THE LIFE AND CHARACTER

OF

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG

COLLECTED, TRANSLATED, AND ANNOTATED

BY

R. L. TAFEL, A. M., PH. D.

VOLUME II, PART I.

SWEDENBORG SOCIETY, BRITISH AND FOREIGN

36 BLOOMSBURY STREET, LONDON

1877


PREFACE.

IN offering to the public the concluding volume of the English translation of the "Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg," attention must be called to the unforseen circumstance, that the materials for this volume have proved so extensive that it has become necessary to publish it in two parts, each of which is of the size of Volume I. As the pages in these two parts run on consecutively, they have been entitled respectively Volume II, Part I, and Volume II, Part II.

An additional section has been introduced, viz. Section XIII, which is called "Appendix." It contains some documents that have been met with since the text of the work was finished, and is intended to receive all further documents which may be discovered in future.

By way of introduction to the present volume we shall give an historical synopsis of all collections and sources of "Documents concerning Swedenborg," that have hitherto been published:

1. The first collection of "Swedenborg Documents" was published by Dr. Heinrich Wilhelm Clemm, Professor of Theology in the University of Tbingen, in his Vollstndige reprinted from no. 4; (11) Cuno's letter to Swedenborg, reprinted from no. 4; (12) Extracts from Swedenborg's autobiography, as contained in no. 4; (13) Extracts from a letter of Dr. Beyer to Prelate tinger, dated June 15, 1771 (Document 314, D. pp. 1041 et seq.)
Einleitung in die Religion und Theologie (Complete Introduction to Religion and Theology), Tubingen, 1767. In Volume IV, pp. 209 et seq. Dr. Clemm published an account of the "Three extraordinary Facts" discussed in Documents 273, 274, and 275 (see pp. 637 and 654); he also published the Latin originals of two of Swedenborg's letters to Prelate OEtinger, as well as OEtinger's answers (Documents 229, 231, 232, 233). These Documents were furnished to him by Prelate OEtinger.182

2. Swedenborg's Autobiography contained in his letter addressed to the Rev. Thomas Hartley, in August, 1769. This letter was published by the Rev. Mr. Hartley in 1769, in both the Latin and the English languages. See Document 313, no. 141, p. 1011.

3. Handlingar rorande Swedenborgianismen och de sa kallade Prediko-Forsoken (Minutes respecting Swedenborgianism and the so-called Sermon-Essays), Gottenburg, 1769 and 1770. This publication contains the official acts of Swedenborg's Controversy with the Consistory of Gottenburg; it has furnished the originals of most of the numbers from A to M in Document 245.

4. Sammlung einiger Nachrichten, Herrn Emanuel Swedenborg, und desselben vorgegebenen Umgang mit dem Geisterreich betreffend (Collection of sundry accounts respecting Mr. Emanuel Swedenborg and his alleged intercourse with the Spiritual World). Hamburg, 1770. A new edition was published in the same year. This Collection contains: (1) Extracts from a German translation of Swedenborg's autobiography, viz. no. 2, which was published in April, 1770, in the Gelehrte Mercurius (the Learned Mercury) of Altona; (2) Two letters of Joh. Christian Cuno212 of Amsterdam addressed to a friend in Hamburg (Document 256, F, pp. 482-485); (3) Cuno's Letter to Swedenborg in Latin and German (Document 256, C, pp. 465-475).

5. Sehwedische Urkunden von dem Assessor Swedenborg, welche auf dem Schwedischen Reichstag, den 13ten Juni, 1771, werden zur Entscheidung kommen (Swedish Documents about Assessor Swedenborg, on which a decision will be pronounced by the Swedish Diet, June 13, 1771), 1771. This collection was also published under the following title: Beurtheilungen der wichtigen Lehre vom Zustand nach dem Tod und der damit verbundenen Lehren des beruhmten Emanuel Swedenborg's, theils aus Urkunden von Stockholm, theils aus sehr wichtigen Anmerkunyen verschiedener Gelehrten (Examination of the celebrated Emanuel Swedenborg's important doctrine respecting the state after death, and the doctrines which are connected therewith, based partly on documents from Stockholm, partly on very important observations by various scholars), 1771. This work was compiled by Prelate OEtinger182 (see Document 314, pp. 1058-1061. It contains the following documents: (1) Dr. Ekebom's charge (Document 245, B, p. 287); (2) Swedenborg's reply (Document 245, F, p. 297; (3) Swedenborg's second letter to the Consistory (Document 245, G, p. 301); (4) Extract from the Royal Resolution of April 26, 1770 (Document 245, T, b, p. 366); (5) Swedenborg's Letter to the King (Document 245, X, p. 373); (6) Swedenborg's Letter to the Swedish Universities (Document 245, AA, p. 380); (7) Dr. Ekebom's declaration of February 12, 1770 (Document 245, P, p. 345); (8) Dr. Beyer's Defence (Document, 245, O, pp. 323 et seq.); (9) OEtinger's Declaration to the Privy Council of Wurtemberg (Document 314, C, p. 1036); (10) Cuno's letters to a friend in Hamburg, reprinted from no. 4; (11) Cuno's letter to Swedenborg, reprinted from no. 4; (12) Extracts from Swedenborg's autobiography, as contained in no. 4; (13) Extracts from a letter of Dr. Beyer to Prelate OEtinger, dated June 15, 1771 (Document 314, D, pp. 1041 et seq.)

6. Pernety's34 French translation of Swedenborg's treatise on "Heaven and Hell," published in Berlin in 1782 under the title, Les Merveilles du Ciel et de l'Enfer, &c. In a "Preliminary Discourse" this works contains in French translations (1) Sandel's Euologium (Document 4); (2) Pernety's account of Swedenborg obtained from the brothers Nordenskld (Document 6); (3) Christopher Springer's Testimony to Swedenborg (Document 261).

7. "An Eulogium on the lately deceased Mr. Emanuel Swedenborg, composed and delivered by Monsieur Sandel13 from the French; to which is added a variety of Anecdotes and Observations on Mr. Swedenborg: Collected by a Friend of his Writings; together with copies of several letters, sent by Mr. Swedenborg to his correspondents, a short time before his decease." London, R. Hindmarsh, 1784. This collection of Documents published under a separate title as an Appendix to the second edition of the treatise on "Influx" or "Intercourse." It consists of an English translation of the documents collected by Pernety (no. 6); to which are added Swedenborg's letter to Hartley (no. 2), two letters which he wrote to tinger (Documents 229 and 232), one of his letters addressed to Dr. Beyer (Document 245, H. p. 305), and three other letters which constitute Documents 225, 226, and 232.

S. Chastanier's222 Collection of Documents is contained in the Appendix to his French translation of Swedenborg's work on "Influx" entitled Du Commerce tabli entre l'Ame et le Corps," 1785, where he communicates (1) a French translation of Swedenborg's Letter to the Rev. T. Hartley (no. 2); (2) Swedenborg's Letters to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Documents 246 and 247); (3) Swedenborg's Letter to Archbishop Menander (Document 228). In another of his works entitled, Tableau Analytique et Raisonn de la Doctrine Cleste de l'glise de la Nouvelle Jrusalem &c. London, 1786, he communicates the following documents: (4) The results of his investigation into the charge of insanity raised against Swedenborg by Mathesius and J. Wesley (Document 270, p. 609); (5) Shearsmith's affidavit before the Lord Mayor of London (Document 269, C, p. 577).

9. Utdrag af ngra Bref Frn Emanuel Swedenborg til tskillige hans Vnner (Extracts from sundry letters addressed by Swedenborg to several of his friends), contained in No. 1 of Samlingar fr Philantroper, the organ of the Philanthropic Esegetic Society, printed in Stockholm in 1787. This Collection contains sixteen letters which Swedenborg addressed to Dr. Beyer, one which he wrote to Wenngren and three letters which he sent to Prelate tinger.

10. "New Jerusalem Magazine, or a Treasury of celestial, spiritual, and natural Knowledge, by several Members of the London Universal Society for Promotion of the New Church," London, 1790, 1791. It was edited by Messrs. Servant,227 J. A. Tulk,228 and C. B. Wadstrm36 (see Note 227). This Journal contains the first attempt at a systematic Life of Swedenborg, on the basis of Sandel's Eulogium, and Pernety's account. It contains besides English translations of fifteen of the twenty letters printed in the Samlingar fr Philantroper for 1787 (no. 9); two letters addressed by Lavater to Swedenborg (Documents 236 and 242); also the testimony borne concerning Swedenborg by Count Hpken (Document 252), and General Tuxen (Document 255).

11. AMagazine of Knowledge," for 1791, published by Robert Hindmarsh,225 contains: (1) The original Document of Shearsmith's affidavit (Document 269, C, p. 577); (2) Brockmer's account of Swedenborg (Document 270, C).

12. "The Intellectual Repository and New Jerusalem Magazine" from 1812-1877, has been a vast repository of Documents concerning Swedenborg. Most of these documents were introduced through the instrumentality of the Rev. Samuel Noble.228 In 1812 and 1813 it published translations from the Schwedische Urkunden, (no. 5) which were procured by Mr. J. A. Tulk.228 The Documents published are as follows: (1) Dr. Beyer's Defence (Document 245, 0, pp. 323-345)--only a small portion of this long Document was then published; (2) Swedenborg's Letters addressed to the Consistory of Gottenburg (Document 245, E, G); (3) Dr. Beyer to Prelats tinger (Document 314, D, pp. 1041-1053). In 1813 on pp. 370 et seq. it published, (4) Captain Sthammar's strictures on the Berlinische Monatsschrift (Document 276, C, p. 677). In 1815 it printed an English translation of (5) Swedenborg's Letter to Nordberg (Document 199), and (6) Swedenborg's Letters to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and to Venator his minister (Documents 246-248). In 1817 we find on pp. 449 et seq.(7) Dr. Messiter's letters to the Scotch Universities (Document 260); in 1820 on pp. 116 et seq. (8) Jung-Stilling's Testimony respecting Swedenborg (Document 257). In 1829 it communicated on pp. 537 et seq. (9) John Lewis's Testimony (Document 273); and in 1836 (11) Prove's Testimony, which was communicated by the Rev. Samuel Noble.

13. Noble's237 "Appeal in behalf of the views held by the body of Christians who believe in a New Church," &c., first edition, 1826. This work, in Section V, Parts II and IV contains the first systematic digest of all the documents concerning Swedenborg that had up to that date appeared.

Mr. Noble's own addition to our stock of the Swedenborg Documents is (1) Wesley's Testimony respecting Swedenborg (Document 265), (a) Noble on Mathesius (Document 270, G, p. 610).

14. Sammlung von Urkunden betreffend das leben und den Charakter Emanuel Swedenborg's, aus den Quellen treu wiedergegeben und mit Anmerkungen begleitet von Dr. J. F. I. Tafel309 (Collection of Documents respecting the Life and character of Emanuel Swedenborg, faithfully rendered from the original sources and furnished with annotations," &c.), Tbingen 1839-1845, 4 Parts. In Parts I and II Dr. Im. Tafel published all the documents that had hitherto been published in the Latin, French, English, and German languages, from nos. 1-13, excepting those which had appeared in Swedish. In Part III he added the following new documents: (1) A faithful translation of Robsahm's Memoirs (Document 5); (2) Ferelius' Testimony (Document 267); (3) A Memorial to the Houses of the Diet (Document 196). In Part IV he published the following new documents: (4) Extracts from Bishop Swedberg's Autobiography (Document 35); (5) Beyer's Testimony respecting Swedenborg (Document 254); (6) additional Testimony of Jung-Stilling (Documents 257, B, 274, I); (7) Klopstock's Anecdote (Document 279); (a) Peckitt's Testimony (Document 264); (9) Proof of falsification of dates in Kant's letter to Madame von Knobloch (Document 271); (10) Testimony of the second husband of Madame de Marteville (Document 274, G); (11) Dr Wilkinson's Testimony collected from Mrs. Shaw (Document 266); (12) Professor Scherer's Testimony (Document 289); (13) Atterbom's Anecdote (Document 290).

15. "Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg, collected by Dr. J. F. I. Tafel; and, edited in English by the Rev. J. H. Smithson," Manchester 1841. In this collection are contained the Documents constituting Parts I and II of Dr. Tafel's collection, most of which he had obtained from English sources, viz. from "Noble's Appeal," the "Intellectual Repository," the "New Jerusalem Magazine" for 1790, and the "Magazine of Knowledge" for 1791. All these documents the English editor gave in the original English form, yet without stating always the sources whence he derived them. The only document in this volume which had not previously appeared in an English form is Cuno's Testimony respecting Swedenborg, published in Hamburg in 1771 (no. 4). In 1855 an enlarged edition of these documents appeared, with a supplement containing some of the new documents published by Dr. Im. Tafel in Parts III and IV of his Collection, and which had previously appeared in the "Intellectual Repository." The following numbers in Dr. Tafel's Collection were not embodied in this supplement, and hence remained unpublished in England until the appearance of the present collection, viz. nos. 1, 5, 6, 11. Nos, 7 and 13 in Dr. Wilkinson's "Life of Swedenborg."

16. "Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg," collected by Dr. J. F. I. Tafel, translated and revised by Rev. J. H. Smithson. A new edition, with additions by Professor George Bush," New York, 1847. This edition contains the documents published by Dr. Im. Tafel in Parts I and II of his collection. Prof. Bush's additions consist of opinions given concerning Swedenborg by celebrated men, which have no documentary value.

17. Nya Kyrkan och dess inflytande p Theologiens Studium i Sverige (The New Church and its Influence on the study of Theology in Sweden), by Dr. A. Kahl. 4 Parts, Lund, 1847-1864. In Part I of this important work is contained the first systematic presentation of Swedenborg's controversy with the Consistory of Gottenburg; on this part we have largely drawn in the preparation of Document 245. In Part II are contained the Swedish originals of Documents 244 and 291, no, 6; and likewise many documents in Section VI, viz. Documents 174, 175, 180, 181, and 196. Parts III and IV were of use to us in the preparation of our Notes.

18. Mr. White's "Newchurchman" for 1856. This work contains translations of twenty-six of Swedenborg's letters addressed to his brother-in-law, Ericus Benzelius. For further particulars see Document 46. Eleven of these letters had previously been published in their original form in the Lsning fr Bildning och Nje, and also by Prof. Atterbom262 in the Appendix to his Siare och Skalder.

19. Aufzeichnungen eines Amsterdamer Brgers [Joh. Christian Cuno212] ber Swedenborg, von Dr. Aug. Scheler (Notes of an Amsterdam citizen on Swedenborg, Hanover, 1858. These Notes constitute Document 266, A, B, D, and E.

20. Swedenborg's Drmmar, 1744 (Swedenborg's Dreams in 1764), edited by G. E. Klemming,310 Stockholm, 1859. Concerning the work, see Introduction to Document 208. In an Appendix Mr. Klemming published the following additional Documents: (1) Private Memoranda (Document 298); (2) Swedenborg on the death of the Prince of Saalfeld (Document 277); (3) Signification of the Horse and Hieroglyphics (Document 300); (4) Swedenborg's Letter to the Academy of Sciences (Document 203, A); (5) A List of Valuables (Document 297).

21. "Rise and Progress of the New Jerusalem Church, in England, America, and other parts," by Robert Hindmarsh,225 edited by the Rev. Edward Madeley of Birmingham; London, 1861. This work furnishes (1) Robert Hindmarsh's Testimony concerning Swedenborg (Document 265); (2) An examination of the Charge that Swedenborg retracted his writings in his fast moments (Document 269).

The following is a list of the Biographies of Swedenborg that have hitherto appeared, in chronological order:

1769. Swedenborg's Autobiography; see above no. 2.

1772. minnelse-Tal fver Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens framledne Ledamot Assessoren in Kongl. Majestets och Ricksens Bergs-Collegio Herr Emanuel Swedenborg, p Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens vgnar, hllet i stora Riddarehus-Salen, den 7. October, 1772, af dess Ledamot Samuel Sandel, Bergs-Rd och Riddare of Kongl. Nordstjerne Orden (Eulogium on Emanuel Swedenborg, pronounced in the great hall of the House of Nobles in the name of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, Oct. 7, 1772, by Samuel Sandels, Councillor of Mines, Knight of the Polar Star, and member of said Academy), Stockholm, 1772. This Biographical Sketch, which has served more or less as the basis of all succeeding lives of Swedenborg, constitutes Document 4.

1790. "The Life of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg, a Servant of the Lord, and the Messenger of the New Jerusalem Dispensation." This life appeared in the columns of the ANew Jerusalem Magazine" for 1790. During 1796 and1797 it appeared in a manuscript magazine entitled Frsamlings Tidning (Church News) which circulated among the members of the Society Pro Fide et Charitate.

1806. F. H. Walden's Assessor Swedenborg's Levnet, Adskillige Udtog of sammes skrivter, nogle blandede Tanker, tilligemed Svedenborg's System i kort udtog (Assessor Swedenborg's Life, extracts from his writings, his thoughts on various matters, and a short statement of his system), Copenhagen. This little Danish Life of Swedenborg, of which a second edition was published in 1820, is exceedingly scarce. The editor saw a copy of it in the Royal Library in Stockholm.

1820. "Emanuel Swedenborg," in a biographical Journal which appeared at Upsal entitled Samtidens Mrkvrdigaste Personer (The most celebrated persons of modern times). This biography, which fills 36 pages, is exceedingly well written, and partly based on oral communications. It has furnished the substance of Document 288.

1827. "Biography of Swedenborg" by the Rev. D. G. Goyder. pp. 40, Post 8vo. "The autobiography of a phrenologist" says, "This biography consisted of about twelve pages of anecdotes, relative to Swedenborg, including the genealogy of the noble house of Swedenborg--twelve pages of specimens of Swedenborg's correspondence, and the remainder of the principal incidents in his travels and voyages."

1830. "Life of Swedenborg" by Nathaniel Robert, Boston, America. "This Life," says the Rev. O. Prescott Hiller,* "if we mistake not was first put forth in a series of articles in the "Boston New Jerusalem Magazine" which were afterwards collected into a volume, and published at Boston in the year 1830. A second edition was published in 1845, and a third, with numerous additions, and edited by Benjamin Worcester, in 1850."

* In "The Newchurchman" for 1856, p. 32.

1840. In this year appeared a most excellent article on "Swedenborg" in the "Penny-Cyclopedia," written at the request of the Editor, Mr. George Long, by Dr. Garth Wilkinson.

1841. "The next 'Life of Swedenborg,'" says Mr. Hiller, "was by the Rev. B. F. Barret or New York; in the early part of 1841. This was little more than a re-arrangement of Mr. Hobart's materials; but it was written in a more connected form, and was very useful."

1849. "A Biographical Sketch of Emanuel Swedenborg: with an account of his Works," by Elihu Rich, London, 8vo., pp. 192. "This work," says Mr. White in 1856, "was exhausted in the course of a few months, and has not since been reprinted."

1849. "Emanuel Swedenborg: a Biography," by James John Garth Wilkinson,230 London, 8vo, pp. 370. "It is a work," says Mr. White in 1856, "which, alike for its artistic excellence as a biography, and the originality and poetic beauty of its thought, has, I believe, no equal in the English language."

1849. The article on "Emanuel Swedenborg" in the "Biographiskt Lexicon fver namnkunnige Svenska Mn" (Biographical Lexicon of celebrated Swedish men), Upsal, 1849, 8vo. It is contained in Vol. XVI, and fills there 60 pages.

1852. A "Memoir of Swedenborg," by the Rev. O. Prescott Hiller, in his volume of "Gems from the writings of Swedenborg."

1854. "Swedenborg: a Biography and Exposition," by Edwin Paxton Hood, London, 8vo, pp. 402. "This work," says the Rev. O. Prescott Hiller, "has been very effectual in making Swedenborg known in the literary world at large."

1854. W. H. Fernald in his "Compendium of the Theological and Spiritual Writings of Swedenborg" published a life of the Author, concerning which the Rev. O. P. Hiller says, "Though rather a compilation, than a regular biography, it yet contains perhaps the fullest account of Swedenborg's philosophical as well as theological works, that has yet appeared."

1856. Life of Swedenborg for Youth. By Mrs. S. P. Doughty, Boston, U. S. A. This little work was reprinted in New York in 1866, and an edition, which was undated, appeared in London.

1856. "Swedenborg: his Life and Writings," by William White. This valuable life of Swedenborg appeared first in the "Phonetic Journal" for 1854-55; "hence it was reprinted in 1856. Concerning the relation which this life holds to the larger works of Mr. White bearing the same title, see Note 308.

1860. "Emanuel Swedenborg," a Memorial Life read before the Swedish Academy by Bernhard von Beskow,263 its permanent secretary. This is justly admired for the impartial and unprejudiced spirit in which it is written, and for the exactness and accuracy of its facts-the very reverse in this respect of Fryxell's production, concerning which see below.

1863. Emanuel de Swedenborg, sa Vie, se crits, et sa Doctrine (Emanuel Swedenborg, his Life, his writings, and his Doctrine), by M. Matter, Honorary Counsellor of the University, &c., Paris, Didier & Co.--This work has been translated into the Swedish language.

1867. "Emanuel Swedenborg: his Life and Writings," by William White, in two volumes; Vol. I, pp. 604; Vol. II, pp. 674.

1865. "Do." in one Volume, pp 767. Concerning the character of these two publications, see Note 308. They contain additional documents concerning Swedenborg, or rather concerning his father, Bishop Swedberg, which are embodied in Document 294, Section XI, and also in Note 308.

1872. "Emanuel Swedenborg: a striking outline Account of the Man and his Works," by a Bible Student, London, pp. 120.

1875. "Emanuel Swedenborg" by A. Fryxell in Volume XLIII of his "Berttelser ur Svenska Historien" (Tales from Swedish History), Stockholm, 8vo, pp. 120. An exposure of the nature of this work will be found in Note 254.

1876. "Emanuel Swedenborg: Notice Biographique. Par un Ami de la Nouvelle glise." 8vo. Paris.

1876. "Emanuel Swedenborg, the Spiritual Columbus," a sketch. By U. S. E., London, foolscap 8vo., pp. 216. Two editions of this popular work have been issued within a short time, and a third is, we understand, preparing.

The position which the present work occupies in the biographical literature of Swedenborg is this. It contains not only all documents which had been previously published in the documentary sources, and also in some of the biographies enumerated above, but whenever it was necessary, and possible, they have also been translated anew from the original sources. A general rsum of our own documentary additions is contained in the preface to Volume I.

Volume II has attained to its present size chiefly from the account of the published and unpublished writings of Swedenborg in Section XII. Our aim has been in it to give a minute and definite description of every line that Swedenborg wrote during his life, which has been handed down to our times, and also to determine the place which it occupies in Swedenborg's life. The "Chronological account of Swedenborg's published and unpublished Writings," which constitutes Document 313, and which extends from p. 884 to p. 1023, will accordingly be found to contain the elements of a history of the internal development of Swedenborg's mind, which after all is the task which is imposed on the future biographer of Swedenborg.

The question of the "Missing Manuscripts" of Swedenborg naturally came up also in Section XII. Document 309, which extends from p. 802 to p. 834, is devoted to a description of the "Missing Manuscripts" and their discovery. In Document 302 we furnish by request a translation of the Additions to Swedenborg's "True Christian Religion," which have lately come into the possession of the Royal Library in Stockholm.

Another subject which required space in its discussion is the analysis of the so-called "Book of Dreams," which we consider one of the most important documents respecting Swedenborg that has been preserved, but which requires a most careful and searching analysis in the light of the subsequent inspired writings of the author, in order to enable the reader to pass a true and righteous judgment respecting it. The explanatory Notes to the "Book of Dreams" occupy seventy-two pages.

The charges of immorality and insanity have lately been brought repeatedly against Swedenborg, e. g. by Dr. H. Maudsley in the "Journal of Mental Science" for 1870; by A. Fryxell, the Swedish historian, in his biography of Swedenborg included in Volume XLIII of his "Tales from Swedish History," in 1875; by the Rev. J. W. Chadwick, Brooklyn, the United States, in the beginning of 1877, and by others. These charges have been advanced on the authority of Mr. White's "Life of Swedenborg." We, therefore, have felt ourselves specially called upon to expose the contradictory nature of the testimony of Mathesius, which Mr. White parades in his "Life," and on which Messrs. Maudsley, Fryxell, and Chadwick base their charge of insanity; this is done in Document 270. Yet we did not limit ourselves to the exposure of this particular instance, but in Note 308 we extended our critical examination to the whole of Mr. White's "Life of Swedenborg" for 1867. Justice sometimes is slow; but we believe that justice has at last been done to Mr. White's work, and that it will no longer be able to do any harm to the Lord's Church on earth.

Much pains has been taken in bringing together all the documents which have a bearing on "Swedenborg's Controversy with the Consistory of Gottenburg." Thirty distinct documents were found to belong to this question. In the historical order in which these documents are presented in Document 245, with the aid of Dr. Kahl's history of this case; in his Nya Kyrkan, &c., Part I--they throw much light on the latter years of Swedenborg's life. This document extends from pp. 252-386.

Swedenborg's interesting intercourse with John Christian Cuno in Amsterdam, is now for the first time brought in its totality before the English reader in Document 256, pp. 442-485; and Prelate tinger's singular relations to Swedenborg are for the first time exhibited clearly to the English reader in Document 314 in the "Appendix," from pp. 1027-1058; and likewise in Documents 231 and 233.

The readers of Swedenborg will welcome the first complete translation of the record of his Travels. It embraces Documents 204-207, and occupies pp. 1-133. Many explanatory footnotes were required to make a description of towns and places, as they existed one hundred and thirty years ago, fully intelligible at the present day.

All this accounts for the increase in size of Volume II. Still the thoughtful reader of the following pages will not require an apology. The intellectual size of the man whose life and character they serve to illustrate, is in itself so great and so all-embracing.

In the elaboration of the notes to the present volume the Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexicon (Swedish Biographical Dictionary), by Herm. Hofberg, has been of great assistance. In conclusion we have again to acknowledge thankfully the great assistance we have received in the preparation of our work from our kind friends, the Rev. Wm. Bruce, and Mr. James Speirs, the publisher of the work.

London, June, 1877.



CONTENTS.

                                                                      PAGE

PREFACE                                                                v

       SECTION VIII.

SWEDENBORG'S TRAVELS AND DIARIES TO THE YEAR 1744.

