 17:9 C
Academy Meetings (Benade) A. A. Coll. Lres. No. 16:5-6 No. 17:9 Cf. 47, 63 No. 17:1 G C
Berlin Society Meeting (Benade) L:168-9 C
General Church of the Advent L:170-174 C G
Glenview, Church of the Academy L:169 L. '96:31 C;

Academy Corporation L:48 G

Alumni Assoc. (new) L:136 Cf. A. A. G
Civic and Social Club L.1946:141 L:80, 128 C
Council of Priests A. A. L:119, 132,128 Pendleton's Selected Papers pp. 49-63 L. 1904:415-417
Convention, General L:80, 95, 87 P
General Church of the Advent L:133 C
Particular Church of the Advent L:128 C


McCandless, David Mess. 36:84

Johnson, Herschel Mess. 39:112, 344
Tafel, Dr. Leonhardt Mess. 38:290 Cf. L. 1910:85 L.1917:232

Lang, George David Mess. 40:48

Roberts, Wm. Mess. 44:28
Stuart, Rev. James Park W. N. C. 11:473 L. 1882:97, 173 Anniv. Record p. 17 L. 1917:603 L. 1921:491

Field, Rev. George Mess. 45:308 45:319 Cf. L. 1884:13, 28, 29, 32
Glenn, Benjamin F. obit. L.49 1902:62

Matthias, Alfred biogr. L.75
Pitcairn, Sr., John L.'85:48

Stuart, Charles Park L.'86:2, 16 L.'41:130

Clendon, Wm. G. Coll. Lres. No. 3:2-4
Cowley, Dr. David L:178 Coll. Lres. No. 4:4 Cf. Journal Gen. Ch. Nov. 1886 p.40
Benade, Mrs. Annie L.192 Coll. Lres. No. 7:10
Grant, John Mess. 52:280

Hibbard, John M. Mess. 55:238
Saeger, Eli Y Mess. 55:254

Allen, Charles Henry Mess. 56:284
Bellinger, Theodore C. C. Mess. 56:318
Boren, Ansgarius L.136
Carpenter, Esq., Samuel Sangston L.167 Mess. 57:206, 207 Coll. Lres. No. ll:2
Nordenskiold, Prof. Nils Carl L. 136
Ottley, Major General Coghill Glendower N. C. M. 18:89, 240 Mess. 56:216 L.64

Gibbs, Wm. Coll. Lres. No. 8:1-4

Burnham, Rev. N. C. L.152-160 Mess. 61:315 M. XVI:270-9
Cranch, John L. 56
Odhner, Dean Sannfrid L. 191, 200
Pendleton, Mrs. Cornelia V. Coll. Lres. No. 9:1 L.56

Aitken, Mrs. Anna Morrison L. 8O L. 1916:154 L. 1917:13 L. 91:228
Bohlen, Frederick Christian Mess. 63:297

Campbell, Esq., Edward S. L. 94:32
Lamb, Rev. J. A. L. 95:15
Tafel, Rev. Rudolph L. Mess. 64:91 L.28

Aitken, Wm. B. L. 95, 96
Carter, Wm. M. Coll. Lres. No. 15:17
Grant, Colonel Cyrus L.80 Mess. 66:270
Hibbard, Rev. Dr. John Randolph Ness. 67:1 L. 1917:230 L,127
Klein, Mrs. Rosina L. 47
Powell, Lemuel L. 48
Rothoermal, Mrs. Elizabeth L.47
Stuart, Mrs. J. P. L.47,48 Cf. Coll. Lres. No. 15:17

Grant, Wm. H. Mess. 68:411
Tafel, Adolph Julius Mess. 68:238

Glenn, Mrs. Benjamin (Mary A.) L. 128
Starkey, George Roger, M. D. Mess. 71:40 L. 112, 128, 135

Key - M for Minister

P for General Pastor

1877        Vetterling, H. C. by U.S. J PA 45:83 Pa. As. Re p. 5
1878        none
1879        Bellais, Alfred by Bishop W. H. Benade France A. A. L. 85:96
1880        Bostock, E. C. by Bishop W. H. Benade U.S. Mess.38:330

       Roeder, Adolph by Rev. Chauncey Giles U.S. Mess. 38:260

       Whitehead, John 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U.S. Mess. 38:330
1881        Kirk, Ellis I 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 15 Journal

       Whitehead, John 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U.S. L. 15 Journal
1882        Tafel, Rudolph L. P by Rev. J. F. Potts G. B. NCM 1:602
1883        Czerny, Andrew 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 98

       Schliffer, W. H. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.98

       Schreck, E. J. E. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.98
1884       none
1885       none
1886       Czerny, A. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.63

Schreck, E. J. E. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 63
1887       Robinson, T.F. M by Rev. R. L. Tafel G. B. L. 192

Schliffer, W. H. 2nd by Rev. Chauncey Giles U. S. L. 48
1888       Hyatt, E. S. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112, 114

Odhner, C.Th. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112, 114

Pendleton, W. F. 3rd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. '91:8

Price, E. S. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112, 114

Waelchli, F. E. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112, 114
1889       Acton, Wm. H. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 120

Hyatt, E. S. 2nd by Rev. W. F. Tuerk Canada L. 136, 152

Pendleton, N.D. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 120
1890       none
1891       Pendleton, N. D. 2nd by Bishop W. F. Pendleton U. S.

       Rosenqvist, Joseph E. 1st by Bishop W. F. Pendleton U. S. L. 152 Coll. Lre. 11:4

Synnestvedt, O. Homer 1st by Bishop W. F. Pendleton U. S. Coll. Lre. 11:4 L.152
1892        Acton, W. H. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.64

       Tilson, Robert J. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. Coll. Lre. 12:1

1893        Acton, Alfred 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112

       Ottley, G. C. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade G. B. L. 144, 151-4 NC Standard Sept. Coll. Lre. 15:5

       Robinson, T. F. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 112

       Stephenson, John 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade L. 144, 151-4 NC Standard Sept. Coll. Lre. 15:5
1894        Ottley, G. C. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade G. B. L. 191

       Robinson, T. F. 2nd by Bishop W H. Benade G. B. L. 1 5, 191

       Starkey, George Goddard 1st by Bishop W. F. Pendleton U. S. L. 111
1895        Boyesen, Joseph E. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.79

       Rosenqvist, J. E. 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L.104, 110

       Stephenson, John 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 104, 110

       Synnestvedt, O. Homer 2nd by Bishop W. H. Benade U. S. L. 24-7, 31
1896        Doering, Charles E. 1st by Bishop W. H. Benade L. 112