DOCUMENT

204.--General Statement of Swedenborg's Travel from 1710 to 1734       3

205.--Swedenborg's Journal of Travel during 1733 and 1734              6

206.--Swedenborg's Journal of Travel from 1736 to 1739              75

207.--Swedenborg's Journal of Travel in 1743                     131

208.--Swedenborg's Spiritual Experience in 1743                      134

209.--Swedenborg's Spiritual Experience in l744                      149

       SECTION IX.

SWEDENBORG'S CORRESPONDENCE FROM 1749 TO 1772

210-214.--J. Wretman to Swedenborg                                   223-227

215.--Baron von Hatzel to Swedenborg                     228

216.--Count Gustavus Bonde to Swedenborg                     230

217.--Swedenborg to Count Bonde                            231

218.--Swedenborg to Count Hpken                            233

219.--J. Wretman to Swedenborg                            234

220.--Swedenborg to Bishop Filenius                            235

221.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 1                     236

222.--Dr. Beyer to Swedenborg                                   237

223.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 2                     239

224.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 3                     240

225.--Swedenborg to the Swedish Ambassador              240

226.--Swedenborg to the Secretary of State              243

227.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 4                     244

228.--Swedenborg to Archbishop Menander                     245

229.--Swedenborg to Prelate tinger, Letter 1              248

230.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 5                     250

231.--Prelate tinger to Swedenborg                            252

232.--Swedenborg to Prelate tinger, Letter 2              255

233.--Prelate tinger to Swedenborg                            258

234.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 6                     260

235.--J. Wretman to Swedenborg                            263

236.--Lavater to Swedenborg, Letter 1                     264

237.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 7                     267

238.--Swedenborg to Prelate tinger, Letter 3              268

       The Natural and Spiritual sense of the Word       269

239.--Swedenborg to a Gentleman at Leyden                     272

280.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 8                     273

241.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 9                     275

242.--Lavater to Swedenborg, Letter 2                     277

243.--Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 10                     278

244.--Swedenborg to Count Hpken                            280

245.--Swedenborg's Controversy with the Consistory of Gottenburg       282

INTRODUCTION:                            282

A. Dr. Beyer on Swedenborg and his Writings              286

B. Dr. Ekebom's Charges against Swedenborg              287

C. Dr. Beyer's Reply to Dr. Ekebom                            291

D. Dr. Rosn on the Writings of Swedenborg              294

E. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 11                     296

F. Swedenborg's Reply to Dr. Ekebom                            297

G. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 12                     301

H. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 13                     305

I. Bishop Lamberg to the Consistory of Gottenburg       310

J. Assessor Aurell to Bishop Filenius                     312

K. Bishop Filenius to Assessor Aurell                     313

L. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 14                     316

M. Royal Resolution                                          318

N. Swedenborg to Councillor Wenngren                     321

O. Dr. Beyer's Defence                                          323

P. Dr. Ekebom's Declaration                                   345

Q. Dr. Rosn's Defence                                           349

R. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 16                     352

S. Dr. Rosn to a Senator                                   356

T. Royal Resolution addressed to the Consistory of Gottenburg       365

U. Royal Resolution in respect to Swedenborg's Writings              367

V. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 16                     369

W. Swedenborg to General Tuxen                     371

X. Swedenborg to the King of Sweden                     373

Y. Swedenborg to Augustus Alstrmer                     378

Z. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 17                     379

AA. Swedenborg to the Swedish Universities              380

BB. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 18                     382

CC. Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, Letter 19                      384

       End of Trial                                          385

246, 247.--Swedenborg to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt       386-389

248.--Swedenborg to Venator                                   390

       SECTION X.

TESTIMONY OF CONTEMPORARIES RESPECTING SWEDENBORG'S LIFE AND CHARACTER FROM 1747 TO 1772.

       A. Testimony collected in Sweden

249.--Baron Tilas's Testimony                                   395

250.--Count Tessin's Testimony                            398

251.--Librarian Gjrwell's Testimony                     402

252.--Count Hpken's Testimony                             405

253.--Testimony of the Rev. Nicholas Collin              417

254.--Dr. Beyer's Testimony                                   423

255.--General Tuxen's Testimony                            430

       B. Testimony collected in Holland

256.--Testimony of John Christian Cuno (Paulus ab Indagine)       441

              INTRODUCTION                                          441

              A. His Experience of Swedenborg in 1769              443

              B. Cuno on Swedenborg's Doctrines                     455

              C. Cuno's Letter to Swedenborg                     465

              D. Cuno's Estimate of Swedenborg                     477

              E. His Experience of Swedenborg in 1770              481

              F. His Experience of Swedenborg in 1771              482

257.--Jung-Stilling's Testimony                            486

       C. Testimony collected in England

258.--Testimony of John Lewis, the Printer              492

              A. First Announcement of Swedenborg's Writings       492

              B. John Lewis to the Daily Advertiser              497

259.--Testimony of the Rev. Thomas Hartley              500

       A. From the Preface to his Translation of the "Intercourse," &c.       500

       B. From the Preface to the Work on "Heaven and Hell"        506

        C. From a Letter to the Rev. J. Clowes.                      511

260.--Testimony of Dr. H. Messiter                             522

        A. Correspondence with Prof. R. Hamilton of Edinburgh 522

        B. Correspondence with Prof. R. Traill of Glasgow        524

        C. Correspondence with Prof. A. Gerard of Aberdeen        526

261.--Christopher Springer's Testimony                      528

262.--Testimony of Dr. Wm. Spence                             534

263.--Testimony of Peter Prove                             536

264.--Testimony of Henry Peckitt, Esq.                      542

265.--Robert Hindmarsh's Testimony                      547

266.--Testimony collected by J. J. Garth Wilkinson        554

267.--Testimony of the Rev. Arvid Ferelius              556

        A. Ferelius to Prof. Trtgrd                     556

        B. C. J. Kns's Visit to Ferelius                     562

268.--John Wesley's Testimony in 1772 and 1773        564

       D. Refutation of False Reports

269.--Charge of Swedenborg having retracted his Writings in his Last Moments        572

              A. Wm. Gomm to Robert Hindmarsh                      573

              B. Robert Hindmarsh to Wm. Gomm                            575

              C. Affidavit of Mr. and Mrs. Shearsmith               577

              D. Benedict Chastanier's Testimony                      579

270.--Critical Examination of the Charge of Insanity brought against

Swedenborg                                                         581

        A. Wesley on Swedenborg in 1783                             584

        B. Mathesius' Account of Swedenborg                     586

        C. Brockmer's Account of Swedenborg                            601

        D. Hindmarsh on J. Wesley and Mathesius               605

        E. Rev. T. Hartley on Mathesius's charge in 1781        608

        F. Chastanier on Mathesius and J. Wesley in 1785        609

        G. Rev. S. Noble on Mathesius                             610

E. Extraordinary Facts proving Swedenborg's Intercourse with the Spiritual World

       INTRODUCTION                                           613

271.--A preliminary Investigation of Dates              616

272.--The Result of Im. Kant's Investigation              620

Im. Kant to Charlotte von Knobloch                            625

273.--The Conflagration in Stockholm                     628

              A. Kant's Account                                    628

       B. Jung-Stilling's Account                            630

       C. Pernety's Account                                   630

       D. Swedenborg's account to Bergstrm              631

       E. Springer's account                                   631

       F. Letocard's Account                                   632

274.--The Lost Receipt                                          633

       A. Letocard's Account                                   634

       B. Testimony of Kant's Friend, Green              635

       C. Bergstrm's Account                                   636

       D. Dr. Clemm's Account                                   637

       E. Robsahm's Account                                   638

       F. Pernety's Account                                   639

       G. Testimony of the second Husband of Madame de Marteville       641

       H. Thibault's Account                                    644

       I. Ambassador Ostermann's account                     645

275.--Swedenborg and the Queen of Sweden                     647

       A. Swedenborg to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt       647

       B. Springer's Testimony                                   648

       C. J. C. Cuno's Testimony                            648

       D. Testimony of the "Berlinische Monatsschrift"       648

       E. Prelate tinger's Testimony                     649

       F. Swedenborg's Account to General Tuxen              650

       G. Baron C. F. von Hpken's Account                     653

       H. Kant's Testimony                                   653

       I. Dr. Clemm's Account                                   654

       J. Swedenborg's Gardener's Wife to C. F. Nordenskld       655

       K. The Queen's account to the Academican Thibault       655

       L. Pernety's Account                                   657

       M. Robsahm's Account                                   658

       N. Letocard's account                                   658

       O. Jung-Stilling's Account                            659

       P. Count A. Hpken's Account                             660

       Q. Springer's Account to H. Peckitt                     661

       R. Bergstrm's account to P. Provo                     662

       S. The Brothers Nordenskld to Pernety              663

       T. Swedenborg's Account to Count Tessin              664

       U. C. F. Nordenskld's account                      664

       V. Captain Stlhammar's Account                     665

276.--Explanation of the foregoing Facts attempted       667

       A. The Berlinische Monatsschrift for 1783 on Swedenborg       668

I. Letter of a distinguished Chevalier to the Editors       668

II. Another Explanation of the Queen's Story              671

III. The Story of the Lost Receipt as explained in the

Berlinische Monatsschrift                            673

B. C. G. Nordin on Swedenborg                     675

C. Captain Stlhammar and the Berlinische Monatsschrift       677

D. L. L. von Brenkenhoff and the Berlinische Monatsschrift       679

I. Letter addressed to L. L. von Brenkenhoff              680

II. Letter by the Countess von Schwerin                     681

III. Letocard to the Countess von Schwerin               685

IV. Letter addressed to L. L. von Brenkenhoff               686

V. Letter by the Countess von Schwerin                     687

E. The Rev. C. E. Gambs on the Queen's Story              690



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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 2

SECTION VIII.

SWEDENBORG'S TRAVELS AND DIARIES TO THE YEAR 1744.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 3 [Blank page]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 4

DOCUMENT 204.

GENERAL STATEMENT OF SWEDENBORG'S TRAVELS FROM 1710 TO 1734.*

* This account serves as an introduction to Swedenborg's Journal of Travel for the years 1736 to 1740. It is written in the Swedish language, and is contained in the Swedenborg MSS., which are preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Codex 88, pages 498 and 503. It was translated into Latin by Dr. Kahl in 1844, and published the same year by Dr. Im. Tafel, as an introduction to Swedenborg's Itinerarium, Section II. A photo-lithographic copy of the Swedish original is contained in Vol. III of the Swedenborg MSS., pages 50 and 51, from which this translation is made.

1710. I travelled to Gottenburg, and thence by ship to London. On the way to London I was four times in danger of my life: 1. From a sand-bank on the English coast in a dense fog, when all considered themselves lost, the keel of the vessel being within a quarter of a fathom of the bank. 2. From the crew of a privateer, who came on board, declaring themselves to be French, while we thought they were Danes. 3. From an English guard-ship on the following evening, which on the strength of a report mistook us in the darkness for the privateer; wherefore it fired a whole broadside into us, but without doing us any serious damage. 4. In London I was soon after exposed to a still greater danger, for some Swedes, who had approached our ship in a yacht, persuaded me to sail with them to town, when all on board had been commanded to remain there for six weeks; the news having already spread, that the plague had broken out in Sweden. As I did not observe the quarantine, an inquiry was made; yet I was saved from the halter, with the declaration, however, that no one who ventured to do this in future would escape his doom.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 5

In London and Oxford I spent upwards of a year.

Thence I proceeded to Holland, and visited its principal towns. I spent a considerable time at Utrecht during the session of the Congress,* at which ambassadors from all parts of Europe were assembled.

* By the Congress of Utrecht the Spanish war of succession was closed.

From Holland I went to France, going by way of Brussels and Valenciennes to Paris. There and at Versailles I stayed nearly a year. From Paris I posted to Hamburg, passing through Ryssel or Lille. Thence I went to Pomerania and Greifswalde, where I remained a considerable time, and during my stay there, Charles XII came from Bender to Stralsund.

When the siege was about to commence I succeeded, under the Divine Providence, in obtaining a passage home in a yacht, in company with Madame Feiff,106 after having been abroad for more than four years.

1721. In the spring I again went abroad, going to Holland by Copenhagen and Hamburg. There I published my Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium,* and several other short treatises in octave.

* Prodromus Principiorum Rerum Naturalium sive Novorum Tentaminum Chymiam et Physicam Experimentalem geometrice explicandi. Amstelodami, 1721. This work was translated into English by C. E. Strutt, and published in London in 1847 under the following title: "Some Specimens of a work on the Principles of Chemistry."

The other little works published by Em. Swedenborg at the same time are: Methodus Nova inveniendi Longitudines locorum terr marique ope Lun (A New Method for finding the Longitudes of places on land and at sea by Lunar Observations); Nova observat aet Inventa circa Ferrum et Ignem, et prcipue circa Naturam Ignis Elementarem, una cum Camini inventione (New Observations and Discoveries respecting Iron and Fire, and particularly respecting the elemental nature of Fire: together with a new construction of stoves); Artificia nova mechanica Receptacula Navalia et Aggeres Aquaticos construendi (A new mechanical plan for constructing Docks and Dykes); and Modus mechanice explorandi virtutes et qualitates diversi generis et constructionis Navigiorum (A mode for discovering the powers of Vessels by the application of mechanical principles). All these little treatises were likewise translated by Mr. Strutt, and published in the same volume with the "Principles of Chemistry."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 6

From Holland I travelled to Aix-la-Chapelle, Lige, Cologne and other adjacent places, examining the mines there.

Thence I went to Leipzig, where I published my Miscellanea observata.* Leaving that town I visited all the mines in Saxony, and then returned to Hamburg.

* Miscellanea Observata circa Res naturales et prsertim circa Mineralia, Ignem, et Montium strata. Parts I to III of this little work were published at Leipzig, and Part IV at Schiffbeck, near Hamburg. An English translation, prepared by Mr. Strutt, was published in London in 1847 under the following title: "Miscellaneous Observations connected with the Physical Sciences."

From Hamburg I returned to Brunswick and Goslar, and visited all the mines in the Hartz mountains, belonging to the houses of Hanover and Lneburg. The father-in-law of a son of the Emperor [of Germany] and of a son of the Czar, Duke Louis Rudolph,15 who resided at Blankenburg, graciously defrayed all my expenses, and on taking leave of him, he presented me with a gold medal and a large silver coffee-pot, besides bestowing upon me many other marks of his favour. I then returned to Hamburg, and thence by way of Stralsund and Ystad to Stockholm, having been absent one year and three months.

1733. In the month of May I again by royal permission travelled by Ystad to Stralsund, and through Anclam and Berlin to Dresden; and thence to Prague and Carlsbad in Bohemia, where I visited the mines. Afterwards I went back to Prague, and thence by Eule to Dresden, and from Dresden to Leipzig.

In Leipzig I saw through the press my Principia rerum naturalium and my Regnum subterraneum de ferro et cupro,* in folio; together with my Prodromus philosophi ratiocinantis de Infinito,&c.**

* Principia Rerum Naturalium sive Novorum Tentaminum Phmena Mundi Elementaris philosophice explicandi (The first Principles of Natural Things, being New Attempts towards a philosophical explanation of the Elementary World), being Volume I of Emanuelis Swedenborgii Opera Philosophica et Mineralia. Volumes II and III of these Opera, &c., bear the titles respectively of Regnum Subterraneum sive Minerale de Ferro (The subterraneous or mineral kingdom of Iron), and Regnum Subterraneum sive Minerale de Cupro et Orichalco (The subterraneous or mineral kingdom of Copper and Brass). Volume I of this series was translated into English by the Rev. Augustus Clissold, and published in two volumes in 1845 under the title of Swedenborg's "Principia."

** Prodromus philosophi ratiocinatis de Infinito et causa finali creationis: deque Mechanismo operationis Anim et Corporis; this work was translated into English by Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson and published in 1847 under the following title: "Outlines of a philosophical argument on the Infinite, and the final cause of Creation; and on the Intercourse between the Body and Soul."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 7

From Leipzig I went afterwards to Cassel, end over all the mines between that town and Schmalkalden. I then rode through Gotha to Brunswick, and thence to Hamburg; and, finally, returned to Stockholm, by way of Ystad. I reached home in July, 1734, about the opening of the Diet.

It would be too prolix to mention all the learned men I visited, and with whom I became acquainted during these journeys, since I never missed an opportunity of doing so, nor of seeing and examining libraries, collections, and other objects of interest.


DOCUMENT 205.

SWEDENBORG'S JOURNAL OP TRAVEL DURING 1733 AND 1734.*

* The Latin original of this Journal is contained in Codex 88 of the "Swedenborg MSS.," which are preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, from page 8 to page 109, and also on pages 214 and 215. It was published by Dr. Im. Tafel in the original language in 1840, under the title, Em. Swedenborgii Itinerarium, Sectio I; a friend having written out a copy of the work for his use. A photo-lithographic copy of the work is contained in Volume III, pp. 1 to 50, of the fac-simile edition of Swedenborg's Manuscripts, which was published in Stockholm in 1870, under the superintendence of the editor of these Documents. The translation is made immediately from the photo-lithographic copy, as the transcribed copy used by Dr. Im. Tafel was in some parts defective.

1733.

On the 10th of May, 1733, under the Divine auspices and with the permission of the most August King Frederic I,4 I set out for a third time on a journey to Germany.

7



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 8 I left Stockholm in company with my friends Count Frederic Gyllenborg,115 Baron David Stjerncrona* and his relatives, Mr. Gallus, and several others, and we made our first halt at an inn, called Fittia. Thence I proceeded to Linkping, accompanied by my relatives, Lars Benzelstjerna8 and his wife,5 where we spent Whitweek as the guests of Bishop Ericus Benzelius,6 to whom also I am related.** We celebrated four feast days in this cathedral town.

* Baron David Stjkerncrona was born in 1715, and after having studied at Upsal became Royal Chamberlain, and died in 1784. He was brother of Elizabeth Stjerncrona, wife of Count Frederic Gyllenborg, concerning whom see Note 115, Volume I.

** Compare Document 118.

May 13 to 16. As I have said, we celebrated Whitweek in the town of Linkping. During that time we visited the field where the battle of Stngebro was fought, in 1598, between Sigismund, King of Poland, and Duke Charles IX, afterwards chosen King, and where victory was declared on the side of Charles [see Note to Document 8, Vol. I, p. 78]. This battle ought to be commemorated by posterity, because the fate of the religion which was to rule in Sweden, seems to have been settled by it. If Sigismund had proved victorious, the inhabitants of this northern country would in all probability have remained in the Roman Catholic religion. But God intended it to be otherwise.

May 15. We made a pleasure trip for the purpose of seeing a castle called Sturefors, about a Swedish mile from Linkping, which was built by Count Piper and now belongs to his widow. The objects most worthy of notice there are the paintings from the hand of the late renowned Ehrenstahl.* There are also other ornaments of note in the interior of the building. But the greatest charm of the castle is its situation, which is most delightful, and is calculated to refresh and recreate the mind; since it opens to the eye a long vista of lakes, rivers, meadows, and fields, terminating in a forest.

* David Klker von Ehrenstahl, born in Hamburg in 1629, was one of the most celebrated Swedish painters of the seventeenth century. He died in 1698.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 9

May 17. After bidding adieu to my relations and sister, I went straightway to Schonen and Ystad, passing through two towns only, Grenna and Jnkping.

May 19. Having passed through Smland,* I reached Schonen. This province, from its climate and more southern latitude, has a different air and also a different soil from Smland. It is not so mountainous and hilly, and hence not so uneven, but more level; it seemed also to have a more sandy soil. The forest lands are poor, and the trees low, except where they produce beech-trees and hazel-trees (corylus). In some places the pines, fir-trees, and birches were gradually lost to the sight, and their places supplied by the trees peculiar to the land and soil. This alone seems to me worthy of being noticed, that their very necessities and the want of proper kinds of wood seem to have compelled this people to surround and protect their farms with a different kind of hedge or fence from that which is used in Sweden. Their fences are partly made of stones, partly of branches and twigs of trees interwoven, partly of roots, and partly of all together; they serve the purpose of fences admirably, and mark the boundary-line of the estates or farms better than is done in Sweden. Those that are made of stones are built in a very rude manner. In those cases in which they are constructed of branches, sticks or stakes are driven into the ground two feet apart, and between them boughs are woven and twisted in a serpentine manner, and are closely wound round each of the stakes which are fixed in the ground. At a distance of from four to six yards wooden props, which are put into the ground obliquely, support the fences, and prevent them from being blown down by the wind. Those that are made of roots consist for the most part of the roots of the beech, dug out of the ground, and not unskilfully fastened between sticks, and stakes, and pine-stems; partly also they are thrown without order on the top of each other, and partly they are placed on a foundation of rocks, in such a manner as to prevent any one from passing through.

* One of the old Swedish provinces, the capital of which is Wesia, where at a later period the Swedish poet Tegnr was bishop.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 10

May 22. After arriving at Ystad I found a vessel prepared to go to sea, but waiting for a favourable wind.

May 24 and 25. I arrived at Stralsund from Ystad in company with Count Issendorff,* and an Italian music teacher of the name of Keller.

* Baron Johan Christoffer von Issendorff, a native of Germany, was lieutenant-colonel in the Swedish army. He died in 1736.

On the following day I took a walk to see the town, its walls and ramparts, and to trace the effects still remaining of the siege and the storming of the town in 1715, under King Charles XII. I approached the gate called "Knieperthor," in the storming of which the hostile squadrons and armies of three kings [those of Prussia, Poland, and Denmark] for a long time unsuccessfully spent all their labour and toil. This gate is very strongly fortified by earth-works, ramparts, and numerous ditches. I then came to the gate called "Triebseerthor," where a new fortification is at present being constructed. Lastly I arrived at the gate "Frankenthor," where the enemy, after having during the night passed along the shore between a long line of defences, consisting of redoubts and other fortifications, and the swilling waters that covered them, entered, and placing themselves between the Swedish soldiery and the inner fortifications, prevented them from re-entering the town. I saw also where the King's dwelling was. I visited likewise the three largest churches of the town; that of St. Nicholas, which is the most renowned, near the town-hall; afterwards St. Mary's, which is not inferior to it in size, and finally St. James's; besides these there are four smaller churches. In the first of these, the church of St. Nicholas, there is a celebrated and very conspicuous font; there are new sculptures in connection with the altar, and the church is seated throughout.

May 26. I spent the day doing nothing, waiting for the stage-coach.

May 27. From Stralsund I travelled to Greifswalde, and thence into farther Pomerania, or to Anclam, a town which is slightly fortified, and now subject to the King of Brandenburg. Nothing worthy of notice occurred on the journey.

10



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 11 The country from Greifswalde to Anclam is very level, consisting mostly of fields. The sea-shore and the banks of the streams are everywhere covered and adorned with oak groves and the most beautiful live-oaks. From this part of the country, and from that which lies nearer the town of Stettin, a great quantity of oak-wood is shipped to foreign countries for ship-building. At Anclam I saw for the first time the Brandenburg soldiers, and those, indeed, who are called grenadiers. The men are tall and slender, and they march erectly. They wear high conical hats showily decorated with brass, in the shape of letters and figures. They are clad in a cloak or short belted coat reaching to about the middle of the thigh. The breeches fit the extremities of their bodies most tightly, so that no fold arising from looseness harmony of the parts from being noticed at first sight. Closely fitting gaiters, buttoned, reach from the breeches to the shoes, and encase the legs from the knees downwards. They go through their drill with the greatest promptness and regularity; but their manner is perhaps a little theatrical. Their line is remarkably regular, the men being of the same height and age; the faces of all turn in one direction. The head is adorned the most, and the feet, arms, and remaining parts of the body are least burdened and are closely bound, so that they are prepared either for an immediate attack on an enemy or for a rush in flight; they are so attired as to be ready for either turn in the wheel of fortune. The King seems to place his splendour and pride in his soldiery, and get he restrains and retrenches all luxury, so that they give one the idea of toughness and endurance.

May 28 and 29. I arrived at Friedland, a town under the rule of Mecklenburg. There were most beautiful oak forests on the way, and the country is very rich in grain and geese. Afterwards I came to New Brandenburg. Neither town is remarkable for size, fortifications, or buildings. I nevertheless had the opportunity of enjoying their gardens. I witnessed also their annual games, at which they have a shooting competition for the honour of "King." Whoever proves himself the best shot is created "King;" is exempt during the ensuing year from rates and taxes; and in the following year, decked with can hide any flaw, and prevent the silver ornaments, marches at the head of the rifle corps to take part in the new games, and to contest the honours afresh.

11



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 12 The country abounds with the very best hops, equal to those of Brunswick, the greeter part of which used to be exported to Sweden; but, as this is now forbidden, they scarcely command any price.

May 30. Old Strelitz was reached. New Strelitz is being built by the present duke at the distance of half a Swedish mile from it; a new palace is in the process of erection, which will be the duke's residence. This with respect to the duchy of Mecklenburg, and the duke's family: the country was formerly divided into three duchies [Mecklenburg, Warle, and Stargard], which by succession became united under one hereditary duke,* who now resides at Schwerin. There he married his first wife, who was related to the imperial family and to that of Brandenburg. His second wife, a relative of the Russian Czar,** lives at present with her daughter at St. Petersburg, her sister*** being the reigning Empress of Russia. Her daughter**** is so much beloved by her Imperial Majesty, that she has been appointed heiress to the Russian throne. Both the mother and daughter refuse to return to their husband and father, who is now living at Schwerin as a duke with scarcely any dominion, and as a husband without a wife. It is even thought that an administrator will be appointed in his place by the Emperor.

12



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 13 The nobles have been the cause of it, whose rights and privileges he was unwilling to preserve in their integrity; by the aid of the Emperor he was removed from the government, and his brother's son, the heir-apparent,***** who lives at New Strelitz, has been appointed in his place. By so many reverses and misfortunes, so many reminders and admonitions of two emperors, by the most opposite and inauspicious fates, which seem to deprive him of every hope of a more favourable turn of fortune, he has not been induced to change his mind for the better, and to accept better counsel, and this now for the space of thirteen years. He prefers to be outlawed and deprived of his government to giving way a single inch. One's native disposition, though vexed by misfortunes and a long series of adverse fates, cannot be expelled, and if expelled, it ever returns. Otherwise Mecklenburg is a most noble country; for it abounds in nobles, who are most desirous to abound also in riches. The name of the Duke of Schwerin is Charles Leopold; his brother's son who is at Strelitz is called Adolphus Frederic [III].

* Duke Charles Leopold, who reigned from 1713 to 1746. Aided by his relative, Peter the Great of Russia, he endeavoured to break down the constitutional government of Mecklenburg, but he was resisted by the neighbouring German princes and the German Emperor Charles VI, who took the part of the constituent houses. The feud between the reigning duke and the constituent assemblies did not terminate, until 1755, when a compromise was made by his successor Duke Christian Louis.

** Catharina, daughter of Ivan III, step-brother of Peter the Great.

*** Anna, Ivanonna, second daughter of Ivan III, and Duchess of Courland, was elected Empress of Russia in 1730. She died in 1740.

**** Anna Carlowna, daughter of Duke Charles Leopold of Mecklenburg and Catharina, was born in 1718. She married Anton Ulric, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbttel. Her son, Ivan IV, was declared heir-apparent to the Russian throne by the Empress Anna Ivanowna. After the death of the Empress in 1740, she became regent in the place of her son; but was soon displaced by Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great.

***** Duke Adolphus Frederic III, who reigned at Strelitz from 1708 to 1752.

June 1. After spending a day and two nights at Strelitz, I journeyed thence to Frstenberg, and afterwards to Zehdenick, which belongs to Brandenburg, and which is a finer town than either of the other two; there also I spent a night.

June 2. On continuing my route to Berlin I first reached Oranienburg; where Oranienburg castle, which was built by the father of the present king, presents itself to view. It is charming, for the eye may range over far extended meadows to the most beautiful forests consisting of pines and oaks, which in the form of a crown extend at equal distances everywhere around. In the middle is the court of the castle, which in a certain measure is embraced and enclosed by two wings running out on either side. Where it looks towards the town, or where the entrance is situated, is a wall adorned with statutes. On the other side, however, or that which is turned towards the plain and the woods, are double gates, which are directed on the one hand towards the fields and the forest, and on the other towards the palace.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 14 As they are double, there is a portico between, where one may take a walk, and gaze upon the fields as well as upon the court of the castle. All this is deserted and uninhabited at present. I continued my journey towards Berlin, and on the way saw two additional royal country-seats.

At last I reached Berlin. I first wandered alone through the town that I might take in with the eye what is wont to strike the first gaze of a stranger. What I noticed first on the bridge leading to the Royal Castle was a bronze statue erected by King William [?]* in 1703, which was remarkable for its weight, its size, and the art expended upon it. It is also a worthy object of contemplation. The first great King of Prussia* himself sits on a large horse; at each corner four men or rather giants (for they are twice or three times as large as common men) are sitting sad, sorrowful, and with a serious countenance, bound with brazen chains; they are, however, sufficiently heavy and motionless from their mere weight in bronze. It is a work of art most worthy of being cast in bronze.

* The statue Swedenborg describes here is that of the great Elector Frederic William, who reigned from 1640 to 1688. It was erected by his son Frederic III, who reigned from 1688 to 1715, and who became in 1701 the first king of Prussia, under the name of King Frederic I.

The royal palace itself is magnificent; a most expensive structure, and in size and height surpassing the palaces of many kings. On one side of it is a parade ground capable of holding from twenty to thirty thousand soldiers, cavalry and infantry. Their military exercises and parade may be witnessed from the palace. I shall not attempt a description of this palace as it would fill many pages, while the painter could represent it better and more vividly on one page.

The arsenal which adjoins it is scarcely less beautiful; this also can be exhibited much better by the artist. The same may be said of the orphan asylum. The church of St. Peter, a most noble structure and replete with ornaments, is being restored, or rather re-built. Two granaries or receptacles for corn have also been erected. The houses belonging to the burghers or subjects, are numerous; they have a pleasing appearance, and to the very roofs resemble the dwellings in Italy and Paris.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 15        

It is worthy of notice that outside the city proper, or that part which is surrounded by walls, another city, which is called Friedrichstadt, scarcely smaller than the former, has been built; this has been very much enlarged and the number of its inhabitants has greatly increased under the present king. About the middle of the "Fridrichstrasse," which is nearly half a [Swedish or German] mile long, a row of new houses commences, which in height and external appearance are from basement to roof so much alike that you might imagine it was only one house, when yet it consists of from four to five hundred separate dwellings. The regularity, however, is interrupted near the market-place. These buildings are not yet finished; but by the king's commend the work is being carried on most vigorously. The street terminates in the market-place, which is a handsome circle; the market-place, however, is terminated by the gate by which the town is closed. Most of these dwellings have been built by trades-people and mechanics, and the rest by the nobles and the higher classes. You might suppose they were a hundred ducal residences, when yet they are the houses of mechanics and trades-people, who in the other towards generally live in huts, cabins, and log-houses. What delights the eye most, and exhilarates the mind, is the wonderful symmetry and continuity of the houses, so that you might say many thousands of men have a common dwelling, and live in one house under the same roof.

The town is very populous: for the trades and manufactures flourish and prosper, many mechanics and manufacturers driven out and banished from France, having taken up their abode here. A vast stream of people pass along the streets and lanes, and gather in dense crowds around the public buildings. Many of these people, however, belong to the military class, and at every corner sentinels may be seen. From this we may conclude that not only commerce, but manufactures also can make towns wealthy; for no merchandize is brought hither by sea, but manufactures attract the money, which is retained and prevented from going abroad and being scattered.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 16

June 3 and 4. I went outside the town to witness the exercises of the infantry, and of that branch of the cavalry called gens d'armes. With respect to the exercises I have already mentioned, that the troops act and move with the greatest regularity and precision; and the whole squadron is like a machine placed there, and moving instantaneously at the pleasure of the machinist. Not even the slightest inaccuracy can be detected. If they displayed the same unanimity and uniformity in battle as in drill, they would conquer Alexander's army, and subject a great part of Europe to Prussia, but------

Entering St. Peter's church, which was burnt down three years ago and is now being rebuilt by the munificence of the King, I found it very spacious, and yet there are no columns in the interior by which the roof and arches are supported. Under the roof all around the church are circular windows, which are directed towards the centre of the building, and which admit much light; there are besides two rows of benches along the walls, so that there is room for a large congregation.

I examined also the library, which contains a great number of books, but mostly old; not many are purchased at the present time, no money being obtainable for this purpose. Several manuscripts are also exhibited, among which is the Bible of Charlemagne, written eight hundred years ago, which was brought from Aix-la-Chapelle, There are historical books in the Italian language from the library of Queen Christina, and in additions many old codexes; books in the Chinese language; a Koran of most exquisite workmanship; likewise another Koran almost round in form and enclosed in a case, very small in size. A large atlas also is shown.

In the Museum, called Kunst-Kammer, many most inter-eating things are exhibited, as, for instance, various objects made of amber, as desks, boxes, statuettes, crucifixes, and many others, which are produced by large pieces of amber being melted together. Various specimens of corals, especially of the red kind, are shown; likewise flowers of Mars,* which are white, very beautiful, and large;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 17 also, ores containing gold; native gold, in considerable masses imbedded in quartz; likewise silex, polished on the outside, but interiorly variegated and interspersed with a great number of dense veins of gold; pieces of native silver, and splendid specimens of the ores of other metals. There are also articles most skilfully and elaborately wrought of silver, as vases, caskets, and fancy-boxes, &c. Porcelain and wares from China are likewise exhibited; besides animals of various kinds, as crocodiles, walruses, boars of extraordinary size, rhinoceroses, elephants' tusks of different kinds. A knife is also shown which a man had swallowed and which was found, when removed by an operation, to be half consumed, the man living afterwards for twenty years; likewise a die which broke in two while being used to decide the fate of some innocent person. A life-like wax figure of King Frederic William is exhibited, as well as figures of some of his sons and daughters; besides many other objects which I have no time to enumerate.

* A chemical preparation of iron.

I visited also the laboratory of Dr. Neumann, which is furnished with several small fire-places and furnaces for chemical purposes, especially for distillations in the water and sand baths, and likewise with digesters; the water flows in from above, and the waste flows down and turns a small wheel by which a little pestle is set in motion for grinding substances into powder; everything is arranged most ingeniously and exactly.

June 5. I prepared for my journey to Dresden. On the way I saw nothing noteworthy; the soil was sterile and sandy. From Berlin I passed through the usual stations of Mittenwalde, Baruth, where Saxony begins, and Luckau, a town of considerable size; and afterwards through Sonnenwalde, Estenwehre; where there is a royal castle, and Grossenhayn, which is much like Luckau; and thence I came to Dresden. Meanwhile I noticed very beautiful chimneys of terra cotta, upon which are impressed most telling and conspicuous likenesses of men, of knights, and of shells; the corners were formed by columns of the same material stained an iron colour.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 18

On the way I perused a small treatise by Putoneus,* on a kind of worms of Friesland and Northland, where I noted what follows:

* Putoneus, Historische und physicalische Beschreibung einer Art hchst schdlicher Seewrmer, Leipzig, 1733.

These worms are only found in Friesland and Northland, where the ships and the piles driven into the dikes are gradually perforated and consumed by them. This was first observed in 1732 in some beams, which had been floating upon the water, when cast ashore by the waves. Pine wood is chiefly attached, but also occasionally oak. The number of worms that appear is sometimes larger, sometimes smaller; perhaps according to the differing temperature, as is the case with some insects, and also with mice, which are more abundant one year than another. In the year 1666, the inhabitants of Amsterdam complained, that their ships, on the return voyage from India, were attacked and perforated by worms, wherefore they began to fortify the ribs and coverings of their ships with large-headed nails; which resulted in their ships becoming much more durable than those of the English. The Portuguese, however, char the outer surface of their ships. In the record of his travels Dampier describes most accurately this kind of worms, which are very much like those of Friesland. There are three species of them of which drawings are given. It has been observed that those which originate in salt water, perish in fresh water; so that a ship which has become infested with them in salt water, is relieved from them in fresh water. Messrs. Massuet and Wallisnerius were the first to describe these worms, which are slender towards the tail, broader towards the head, and of a yellowish white colour. A part of their head is protected by a hard stony or bony mass, which is round and pointed at the end, so as to resemble the drills with which holes are bored into stone. The head is thus covered and by means of this mass the boring is accomplished; a part of the body also towards the tail is covered with a harder substance; so that they can brace themselves up and thus bore better. From this hard matter of the tail the extremity, which is soft and cloven into three parts, protrudes; under the belly appears a duct conveying blood.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 19 Their length varies from six to twelve and even twenty-four inches. They grow while in the wood engaged in boring; and they would increase still more if there were more substance to pierce. The holes are large enough to admit a good sized goose quill. If two worms bore so as to meet in the middle, they avoid meeting by deflecting their course, and if they actually meet, they both die. On their way they leave a glutinous or viscous matter which in time hardens and adheres to the sides of the holes. This hardened matter is like a shell and very fragile. In these cavities small shining points are observed, which, when examined under the microscope, have the appearance of some winged creatures. It is worthy of notice that on the outer surface of the wood only openings appear that are so small as to be scarcely discernible to the naked eye, but in the inner part of the wood they become wider and wider, so that the worms actually increase there. A hundred openings are frequently seen, of which scarcely ten are continued to the depth of one finger, and when the worms reach the surface of the water, they take some other course. They prefer to make their way along the grain of the wood, although they also work transversely. Their eggs are said to be round and covered with some viscous substance, so as to adhere better to the beams of wood against which they are carried.

The remedies hitherto employed to prevent the ravages of these insects, are said to be the following: 1. The piles that are to be submerged are enveloped in coarse tow and afterwards covered with pitch; in place of hempen tow the hair of cows may be used. 2. At first they tried to, fortify their dikes against the threatened destruction, by combining the use of anchors or braces with the piles. 3. It was proposed to construct dikes without the help of piles. 4. Again it was suggested that the piles should be thoroughly dried by exposing them to the action of fire, and that hot pitch should be applied to them, which would then penetrate more towards the interiors, the pores being opened by the fire. 5. Wallisnerius proposed that the piles should be covered with lead; or that thick laths be fastened over them, and that the space between the piles and the laths should be filled with animal hair.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 20 6. Others advise that the piles should be frequently scraped, so that the first elements of the worms or their glutinous eggs might not adhere to them; and 7. That after the piles have been well dried, they be covered first with pitch and afterwards with a mixture containing arsenic.

N.B.: I was told to-day by a Jew that a remedy against this evil had at last been discovered, which consists in a mixture or an ointment composed of powdered sulphur, pitch, white lead, and mercury; upon the application of which they all make their escape--provided this be true.

As for myself, I cannot see a better remedy for this evil than, first, that the piles used in propping up the dikes should be thoroughly charred, and indeed so that their surface be burnt to charcoal to about one-fourth of an inch; for then it is impossible for the worms to find any place to make their abode: because there is nothing to furnish nutriment to them, there being no wood anywhere within their reach; so that for want of food and nourishment their sustenance and life will fail. Secondly, the burning of the pile, by which it may be reduced to charcoal to the depth of one-fourth of an inch, will be thoroughly attained by a strong and swift flame, which can be rendered swifter if the pile be first covered with pitch, and then held over the flaming fire. Thirdly, if afterwards you choose to cover the burnt part with pitch, you will perhaps thereby prevent an egg, out of which a worm might be developed, from being carried into a crack. Fourthly, the success of this proposal is based on this, that the whole woody material is converted into charcoal, and that nothing of the sap and the oil remains which might afford nutriment; for it has been observed that the worms thrive better in pine than in oak wood, because it contains a greater quantity of oil; if therefore a dead residuum and charcoal only remain, they cannot obtain the means of life, and make their way into the interior. This is proved also by experience. To experience. To escape this evil the Portuguese char that part of the outer surface of their ships which is to be immersed in water; and their ships are thus saved from this danger and preserved from harm. I already remarked that the piles were to be burnt in a strong flame.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 21 By being exposed to such a flame the outer portion only is burned and converted into charcoal, the interior remaining fresh and dry, or safe and intact from the fire; as may be seen from a piece of wood held in a strong flame, the outer surface of which is speedily converted into charcoal, while its interior parts are still intact, and scarcely heated. The science of mechanics will supply a thousand modes by which the piles may be placed on trestles, while combustible matter is placed underneath by which the flame is to be fed and raised into a blaze; it will also furnish means by which the flame, after it has been started on the surface by having been covered with pitch, can be extinguished, and indeed after the desired result has been attained. All this can be very easily determined and settled, provided the method of burning the piles before they are immersed in the water, be once approved and adopted.

June 7. I reached Dresden, having accomplished the journey from Stockholm in twenty-eight days. If from these twelve days are subtracted, during which I rested, it reduces it to a journey of sixteen days only.

June 9. I visited the new church [Frauenkirche], which is in the process of erection near the market-place [Neumarkt]. It is interiorly vaulted, with a triple row of seats along the walls, and on account of its interior decorations most interesting and worthy of notice. Under the ground are ample vaults and cells, or places of burial, occupying a large space.

June 11. I examined the exterior of the royal palace and of that which adjoins it. They are richly decorated with figures and statues in terra cotta and plaster of Paris. I likewise saw that rural or mountain cave, called the grotto, which is close by, where the water falls down some steps and over a rock. Permission was granted me to see the entrance hall, where the ceiling is adorned with beautiful fresco paintings. The floor was paved with marble, and in the centre a marble slab of great size, and consequently of great value, is displayed.

June 12. With a companion I went into the royal garden which consists entirely of Indian and foreign trees. The part on the left is distinguished by cypresses and laurels; that on the right by citron and orange trees.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 22 Within the walls are trees of various kinds, coffee plants, &c., and a fig-tree with a trunk of extraordinary thickness. Here we could see and admire a very large number of laurels and orange-trees collected together; for there are upwards of five-hundred laurels, beautifully trimmed, and the same number of orange-trees may be counted, all of which are exactly like one another, being of the same height, the same thickness and the same age. The trunk of each tree is eight inches in diameter, while the Indian fig-tree is twenty-four inches in diameter. This garden seems to excel all others of the same kind established in Europe.

June 13. On St. John's day I went outside the town to enjoy a stroll and see the large garden [grosser Garten] famous for its marble statues and figures. The way or road to it extends to a great distance, is enclosed on both sides with trimmed and curiously cut trees, and adorned with terra cotta figures. At last appears the area itself or the large theatre, adorned with beautiful marble statues and figures. All are made of marble of the most dazzling purity, and all are sculptured to the life. Some are larger and some smaller, and there are so many of them, that they can scarcely be counted. They do not yield much to those in Versailles, except in size. It is a place where you may enjoy rural pleasures to the full.

The bridge, which leads into the town from the Neustadt or new town, is splendid. It rises a considerable height above the river and is supported by seventeen arches. There are also on both sides of the bridge seventeen sitting or resting places. On one side is a crucifix of bronze on an artificial rock; on the other side and opposite to it are two figures or statues.

June 14--19. I read through and corrected my Principia.

June 20 (July 1). I went to the Neustadt or new town to see the building [Japanesisches Palais] erected by the Duke of Saxony. There also is a very pleasant garden, filled with objects of art, where during the life-time of King Augustus the articles of porcelain were exhibited, the greater part of which is said to be stored up between the ceilings of the building.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 23

June 21 (July 2) To-day I entered the chapel attached to the Court of the Duke of Saxony, with the view of being present at worship, which is celebrated according to the Catholic ritual. It was impossible for any of the senses not to derive from it some sensation of pleasure.

The sense of hearing derived it from the drums, flutes, and trumpets which swelled their notes from the lowest to the highest, and still more from the singing of the castrati or eunuchs, whose voices emulate those of virgins, and from the full harmony of all the instruments.

The sense of smell is charmed by the scent and fragrance of the burning incense; the odour and smoke of which are diffused in every direction by boys.       

The sense of sight was impressed by the paintings of every kind which are hung around the church; by the magnificent vestments with which the priests and monks are adorned, and in which they move in procession; by the great number of ministering priests bending and walking in every direction like actors; and by their various gestures. And my sight in particular was charmed, because I happened to sec for the first time the Duke himself and the Duchess with their sons and daughters; all of whom were most devout and attentive to the usages of their religion.

The interior senses, however, were charmed, because all things breathed an atmosphere of sublimity and sanctity; because at the least sound of a little bell all threw themselves on their knees; and because all things were expressed in Latin, a foreign language, by which the minds of the common people are wont to be most impressed. In short the worship of the Roman Catholic church seems to have been especially invented, and to be calculated, to charm the external senses, by alluring all the organs of the body, and thereby offering blandishments to the senses.

On the same day I crossed the river Elbe, in company with five others, and we went into the vineyards, or to the hills where the vineyards are. The aspect here is most delightful. The hill is covered with elms and vines; and is everywhere dotted with villas over its whole extent.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 24

June 22 (July 3). I read through a book of John Bernouilli, which bears the title: Essai d'une nouvelle thorie de la manuvre des vaisseaux, &c. [Essay concerning a new theory of handling ships], which treats geometrically of the structure of vessels, &c. 1. The action of fluids upon the surface of the bodies which they meet; 2. The track and the movement of a ship which has the form of a parallelogram; 3. The swiftness of a rectangular ship; 4. The position of the sails and the form of the beam which occupies the lowest part of a ship and is called the keel; what its form must be, that it may produce the best effect; 5. The position of the rudder, that it may turn the ship most quickly; 6. The course of a ship representing the figure of a rhomb; 7. The swiftness of a ship representing the figure of a rhomb; 8. The same in respect to the lowest beam or the keel; 9. The motion of curved or curvilinear bodies in fluids; 10. Application of the foregoing theory to certain ships; 11. Directions how to construct tables for the course of ships, respect being had to the lowest curvature (belly) of the ship; 12. The most convenient place for the masts; 13. The axis and the centre of resistance of the mater; 14. The inflation and curvature of sails; 15. The axis and the equilibrium of the wind impinging upon the sails. Two letters follow directed to M. Renau, with his reply.

Afterwards I perused Julius Bernhard von Rohr's Compendieuse Haushaltungs-Bibliothek (Compendious library of household matters), for 1726, in 8vo. This work treats in general.: 1. Of the study of economy; 2. Of the revenue system, (von dem Cameralwesen); 3. Of private household economy and of economy for the farm end field, (von der Privatwirthschaftskunst, Land- und Feld-Oeconomie); 4. Of agriculture, (von Ackerbau); 5. Of vine culture, (vom Weinbau)); 6. Of brewing, (vom Bierbrauen); 7. Of the art of cooking and baking, (von der Kochkunst und Confituren); 8. Of gardening, (von den Grtnerei); 9. Of woods and hunting, (von den Wldern und der Jgerei); 10. Of ponds and fishing, (von Teichen und Fischereine); 11. Of cattle breeding, (von der Viehzucht); 12. Of mining and the mineral kingdom, (von Bergwerkssachen und dem mineralische Reiche).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 25 In this chapter the author treats of the iron-works and forges in Germany, which he enumerates and reviews; he also discusses peat, charcoal, and coal; he does not treat of many authors, simply of Kircher's Mundus subterraneus (Subterranean world), which, however, according to Webster, the Englishman, and Morhoff; contains merely fanciful things. He mentions further Ulysses Aldrovandi's Musum metallicum, where many differences between the metals are discussed, but nothing definite is stated; Beccherus' Physica subterranea, with Stahl's observations, 1703. In the French language was published Trait des Mtaux et minraux, et des remdes, qu'on en peut tirer, par M. Chaubon, Paris, 1713, 12mo. There are also the following, viz. M. John Matthesius' Bergpostille oder Sarepta, folio, 1587; Melzer's Gangrna metallica, oder Bericht von Bergwerken (Report of Mines); Abraham Schnburg's Ausfhrliche Berginformation, Leipzig, 1693; Sebastian Spahn's Bergrechts-Spiegel, Dresden, 1698, folio; Georg Kaspar Kirchmayer's Instructiones melallic, von Bergwerken, with illustrations, 4to, 1687; his other works were published in quarto at Wittenberg in 1698; he mentions also Lhneis. A certain councillor of mines published in 1717 a work in 12mo with the title, Kurzer Unterricht von Bergwerken. 13. Of commerce, (vom Commercienwesen); 14. Of theological writings, (von theologischen Schriften). The same Julius Bernhard von Rohr has also published Compendieuse physikalische Bibliothek, Leipzig, 8vo, 1724; it treats, first, of natural science in general and the books belonging thereto; further, of the elements, the vegetable kingdom, the mineral kingdom, the animal kingdom, meteors, and mineral springs, (von der Naturwissenschaft berhaupt, und den dahin gehrigen Schriften).

June 25 (July 5). I took a walk outside the town in order to see the so-called Turkish house, where there is also a delightful garden. In the house itself may be seen paintings of Turkish, Chinese, Persian, and Greek women in their usual costumes; likewise celebrated and distinguished men, such as sultans, viziers, muftis, &c. There are also most precious Turkish and Persian carpets, as well on the floors as suspended along the walls. Their silver work also, which consists chiefly of what is called filligree work, is seen, studded here and there with some glass-like spar; silver of a white and black hue is inserted in the crystals themselves, arranged in the form of roses.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 26 Leather is shown interwoven with golden threads, work which has been hitherto quite unknown to Europeans. Some parts of Constantinople are likewise exhibited with the Peloponnesus and the sea. It is a town consisting of houses, which look very much like one another, and are built entirely on mountains and hills, with the water flowing in between. The sultan's palace with the harem, the place of abode of his women, is shown; likewise mosques, which are their temples and mausoleums. A person is thus enabled to obtain an idea of Constantinople, and in a certain sense of the Ottoman Forte itself.

The following books were announced in the literary news: Histoire mtallique des Pays bas, by Mr. van Loon, in both the French and Dutch languages; Discours sur les diffrentes figures des astres, i. e. a discourse on the various forms of the constellations, together with a compendious explanation of Descartes' and Newton's systems, by Maupertuis, Paris, 8vo, 1731, 5-1/2 francs.

July 6, new style.* I was able to see a paper-mill outside the town, where, I think, paper is made in the Dutch fashion with a cylinder furnished with bronze knives, and a similar bronze table underneath. There is, however, only one simple grinder or cylinder around a wheel, and not four as in Holland.

* The improved calendar of Pope Gregory XIII had not been introduced into Sweden at the time Swedenborg was writing this account of his travels. On arriving in Germany, where the Gregorian calendar had been universally adopted in 1700, he therefore found himself eleven days behind. The Swedish or old style he followed until June 20; from June 20 to 25 he gives his dates both according to the old and new styles; but after June 25, old style, which is equivalent to July 5, new style, he passes on at once to July 6, new style.

I afterwards examined the furnace and the forge where copper is beaten into thin plates with three hammers. The furnace is like a common iron furnace. A pound of thin beaten copper is sold for nine groschen, or twenty-seven Swedish silver re.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 27

Afterwards I went to see the works where plates of glass are ground and polished, so that foils may be applied to them and mirrors formed, which is a very interesting operation. Plates of glass and mirrors are manufactured there, which are frequently of the height of four ells. With regard to the work itself, the following particulars may be mentioned: 1. When the plates of glass are first brought from the furnace and are still in the rough, they are more than an inch thick, but by the process of polishing they are made so thin, that they are scarcely half the original thickness. The process of polishing is described as follows: 2. The plate is inserted in a frame, and placed on a smooth stone, to which it is closely fitted, and fastened by means of plaster of Paris or yellowish red clay; it is inserted into this mass in such a manner, that it firmly adheres thereby to the stone. Frequently three, four, six or ten plates are attached to one stone, and they all receive their polish at the same time. 3. This stone, with the plates of glass adhering to it, is placed upon a table, and under this stone on the same table is placed another machine, also of stone [on which likewise plates of glass are fastened]. On the top of the first stone, however, is put a wooden frame with six or seven compartments, in which sand as well as weights are placed, so that this frame lies more evenly and presses equally upon the glass underneath which is to be polished. It is to be borne in mind that the operation of polishing is always performed by two sets of glass plates, one lying upon the other, and by these two sets the whole of the polishing is done. 4. The machine is set in motion by a water-wheel, which turns a hook bent into the form of a triangle, and by this four arms are turned, each in its turn. To each of these arms four or five hooks are attached, eighteen in all, which are inserted in little balls turning in all directions, and fastened to the upper stone; and by the reciprocal motion of this upper stone or table to which the plate of glass is attached the polishing is effected. 5. It is to be observed, that this upper table moves in all directions; for it may be revolved like a wheel or in a circle, so that it should not always move in the same way, and by the interposition of the sand become deeper in some places than in others, and thus make grooves in the glass.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 28 The circle in the middle, where the hook of the machine is inserted, is thus movable in all directions, and to one machine there are in this way attached eighteen pairs of stones. 6. When the plates of glass are to be polished, the coarsest kind of sand is at first used, and for about eight days; afterwards another kind of coarse sand, a little finer than the first, is used; this also lasts for six or seven days; subsequently a still finer sand; and at last the finest kind of white sand, which is called Streusand; each of these operations also requires from five to six days. There are thus four stages in the attenuation of the glass by means of the sand. This ought not to be called a process of polishing, but rather of grinding. 7. After all this is finished, the same plates of glass are polished by means of emery, which is of a red colour and of a coarser substance. The plates of glass are placed for this purpose upon other similar stones and they are fastened to them in a similar manner; and by means of the same machine and by the same reciprocal motion, i. e. by a continuous motion forwards and backwards, the polishing is accomplished; one glass rubbing against the other by being laid upon it, and both being polished at the same time. The emery is dissolved in mater, and by means of a sponge or the hand is poured upon the lower plate of glass; the upper plate is also during this operation turned in all directions, so that the polishing is performed lengthways and sideways, as well as in all other directions. This work is usually accomplished in three days. 8. After the plates of glass have thus been worked upon and attenuated, and polished for the first time, they are headed over to women, who in a similar manner place two plates of glass one upon the other and move them to and fro with their right hands and arms, and this continuously for a whole day, putting between the two plates a yellower and finer emery which comes in the form of cones. 9. Lastly this plate undergoes another process of polishing; it is placed in another but similar machine, and during this last or sixth time a red earth is interposed, which is called English earth; and seems to be a sort of bole, of a red colour, but very fine, oily, and smooth.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 29 The plate has this time a smaller top-plate applied to it, which cannot be revolved in every direction, but which is drawn lengthways up and down the glass; the red English earth dissolved in water being constantly applied to it. This operation generally lasts twelve hours. Meanwhile the plate of glass appears perfectly polished and smooth, and is reduced to the required thickness, and ready for being converted into a mirror. This last machine is arranged like the former with the difference that the upper grinder is smaller.

With respect to the fastening of the foil to the glass, that a mirror may be produced, this is done in the following way: 1. Tables of marble or stone are provided of the proper size, and of such a quality, that they can be polished in the best style; otherwise glass tables answer the purpose; these tables are furnished with a rim all round. 2. Tin-foil is required, so thin, that one hundred foils placed above one another are scarcely half an inch in thickness. 3. This tin-foil is spread on the table and quick-silver poured upon it; and these amalgamate. Upon this the plate of glass is placed, and upon the glass, weights; in the middle weights of brick and on the sides weights of lead; with these the plate of glass is thoroughly loaded. 4. In this condition it is left for a whole night. The tin and quick-silver are meanwhile amalgamated; the tin disappears, and they are both attached to the glass and remain firmly united to it, and thus the plate of glass is converted into a mirror. 5. The superfluous part of mercury flows off of its own accord; but in case any of it still adhere, the mirrors are now raised obliquely, and all the superfluous metal, which would still have remained, flows off. 6. The foiling of cut glass shall now be described. For lately a process has been discovered by which figures are cut on the back of a plate of glass, so as to produce the appearance of the engraving being on the front. In order that the foil may enter into these excavations and folds, the plate is put back again upon a layer made of cloth of Indian wool, folded several times, and upon this some weights are laid, so that the foil may enter more readily into the incisions and excavations made upon the glass.

With respect to the attenuation of tin into foil the following particulars may be mentioned: 1. For this purpose only the tin which comes from the East Indies is used; the Saxon tin is said to be unfit for this purpose, because it breaks into pieces under the hammer, and becomes wrinkled, so that it is impossible to obtain from it a continuous leaf or foil.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 30 2. After the tin has been poured out into thin sheets, and cut into square pieces, the workman pounds it continuously, until at last he is able to pass one hundred at the same time under his hammer; he strikes the tin leaves but lightly with his hammer. At last a leaf, which at first measured only six inches square, is beaten and attenuated so much, that it measures from one and a half to two ells square. 3. The working out of one hundred of such leaves, is said to occupy from five to six weeks.

July 8. I perused the first part of a work entitled: Bibliothque Italique; ou Histoire Littraire de l'Italie, which treats of the following: In the first volume the writers on Italian history are reviewed. The editors are said to be a society consisting of sixteen persons. The laws of the Langobards in Italy are first discussed, from which it is thought the manners of peoples may be known. These laws were passed in 638, and they were long in vogue in Italy; they continued until the year 1137, when Lothair II was emperor. At that time three codes of laws were in existence: the Roman, the Salian, and the Langobardian. It is questionable, however, whether they are as yet so far abrogated, that no judgment may be passed in accordance with them. The Langobardian laws, or the laws of Lombardy, have been edited several times, and they are similar in tenor to the laws of the northern nations, e. g. they permit duels with staves, &c. When a wife is killed without a just cause, a fine is inflicted; a natural son also inherits a share, &c. It is worth investigating, whether the ancient Swedish laws coincide with these, or not; and what difference there was between them; from which it may be deduced whether the Goths in conjunction with the Germans subjugated Italy.

July 10. At the House of Secretary Rger I saw Wolf's18 Cosmologia generalis; he endeavours to establish the nature of the elements from merely metaphysical principles; his theory is based on sound Foundations.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 31

Afterwards I read La Bibliothque Italique for the year 1728, and there I found a review of Michael Mercati's Metallotheca, where it is stated that Albertus Magnus [who died in 1880], is the only one who in former centuries published any methodical treatise upon minerals; that he was followed by Camillus Leonardi in the sixteenth century, and also by Mathiole Fallopius, Valerius Cordo, and Agricola, of whom the latter was most successful. Mercati studied with Andreas Csalpinus, and died in 1593; his work, however, was published after his death by Pope Clement XI; 120 years after the death of the author M. Lancisi added notes to it. The contents of the book are as follows: 1. The earths; 2. salt and saltpetre; 3. Alum; 4. acid and acrid juices, vitriol, orpiment, and sandarach; 5. The bituminous juices; 6. Marine plants; 7. Stones which are similar to earths; 8. The stone bezoar; 9. Figured stones; 10. Marble. The author intended to prepare a second volume on the spars, the precious stones, gold, silver, copper, &c.; but his death prevented its accomplishment.

The anatomist Bianchi has published several anatomical disputations, in which he has explained the mechanism of the human body. He is desirous of publishing in Turin two volumes in folio, on all the parts of the human body and their mechanism, with reference to their diseases and cures.

Jean Jerome Zannichelli has published in Venice a natural history of the island which is contiguous to Venice. Last Sear hg published an excellent dissertation on iron and a certain crystalline salt without taste which is extracted from iron, and on the preparation of its snow [i. e. on the exsication of that salt]. He mentions many particulars concerning this metal incidentally.

July 11. I perused Peter Horrebow's Clavis Astronomi (The Key of Astronomy), published in Copenhagen in 1730, where I found nothing to notice except some hypotheses of no value; he quotes, however, several experiments made by others, which are worthy of notice, viz. 1. The celebrated Teichmejer, the weather being very hot and the sky perfectly serene, filled a glass cylinder with ice and common salt, the same being quite dry on the outside, and exposed it to the air. In the space of an hour he noticed that a crust of ice, very much like boar-frost, had formed on the outside of the glass to the thickness of more than the little finger.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 32 2. He filled to a certain point a phial with most refined oil of vitriol, and afterwards noticed that the quantity of the liquid increased in the driest and hottest days. 3. A pendulum which vibrates a second in Paris is 3 feet 8,556 lines long, but under the equator it is 2 lines shorter. The author formed a table of the length of the pendulum for every latitude:

Under latitude 0 its length must be 3 feet,        6.823 lines,

"        10       "                      3 "       6.915              "

"        20       "                     3 "       7.180              "

"        30       "                     3 "       7.587              "

"        40       "                     3 "       8.085              "

"        50       "                     3 "       8.617              "

"        60       "                     3 "       9.117              "

"        70       "                     3 "       9.524              "

"        80       "                     3 "       9.789              "

"        90       "                     3 "       9.881              "

July 12. I again visited the orange garden, or the botanic garden, and noticed there: 1. A palm-tree with its bark, leaves, and fruit; 3. An Egyptian acacia with its thorns; 3. The sirium Judaicum; 4. A tall dragon-tree with an uneven stem; 5. The tree on which coffee berries grow; their outer portion is eatable, in their interior the beans lie concealed; 6. An orange-tree, the circumference of which is two ells, its weight ten hundred-weight, and its length two ells. The trunks are transported from Italy without roots and leaves, both being cut off; it is placed in a pot with earth and tied round with moss, and after a year the trunk throws out roots, and produces twigs and leaves.

I deemed it useful to extract the following from the Bibliotheca Italica concerning the mode in which Mr. Woodward classifies the minerals, salts, metals, and earths. He does it in the French language, as follows: [As this classification, which is contained in the Bibliotheca Italica, Vol. II, p. 117 is entirely out of date, we do not deem it necessary to translate it for the benefit of our readers. Swedenborg closes his extract with the following description of a meteor:]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 33 With respect to the meteor which was seen at Venice in the year 1719, it is said, that various colours appeared in the sky, a certain flamy something, a ball from which smoke proceeded, &c.: from all of which circumstances it is surmised that it was some kind of sulphur. Another declares, that the chemists are able to exhibit similar phenomena, as dragons, fire-balls, which made by mixing sulphur, salt-petre, camphor, and petroleum, and by saturating the mixture with spirits of wine, and afterwards by evaporation.

July 13. Mention is made in the Bibliotheca Italica* of anatomists; as, for instance, of M. Ruysch, of Holland, and of M. Des Nous, who constructs the bodily organs of wax. M. Bianchi has made an arrangement in anatomy, that everything may be laid open and seen without any ill scent; and, indeed, so naturally, that the whole body of a woman being dissected beforehand is opened in a moment, the skin is drawn off. All the arteries and nerves are exposed, and the interior organs are examined in the natural position, the womb with the ftus, and many other things; all of which can at once be put together again. He has made most elect delineations of the organ of hearing and of sight, where also the mechanism of sight and the influx of the ether are demonstrated. In like manner he has made most exquisite carvings of the veins, the brain, and the nerves.

* Vol. III, p. 63.

From the paper of Francisco Travagini on the earthquakes of Italy [the following particulars are extracted]. The times that precede and follow the equinoxes are the seasons at which earthquakes occur; the vibration is made from the east to the west, and vice versa, as may be noticed by those who are standing; it appears also from the waves and the canals, from the houses and other buildings, and the swinging lamps and bells therein. It was noticed that this reciprocal motion is always joined with a lateral vibration, but not near the place where the earthquake occurs; this motion or this vibration diminishes according to distance; the vibration may be felt in places which are far distant.

M. Rizzetti has published "A system of colours, with his objections to Newton," in Latin, at Treviso, 8vo.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 34

M. Bourguet: Lettres philosophiques sur la formation des sels et des cristaux, et sur la gnration et le mcanisme des de la pierre lenticulaire, avec un mmoire sur la thorie de la terre (Philosophical letters on the formation of salts and crystals, and on the generation and the mechanism of plants and animals, on the occasion of the belemnite stone and the lenticular stone, with a paper on the theory of the earth); the author is a Genevese; the book was printed by l'Honor in Amsterdam, 1729.

N. B. Le Journal latin de l'academie des curieux de la nature (The Latin journal of the Academy of the investigators of nature); likewise Le Journal des savans de Venise (Journal of the learned of Venice).

Hesperi et Phosphori nova phnomena, seu observationes circa planetam Veneris (New phenomena of the evening and morning star, or observations concerning the planet Venus), by Francisco Blanchini of Verona, with ten figures, 92 pages, folio, Rome.* There are spots on this planet as on the moon, which are perhaps oceans; it appeared through the telescope 112 times larger than to the naked eye. These spots followed in order and vanished on account of the diurnal motion of the planet. As the equator is differently situated there, it produces a change in the observation of the spots; the poles are in a perpendicular plane in respect to the ecliptic, and are in the direction of the centre of the sun. There was a certain spot which remained, while the others revolved; that spot was in the middle. The north-pole appeared subsequently; it had the appearance of a semi-circle. Its equator seemed most oblique towards the plane of the orb, and the axis, around which it revolved, seemed to incline much to that plane, which is the same as our ecliptic, about 3-1/2 degrees the angle formed by the axis in that plane is about 15 degrees. On account of the great obliquity of its equator in respect to its orbit or orb, a great diversity in the seasons of spring, autumn, etc. results. For the sun recedes 75 degrees from the equator on both sides. The planet Mars, however, is constantly in a state of equinox.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 35 The daily revolution of the planet Venus according to the common opinion is 23 hours, see Cassini, Gregory, Keil, Whiston. According to the observation of the author, however, it lasts 24 days and 8 hours, or 584 hours. The planet Jupiter, however, revolves more quickly than our earth. The planet Venus is removed from the earth about 8000 of the earth's semi-diameters.

* See Bibliothque Italique, Vol. VII, p. 82.

Concerning the learned men of Italy the following statement is made in the Bibliothque Italique, for the year 1730, Part III, [Vol. IX, p. 187]: Bonar. Cavalieri is said to have first invented the calculus of infinites published in a book, in 1653, with this title: Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum nova quadam ratione promota. The same is almost confessed by M. Fontenelle; some attribute. The former of these, however, confesses, that this is due to M. Viette. Cavalieri's disciples wrote the same thing; as Pietro Mengoli in 1659, in a work entitled: Geometri specios elementa; and likewise Etienne de Angelis, who wrote on the infinite parabolas. Afterwards Grandi also wrote concerning "The Infinites of Infinites;" and subsequently others, as Alessandro Marchetti, Paolo Mattie Doris, Giacinto Cristofori, Antonio Monforte, Francesco Spoleti, Giuseppe Sassi, Lorenzo Lorenzini, Count Fagnani, and many others skilled in that science.

In hydrostatics Marquis Poleni wrote concerning structures (castella) through which the waters of rivers pass, the sides of which structures converge; he made also new experiments on flowing water, and on the forces of percussion; farther Thomaso Narducci, and Antonio Michelotti who treated of the separation of fluids in the living body, and [who wrote also against the book of Jurinus, which bears the title]* De motu aquaraum fluentium (On the motion of flowing water); observations were likewise made by Corradi and Manfredi.

* See Bibliothque Italique, Vol. IX, p. 201.

In dioptrics Giovanni Rizzetti invented many things; he also called attention to many errors in Newton.

With respect to astronomy, geography, and navigation there were not many Italians who cultivated these sciences; still some interesting things are furnished by Giuseppe Nardi, Eustachio Manfredi, Blanchini, Marquis Poleni and also Gaetano Fontana.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 36

In physics, anatomy, and medicine there were Galilei, Toricelli, Borelli and Castelli, who first treated on the mechanism of fluids; Castelli Adella misura deli' acque correnti" (on the measurement of flowing water). Vallisnieri in respect to the seminal animalcules is of the opposite opinion of Leuwenhoek, Hartsoeker and Audry. Further Malpighi, Bellini, and Redi in anatomy and natural history; Jacinto Cestoni on the origin of insects; Giovanni Battista Morgagni wrote anatomical miscellanies (adversaria). Giovanni Maria Lancisi had respect to medicine in his physical experiments with the aid of geometry. Again there was Ramztzzini in medicine; likewise Guglielmini, Domenico Sangenito, Felice Stochetti, Giacinto Vogli, Domenico Prlistichelli, and Pietro Alitonio Michelotti. Ant. Maria Vrtsalvo treated of the human ear in 1704. Giovanni Fantoni, Bernardo Trevisano, Genaro Pisani, Giov. Battista Mazino, Francesco Gogrossi, Zanichelli, Bart. Boschetti, Luigi della Fabra, Conti, Luigi Ferd. Marsigli, Aless. Pascoli, Giov. Battista Felice, and Constantino Grimalcli. Riccato treated on the proportion of objects and the mechanism of the senses.

Painting. The first who imparted life to paintings was Giotto. Afterwards in the sixteenth century there was Raphael, who died in his thirty-seventh year; afterwards Coreggio and Titian. The last century began with Cignani, and after him Carlo Maratti. The present century also has illustrious painters: Franceschini, Solimeni, Giuseppe del Sole, Barino, Celesti, Viani, Santi Pauli, Bellucci, Gambarini, Gabbiani, Pietro Leon Ghezzi. In perspective painting Pozzi, Cavazzoni, Castellini. Bistega and Bibieni had not their equals. Those who maintained the fame of the school of Cignani were Felice Cignano, Bonaventura Lamberti, Ludovico Antonia David. Of Maratti's school are: Antonio Balestra and Girolamo Odamo. Of Franceschini's school is Domenico Tempesti. Of the school of Giuseppe del Sole are Pelice Torelli and Giuseppe Mazzoni.

The first in sculpture were Margaritone, Andrea Pisani, and Pietro Cavallino; in the last century, Antonio Lombardo Alessandro Algardi, and especially Bernini; in the sixteenth century, Paolo Romano, Leonardo Sormano, Bavio Pandinello.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 37 At present there are Gian. Battista Foggini, Giuseppe Mazzoli, Giuseppe Mazza, Girolamo Odamo, and Giuseppe Piamontini. There are several families of sculptors from Rovetta.

Architecture was cultivated by Bramante, Baroccio, Serlio, Sansovino, Fontana; these all derived their art from Michael Angelo Buonarotti, who possessed it in a wonderful manner. First of all, however, it was revived by Leon Battista Alberti and Brunellesca. At the present day it has been filled with new ideas chiefly by Borromini; at the present day there are also Carlo Fontana and Foggini.

July 15. The Transactions of the Academy of Sciences at Bologna are printed by Lelio de Vulpi, under this title: De Bononiensi scientiarum et artium instituto, atque Academi commentarii, Bononi, 1731. The first part contains the history of the Academy; a list of its members, and what sciences were investigated by it. The second part contains the transactions from the beginning of the academy to the year 1724; it is divided into nine sections, all of which have respect to Natural Philosophy, and comprise Chemistry, Anatomy, Medicine, Physics, Mechanics, Analysis, Geography, Astronomy, Meteorology; Bologna, 4to.

Something is worth noting in the letters of Poleni of Padua to some of the learned:* He often saw Mercury in the solar disc; upon entering it was first of an oval, and afterwards of a round form; which is a sign that it is surrounded by an atmosphere. The Parisians, however, maintain that Mercury has been perfectly round even upon entering. Mercury appeared on the sun as a minute spot, equal to the size ten lines. 2. Concerning the velocity of water which is bursting out. Through an opening of three lines in the diameter, from the height of thirteen feet, 691 cubic inches of water flow out in one minute; upon being calculated as a cylinder, the water is equivalent to a cylinder of 1173 feet, the base of which has a diameter of three lines. If, however, the body falls in a vacuum from the height of thirteen feet, on account of the velocity which it acquires, it can run over a distance of 1680 feet.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 38 The author instituted also an experiment for the same height of thirteen feet, the diameter of the opening being three lines: in the thinnest kind of a lamina of iron, 607 cubic inches flow out; in a copper lamina, but in the form of a trunk (sed trunci instar), 713 cubic inches flow out. After a cylindrical tube of the length of thirteen lines was affixed to the opening, 809 cubic inches of water flowed out in the same time; after the tube had been shortened and made of a conical shape, 859 cubic inches flowed out; after it was shortened still more, so that it was only seven lines long, 907 cubic inches flowed out. After these are reduced into the velocities acquired, the following ratios are obtained: 1030, 1064, 1210, 1373, 1508, and 1536 feet. The title of Buteonus' book is here added,** De fluentium aquarum mensura (On the measurement of flowing water), with notes, 1554.

* See Bibliothque Italique, Vol. XI, p. 8.

** See Bibliothque Italique, Vol. XII, p. 19.

Borelli has written concerning the motion of animals; he has opened a wide field for mathematics and medicine. Pernouilli also has instituted many investigations into the motion of the muscles. Vercelloni [has written a work with this title]: Psychologia, seu motuum animalium et reciprocorum machin animalis theoria medica, omnes humanos actus autoptica et facili quamvis hactenus inaudita, methodo explanans (Psychology, or a medical theory respecting the motions of animals and the reciprocal motions of the animal machine, by which all human actions or motions are explained to the sight and by an easy, although hitherto unheard of, method), Asti.

July 20. In the company of Messrs. Michaeli and Rger I was in the museum of natural history. There I first examined a great variety of petrifactions of all kinds, in slate, lime-stone, and white clay. Six Ilmenau specimens which were always in a central (nucleari) or round stone; there were also so-called eagle-stones (tites), Florentine dendrites, and others; figured crystalline stones of various kinds. Of the vegetable kingdom there were more than 400 species of wood; four statues of cypress wood, which were very fragrant; corals of a diversity in kind and in colour. Of the animal kingdom, animals of every kind, with their skeletons; among which was one of a stag formed of nothing but burnt horns (cervus ex pure cornubus ustis factus?); a horse with an extremely long tail, and animal skeletons.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 39 Among the anatomical subjects I saw a human skull of very great thickness; various kinds of stones taken from animals and human beings; a bearded virgin; an infant with a great head; a living [i. e. moving] mechanism of the organs, nerves, and the interior muscles. Of the mineral kingdom, large pieces of native gold in lumps, as well as in thin leaves; likewise native silver; ores of all kinds of metals; of copper I saw crude copper; of iron, native iron, its flowers of various kinds; large pieces of schist and blood-stone, end a magnet of great power; cobalt of most beautiful red fibres; the best amber of Various colours, white, dendritic, with incisions or stripes (cum insectis), wavy, and in large pieces; shells of every kind. Many shells of various kinds are also in the so-called grotto or cave. In astronomy I saw large lenses or burning glasses, instruments [for astronomical purposes], convex mirrors, and a large time-piece.

July 21. I departed for Prague in Bohemia, where I arrived on the 23rd of July, after passing through only two rather small towns, Budin and Wlwarn.

July 23. I reached Prague, where I stayed at a house or hotel, near the custom-house,[?] called Tein.

I took a walk through Prague to have a look at the city, and went 1. To the bridge over the river Moldau, which consists of eighteen arches; there are statues of various kinds upon it, and at both ends towers where the balls fired by the Swedes in 1648 are still visible. I visited the cathedral of St. Vitus where I saw the tomb of the martyr Sobieslaw, on each side of which is a silver altar; over the tomb are silver lamps, and above them a heart of wrought gold; there is also another altar on the side of pure gold. Around the altar is an immense number of sacrificial gifts or offerings of silver; such as hearts, feet, urns, and a thousand other objects. Outside the church a tower, by no means inconsiderable, may be seen, and a painting, which occupies almost a whole side, and, although it has been exposed to the rain for years, is still uninjured. I have not yet succeeded in seeing the chapel of St. Wenceslaus and the relies. 3. I entered the archbishop's house;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 40 4. Likewise the magnificent palaces of others, dukes and counts. 5. I visited the church of St. Loretto or of the Franciscans; the church itself is small, and is surrounded by cloisters studded with paintings, chapels, and altars. 6. There, in St. Loretto, I succeeded in seeing their treasury, where are monstrances, urns, crosses, vessels, hearts, altar ornaments, &c. of massive silver; there were also many articles of gold. In one monstrance was such a collection of pearls, that I could not sufficiently admire it; one pearl was so large, that its value could not be estimated; there were several others like it, but irregular; there was one large pearl suspended from it which was perfectly round besides many others. One monstrance, however, the present of a countess, surpassed all the others; it consisted of 6666 diamonds, many of which were so large as to be worth from 2000 to 3000 imperial thalers; the whole monstrance, however, must have cost from 150,000 to 200,000 florins, or from 75,000 to 100,000 imperial thalers. But the whole treasure must represent a value of from 600,000 to 800,000 imperial thalers. I saw also the building [die Burg, the castle], where the assemblies are held four times in the year; likewise the place where three men mere thrown out of a window and fell down unharmed; three columns are erected there; there is also a bronze statue of St. George, which is most skilfully cast and life-like. From this place I could obtain a view of the whole city, which is very large. I saw also the place where the women fought against the married men; the palace and fortified castle, where Lobomisia,[?] the mother of Wenceslaus,* with her carriage and horses, fell through the earth and was swallowed up; besides many other things. 7. Afterwards I went to see the Church of St. Nicholas or of the Jesuits, with their house; they have several churches and splendid edifices. In the town of Prague there are more than a hundred churches and fifty monasteries; it contains about 80,000 inhabitants. 8. I passed through the market-place and the quarter where the Jews live; everything there was unclean and filthy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 41 9. From the mountain where the cathedral rises, the whole town may be seen, and also that church which preserves the wood which was conveyed hither by the devil from Rome. 10. I examined also the town-hall with its curious clock, which points out the hours, and also the lunar periods; likewise all kinds of statues placed in various parts of the streets and public squares.

* Wenceslaus, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, was the son of Wratislaw and Drakomira, not Lobomisia.

July 25. I was in the monastery of the Jesuits, the AJesuitencloster,"* which is situated in the old town or Altstadt, where I first of all admired the magnificence of the building itself. It is very large, equalling, if not surpassing, the palaces of kings; it has numerous passages, leading in every direction, both in the lower and the higher stories; no palace in Prague surpasses it in size and splendour. They have likewise a gymnasium [a higher school] and a church. The church is small but elegant; its columns are of marble, as well those which are round, and which surround the altar, as those which are near the walls and in the outer circumference about the altar. No marble can be more precious; the figures in it play delightfully on account of the variety of the colours, just as if they were dendrites from Italy. I have never seen anything more beautiful than this marble, which is said to have been quarried in Bohemia. I afterwards entered their mathematical chamber, where I saw the greatest variety of mathematical instruments, air-pumps, &c. What, however, attracted the eye most, was the number of their mechanical and optical contrivances; of which they had a large stock, wherewith to impose upon the simple. For instance, there were a machine which caused a young man to beat a drum, his lips and eyes, and his head moving at the same time; likewise artificial balls which by an interior mechanism showed the degrees of the sun in the ecliptic; a clock which not only struck the hours, but also played melodies, and indicated on a globe the motion of the sun, and over what regions the sun passed in the meridian, and over which it did not pass; likewise what the time is everywhere. There were also paintings which changed their countenances by machinery. Through holes also men could be seen coming up, who were startled when the house was opened without anybody being there to do it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 42 In optics they had camer obscur of various kinds, the glasses presenting in perspective with barking dogs the most varied scenes of real life; further some caustic mirrors, and likewise at parabolical metallic mirror of copper gilt. There were Chinese letters and books; their astronomical figures and artistic paintings; and a letter written by their emperor; besides many other things, the sole purpose of which is to impose upon those who are simple. They have also a splendid astronomical tower. I entered, too, their superb library, which consisted, however, only of old books and old manuscripts, dating from the fathers and Euclid[?] and others. The place is richly decorated, but the books are old, and mostly of the schoolmen. They showed me a Bible translated from the Latin into German by Rdiger, and published in Nuremberg in 1483, or thirty-four years before Luther's version. Afterwards I saw the pictures with emblems, which they expose instead of a disputation, so that they may be defended publicly.

* Now the so-called Collegium Clementinum.

They have a most elegant painting, which is to be affixed to the walls. They are very busy; besides the servants, there are two hundred in that building, and in another there are about two hundred more. They accept only such as are wealthy and talented.

I walked thence to the volcano, or to the place where I was told a few months ago the fire burst out. It is simply an immense congeries of dung, earth, dirt, clay, offal, wood, stalks, and sticks, which had been collected for nearly a thousand years, and in time had assumed the dimensions of an enormous heap. This congeries abounds with saltpetre and sulphur, and if water is added to it, it catches fire. This may appear also from the consideration, that near that mountain or heap a house has been built, where saltpetre is boiled out of that earth which seems most fit for the purpose. This house was built many years ago, and much of the soil has been used up; so that we have proof positive of its abounding in saltpetre and sulphur.

I made investigations also into the orders of monks; there are chiefly four. The Franciscans have a grey robe of the coarsest kind, tied with a rope, the Benedictines are clothed in white, the Jesuits in black, and the Dominicans in white and black.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 43

July 28. I saw the chapel and the tomb of St. Wenceslaus, which is extremely handsome; its walls are formed of precious stones, such as jasper and other transparent stones; which are, however, set in a crude form; they are of red, purple, reddish, and yellow.

July 29. I travelled from Prague to Carlsbad, which is a distance of fourteen German miles.

July 30. I reached Carlsbad, respecting which I may mention the following particulars: 1. It is surrounded on all sides by lofty mountains, consisting of common grey stone, and covered with wood. 2. There are openings from this valley into the level country beyond on the two sides only, where the river flows in and out. 3. The town, which is not large, is situated in this deep valley, in the bosom of so many towering mountains. 4. In the middle of the town is a very hot spring, which bubbles high up, and is of a very high temperature. 5. It is led by pipes into all the houses situated along the banks of the river, where hot and cold baths may be had. 6. There is another spring which comes right out of the mountain at one end of the town, and the water of which is tepid. 7. The channel of the spring is under the stream, where its rushing may be heard. Once it burst out there, and the spring ceased flowing where it is now, until after a great deal of labour the opening was filled up again. 8. Where the spring flows under ground there are the thickest kind of incrustations, like stones, through which it flows as through pipes. 9. The petrifactions or incrustations underground are of a snowy whiteness; they are hard and compact, and can be polished; where the strata are exposed, they are of a different colour, and can also be polished. Outside the water all these incrustations are yellow, and are either harder or softer; the nearer they are to the mouth of the spring the darker and yellower they become. 10. If the water stands still a film forms upon it, which is very shining. It consists possibly of dissolved lime, and, when collected, serves as a powder for cleaning the teeth. 11. The water tastes saltish, and is drunk very freely; it is very rarely used for bathing, on account of the great quantity of lime it contains, which obstructs the pores, instead of opening them, as water generally does.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 44 This is the reason why bathing in this water cannot be very useful. Outside the town are iron-works, and also a paper-mill.

August 6. From Carlsbad I journeyed to the mining towns which are situated in the neighbourhood of Saxony; and the first I reached was Schlaggenwald, a small town, but rich in tin, like the neighbouring towns of Schnfeld and Lauterbach. These towns have a common interest, because they are in one neighbourhood, and all yield tin. There are several mines around Schlaggenwald; and, indeed, the most important mine is near Schlaggenwald, not far from the town, whence diverge several veins and ramifications. Two of the mines there are glandular, the Stockwerk, and likewise one at Schnfeld. The ores from the Stockwerk, and from the veins running out thence in various directions, are not treated in the same furnaces, end by the same methods. A like difference exists in the method of fusing the tin ore pursued at Schlaggenwald and at Schnfeld. The reason given is that there is a difference in the veins which are in the very nucleus or core of the mine, and those that branch out from it. The principal difference consists in the construction and dimensions of the furnaces and the blast holes.

The mines are deep; at Schnfeld they reach to a depth of from 300 to 400 ells; in other places they are not deeper than from 100 to 150 ells. The veins themselves in the ramifications are sometimes not thicker than an ell, and sometimes only half an ell. Some are even thinner, but, nevertheless, the ore in them is of a rich quality. With regard to the various kinds of veins, there is first that which is the richest of all, and is called Zinngraupen. Of this there are two kinds; one a whitish, and the other a blackish, and there are also intermediate colours of a dark yellowish shade; the veins of the yellowish colour are the heaviest, and they differ from the others in being of an angular form, and frequently swelling into glands (druser). The white ore occurs in large masses, and is not figured like the black; the white also is scarcer than the black and dark yellowish kinds.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 45 Secondly, there is tungsten, also very black and heavy, growing in similar figures; it is, however, in the inside very jagged and streaky. It does not seem to contain any tin whatever, but, on the contrary, does considerable injury to the tin, if it is melted with the other ores; therefore it is cast away as spurious and injurious. Thirdly, besides this useless kind of ore, there is also another common kind, called hermaphrodite (Zwitter) and maulwacke; this consists of the meanest or poorest kind of tin ore; it looks like common grey rock, except that there are black or dark yellowish, angular spots in it. The rock in which these spots occur is of a white and yellowish colour; these spots appear also scattered over a barren, shining rock, and they become more distinct, when once the stone has been submitted to a calcining fire; the white part of the stone and the black part of the tin ore are then rendered more manifest. There is another ore, which can scarcely be distinguished by the eye from a grey stone with a horny aspect. It is distinguished by trying it in a vessel by means of water. In this case the ore first ground into powder, and then its heavier parts are separated from the lighter by washings and shakings. By this means it can very easily be seen how much real tin ore there is in it, and how much stone. The metals which chiefly adhere to these tin ores, and usually accompany them, are copper and marcasite, as well as iron; the marcasite is cast aside, because it renders the tin brittle and hard. Some silver also is opened up around the tin ore, but rarely, and only in the vicinity; a little lead, too, occurs, but that very rarely.

1. This common kind of ore is calcined or burned for the first time in the open air. The calcining hearths are almost square, built of common rock, and larger or smaller at pleasure; from five to six cords (klafter) of split wood, pieces being an ell and a half long, are usually placed under them; one klafter is about as much as one pair of horses can pull. The larger pieces of ore are put on the sides of the hearths, and the smaller, or sometimes the smaller and larger mixed, into the interior of the heap. The powder is likewise put in. In the front part of the heap there is an opening near the ground, which is kept open when the fire is first lighted, but is afterwards closed, in order that the fire may burn longer in the heap.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 46 These heaps are of various sizes, but usually they contain sixty filder of ore; one fuder amounting to sixty buckets (vasa). After the fire is lighted, and the opening in front, which leads to the interior structure of wood, has been opened and afterwards shut, it lasts generally three weeks. 2. After this ore has thus, for the first time, been calcined in the open air, it is taken into the crushing mill and bruised into powder. In one building there are several crushing hammers; each crushing box has usually three; in each will there are four or five such boxes. The hammers are very heavy, each being weighted by a large piece of iron beneath, and they do their work in the usual fashion. 3. The powder which is obtained by the crushing of the ore is first washed in the Schlammbank, which is a kind of short trough formed of two walls, and consisting of two steps, a partition or a dam being across its foot. By passing it up and down (reactiones) the thicker and heavier powder is separated from that which is lighter. Afterwards the powder is transferred to the washing grounds, which are furnished with cloths or sods, where it is washed in the usual way; the operation of washing being continued until nothing of the stony part remains, and only the pure ore can be seen; this ore also is tried and experimented upon by the assayers in their assaying vessels. 4. After the ore has been reduced to powder, and the metallic portion separated from the stony, it is put into an oven, which is not unlike a baker's oven, or those used in Saxony for calcining their silver ores. This oven is bound (laqueatus); it is about six ells long, four broad, and an ell and a half high; the opening is semicircular. Into this oven a large quantity of the pulverized ore is introduced, and pieces of wood are thrust in everywhere, in front as well as behind. By this fire the pulverized ore becomes more and more glowing, and by constantly putting in fresh wood it is ignited. This powdered ore burning at white heat is continually stirred, and that which is near the opening of the oven is pushed into the interior, and vice versa; care being taken that it does not lie too thick, not thicker than one inch; by stirring the mass continually time is not given to it to lump.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 47 This calcining usually lasts from fourteen to eighteen hours, and the better the calcining is done in this oven, the better the tin is said to separate afterwards and to liquefy; and the softer and better the tin itself becomes. After the burning is finished, the ore is left in the oven for two or three days, until it has become cold; and in this way all the sulphur is expelled from the ore. 6. If the pulverized ore is calcined thus, it does not lump, but remains pulverized, as it was at first; and after being taken out of the oven, it is washed on inclined planes, just as before, and this washing is continued, until nothing except the heaviest part, which is either black or white, remains; if there is anything red remaining, it is a sign that the washing or the separation has not get been sufficiently carried on.

In Schlaggenwald and Schnfeld there are altogether eleven blast furnaces; but they differ somewhat in their construction, and in their interior dimensions. There are some furnaces of which there are a pair or two in one building, so that after the work of smelting or liquefaction is brought to a close in one, it may be continued at once in the other. There are also others which are single, and after the work of smelting has been finished, and some time after the furnaces have become cool, the work is commenced anew. Those furnaces in Schlaggenwald which use glandular ore, or which use the ore from the glandular mine, Stockwerk; have the following proportion in height and breadth, or they are constructed as follows: The solid stone which is the hearth where the tin is smelted, is raised about an ell and a third over the floor of the building or works. Close to this hearth, which is about an ell and a third above the floor, is the opening out of which the molten metal continually pours into a receptacle (tigillum) constructed about half an ell beneath it; for through this little opening the tin with its scori continually flows out in a stream. The hearth is a pure rock, and there is no superstructure upon it of a carbonaceous or argillaceous substance; it is almost horizontal, and slopes only a very little forward. On the opposite side is the blast-hole which is obliquely directed into the interior; it is two-thirds of a foot long, and consists of clay or stone only. Through this oblique hole, the anterior hole through which the liquid metal runs out is visible in a straight line. The bellows are of leather, and not very large.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 48 The interior structure of the furnace [on the base] resembles this figure: It is narrower in the front than in the rear. The wide portion of the figure marks the place where the bellows are. The part an is nine inches long, the part b b eleven inches; the length a b is twenty-two inches. [Drawing] The interior height of the furnace to the opening where the ore is thrown in, is three ells and a half from the stone on which the fire is built. The furnaces at Schnfeld, however, are narrower, the anterior part (a a) is only six inches wide, and the posterior nine inches, the length (a b) is said to amount only to thirteen inches. The reason, they say, is that the vein comes from the nucleus or the centre, or from the Stockwerk, which requires a narrower place or furnace. Then commences the chimney, which first is wider but afterwards, under the roof, narrower. Fig. 1 is the anterior and external view of the furnace; c is the opening through which the liquid metal continually flows out; d is the receptacle (tigillum) into which the tin flows in a continual stream; b, is the place into which the scori are raised, and thence thrown into water and afterwards pulverized. When the receptacle d is full, the opening e is penetrated, and the metal is let out into the excavation f which is in the floor, and which is made in the solid rock. Fig. 2 is the side view of the furnace; h is the upper part of the furnace; i k the place where the pulverized ore together with the charcoal is introduced; l m is an oblong trough or box where the pulverized ore is stored, and upon which the person stands who throws in the ore and the charcoal. On the opposite side to that sketched in fig. 1 are the bellows with the blast-hole. [Drawings, Fig 1 and 2.]

With respect to the introduction of the metal, there is no constant rule as to time for all places. Generally the ore is filled in four times every quarter of an hour, thus sixteen times every hour. In other places it is scarcely filled in twelve times, when the ore is poor, or difficult to melt, and when there is much scoria.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 49 Each time two spadefuls and a bucket of charcoal are thrown in. The pulverized ore is mixed with the pulverized scori; these scori usually pass twice through the furnace, before they are cast aside. The charcoal is moistened considerably or soaked in water. There is thus a crust formed on the top by the charcoal, so that the flame does not seem to burst out anywhere. At first a few buckets of charcoal are put in, and afterwards the ore is introduced in the usual fashion.

This smelting process is generally carried on in one furnace for from eighteen to twenty-four hours; but in the narrower furnaces for upwards of thirty days. The melted tin flows out continually by the hole in front into the upper receptacle, where it is kept, until so much of it is collected that it can be drawn off.

Meanwhile the scori, which continually collect on the melted metal, are taken out, and placed at the side close by. Thence they are taken and thrown into a vessel filled with water, where they are to be reduced to powder. On a table which stands near they are crushed still further, and then mixed with pulverized ore, and again introduced into the furnace. The duality of the smelting process may be seen from the scori, i. e. whether it is difficult or not, and whether there is much heterogeneous matter in the ore, or not. For if the scori are thick and tough, it is a sign that there is much heterogeneous matter contained in it, and that its fusion or separation is more difficult, wherefore the fire has to be tempered and moderated accordingly.

After the tin has been collected in the upper receptacle, it is let out into the small well, cut out of the rock, which is placed on or fastened into the ground. This little well is capacious enough to hold about two and a half hundred-weight of the metal; so much is obtained within six hours. Two hours and a quarter, or two hours and a half, are usually required for obtaining a hundred-weight of tin; and this quantity is derived from two hundred-weight of the tin ore. This hundred-weight is rather heavy; for it weighs 100 pounds at the works; in Prague 120 pounds, and in Nuremberg 140 pounds; the pound being so much heavier near the works. The hundred-weight is sold for fifty-one florins. About eleven of these furnaces or works produce annually about 1200 hundred-weight of tin.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 50

Some of the pulverized ore is, besides, carried away from the washing grounds and the crushing boxes into the passing stream; but the stream is checked in many places by dams, and the ore which is thus rescued, is washed on inclined planes, constructed on the usual plan, and afterwards conveyed to the furnace.

August 7. I reached Lauterbach. Here also tin ore is smelted; there is one furnace at work which is still narrower than those mentioned above; the ore is richer, and its matrix approaches more closely to that of the yellow species.

On my way to Altsattel I saw an iron-work, and also under the same roof a blast-furnace for iron ore, which was only from four to four and a half ells high, while its width or its diameter in the middle was an ell and a quarter; for interdiary it was round. The opening at the side is approached by steps, so that the ore can be conveniently thrown in. During a week from thirty to forty hundred-weight of iron are thrown in, and every day one fuder, or four simple Swedish pots, (test) of coal is used. Every week ten hundred-weight of iron are obtained. The ore itself is rather poor. It is swamp ore, which comes in crusts and in powder, and is almost of a yellow colour.

At Alsattel vitriol is boiled, and sulphur sublimated with respect to the sulphur, there is an oven from two and a half to three ells high, with twelve apertures in the roof, through which the flame may strike. The oven is nine ells long, and three ells broad; at each extremity there is an outlet or door; around the two extremities there is a breadth of three ells and a quarter; for the approaches are wider. The oven itself, however, where the pans or retorts for sublimation are, is not so long; its length being simply seven ells, and its width an ell and a half. There are two stories of these pans or retorts; the upper row contains five, and the lower six, retorts; altogether there are eleven; they are of clay, and each is half a foot in diameter. On the side where the sulphur is collected, the vessels project more and a tile is placed on the top; and soon a square iron receiver, three-quarters of a foot high and the same in width, which rests on a pedestal of stone, is put underneath.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 51 To this the tile which serves as a cover, and which can be taken off and glued on again, is fitted obliquely. Where this receiver and the tile which is on the top meet, there is a small hole for the smoke. The sulphur trickles little by little into this receiver, which is emptied every sixth or eighth hour. Three times in twenty-four hours pyrites is thrown into the retorts, which are exposed to the fire for six hours. It takes two hours to empty the retorts and replace them by fresh ones. The fire continues to burn for twenty-four hours. The retorts are filled almost to the top with this pyrites, which consists of larger or smaller pieces. The sulphur is purified afterwards. The pyrites appears in the fractured surface granulated and of a shilling whiteness; it looks very much like cobalt, or as if it contained arsenic, and it is heavy. These works belong to Count von Nostiz.

To-day I crossed over to Falkenau, which is rather a handsome town. Count von Nostiz formerly lived there.

Towards evening I arrived at Bleistadt, which is situated on a very high mountain, and is surrounded by lofty mountains. Below, at a great depth, the river flows. The situation of this town is most delightful. Lead ore is dug out here which is sold chiefly to Joachimsthal, where it is also smelted.

August 8. I travelled from Bleistadt to Graslitz, which belongs to Count von Nostiz, and where are copper and brass-works.* The mines are about a thousand paces from the town, and are many and various; but in each mine there is only one species of ore. The vein has been worked for more than a hundred years, and the works are still continued; but the veins at the present day are not so rich. 1. There is an ore of a yellow and green colour and minutely granulated; it is imbedded in a greyish stone or in a shining slate; in the former the vein can be very distinctly seen. Sometimes there are richer specimens; these occur naturally in thin layers; but there is very little of this ore. The copper can scarcely be distinguished in it, and yet it is got out of it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 52 2. The poorer kind of ore, in which the grains of the vein cannot be so well distinguished, is taken into a sort of common mill where it is crushed. In one building there are two wheels and six crushing hammers of considerable weight; the crushing boxes are coarse. At the side near the farthest hammer is raised a triangular box, which stands in an oblique direction in respect to the upper part of the side elevation of the hammer. This box is loaded with ore, and at different intervals as much of it as can be received is dropped into the crushing box. Muddy water runs out on both sides of the box, as well through the sieve near the farthest hammer, as through that which is near the first hammer. The streams from both ends meet in a common trough, and the water flows thence somewhat obliquely until it reaches its first dam, which is at a distance of three and a half ells. Only the pulverized ore which remains in this upper part of the trough is collected, the remaining part being allowed to flow off. This powder is first washed in a Schlammbank, which is a narrow and deep box, six ells long, and three quarters of an ell wide; it is taken out thence on inclined planes, where it is washed three times before the powder is in a perfect state. In respect to the richer ore, it is not reduced to powder, but is calcined at once in the open air. The hearth for calcining is from three and a half to four ells in length and breadth, and square; in the rear it is from an ell and three quarters to two ells in height. After the wood has been piled up, the ore is put on, broken into pieces of nearly the same size, each the size of one-half or three-fourths of a fist; 250 hundred-weight of ore are usually calcined at the same time on such a hearth. The heap is not, as in other places, covered with some kind of powder; but after the fire has been kindled, the calcination is continued for nearly a whole meek under the open sky. About five hundred-weight of copper are usually obtained out of such a heap, so that the ore contains two and a half per cent of metal; the poorer kind of ore is also calcined, so that it may be introduced into the furnace at the same time, and may be of assistance to the other ore. 4. There are three furnaces; formerly there were five; they are of the kind called Krummofen.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 53 Their fire-place or retort is of considerable size, and well enclosed in clay and powdered coal. The smelted ore is let off in front towards the side, and is collected first in a smaller and afterwards in a larger well. The furnace is in the interior two and a half feet long, a foot and a half wide, and from the bottom four feet high. On the top is vaulted and of brick, and the smoke is carried off from the furnace, and thus outside the building, through a capacious chimney. 5. Into this furnace the 250 hundred-weight of the above ore are transferred, and yield thirty hundred-weight of copper stone within twenty-four hours; the smelted ore is drawn off at the sides into two wells; this operation takes place three times, or once every eighth hour. 6. The copper stone which is thus obtained, is calcined afterwards five or six times; at first for eight days, and subsequently for a shorter period, so that this operation of calcining is finished within three weeks. Each calcining hearth is three and a half ells long, an ell and a half broad, and an ell and a half high. 7. The calcined stone is now introduced into the Stichofen, which is of the same dimensions as the former furnace in height, breadth, and length, except that the well or receptacle is within the furnace itself, and the liquefied ore is thus kept within the walls; it is afterwards drawn off in front, and there are thus obtained thirteen hundred-weight of Spurstein, but rarely any copper. 8. This stone is now again calcined on the same calcining hearths, and afterwards put back into the furnace, when there are obtained about five hundred-weight of copper; some small portions of the stone float on the top, yet altogether not more than a few pounds. 9. The scori are first introduced in a crude state, but afterwards such are used as have recently passed through the furnace, and so on. 10. At last this black copper, as it is called, is purified. It must be observed that when the stone is smelted a second time, this work lasts from thirteen to fourteen hours; the molten mass is drawn off six or seven times. Likewise, when the stone is put in a third time, and the copper is obtained from it, it is kept in the furnace and in the well or receptacle for thirteen hours, and is drawn off only once, or all the metal at the same time. There is also another kind of furnace, which may either be like a Krummofen, or Stichofen, where the molten mass may be drawn off either in front or at the side. The bellows are of wood.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 54 The blast-hole is of iron, and its mouth round; its shape is conical and its opening large; it is directed towards the front wall, and about half a foot above the opening there.

* A portion of this description has been inserted by the author in his work: Regnum subterraneum de Cupro, Dresden, 1734, pp. 184, 358.

August 9. I reached Platten, where only tilt ore is excavated, partly in a matrix of sand stone and partly in slate. Not far from it the blue colour is manufactured.

This colour is prepared in the following manner: 1. One part or one hundred-weight of cobalt, one hundred-weight of potash, and two hundred-weight of white sand are mixed. With respect to the cobalt, this is brought from Joachimsthal. If the potash is crude and black, it is first calcined in an oven, which is like a baker's oven. The sand is obtained from the whitest quartz which is burnt at first in the open air, and afterwards in an oven, which is close by, or attached to that oven in which the above mixture is fused, so that the smelting of the mass and the second calcining may be effected by one and the same fire. There results hence a very white fine sand. The proportions of the mixture are different when the cobalt and the potash are not of an equally good quality. 2. This oven is almost round externally; there are four openings, which lead to the retorts or pans enclosed in it, in which the mixture is liquefied. There are also holes below leading into these, through which the scori are dropped out. In the rear and in front are openings or doors leading to the fire, through which pieces of wood are thrown in. The reverberated flame can be tempered by opening the door in front more or less. Attached to this is a square oven, in which, as said above, the sand is burnt a second time. The large oven is almost quadrangular in the interior; the retorts rest on a paved surface with holes, through which the fire strikes in. 3. Four retorts are placed on this surface; they are made of the hardest kind of clay; their diameter is one ell, and their height three-quarters of an ell. 4. Into these retorts the above-mentioned mixture is put, and is smelted by the fire underneath; every eighth hour or three times within twenty-four hours the mixture is poured out; but during this time it is kept in a liquid state.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 55 5. At the lower part of the retort is a little hole, through which that part of it which is heavier, and which is nearest the bottom, can flow; this part is said to consist of heavy scoria which when fractured are said to look like cobalt; this is twice, and sometimes more frequently, mixed with the above-named mixture, i. e. it is pulverized and mixed, until, finally, no more blue colour can be extracted. It is then rejected, as being no longer of any use, and is called Speiss. 6. The liquid substance is poured out of the retorts into water, where it is broken into fragments, which are afterwards pulverized and manufactured into blue colour.

In another establishment different proportions are used for the mixture--for there are several works between Platten and Hans Jrgenstadt--viz. six-quarters or one and a half hundred-weight of calcined and crushed cobalt, three-quarters of a hundred-weight of scori obtained from the pans or retorts, two hundred-weight of potash, and four hundred-weight of sand, which mixture is fused. The process of smelting lasts nine hours. After the scori have been used over two or three times, they are considered as Speiss, which, when fractured, looks like crude granulated iron; yet it is thrown away as of no value. With regard to the cobalt itself, after it has come from the mine in a crude form, it is put into an oven, not unlike a baker's oven, which is about four ells long and wide, but very low, since it is scarcely three-quarters of an ell high in the middle; there it is calcined in the usual manner. There is an exit in front for the smoke, end as soon as it comes out of the oven, it at once rises, and passes through the chimney into the open air. The opening itself is very small. After the cobalt has been calcined, it is crushed well in a stamping mill, end afterwards sifted and mixed.

ADDITIONAL PROCESSES IN PREPARING THE BLUE COLOUR.

The above blue glass is crushed dry under three hammers, and passed through an oblique sieve; and that part which cannot pass through is again crushed and sifted. 2. Three measures, i. e. bags, half an ell high and three-quarters of an ell in diameter, are now taken into the mill.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 56 3. The millstones revolve by a water-wheel. The millstone consists of a very thick grey rock, divided into two hemispheres; between these two hemispheres there is a distance of a third of a foot. Their thickness is one foot; their diameter an ell and a third. Below is a round nether stone, about an ell thick, on which the grinding takes place. These stones are enclosed in a capacious wooden receptacle, the height of which is an ell and a third, and its diameter two ells. 4. The grinding is carried on for about six hours, when a thick blue water is let out of the grinding box. 5. It is then pumped into a large tub, where the water is allowed to rest either for a half, for three quarters, or for a whole hour. 6. After it has remained there for such a length of time, a firm blue mass, like glue, settles on the bottom, when the water which is above is drawn off into other most ample reservoirs, where it remains for 24, 48, or 60 hours, if necessary. 7. The sediment in this second reservoir is taken out, and prepared into the above-mentioned colour. 8. The substance which remains at the bottom of the first tub, is constantly stirred, and fresh water poured on, when another still coarser sediment is obtained. The turbid water above is likewise drawn off into other reservoirs; and this operation is repeated over and over again, until the whole colouring matter, of various shades, is obtained. 9. This good sediment after being dried is again reduced to powder; for it soon becomes hard either upon being exposed to the sun before the house when the weather is fine, or in a large box in a drying kiln. This rubbing into powder is done by hand; after which the powder is removed to a stand, five ells long and three ells wide, consisting of a stone, where it is gradually dried by a lire underneath; for there is a fire-place under it, five ells long, and three ells broad, into which wood, but chiefly the roots of trees, is thrown, and whereby the stone slab on the top is constantly kept heated to that degree which is required for this work. In this manner that blue colour is obtained which is called "smalt," [in Swedish] "strkelse."

August 10. I left Platten and reached Hans Jrgenstadt or Johann Georgenstadt, which is a town about half a German mile distant; there cobalt, bismuth, and tin are obtained.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 57

With respect to tin the following particulars may be mentioned: 1. There are two kinds of ore; one which is contained in sand, and the other in slate. In the former substance it appears under a reddish brown colour, much granulated; the grains being large and having an angular appearance. The stone itself is of a white, yellow, or green colour, intermixed with the ore. The other kind in slate is of a blackish and grey colour; it seems to consist of most minute grains; mica also generally adheres to it. 2. The ore which does not contain many heterogeneous substances, is crushed by stamps, and washed three times: first on a Schlammbank or in a narrow trough with two steps, where the washing takes place by passing it up and down in the usual fashion; afterwards the pulverized ore is taken on inclined washing planes, and, indeed, twice, and thence conveyed to the furnace. If the ore, however, contains copper, or marcasite, or iron, it is crushed into powder and burnt in an oven, which is like a baker's oven; and afterwards it is washed three times, before it is taken to the furnace. For by the washing the marcasite and iron are gradually washed off and thus removed. 3. The oven in which the burning takes place is like a baker's oven, and very large; there the powder is continually stirred. This operation is usually continued for eight or ten hours, and the more heterogeneous substances it contains the longer it is burnt, after which it is left in the oven until it becomes cold. 4. After it is taken out of the oven it is washed three times; first in a deep and narrow washing trough which consists simply of two steps; the pulverized ore first falls down from the top, and is then passed to and fro, until at last the coarser powder is obtained. The washing troughs are not long, but short. 5. The blasting furnace is either three or three and a quarter ells high, and at its base is eight inches wide and ten inches long, and above twelve inches wide and about sixteen inches long, so that it becomes gradually larger above; then the chimney for the smoke begins, which is rather ample, and includes in a certain sense the furnace below. The furnace is arched round the opening towards the bellows; for the wall there is thicker. At Schlaggenwald both sides were arched, but here only one, and indeed that towards the bellows.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 58 5. The bellows are of leather; the blast hole which is formed of pure clay or of stone is rather oblique; when measured in this oblique direction it is eight or nine inches long; the hole itself is round, with a diameter of two inches, which is very narrow; at Schlaggenwald it was wider. The obliquity must be very accurately calculated, so that it is directed towards the opening in front, out of which the tin flows; unless this oblique direction is most exact, much tin is lost. 6. Outside the furnace are two receptacles or basins; one of which is seven or eight inches below the aperture through which the metal is discharged; the other, which is excavated from the rock, and is of an oval shape, is about nine or ten inches below the former; into this the metal flows perpendicularly out of the other. 7. A spadeful of the ore, and yet not quite a spadeful, is dropped into the furnace each time, and a bucket of wet charcoal emptied on the top; this bucket is rather small. Such charges are put into the furnace about three times an hour, the time being longer or shorter according as the ore smelts more or less readily. 8. The smelted metal flows out continually from the furnace into the upper receptacle; and thence more or less is let off once every hour into the lower receptacle, according as the yield of the tin is greater or less. 9. The work of smelting is usually continued for 10, 20, or even 45 hours. 10. At first, until the furnace is heated, the work proceeds more slowly and with greater difficulty; especially because there are not yet fresh scori on hand. Afterwards, when there is a supply of these, they are mixed with the pulverized ore, and then the metal begins to flow readily; these scori may be used over again, twice or more frequently, according as the ore requires it. 11. The liquid tin is afterwards poured out with a ladle on an iron table, so that it may be spread out thin; it is poured on various parts of the table, until it becomes a thin, coherent sheet, when it receives three impressions of a seal. The sheet is now rolled up and pounded together on a stone with a hammer into a sort of compressed roll, so that it is thin, and can easily be fused. 12. Five, six, or seven of these rolls are obtained at each discharge of the metal, which takes place about once an hour; and each roll weighs from five to seven pounds, each being marked with three seals.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 59

THE BLAST-FURNACE FOR IRON NEAR HANS JRGENSTADT IN BOHEMIA.

This blast-furnace is exteriorly square in form, as is commonly the case; but it is to be observed, that its pectoral walls, where the bellows are placed, and where also the molten iron is discharged, are arched, so that the whole perpendicular face of it may be seen, and that the structure does not ascend obliquely, as in Sweden. 2. The blast-hole is of copper, and altogether formed as in open fire-places where iron is heated; its direction is horizontal, its figure conical, and on the outside it is ampler. 3. The cavity for the fire is built of sandstone; two of the stones at the side are three quarters of an ell thick, and an ell and a quarter long; the hearth stone is an ell and a quarter broad, which is also the length of the chamber for the fire, which does not differ much from its breadth. The height of the furnace is from eight to nine ells to the opening above; its interior form is square. The upper opening is an ell and a quarter square. The furnace itself is wider about the belly, and more contracted towards the lower reservoir. 4. Twice a day or more frequently the metal is discharged, and each time to the amount of from ten to twelve hundred-weight; the fire chamber can contain twelve hundred-eight. They say that the yield consists of one hundred-weight an hour, or 130 hundred-weight a week. For each hundred-weight of iron one kbel and two-thirds, i. e. twenty pails (tonn) of charcoal are consumed; five of these [kbel] make one fuder; or about three and a half Swedish pots (test). The operation of smelting is said to be continued there for half a year. The ore itself looks red, like schist; it is rich and yields iron of a good duality.

THE IRON-WORKS, OR ROLLING MILL NEAR HANS JRGENSTADT.

The furnace is built in the usual fashion; a receptacle is built of iron plates; the thickest is the farthest off. The depth of the receptacle is eight inches, its length an ell and a quarter, its breadth about an ell; the blast-hole is of copper and conical, and placed very obliquely. Every week 32 hundred-weight of iron is smelted and worked up into short rods.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 60 About seventy-five kbel of charcoal or fifty Swedish pots (test) are consumed; so that for each hundred-weight a pot and a half of charcoal is used. Each time from a hundred-weight to a hundred-weight and a half of iron is smelted; the pigs of crude iron are about four ells long, and weigh from five to eleven hundred-weight. The pieces that are smelted weigh each from a hundred-weight to a hundred-weight and a half. Sparkling scori of much density adhere to the walls. The whole furnace is rather ample and capacious, its length and breadth being about four ells.

In the works where the iron is flattened into plates, from seventy to eighty plates, which are smooth, are manufactured at a time; each plate weighs half a pound. In these works ninety kbel or sixty Swedish pots of charcoal are used every week.

At Hans Jrgenstadt there is an inspector of the name of Derfler, who has a most excellent collection of noble and rare ores; likewise of druses. He was abroad fifteen years for the purpose of buying specimens of rare ores for King Augustus.

MILL FOR CRUSHING SILVER ORES AT HANS JRGENSTADT.

The ore which is obtained in the mines here is not smelted, because there is no lead in it; but in the pulverized form it is sold to Trestad,[?] where there is an abundance of lead, and where it can readily be passed through the tall furnaces, and the silver extracted. The best mines at the present day are the "Neue Jahr" (New Year), and "der unverhoffte Gluche" [?]; the ore which is broken there is the Weissgulden, the Rothgulden, the Glaserz, and other rich kinds. Most of the mines are under the town itself; there is an access to them at more than twenty different places at the foot of the mountain. With respect to the crushing of the ore the following particulars are to be mentioned: 1. The richer ore is crushed in a dry state under one stamp or hammer only; it is then removed and sifted, and its coarser part crushed again; this ore is not washed like the lighter ore, but is simply crushed and sent to Freiberg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 61 2. The lighter or poorer ore is crushed under three hammers or stamps; near the upper part of the stamps or the head of the machine, is a triangular box resting on a fulcrum; this box is filled with larger and smaller pieces of ore; in front a stick or lever is fixed to it, and when so much of the ore has been crushed under the hammers that more is required, a tooth inserted in the falling hammer catches the projecting lever and gives it a shake, so that the triangular box resting on the fulcrum is likewise shaken, and when a sufficient quantity of ore has dropped under the hammers, the tooth is no longer able to touch the projecting lever. This box is capable of holding several hundred-weight of the ore. 3. The water flows in continually, and indeed on a sort of paved surface under the triangular box; the hammers, which are very large and heavy, are separated from one another by a frame-work; in each box are three hammers, and the fall begins from the first. 4. From three outlets the turbid water which contains the pulverized ore is led into one trough. 5. This trough consists only of two steps or benches; at the foot of the trough or channel is a square reservoir; the trough itself is eight ells long, and then, as already remarked, the reservoir begins. 6. The more precious powdered mass which has been received in the first partition of the trough, is washed in that deep and narrow washing place which is furnished with two steps or benches, and which is called a Schlammbank. The finer portion is carried thence to an inclined washing plane, which is fitted with sods. The powder which is carried off from the sods is taken to a third washing plane, which is not provided with sods; and from there it is taken and stored away. 7. The pulverized mass which has been retained at the bottom of the second partition of the trough, is transferred to a table furnished with sods, and thus taken up. 8. That powder which has been collected in the reservoir is at once take to a bare inclined plane, not furnished with sods. The powder of the ore which has been crushed dry, usually contains from four to twenty or even thirty pounds of silver in the hundred-weight; the rest from four Loth (two ounces) to three marks. It is to be observed in addition that outside the building there are washing tables, with a Schlammbank, and a Schlammherd, just as inside.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 62 There all that powder is washed which has been received in a reservoir outside the house, and which is very poor. The bottom of the crushing chest is of iron; it is also made of a very hard stone which resists the hammers very well.

The town of Hans Jrgenstadt itself is situated over its mines, at a height of about eighty ells. At the foot of the mountain are above twenty horizontal entrances, called Stollen, all of which lead to the mines; one of these is 4500 ells long.

August 11. I arrived at the town of Platten, which is the first town on entering Bobemia, and where there is nothing except a quantity of tin ore; yet I was able to see there a Seifenwerk, where the tin ore is obtained by washing it out of heaps. For there are large mountains or heaps of sand which are likewise impregnated with tin ore, especially the black kind; and which they contain in large pieces, as well as in fine powder. Thither the water is directed, which rushes head-long through such a heap, and where the stream of water flows the sand is agitated, until at last the heaviest portion settles at the bottom, while the lighter remains on the surface, and is cast aside. They continue to labour until they reach a certain depth; then the meter is directed sideways, when by a continual action to and fro the heavier metallic portion is separated by the streamlet; and in this wise they are able to go through the whole mountain to a certain depth, and also all around wherever the water can be led.

THE BLAST-FURNACE FOR TIN AT PLATTEN.

There is only one blast-furnace for tin in this place, and the tin which is here obtained, is likewise beaten into rolls. Every two hours the metal is drawn from the higher into the lower reservoir or basin; and every two hours they say they manufacture from ten to twelve rolls of tin, of which each weighs from five to six pounds. The furnace interiorly is eight inches wide and twelve inches long; in its upper part the width is the same, but its length amounts to sixteen inches; its height is three ells and a quarter. The blast-hole, which is of sand stone, is very oblique, and narrower than in other places.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 63 Three times every quarter of an hour two spadesful of the pulverized ore are thrown in, and one pail of moistened charcoal.

The ore which contains sulphur is calcined in the open air; the fire is continued in the heap only for four of five hours; the remaining ore is calcined in an oven, as has been explained in connection with the other works.

The poor tin ore is crushed here at Platten in the open air by crushing hammers, which are not under cover; there are three hammers in each crushing box; I have also seen two only. Outside is the receptacle of the ore which stands obliquely, and verges towards the first hammer; into this receptacle also the water flows, and thence into the crushing bet. There are two outlets from the crushing box, but they meet in one trough. The trough is outside, and a little oblique; where it ends, an inclined washing plane begins, over which the water containing the lighter powdered mass flows, and thus is carried away. Others have another inclined plane in addition to this, on which the powder may at once be mashed a second time.

I have learned many things at Hans Jrgenstadt and at Platten, namely, 1. that at Hans Jrgenstadt as well as at Jonchimsthal water-wheels and machines are in the mines below, at a depth of a hundred ells, and that by means of these machines, as well as by a wheel turned by the wind, the water is pumped up. 2. At Platten I saw how out of one central shaft (Stockwerk) several roads, arteries, or ramifications proceed; this could be seen from a collapsed and injured mine. 3. Further, that the air may be pumped into the deepest places by means of bellows; for the bellows are set in motion by the same machine by which the ore is raised; the air is led into these places by wooden pipes which have no other outlet except where there is no draught, and where the air is constantly stagnant and heated. 4. That the crushing hammers or stamps are not weighted with iron, but with a black stone which is very hard; also that the bottom of the crushing box is wooden and oblique, They said the operation of crushing by means of stone upon wood could be accomplished as easily as by means of stamps with an iron end.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 64 5. At Jonchimsthal they have bellows, where the aperture is in the upper frame, which is closed up by a handle when less air is required as in the fusion of lead, where the draught call be adjusted to suit the circumstances.

The same evening I arrived at Joachimsthal, where I stayed two days.

August 12. I spent the day at Joachimsthal. This town, which is situated among mountains containing iron ore, was made a mining town in 1516. The best mines near the town are the "Hubert" and "Einigkeit" (concord) mines. They all supply rich ores, viz. native silver, vitreous silver ore, Rothgulden, Weissgulden, and many others. The ore is generally obtained in slate, and most of it contains cobalt and arsenic, but no lead; the lead ore is purchased at Bleistadt, and fused here.

The poorer metal is crushed into powder and washed. 1. It is crushed by three hammers in one box; these hammers work there in the same manner as in other places. The hammers are rather large. The receptacle, into which the ore is thrown and from which it is supplied to the hammers, is of an oblong shape; and the ore is shaken out, not by means of a lever, but, as in Saxony, by means of an oblique direction of the box itself, one end of it being raised by the hand when a supply is wanted. 2. The troughs which lead out of the crushing box are not longer than two ells, and they are provided with two steps or benches. All the remaining turbid water is allowed to flow out into the river or brook which passes by, and not received first in a, reservoir, as in other places. 3. The pulverized mass which is taken out of these troughs, is first washed on the Schlammbank, which is deeper and wider than in Saxony, although it is otherwise of the same form, and the work is done in a similar manner. The finer powder is directed on to an inclined plane, provided with sods. It is not very long, but steeper than those which are bare; on this the washing is performed in the usual manner. One difference is noticed here, viz. that there are four steps before the ore reaches the inclined plane itself; the pulverized ore is put on the highest step and thence led down to the one below, which is only a foot long; thence to the third and fourth, which are likewise a foot in length; and, finally, to the inclined plane itself which is lined with sods.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 65 The thicker and heavier part of the ore remains on the higher steps or platforms; the smaller and lighter is carried to the lower steps, and to the inclined plane. 4. After the sods are washed out, the powder which has lodged in them is taken to bare inclined planes without any sods, and where there are two steps before the pulverized ore reaches the inclined planes themselves. These bare surfaces are not so steep as those which are furnished with sods; they are, however, of the same length. At their base is a box, where the pulverized ore gradually collects after having been washed first. In the mean time, while the powder is approaching this box, it is stirred and moved about: until at last the whole of it is deposited in the box, all the stony and lighter parts having been washed out of it. There are also double planes or areas which are broad; the upper one is not lined with sods; from this the powder is directed into an oblong box, standing at its lower extremity; from this [the turbid stream is carried] to the lower plane or area which is covered with seas, and where the finer portion of the ore is collected.

THE SILVER SMELTING WORKS AT JOACHIMSTHAL.

There are only two furnaces for this purpose, which are in one building in connection with a secreting oven or Treibherd. The furnaces are of the kind called Krummofen; they are two ells high, and interiorly an ell and three-quarters high, and an ell wide. The reservoir, where all the stone during its fusion with the silver-bearing lead is collected, extends to some distance outside the furnace. This furnace is arched on both sides above and around the opening, and thus terminates in the chimney. There are two reservoirs or basins, one above and one below; into these the silver-bearing lead is discharged, when the hole is opened; the lower basin is three quarters of an ell below the upper one, in a straight line. The bellows are of wood, and rather large; in their upper frame is a valve closed by a handle, by which the draught can, if necessary, be moderated; this is done whenever lead is fused, for which the same furnaces are used. The blast-hole is ample and broad; its diameter amounts to two and a half, if not to three inches; the pipes from the bellows extend to some distance into this conical hole.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 66 Through this hole a vent may be seen, projecting almost into the middle of the furnace, from which the liquefied vein trickles. 2. The mixture differs according to the quality of the vein, which is very variable, being sometimes rich, and at other times poor, containing arsenic, and being dry[?]; there is no vein containing lead, but all are very much impregnated with cobalt. The usual proportions are, six hundred-weight of the crude ore--for the ore, if rich, is put on in its crude state, without any previous calcining--a hundred-weight and a half of iron scori, a like amount of washed iron, or Wascheisen as it is called, two hundred-weight, more or less according as is required, of fresh scori, and two hundred-weight of litharge and lead together. 3. Every two or three hours several hundred-weight of silver-bearing lead, with the stone floating upon it, are obtained; sometimes the yield is greater, sometimes less, according to the mixture and the quality of the ore. 4. The stone which is obtained here is first calcined five times, and then mixed and put on again. 5. If there is any stone obtained the second time, it is poorer; this also is calcined five times, and this process is repeated, until no more stone containing silver is obtained. 6. As this ore is full of cobalt, other thin plates are obtained, called Speiss, which are also rich in silver; after these are collected they have to pass through ten calcining fires before they are introduced again into the furnace. Some ore is also smelted, from which the arsenic has been previously sublimated; but on the treatment of the silver ore at Joachimsthal me may consult a special treatise in the German language which discusses this method.

THE ARSENIC WORKS NEAR JOACHIMSTHAL.

There are also arsenic works about half a German mile outside the town, concerning which the following particulars may be mentioned: 1. The crude cobalt is thrown into an oven which resembles a baker's oven, and which is four ells long and three ells wide; below is a place for the wood or the fire; there is a paved surface between.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 67 At one corner of the oven there is an exit for the smoke; for cobalt is said to smoke continually, like sulphur from marcasite. 2. The smoke issues through that opening in the oven, and is led thence through a duplicate passage, first to the right, then downwards to the left, and finally, through a passage which is thirty ells long, it is driven against a wall, from which it recoils, and being beaten back, it makes its way in another direction into a corner; here some doors are open, through which the lighter smoke can pass off, the denser smoke being thrown down towards the bottom. These doors may be opened or shut at pleasure. At the extreme end an exit is also open above the roof, through which the smoke finally passes out. Meanwhile, throughout all these ways, passages, and windings the heavier part of the smoke tends to the bottom, and settles down thickly on the paved surface, whence it is collected in the form of a white flour. These passages may be made longer and more winding at pleasure. 3. This burning or sublimation lasts for twelve days and nights; during that time from 200 to 250 hundred-weight of powdered arsenic are generally obtained. 4. The cobalt, from which the sublimated arsenic is collected, is crushed in the stamping mill and washed in the usual manner, and then, like the other ore, is introduced into the blast-furnace, and the silver extracted from it. 5. This powdered arsenic is collected and fused in the following manner: There are two fire-places about five ells long and afoot broad, with their grates for the ashes; above is a stone or iron surface; on this four iron plates are laid, which are a third of a foot thick, and an ell and a half in length and in breadth; in the middle is a round and shallow cavity, which is about a foot in diameter, and a quarter of a foot in depth. According to the length of each fire-place four of these iron plates are placed upon it; on the two fire-places, consequently, eight of these plates are laid. On each plate or over each cavity an iron hat or cone is fitted, which is an ell and three-quarters high, and which is interiorly well lined with clay. The lower opening of this hat has a diameter of three-quarters of an ell, and its upper opening one-third of a foot. This hat is filled with two hundred-weight[?] of the above-mentioned there is a paved surface between. At one corner of the oven there is an exit for the smoke; for cobalt is arsenic flour, and is kept melting there for twelve hours.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 68 Meanwhile the powder adheres to the sides of the cone or hat to the depth of two inches; and in this form the liquified arsenic is taken out every twelve hours. The arsenic thus obtained is white; if any sulphur is mixed with it, it looks yellow.

It is further to be mentioned that the best mines of Joachimsthal at the present day are the "Hubert" and the "Einigkelt" mines; but that not more than from 1200 to 1300 marks of silver are obtained from them; formerly these mines were very rich. From the very cavity of the furnaces it appears of what great size the leaves of silver formerly were, some of which weighed 300 marks.

These works were commenced in 1516, and during ninety-four years 1,300,000 marks of silver, or from 13,000 to 14,000 marks yearly, were obtained. Besides, there are subterraneous passages here, called Stollen as for instance the "Kaiserstollen," which is 4000 fathoms, or from 12,000 to 14,000 ells long; another reaches the length of 6000 fathoms; they lead in a straight line from one mine to the other. In the mine "Einigkeit," at the depth of from sixty to seventy fathoms, there is a machine with a water-wheel, which is turned by the water which escapes there. In the year 1542 they had 300 "Schichtmeister," and 300 "Steiger." For one Vienna mark of pure silver, they obtain 21 florins, 15 kreutzers.

August 13. I returned to Carlsbad.

August 16. I was in the Roman Catholic Church at Carlsbad, where I witnessed their worship, or their celebration, of the mass, and where I observed that all things were most delightful, or suited to all the senses. For the ear they had the very best instrumental harmony, having instead of the singing of the people the completest instrumental music. The eye beheld various sports; the gestures of boys, as well as of others, who were burning lamps and wax-tapers; the magnificent vestments of the priests, and of boys similarly arrayed; everything in the light of these lamps shone with gold and silver. The sense of smell was regaled with the richest fragrance, with which the altar, or the sanctuary was perfumed. For the sense of touch there was the water, which the priest, on entering, sprinkled upon the people.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 69 The interior sense was struck with the priest's reverence for the supreme Being, by his innumerable genuflections, and by those of the youths. The taste alone was left ungratified, except by what the priest, the participant in all these pleasures, could derive from the wine which he alone drinks. [Thus] the holy things of worship are formed for the pleasure of the external senses, and they are pleasing to the public generally, because with them the external senses are the channels through which the remembrance of the Supreme Being has first to enter.

August 18. I travelled to Prague and arrived there on August 19.

August 19. I reached Prague, and visited several churches, where I saw also an altar-piece, within which lamps were burning representing the shining heaven. I again entered the church of St. Vitus, and examined the innumerable sacrificial offerings of gold and silver, and likewise the sepulchre of Boleslavus, which is resplendent with silver.

August 21. I journeyed to the mining town of Eule, where native gold without any other ores is found in certain strata: concerning which I will relate the following particulars.

THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING GOLD AT EULE.

These works are said to be very ancient, having been opened 300 years after the birth of Christ; but, they have been frequently abandoned. Formerly they yielded so large a quantity of gold, that many thousand ducats were obtained every quarter, as one share in the mines. The hills and mountains are perforated for a German mile, as well deeply as near the surface, so that there is scarcely a spot which has not been examined. Among the subterranean passages there are some that are continued for two miles. Formerly this quantity of gold was found not very deep in the earth; but at the present day they have gone down as far as 300 and 400 ells. Ten or fifteen years ago gold was also found here in a quarter of an hour which was worth about 1000 ducats; nor was it very far from the surface.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 70 At the present day not more than ten to twelve pounds, or 1000 ducats' worth, are obtained annually. This, without any application of fire, is refined gold, containing more than twenty-two carats. Nothing is found except native gold in grains, in minute layers, and in masses. There are some strata consisting of quartz, mixed with reddish or yellowish slate, in which you may look for gold, and to which the gold adheres, but it is for the most part invisible. There is no gold ore, nor does any silver or copper or any other noble metal adhere to it, except perhaps some little iron or pyrites; and yet it is contained in the pyrites only in the granulated or native state. It has also been discovered in lead; but then the lead has much gold and no silver.

Stones from this stratum were brought from the mine to the crushing works, of which there are three; these works are not alike, but arranged according to the quality, or according to the poverty or richness, of the gold which is found in the stone. 1. In respect to these works, where there is more gold in the vein or stone, it is to be observed, that there are two crushing boxes constructed in the usual way, but deep; the depth is an ell; there is no sieve, but the aperture on the side where the muddy water flows out is about three-quarters of an ell above the bottom of the box. The hammers or stamps are weighted with large pieces of iron, and they fall in rotation; the water flows into a short trough which is provided simply with two steps. 2. The most valuable part remains at the bottom of the crushing box itself, and is not carried out by the water; it is now taken out and washed. The washing plane is made in the usual way, and is about five ells long; there are three steps or benches, before the ore reaches the plane itself; the upper step is small, likewise the second, but the third is one ell nine inches long, and one ell three inches wide. Here, on this bench, the most valuable part remains; this part is not covered with any cloth, but is bare. Here the more valuable part is collected; the remaining parts, which are coarse, flow down the inclined plane, the lower extremity of which is covered with cloths. To this the coarser stony and other parts adhere; this is passed into a trough; and the pulverized matter which collects there is again passed under the crushing hammers, and pounded into powder, according to what has been already stated.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 71 4. What remains after this at the bottom of the crushing box is collected in a tub; and from a hundred-weight of this powder several half ounces of gold may be obtained. 5. After the whole washing has been completed, whatever remains on the upper broad step or bench is taken into a vessel for washing, which is nearly of a square form, but in front is bent into the form of a figure 3. Into this vessel the more valuable part is collected, and by the action of water, and by shaking against the sides of the vessel, and by various ablutions, the most precious part is collected, and separated from the marcasite and iron; it is then transferred to a small vessel which is very clean, so that out of this the gold may at once be taken. 6. That part of the powder, however, which is in the trough is washed on other inclined planes constructed in a similar manner to those described above; yet they are furnished with only one cloth immediately below the broad third bench; here all the powder which has been obtained in the trough is washed; all that remains in the reservoir at the bottom of the trough is also washed, &c. Those works, however, in which the poorer ore is crushed are different: 1. The crushing hammers are made in the same may, and they drop in the same order. 2. The crushing box, however, is not so deep, only half an ell; the opening also, by which the water flows out, is not as high up, as in the former case. 3. On the outside begins a long winding trough furnished with six benches or steps of division. 4. The best part here, also, is collected at the bottom of the crushing box itself. 5. The best part is washed as in the other case on an inclined plane furnished with cloths, except that the upper broad bench is bare where the most valuable part is collected, which afterwards, by shaking and rubbing in the washing vessel, is separated from the iron and marcasite; if fresh water is afterwards poured in through a horn, the clear gold appears. 6. The powder which is obtained in the various divisions of the trough, is washed on areas which are covered with only one cloth, and it is taken thence into a reservoir filled with water, from which it is again taken out and washed. A hundred-weight of this washed powder usually contains a quarter of an ounce of gold.

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They have also a Waschbank, where the stony part is first separated from that which is heavier; it is somewhat excavated on the top, so that two machines can be moved in it at the same time, one in one direction and the other in another. The water thereby is much stirred up and flows away charged with mud, leaving behind a less quantity of useless powder, &c.

August 22. I returned to Prague from Eule and visited a monastery of the Barmabites, in order to examine a collection of minerals; the collection was ingeniously arranged, but more for show than for use.

August 23. I returned from Prague to Dresden, where I arrived on the 25th. On the way I passed several towns, among others, Budin, where there is a monastery. Near a village called Linai, in Bohemia, which lies nearly at the foot of the lofty mountain Geyer, by which Bohemia is divided from Saxony, I saw a garden full of tropical trees, as orange-trees, and citron-trees, also a great many other specimens of plants, long and pointed, &c.; and a larger quantity of oranges and citrons hanging on the trees than I have seen anywhere else; it belongs to Count Nostiz.

August 25.       I reached Dresden.

August 28. I met Mr. Leisner who desires to introduce the use of peat into Barony. Re told me that a Mr. Carlewitz experimented on the use of peat in blast-furnaces, and that he so far succeeded, that he used with advantage two-thirds of peat and a. third of charcoal; that afterwards he burned or calcined peat, covering the heap well. He obtained from 6000 pieces of crude pest three fuder of charcoal, which did not on being burnt leave behind any impurity in a blast-furnace. Here, however, it must be observed: 1. That they are light and delicate, and are easily blown to pieces by the blast, and that they did not yield any fire, but only a little flame which contributed much to the smelting. They easily crumble to pieces before the blast, because they are small, consisting altogether of roots turned into charcoal.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 73 2. That, consequently, they must not he placed in the middle of the furnace, before and above the blast, but at the sides, first one-fourth and then one-third , and at last one-half of charcoal mixed with it; the quantity of charcoal being greater or less according to the effect which is to be produced by it. 3. If the peat is calcined it does not contain so much, sulphur as to injure the metal; nevertheless, a good deal of sulphur still remains, so that it cannot be used, unless the production of a stone [copper stone, &c.] is first desired. 4. Much of the pest is lost by calcining; from one piece of crude peat very little charcoal remains. Leisner told me that the piece remaining equals a fist; that it is a conglomerate mass, and somewhat hard. This I can scarcely believe; for this calcined earth does not yield much coal, even if it be of the very best quality; almost the whole of it is lost by the process of calcining, or else only a very small quantity remains. 5. I am acquainted with three kinds of peat which are those chiefly found; the first consists of an intricate mass of stout little roots; this kind may be converted into charcoal, and some part of it remains consisting of roots turned into charcoal. The second kind is composed partly of a complicated mass of smaller and least roots, and partly of some which are disintegrated and changed into some kind of soil. The third consists altogether of a kind of loam, which is collected from swampy places that have once been dug out, where this kind of loam is afterwards generated. If this earth is taken out, and in a certain form pressed together either with the feet or hands or by a weight, the very best kind of peat is obtained. The second and third kinds are almost altogether lost in calcining. 6. While the calcining is going on, the heap must be very well covered; this operation occupies from 24 to 72 hours. 7. Otherwise the pest can be used very well in all cases where there is no metal and no blast to scatter and beat it to pieces, as in ovens and common stoves, in evaporating salts, vitriol, alum; likewise in furnaces for the manufacture of glass.

August 30. In company with Henkel,58 the Councillor of Mines, I visited Trier, the aulic Councillor and Councillor of Mines, and saw various kinds of ores and shells, besides the skeleton of marmoset (felis marnina) with its bones and legs impressed on slate;* I saw also other kinds of minerals, pyrites from silver ore imbedded and involved in common limestone.

* An engraving of this specimen, the original size, may be seen in vol. III of Swedenborg's Opera Philosophica et Mineralia, p. 169; see also Swedenborg's letter to Councillor Trier, in Section XI.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 74

September 2. From Dresden I journeyed to Leipzig, where I arrived on September 4.

October 5. 8 beginning was made with the printing of the Principia. Six sheets were printed this week. May Heaven favour it (faveat numen)! The Leipzig fair commenced on the same day.

1734.

March 1.* I journeyed to Halle where I arrived in the evening, and stopped at the inn The Golden Star.

* This part which is not in the printed copy of the "Itinerarium," is found on p. 214 of the original codes; it is contained in the photo-lithographic copy of the same, Vol. III, p. 49.

March 3. I visited Prof. Herman Lang, who is the professor of physics and mathematics, and who extended to me every civility. He showed me his cabinet of curiosities, and presented me with several petrified objects and other things. At his house I saw that green ink which vanishes in the cold, and re-appears in the heat.

March 4. I called at Magister Semler's, where I saw very many things connected with the magnet; the declinations of the magnet according to the method of Halley, with the instruments; and its inclination according to his own method, drawn on the same map, which follows in a straight line the like declination.

Also many other things, as the construction of a most perfect stove; a little stove is in the interior, and a casing on the outside; and between the two the air circulates, and passes out at the top. At Prof. Lang's I also saw how coal was introduced into a stove on two wheels, and afterwards drawn out again; likewise a plough of a peculiar form; besides many other things.

In the orphan asylum (Waisenhaus*) I saw a curious Copernican and Ptolemaic system and other things.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 75 I also saw them at dinner; 600 receive their meals there every day.

* The celebrated institution founded by Francke in 1698.

I spoke with Prof. Ursinus, and had a scientific discussion with him.

Fred. Hoffmann is still alive. Thomasius I saw, and also Rudiger, who has written a treatise on chemistry.

I saw the salt-boiling: there are four wells from thirty-six to forty ells deep. Seventy-six pans belong to private persons, where every four hours two baskets, or two hundred-weight of salt are obtained. In the establishments belonging to the king there are still more; they we in two buildings, and are constructed differently, viz. there are one or two pans above, where the water is heated by the same fire that boils it in another pan; this is done in the lower pan; the boiling is done with coal. The following is the structure of the hearth: [Drawing] a b is a passage or pipe (canalis) which can be drawn out; in c is a grate, so that the draught can pass in through the passage a b and blow into c; the bottom of the pan runs in obliquely from all sides, as c d, c e, c g, c f. The flame or the heat goes up then from h to i k l m, where it heats the water in one or two pans.

[For an account of the remaining part of the journey see Document 204, Vol. II, p. 6.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 76


DOCUMENT 206.

SWEDENBORG'S JOURNAL OF TRAVEL FROM 1736 TO 1739.*

* The original of this Journal, which was written by Swedenborg in the Swedish language, is contained in Codex 88, pp. 504-542, of the Swedenborg MSS. which are preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. A Latin translation of this journal prepared by Dr. Kahl of Lund was published by Dr. Im. Tafel in 1844 under the title: Swedenborg's Itinerarium, Sectio Secunda. A photo-lithographic copy of the Swedish original is contained in Vol. III of the Swedenborg MSS., pp. 50 to 79, from which the above translation has been prepared.

1736.

June 1. I received the gracious permission of His Majesty again to travel abroad for three or four years, for the purpose of elaborating another work (compare Document 162, Vol. I, p. 454).

July 3. I took leave of Their Majesties at Carlsberg;* they were very gracious.

* Carlsberg is a regal castle in the neighbourhood of Stockholm, which was changed in 1792 into a military academy.

Between the 3rd and 10th of July I took leave of the members of the Diet, my friends, and others; and on the 9th, of the members of the Royal College [of Mines].

On account of my journey I have given up one-half of my salary; 300 dalers in silver of this being added to the salary of Secretary Porath,l27 who was to discharge the duties of the assessorship, his post being taken by the Fiscal-Advocate Bierchenius,129 and that of the latter by Notary Thunberg; a new notary having to be appointed in his stead who is to receive as his salary the remaining 300 dalers in silver; yet with the understanding that upon my return home I am to resume my former position with the right of voting.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 77 [Compare Document 162, Vol. I, pp. 452 to 455.]

July 10. In the afternoon at two o'clock I left Stockholm, Fennick, an Englishman, together with Bohman and Hultman,* accompanying me to Fittja.

* Messrs. Bohman and Hultman were merchants of Stockholm; the latter of whom administered Swedenborg's property during his absence; see Note 111, Vol. I, and Document 141.

The same day there was a severe thunderstorm with lightning between Norrkping and Ystad, which lasted a long time, and the like of which had not been known within the memory of man. The whole sky seemed to be one sheet of fire. In many places dwellings and people were struck by lightning; several gentlemen's houses in Schonen also were struck and burnt down; but no church seems to have been injured. Between Stockholm and Nykping, however, I did not hear the least thunder or see any lightning, although I was travelling during the whole night.

July 11. I arrived at Nykping where I met Pastor Crll, as well as Le Febure* and the Fiscal-Advocate Brock, who reported to me all about this lightning.

* John Henry Le Febure, a merchant of Stockholm, and owner of a large brass-foundry in Norrkping. He died in Stockholm in 1767.

July 12. Upon arriving at Linkping I spent a day and a night with Bishop Benzelius6 and my sister anna Swedenborg.5

July 13. On leaving Linkping I passed through Grenna, Jnkping, &c.

July 16. I arrived at Helsingborg where I had some conversation with Lannerstjerna, the Commander of the castle,* and with Burgomaster Sylvius.

* Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Lannerstjerna, born in 1680, who had been severely wounded in the war against Russia, and since 1711 had been commander of the castle at Helsingborg. He died in 1748.

July 17. I passed over the Sound to Elsinore against a headwind and during a storm which had lasted for three days; but as soon as I reached the other side it became calm, and the mind changed.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 78 I went to the castle with my passport, calling upon the commander, Lieutenant-General Refvenfeldt, and also upon Commissary Grill.

At two o'clock I left for Copenhagen, travelling for five hours along the beach, from which I had fine views of the other side. I stopped there at the Krmer-Compagnie, opposite the place where the new castle is now being built.

July 18. I was in the church on Christineholm. Divine service differs from that of the Swedish church only in a few ceremonials. The clergyman has a stiff ruffled collar lined with black; the blessing was pronounced from the pulpit; two large candles burned on the altar on account of the communion which was solemnized. The warden invested the clergyman with the communion garments while he was standing before the altar. There were no epitaphs or ornaments in the church; only the organ and an altar-piece. The offertory was not collected in bags as in Sweden, but in little boxes; four of which were handed round.

Afterwards I visited two public gardens; a round one in the New Market-place (Komgens Nytow], with an equestrian statue of Christian V. in bronze, but not massive; under the horse's feet lies a man holding a serpent in his hands, which is trampled upon by the horse; on one side of the pedestal are two figures in relief, likewise of bronze, representing Hercules and Pallas, on the other side there are also two figures with fire and sword; on the third and fourth sides are coats of arms.

The other garden, which is pretty large and occupies a place of considerable importance in the town, is charming on account of its various attractions. There are avenues of various kinds; trees trimmed in different forms, images in plaster of Paris, one of bronze, representing a lion with a horse under it, which is pretty well executed; also Samson tearing a lion, in marble; with several other statues, larger or smaller. The most interesting object is the plantation of orange-trees, consisting of 160 trees, not planted in tubs, but growing freely in the ground without being transplanted; together with laurels, cypresses, and other trees. During summer the windows and roof are removed, and the trees are under the open sky; in the autumn they are again enclosed.

July 20. From noon till evening I was at the house of Mr. Schutenhjelm.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 79 I learned that among those most celebrated for their learning in Copenhagen are Kramer, the Councillor of Justice and Librarian, who is distinguished for history and philology; Prof. Holberg who has written Danish comedies, and a history of Norway; and Rosencrantz, the privy councillor and prime-minister. The learned have spoken favourably of my work.** The same day I saw Wolf's18 Natural Theology; where, without mentioning my name, he seems to refer to me.

* Anders Schutenhjelm or Skutenhjelm was the Swedish ambassador at the Danish Court. He was born in 1788, and, after filling various offices in the Department for Foreign Affairs in Stockholm, was appointed in 1734 Councillor of Court and minister in Copenhagen. He married Baroness Dben, with whom Swedenborg and Bishop Swedberg were on terms of intimacy, as appears from Document 113.

** Probably the Principia.

July 21. I made excerpts from Wolf's Ontologia and Cosmologia, of those parts which I shall need on the way, in order to examine more thoroughly his first principles of philosophy.*

* These excerpts occupy 93 pages in the same Codex, in which this Journal of Travel is contained.

July 22. In company with Secretary Witt I was at the library, which is magnificent, and excellently arranged; Kramer, the Councillor of Justice, had already gone away. It consists of 70,000 volumes; the octave volumes ape at the top, where access is obtained by a gallery running round the interior. They showed me Cicero's work printed at Mayence in 1456, which is supposed to be the first book ever printed; they showed me also my own work, but without knowing I was its author. Afterwards I visited the dry dock, which is in process of building; although we had not permission to enter. It is a great undertaking; the sides are lined with planks and beams, and it is about 180 ells long. Water-springs are said to rise from the deep, by which the work is obstructed, rendered costly, and much protracted; if this is so, the expense of pumping out the water must continue ever afterwards; these springs are stopped up with clay and other materials. No work has at yet been done on the side next the sea or at the mouth, where the greatest skill and labour are required, so as to render the gates firm and tight, and to prevent them from sinking, and the pressure of the water from causing any friction; quite as much skill and labour are required for clearing out the bottom of the sea there, as time will show.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 80 I then visited the royal stables, where a hundred horses stand with their names written over them; I examined also [the building of] the castle which is lined with hewn, yet sufficiently thick stone; the rest is built of brick. The wall is quite three ells thick; its length is a hundred and fifty paces; it is square, and will be a magnificent structure. The machine for hoisting the bricks is curious; it consists of shelves which are fastened together like a chain; it goes up on one side and down on the other; two or three bricks are laid on one shelf; so that a considerable quantity can be raised by one horse. I noticed besides that in the town there is a great display of horses, carriages, liveries, and dinners. They have two hundred hackney coaches. The town is also infected with pietism or quakerism; and they are crazed enough to believe that it is well pleasing to God to do away with oneself and others; of which many instances are on record. The port is very good, so that vessels, even East-India men, are enabled to come close up to the town.

The country is governed by an intelligent king, who is prudent and seriously inclined. He gives large pensions, amounting to from 5000 or 6000 rix-dalers. The Crown-Prince also, who is thirteen years old, is said to be inclined to everything that is good. In the large garden is the Treasury with the crown jewels, of which the king himself is said to keep the key. During summer His Majesty resides generally at Fredericsberg, four [geographical] miles from town, where there is also a beautiful garden. The duty on Swedish iron is said to amount to ten rix-dalers per sklpund; it would have been vain to say anything on the matter. All gold and silver and precious stones on garments are forbidden.

July 23. I was in the Museum. On the ground-floor I saw: 1. A small elephant, 2. A very large ox, 3. A horse in plaster of Paris which formerly existed in Denmark, 4. The fac-simile of the horns of a stag, from four to five ells in height; 5. The drawing of a giant upwards of thirteen ells high, who is said to have been found.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 81 In the museum itself is a long picture-gallery containing a considerable number of paintings of great value, both old and new. In another room in the interior is a night scene, painted with an extraordinary distribution of light; there are medals and coins from all places, including Roman and Greek, from Alexander and Philip. In a third room are minerals and stones, especially specimens of solid silver from Norway, a large one in the corner; in a case are other specimens almost solid, to the value of 3000 rix-dalers; there is one in which a lump of silver rises out of its matrix, which is a very curious object; other smaller specimens seem tied round, as it were, with a ribbon, and small specimens appear growing in the form of plants. I saw also native solid gold; weiss-ertz with silver and gold; petrified mood; a diamond in its matrix, emeralds, jacinths; and beautiful marble from Norway. There were also stuffed animals and the like; mummies; rarities from Japan, the East Indies, etc. In an inner room were works of art manufactured of ivory, wood, amber, and mother of pearl; various mathematical instruments, and a fine focal mirror of steel. The last room contains wax-figures among other curious objects; as, for instance, a child with two heads, two arms, and two feet; the golden horn which was found some years ago in Holstein, not far from the surface of the ground; also other horns, urns of gold, and Queen Margaret's private goblet.

I went to the booking-office and entered my name for Hamburg. I examined the route on a map, which is as follows: from Copenhagen over Zealand to the Great Belt; afterwards over Fnen to the little Belt; and thus by way of Schleswig and Holstein to Hamburg. Denmark consists of the islands of Zealand, Fnen, Falster, and Langeland; as well as Alsen and Femern; the parts on the continent that belong to it are Jutland, Schleswig and Holstein; Holstein consists of Holsatia, Dithmarsia, Wagria, and Normaria.

July 24. In the afternoon at four o'clock I left Copenhagen in the ordinary stage-coach. At eight o'clock we reached Roeskilde, where the peace of Roeskilde* was concluded; a fourth of the town has been burned by twelve or thirteen incendiaries, who are in prison.

* By the treaty of Roeskilde in 1658 Denmark ceded to Sweden, Schonen, Holland, Blekingen, Bohus, Drontheim, Bornholm, and Jemtland. By this treaty Sweden was also freed from the Sound dues.

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July 25. I reached Ringsted, so called after King Ring; passed Sor, a small town, beautifully situated, and came through Slagelse to Korsr on the Great Belt, which is fortified. The extent of Zealand from Copenhagen to Korsr is fourteen [geographical] miles; most of it is flat, and cultivated as fields, though there are also some handsome beech moods. At Korsr I noticed the tide, which can scarcely be observed in other parts of Denmark; a lighthouse is there for the use of mariners, likewise at Nyborg.

July 26. I went across the Great Belt, passing the little island, Sprog; Langeland was also visible; and thus I arrived at Nyborg. Thence I went to Odense, which is a large town containing four churches; it lies in the middle of the island of Fnen.

July 27. From Odense I went to Assens; Fnen extends nine [geographical] miles from Nyborg to Assens; the distance over the Great Belt is four [geographical] miles. From Assens we crossed the little Belt to Aarsund. The distance from Copenhagen to that place is twenty-nine miles, and it is thus half-may to Hamburg. Fnen has a similar appearance to Zealand. From Aarsund I travelled to Hadersleben, which is in Schleswig or Danish Holstein.

July 28. I reached Flensburg, which is a fine town, consisting of only one long street; ships arrive there trafficking in hemp, flax, linen, wine, &c., with which they supply the adjoining country. Thence we passed Schleswig, where a wall or rampart was pointed out to us which reaches from the Baltic to the North Sea, and is said to have been erected during the reign of the Emperor Otto, when he desired to introduce Christianity into Denmark.

July 29. Rendsburg is a handsome fortress, the finest in Denmark, containing a garrison of from 3000 to 4000 men; the town consists of scarcely anything but magazines and arsenals. Thence I went to Itzehoe which is a considerable town.

July 30. We arrived at Elmshorn, passing the fortress Glckstadt in Ditmarsia, which is there called Marsia. The country looks very much like Holland, in being fortified against the sea by dykes; it is as level and beautiful as a garden; water-courses separate the various estates; it has plantations of trees, beautiful fields, and large herds of cattle; rich inhabitants are there; everything is well built and cultivated.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 83 The greater part of the revenues is derived from this part. From Elmshorn I journeyed to Pinneberg, a Fleck (village), as it is called. At five o'clock in the afternoon I arrived in Hamburg, travelling on land from Copenhagen to Hamburg fifty-two miles and by sea six miles, altogether fifty-eight miles. I took lodgings in the Black Eagle. My travelling companion was a Danish merchant, residing at Bordeaux; his name is Johan Klker from Copenhagen.

July 31. I conversed with Commissary Knig,* and George Schneider, a captain and merchant.

* Johan Frederic Knig was the Swedish Postal Commissary in Hamburg; in 1738 he became the Swedish agent, and in 1747 resident consul. He died in 1759. He saw a splendid German edition of Dr. Nordberg's Life of Charles XII through the press, concerning which see Document 199.

August 1. With Commissary Knig, brother Cederstrm, and the director I went to the porcelain works, where I examined the ovens and specimens of their work; it does not equal ours in Stockholm. I enquired about the government in Hamburg: it consists of four burgomasters, two of whom alternate each year, twenty-four councilmen, five syndics, three secretaries, and one proto-notary. The salary of burgomaster amounts to 4000 rix-dalers; the largest income is that of the secretaries and of the proto-notary, who earn from 8000 to 12,000 rix-dalers.

August 2. I called upon Pastor Christopher Wolf,100 of St. Catharine's church.* He showed me a collection of original letters from learned men filling sixty volumes in folio and quarto; he showed me also an autograph collection of the names of more than a thousand learned men; likewise manuscripts in the oriental languages. The collection of letters he obtained from Schminkius, a burgomaster of Frankfort. I dined with a so-called Prince of Mogul, a swell (un tourdi).

* The letter of introduction from Bishop Ericus Benzelius, which Swedenborg delivered on this occasion, is preserved in the Public Library in Hamburg; it is Document 128.

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August 3. I was at home studying, and went to Schneider's to make arrangements about my letter of credit.

August 4. I left Hamburg by water and came to Harburg, which is a long, fortified town, and thence to Zhrendorf.

August 5. By way of Wietzendorf, a "Fleck" (village), I came to Celle, which is a handsome town. From Hamburg to Celle the country is mostly an uncultivated heath, although it might be cultivated.

August 6. I passed through Langthal, which is a village almost a mile long, beautifully diversified with oak-woods, and thus reached Hanover, where I lodged at the English Crown, which is directly over the post-office. His Majesty stays entirely at Herrenhausen.

August 7. I was in the garden at Herrenhausen. The distance from the town is about 4500 ells or a quarter of a Swedish mile. The garden is large; near the entrance is a sun-dial for all the quarters of the sky, and [calculated for all] obliquities; also good-sized statues in plaster of Paris, twenty-four in number, and eight urns. There are also pines trimmed in the form of pyramids, cones, and segments; of these there is a large number in the garden itself, where the statues are placed, as well as in other parts. Along the sides are hedges in great number, upwards of six ells in height. There are two small parks with large trees, and at a great distance two pleasure houses. On the left is a theatre with a water basin in front, in which are three fountains, one surpassing the rest in height, and on the top of the theatre are many gilt statues. At a greater distance is an amphitheatre with small statues; farther down are four statues of the royal family; in the neighbourhood of the castle itself are a few statues in bronze. There are also cascades in a grotto, where the water flows into large and still larger shells; and, besides, there is an orangery containing many but not particularly large trees.

In the town there are water-works by which both the town and the reservoirs are supplied with water; it contains likewise a Jewish synagogue. The town itself is of considerable size and consists of two parts, the old, and the new called the "Neustadt," besides the houses outside the wall; it is pretty well fortified.

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August 8. I was in several churches; there are five of them, besides the Calvinistic Reformed and the Roman Catholic churches. The cemeteries are all outside the town; there large churchyards are situated.

August 9. I visited the royal stables, which contain upwards of a hundred horses, carefully selected both with regard to size and colour; some are of a bluish shade; there were also a number of mules of considerable size. Another stable is at Celle. I was in the so-called "Mummelgarten," or "Mont brillant," which is rather handsome with its living hedges, trees trimmed in various forms, its orangery, fountains, etc.; there is also a water-wheel turned by little brooks.

August 10 and 11. I studied matters connected with ontology; took a view of the situation of the town; inspected its ramparts, and saw every thing else that was interesting. August 12. I travelled from Hanover to Osnabrck. On the first day I came through a little town, called Wunstorf, but did not go beyond Leese, the first station, where we stopped for the night.

August 13. We crossed the Weser at Stolzenau, and afterwards came through Diepenau to Bohmte.

August 14. I arrived at Osnabrck, which belongs to the Elector of Cologne. Three Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches are in the place; likewise Jesuit schools; four convents, of which one is in the town, called "Gertruden Kloster," for ladies of the nobility; a castle; a garden outside the town called "Petersburg." They have alternately it Catholic and an Evangelical bishop. I travelled thence through Ibbenbren to Rheine.

August 15. I arrived at Bentheim, a town of no importance, which is situated on a mountain; it is crowned by an old castle, and belongs to Count von Bentheim; it is garrisoned by soldiers from Cologne.

August 16. I then proceeded through Delden to Deventer, which is a large town in the Dutch province of Upper Yssel. After crossing the river Yssel I came to Voorthuizen, and then through Ammersfort to Naarden; thus coming from the province of Upper Yssel through Geldern to Holland.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 86 Naarden is the best fortress in all the seven United Provinces; and, besides, it is a handsome town, where I spent the night over the booking-office writing out my observations. Ammersfort also is a large and handsome town, surrounded by many important tobacco plantations, the produce of which mostly goes to Norway and Sweden. It is to be observed, besides, that the only cereal which they sow is buckwheat. In very many places were plantations of oaks. Otherwise there were many uncultivated heaths and moors on the way to Ammersfort, which are preserved in part on account of the peat.

August 17. From Naarden I came by canal-boat (treckschuyt) to Amsterdam, where I took lodgings in the "Vergoude Leuwen," or the Golden Lion, not far from the Exchange. In Amsterdam I stayed until the evening of the 20th. I was at Messrs. Clissoet and Son, and at several others. Tota civitas nihil nisi lucrum spirabat (The whole town breathed of nothing but gain).

August 20. I proceeded by the canal to Rotterdam, and went on board the boat which stopped at Ter Gouwe (Gouda), which is a handsome town.

August 21. There, that is, at Ter Gouwe (Gouda), I went into a carriage, where there was room for six persons, and that number took their places in it in a polite manner. The road thence to Rotterdam, and also all around Amsterdam, is paved with Dutch bricks (klinkers) and tiles, laid on their edges. Along the road we passed many brick-kilns, and heaps of pest taken out of moors and ditches; this is a kind of earth which, like bricks, is dried in the sun, and in rainy weather is covered with mats made of sedge-grass, of which an abundance grows here. There are no cereals planted here, but only grass for cattle, which furnish the great quantity of cheese manufactured here. At last I arrived at Rotterdam where I had to remain a whole day. A fair was being held there, where I admired a great number of fine paintings sold by auction. To pass away my time, as it was evening, I went to see an exhibition, where a man skilled in balancing himself walked on a slack hempen rope; he also went up a rope-ladder, and made all sorts of evolutions on the top, and, finally, stood there on his head, and in this position went down the ladder; never losing his balance. I also saw a puppet-show, where one very curious trick was performed.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 87 At a moment's notice they became changed from female puppets into statues, and where the head had been before there was a basket filled with little people, and a seat for sitting down; again a woman was changed into a man, and afterwards into a windmill, the wings of which were turning around; it was certainly a display of skill and dexterity. The exchange building the finest I have yet seen; but it was not attended, as in Amsterdam, by such a great number of persons, who are the chief ornament of an exchange.

I here considered why it was that it has pleased our Lord to bless such an uncouth and avaricious people with such a splendid country; why He has preserved them for such a long time from all misfortunes; has caused them to surpass all other nations in commerce and enterprize; and made their country a place whither most of the riches not only of Europe but also of other places flow. The principal cause seems to me to have been, that it is a republic, wherein the Lord delights more than in monarchical countries; as appears also from Rome. The result is, that no one deems himself obliged and in duty bound to accord honour and veneration to any human being, but considers the low as well as the high to be of the same worth and consequence as a king and emperor; as is also shown by the native bent and disposition of every one in Holland. The only one for whom they entertain a feeling of veneration is the Lord, putting no trust in flesh; and when the highest is revered most, and no human being is in sis place, it is most pleasing to the Lord. Besides, each enjoys his own free-will, and from this his worship of God flows for each is, as it were, his own king and rules under the government of the highest; and from this it follows again, that they do not, out of fear, timidity, and excess of caution, lose their courage and their independent rational thought, but in full freedom and without being borne down, they are able to fix their souls upon, and elevate them to, the honour of the Highest, who is unwilling to share His worship with any other. At all events, those minds that are borne down by a sovereign power are brought up in flattery and falsity; they learn how to speak and act differently from what they think; and when this condition has become inrooted by habit, it engenders a sort of second nature, so that even in the worship of God such persons speak differently from what they think, and extend their flattering ways to the Lord himself, which must be highly displeasing to Him.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 88 This seems to me the reason may they above other nations enjoy a perfect blessing; their worshipping mammon for their God, and striving only after money, does not seem to be consistent with a constant blessing; still there may be ten among a thousand or among ten thousand, who ward off punishment from the others, and cause them to be the participants with themselves of temporal blessings.

August 22. I left Rotterdam in a small vessel for Antwerp, and arrived first at Dort (Dordrecht), which is a handsome town. In its neighbourhood may be seen a great number of windmills. I noticed also many mills where cement is ground; they are furnished with the stones for the cement from a great distance; the material consisting of debris and stones that have lain in the ground for a long time. There is also a salt refinery.

August 23. We passed Williamstad (Willemstad), which is a fortress, and arrived at Bergen op Zoom. Zealand with its isles appeared on the right; it lies low down at the water's edge, and must be constantly protected by dikes, lest an inundation take place. Gardens and plantations were seen at the side, flat and even.

August 24. After passing by Lillo, which is a small town, we arrived at Antwerp. The only sources of displeasure during this voyage were, that the captain was cross and uncivil, and that at night it was most uncomfortable to stay below in the cabin, in company with so many people. The tide prevented our proceeding as fast as we ought to have done. I stayed in Antwerp from four o'clock in the afternoon till eleven at night, and visited the handsome church of Notre Dame. There are two rows of altars, twelve altogether, besides those along the sides and around the choir. I was shown a beautiful painting at one of the altars on the right, representing the removal of Christ from the cross; this painting is very seldom opened and shown.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 89 In the tower are open Gothic ornaments; from the interior of the church one can look up into the tower to a great height, where the view is closed by a ceiling representing the ascension of Christ. The distance from Rotterdam to Antwerp is calculated at eighteen [geographical] miles.

August 25. During the night I went in a large boat to Boom, where we mere transferred to a Atreckschuyt" (canal-boat) of considerable size; it was forty ells long, and six ells wide, with five rooms, i. e. cabin, kitchen, and other apartments; on the forward deck was an awning, under which people could sit. We changed our "treckschuyts," which are drawn by two horses, five times. It was a splendid and most beautiful trip. During the whole journey we had plantations of trees on both sides; people also mere more civilized, so that in contrast with their politeness the boorishness and heaviness of the Dutch became very evident. We passed a town, called Vilvoorden, which had a very antiquated looking fortress. The land on both sides was as flat as the water; in proportion, however, as it rose it became necessary to provide locks or sluices; and from one lock we had to pass into another. About 11 o'clock in the fore-noon we arrived at Brussels, where I had lodgings behind the town-hall at the house of a certain Cauter in the "Runsefall." The distance from Antwerp to Brussels is eight leagues. In Brussels I visited the cathedral which is called the "gold church;" the most conspicuous ornament in it was fourteen pillars, every one of which was dressed with foliage, adorned with a statue, and furnished with an altar; besides other interesting objects. In addition to the other churches, which I need not specify, I was in the principal rooms of the town-hall, where I had occasion to admire the tapestry which is manufactured in Brussels, and which surpasses the Gobelin tapestry in Paris; the woven pictures were so life-like, that no painter could have made them finer; they are still engaged upon this kind of work at the present day. The houses facing the market-place and many others in the town are much gilded; most of them are famished with many windows, and are of an old-fashioned style of architecture. Afterwards I visited the arsenal where most of the curiosities were from the Emperor; among these were apparel of imperial purple, a shield of iron inlaid with gold, which was of most beautiful workmanship; there was also another where the figures were damascened, and of great value; at last we admired the emperor's sword. I do not mention the stables and other objects which we saw.

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On our way to Brussels two Franciscan monks were on the canal-boat; one of these stood on deck for four hours in one position, and during the whole of this time said his prayers devoutly; they probably were for those travelling in the boat. Such prayers must certainly be agreeable to God, so far as they proceed from an honest and pure heart, and are offered with genuine devotion, and not in the spirit of the Pharisees; for prayer avails much, as in the case of Moses, when the people were slain, and in other cases. Paul desired that others should pray for him.

August 26. On the left side of the choir in the cathedral I saw an altar and an altar-piece of silver; likewise many larger and smaller chandeliers and lamps of silver, together with other splendid ornaments. Mass was celebrated there. The only thing that needs to be noted in connection therewith to serve as a subject for reflection, is this: that everything is so arranged as to captivate and occupy the senses, and to lead them above by an external way, or to exalt one's thoughts about religion and direct them to the Highest; for all is instituted with so much devotion; the body inclines and bows; the knees bend; the eyes are engaged by everything magnificent and sublime that can be imagined; the ears are filled with beautiful music, instrumental as well as vocal; the nose enjoys aromatic fragrance. Besides this, many holy objects are exhibited, so that the senses are charmed, and by external means men are led to devotion; which with them seems to be the means of elevating their minds, since the external senses furnish them generally with subjects for meditation.

August 28. At 8 o'clock in the morning I left Brussels for Tubise, whence I journeyed to Braine [le Comte] and Castesu, all of which are villages rivaling towns in elegance. About evening I reached Mons, which is a well-built town, and uncommonly well fortified; it is provided with many out-works, and almost impregnable. It is well garrisoned contains many inhabitants, has many churches and a large market-place, and is about ten leagues distant from Brussels.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 91 The road was paved all the way with stones broken into pieces of the same size, and on both sides trees were planted, as in an orchard.

August 29. Next morning I left Mons, and after passing through Quirain, I arrived at Valenciennes; which is a town containing handsome, but not very large, houses. It is a fortress of medium strength; but in the direction of Cambray there is a high elevation from which it can be easily bombarded, so that it does not seem capable of making a strong defence. I was in the church of Notre Dame. A fair was being held in the town, and a church festival. The greater part of the silver treasures of the church was exhibited, consisting for the most part of caskets, containing the bones of saints and martyrs, all of pure silver, and pretty large--at least two in the choir. There were altogether forty-five silver caskets, besides forty-five other large ornaments of silver scattered over the church, and candlesticks and other things. All these objects were large and old-fashioned, so that one could not help thinking that the smaller objects and those that were of recent make were locked up. It is a treasure of considerable value.

August 30. From Valenciennes I went to Abson, and thence to Bouchain, arriving at four o'clock in Cambray, which is a town of antiquated houses, containing two market-places, large churches, and an extraordinary citadel with many out-works. Along the whole way, is far as the eye could reach, the land consisted of fields.

August 31. From Cambray I continued my journey by Metz[en Cout] to Peronne in Picardy. During the whole way I passed through nothing but fields. Peronne is a town of little importance; it has many large and handsome churches, and is somewhat fortified. The houses are miserable; the convents magnificent; the people poor and wretched.

September 1. From Peronne I travelled through Ombercour to Roye, which is a miserable town. Everywhere the convents, churches, and monks are wealthiest and possess most land. The monks are fat, puffed up, and prosperous; a whole proud army might be formed of them without their being missed; most of them lead a lazy life; they try more and more to make all subject to them; they give nothing to the poor except words and blessings, and, on the other hand, insist on having everything from the indigent for nothing.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 92 Of what possible use are these Franciscan monks? Others again are slim, lean, supple; they prefer walking to riding on horse-back or in a carriage; they are willing that others should enjoy themselves with them, are witty and quick at repartee, &c.

September 2. From Roye I came to Pont [St. Maxence], which is a borough (bourg) where there is a bridge across a tributary of the Seine, [the Oise.] The river Seine makes four bends, and Paris lies in their midst.

September 3. From Pont [de Maxence] I went by way of Senlis to Paris, where I arrived at six o'clock in the evening, and took lodgings at the Hotel d'Hamburg.

September 4. I took a view of Paris on the left side of the Seine, or of the Faubourg St. Germain. I was in the church of Notre Dame, in the garden of the Luxembourg and in the theatre, which seems to be developed in Paris to the greatest height it will probably ever reach.

September 5. I was in the Tuileries and the Louvre. In the Tuileries I: examined all its splendours; I saw also the large marble statues, which were far away in the park leading to Versailles. Afterwards I visited the Hotel Royal des Invalides, which is a palace of wonderful structure; the handsome church is the mast interesting object there; I saw likewise the many expensive palaces on the way leading to it.

September 6. I made the first draught of the introduction to the Transactions (ingressum ad transactiones), viz. that the soul of wisdom is the knowledge and acknowledgment of the Supreme Being.*

* See onomia Regni Animalis, first transaction, no. 19.

September 7. I was in the palace, and saw all the shops, likewise the bookshops. I was likewise in the Sainte Chapelle and in the Hotel de Ville. In the first transaction I treated on the subject that "now is the time to explore nature from its effects."*

* Ibid. No. 26.

September 8. I visited a little church, called Larmes de Chaux, near the garden of the Luxembourg; and likewise all the bookshops along the Seine, which are of no particular importance.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 93 I was also in the hospital belonging to Notre Dame where there are many beds; I saw there the entrance for foundlings (l'entre pour les enfans trouvs). I had a sight of the Queen of Spain.

September 9. I was in the following churches: Notre Dame, St. Sulpice, St. Paul, and others.

September 10, 11. I was engaged in making the outlines of my work: on the atmospheres in general (de auris in genere). On the 11th I called on Ambassador Gedda.*

* Baron Niclas Peter von Gedda, born in 1675, whose acquaintance Swedenborg made in Paris in 1713, when von Gedda was there as the secretary of a commission (Kommissions-Sekreterare)--see Document 46, p. 230; and whom he describes there as being "well known to a part of the learned, and versed in scientific studies and literary history." He became Minister Plenipotentiary of Sweden at the French Court in 1730; in 1736, soon after Swedenborg met him in Paris, he was made Secretary of State, and in 1739 Court- Chancellor, as appears from Document 124, Vol. I, p. 363. He died in 1758.

September 12. I was in the Rue St. Paul; in the Place Royale where the statue of Louis XIII may be seen;* likewise on the Isle of Notre Dame.

* This statue, which was erected by Richelieu in 1639, was destroyed in 1792; the present equestrian statue of marble was put up in 1829.

September 13. I was in the Comdie des Italiens, and in sundry other places in town, also in the bookshops.

September 14. I visited the Opera, which is magnificent; the Chambre des Imprimeurs et Libraires; and the Comdie.

September 15, 16. General Stenflycht* came and lodged in the same house where I stayed.

* Johan Segersten, after being ennobled in 1716 Stenflycht, was a brave Swedish soldier. His first military instruction he received in the Imperial army in Hungary, which he entered in 1691, afterwards he distinguished himself in the Swedish army, where he rose in 1713 to the grade of lieutenant-colonel. In 1719 he retired from the Swedish army, and became major-general in the army of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp; in 1733 he entered the service of King Stanislaus131 of Poland in the capacity of General; after the peace of Vienna in 1735, he accompanied Stanislaus to France, and became lieutenant-general in the French army; in the following year General Stenflycht met Swedenborg in Paris. In 1738 he became commander-in-chief in Hamburg, from which post he retired in 1742. In 1743 Swedenborg and he met again at Ystad (see Document 207). He died in 1758.

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September 18. I was in the Palais [Royal] and the garden belonging to it; in the Place Royale de Louis le Grand, and in the churches of the Capuchins (Franciscans) and of the Feuillants (Cistercians) on both sides of them; likewise in the Tuileries, from which one enters; also in the Comdie des Italiens. I had a discussion also with an abb on the adoration of saints; he denied in toto that this was adoration, and insisted that worship belonged to God alone; [he was opposed] to the adoration or veneration of the saints, and the double veneration of Mary.

September 19. I was in the Sainte Chapelle, where all the windows are stained; it was a pretty view to see Ala susception" of the relies of our redemption.*

* The Sainte Chapelle is in the Palais de Justice, on the Ile de Palais; in it are preserved a piece of the crown of thorns, and of the cross and the cloak of our Lord; likewise the iron-point of the lance with which his side was pierced.

September 20. I visited the Place des Victoires, where a gilt statue of Louis XIV is upon a pedestal with statues on each of the four sides;* the place itself is round and the houses look all alike. Afterwards I went into the church of St. Eustache.

* This statue also was destroyed in 1792; the present bronze statue of Louis XIV was erected in 1822.

September 25. I took a walk through the town of fully one Swedish mile [six and a half English miles]; I went through Luxembourg and the Rue d'Enfer to the observatory, and thence to the gate of St. Jacques; afterwards I passed the monastery of the Franciscans [the present Hpital du Midi?], and that of the Val de Grace [l'Hpital du Val de Grace] which belongs to the Benedictines, and then I followed the Rue St. Jaques until I finally reached the Forte St. Martin, through which we had entered upon arriving in Paris; I then walked along the rampart and saw a part of the Hpital de St. Louis, where I am told there are 10,000 beds, principally on account of the plague. I then went to the Rue du Temple and had a look at the ancient ruins of the Temple; I saw also the chapel and the garden of the Htel de grand Prieur, which is rather handsome; as well as the church of St. Elisabeth, which is directly opposite.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 95 On the way back I saw the Church of St. Jaques-de-1a-Boucherie,* and thus returned home.

* Now the Tour St. Jacques, at the corner of the Rue de Rivoli and the Boulevard de Sebastopol.

September 28. I was at the opera, where they acted the Gallant Europa, a beautiful piece; the gentlemen dancers Malphe [Malter?] was the best, and also the young Dumolin; among the lady dancers Briton and Mariette; among the singers Mademoiselle Benisse [Pellecier?] distinguished herself.

September 30. I was at my bankers Messrs. Tourton and Baire, as well as at Messrs. Lavalle and David; the former live in the Place des Victoires; the latter, who deal in fancy ware and porcelain, in the Rue St. Honor.

October 2. I changed my quarters, and removed to the Rue de. L'Observatoire, opposite the establishment of the Cordeliers.*

* A religious order founded by St. Francis.

October 3. I was in the church of the Cordeliers, which is double; and in their convent, which is a magnificent palace.

October 4. I was in the Tuileries and the Avenue des Tuileries, until I reached a village called "Shai" [?], where there are two convents and at a greater distance was the Palais de Madrid, which is rather antiquated. Opposite the, Tuileries, on the other side of the river, the Htel de la Duchesse appears, which is magnificent. There is a pleasant promenade, where I speculated on the forms of the particles in the atmosphere.

October 10. I understood that the great, revenue of France obtained by the system of taxation called tithing, amounts to 32 millions [livres], or nearly 192 tons of gold, and that Paris on account of its rents contributes nearly two-thirds of that sum. In the country towns this tax, it is said, is not properly collected, as the rents are reported at a lower figure than they amount to in reality, so that scarcely three per cent is collected. I am told, besides, that the ecclesiastical order possesses one-fifth of all the property in the state, and that the country will be ruined, if this goes on much longer.

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October 12. I purchased a description of Paris, where it was noticed that the large library is at the corner of the Rue de Richelieu near the Palais Royal, having been removed thither from the Rue de Vienne; that it consists of 70,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts, which were in part purchased, and in part left to the institution by will; further, that King Francis I. laid its first foundation, by making a collection at Fontainebleau, the greater part of which however, was destroyed; that Catharina de Medici enriched it with medals, engravings in copper, &c. King Louis XIV, at great cost, collected copper-plate engravings from the whole of Europe, sending agents to every part. The supreme charge of the whole, as well as of the numismatic cabinet in Versailles, is entrusted to the Abbe Bignon;57 under him is Le Beze; and specially in charge of the books is Sallier[?], and of the copper-plate engravings Le Croix. The library of M. de Brennes is in a separate room.

October 16. I was in the Palais Royal, which is a magnificent palace, with ships in the niches. It was built by Cardinal Richelieu, when it was called Palais de Richelieu, and afterwards Palais-Cardinal; he bequeathed it to the king in perpetuity. It was given by Louis XIII during his life-time to his queen,* whence it received the name Palais Royal. The audience chamber where the Duke of Orleans administered the government** is in this palace. It is adorned with beautiful paintings, and contains a chemical laboratory. The palace is separated from the large garden by a smaller one containing on orangery; here balls are held at the time of the carnival.

*Swedenborg says that the palace was left by Louis XIII to his mother, who was Maria de Medici; but as she died several months before Cardinal Richelieu, such could not have been the case. It is, however, historically true that after the death of Louis XIII, who died in 1643, (a few months after Richelieu) his widow, Anne of Austria, removed to the palace with her two sons Louis XIV and Philip of Orlans, who were both minors.

** The Duke of Orlans of whom Swedenborg speaks here is Philip d'Orlans, the grandson of Louis XIII, who was prince-regent during the minority of Louis XV; he died in 1723.

October 17. I was in the Library, which is a splendid building, but which is not to be opened until the 11th[?] of October; I was also at the opera which is in the Palais Royal, where they acted "Gnies" in five acts.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 97 The principal gentlemen dancers were Malter and Dumolin; among the lady-dancers were Briton and Mariett; the actors were Fribaud and Fel, and the singers Pellecier and Antier, with several others.

I was likewise in the Sorbonne and heard their disputations in theology, which were carried on pretty well; one of the opponents wore a lined cloak; the whole discussion consisted of syllogisms. The Sorbonne is a splendid building; it was first established as a gymnasium by certain Sorbon in 1260; he made an exchange (bytte) with King Louis the Saint, and received more in addition. It was raised to its present splendour by Richelieu, whose sepulchre is in the church. Six professors deliver lectures daily. It has also a valuable library.

October 25. I was in the monastery of St. Victor, which is near the Jardin du Roi [now the Jardin des Plantes]; it is a lame structure, built with cloisters in the old style, and has a large and handsome garden. It consists of a small church and the monastery which was built in 1115; the abb receives annually 35,000 livres. It belongs to the order of the Augustines. The present abb is said to be a man of great ability. They have a handsome library, and also 3000 manuscripts which are constantly increased it is open three times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays.*

* The older of the Augustines has been abolished in France since the Revolution; and the monastery of St. Victor has disappeared; but the Place St. Victor and the Rservoir St. Victor are still in the neighbourhood of the Jardin des Plantes along the Rue Linn, and thus indicate the former position of the monastery.

The Jardin Royal or the Jardin du Roi [Jardin des Plantes] is in its immediate neighbourhood. It is of great extent, and contains many exotic plants, upwards of4000; it contains also a grove of foreign trees, and a tower of considerable height from which a great part of the town be seen; it was built in the time of Henry the Great. The garden is under the superintendence of the first physician of the king. Every week public lectures are delivered there on botany, chemistry, and anatomy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 98 At the entrance into the garden where the buildings are situated is also Pitton de Tournefort's* cabinet of curiosities, as well as an herbarium of upwards of 6000 plants. Close by is a place for storing wood.

* Jos. Pitton de Tournefort was a celebrated French botanist, he was born in 1656, and died in l708.

Near the garden is the Hpital de la Piti, which is an old institution; there boys and girls are trained for work; they thence go into service or are married; they are also sent to the colonies. It belongs to the Hpital General, of which it is a branch.

On the way I passed St. Genevive. The monastery dates from the fifth or sixth century, and belongs to the order of the Augustines. The abbacy yields annually 70,000 livres. The abbe has great power; when a procession takes place with the St. Genevive,* he is invested with his mitre and cross, and administers the benediction in the streets even to the Archbishop of Paris. The monastery is very celebrated; it has a beautiful garden and a handsome library. St. Genevive is there at the altar in the choir, richly decorated; her procession is magnificent, abounding with riches. Rochefort[?], as well as Descartes are buried in the church.**

* St. Genevive is the patron saint of Paris.

** The church of St. Genevive was removed in the middle of the last; century, on account of its delapidated condition. The magnificent church which was erected in its place was called the "Panthon," by a decree of the year 1791. By a recent decree dating from the year 1851 its former name "Eglise Ste. Genevive" was again restored, yet the building still passes in Paris under the name of the "Panthon," and the name "Ste. Genevive" is restricted to the library.

October 30. I was in the church of the Theatines near the Pont Royal, and also in the church of the barefooted Augustines near the Tuileries, where I heard Guillaume, the chaplain of the king, preach; he gesticulated like an actor on the stage; yet he preached in a very superior style.

November 3. I was at the opening of the parliament in the palace where it meets.* On one side of the large hall where an altar with a beautiful altar-piece is erected, the sermon was delivered; many candles were lighted, and music was played; the gentlemen were in their red cloaks: a bishop administered the pontifical rite.

* Palais de Justice, on the island called La Cit.

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The Salute Chapelle,* which was built in 1245 by Louis the Saint, was open; I saw there two enamelled paintings, one of which represented Christ on the cross, and the other His resurrection; they were oval and about three-quarters [of an ell] high; they were surrounded by four smaller round paintings, with others between. They were all of great value. The original painting was also shown, where the Emperor Baldwin presents to Louis the Saint a number of relies of the cross, the crown of thorns, the spear, clothes, sponge, &c., all of which are preserved here; they were obtained in Constantinople and purchased at a very high price.**

* The Sainte Chapelle, the former royal chapel, is in the southern court of the Palais de Justice.

** Louis the Saint is said to have purchased them from Jean de Brienne, King of Jerusalem, and his son-in-law Baldwin, Emperor of Constantinople, for three millions of francs.

1737.

January. I was in the church of St. Genevive; she is the patron saint of Paris. Her coffin, with an abundance of genuine diamonds and surrounded with many candles, is placed upon a high altar in the front part of the church.

There are four conseils (councils) in France, at which the king presides: 1. Le Conseil d'tat (the council of state). 2. Le conseil des dpches (the council of foreign despatches). 3. Le conseil des finances (the council of finance). 4. Le conseil de commerce (the council of commerce).

The council of state consists: 1. Of the king, 2. The Duke of Orlans, the first prince of the blood royal, 3. Cardinal Fleury, 4. The keeper of the seals, 5. The Duke d'Estres, the marshal, 6. M. Bnguilliers, the secretary of state, 7. M. Orry, councillor of state and comptroller of the finance.

The Keeper of the seals (Garde de sceaux) has in his charge the foreign despatches from all the ministers, likewise donations and brevets. The Comte de Maurepas, secretary of state, transacts almost everything that concerns the affairs of the interior and the exterior, except what has reference to war; the Comte de Florintin, secretary of state, that which concerns religion, which is very little; Mons. D'Anguilliers, secretary of state, all that concerns war in the country.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 100 The Duke of Charot is the presiding officer of the council. M. Orry, who is councillor of state and in the royal council, is comptroller of finance, and has in his charge the affairs of commerce and what concerns [the finances of] the state. Lamoignon de Cuisson is also councillor of state.

In France there are 14,777 convents and from 300,000 to 400,000 members of religious orders, who possess 9000 palaces or mansions; 1356 abbots, 567 abbesses, 13,000 prioresses (prieuses), 15,000 chaplains, 140,000 pastors and curates, 18 archbishops, and 112 bishops. 776 abbots and 280 abbesses are appointed by the king. There are also 16 heads of orders. The following are the principal: the Jacobins, Augustines, Cordeliers, Carmelites, Carthusians (Chartreux), Bernardines, Benedictines, Jesuits, Minimi,* Celestines.

* A reformed order of the Franciscans.

The archbishops have the following provinces allotted to them: 1. Paris, Blonseigneur de Luc [Louis?], 2. Lyon, 3. Rouen, Monsign. Tavannes, 4. Sens, 5. Rheims, Monsign. de Rohan, 6. Tours, 7. Bourges, 8. Alby, 9. Bordeaux, 10. such, Cardinal Polignac, 11. Narbonne, 12. Toulouse, 13. Aries, 14. Aix, 15. Vienne, 16. Embrun, 17. Besanon, 18. Cambray.

Members of the Royal House of France: King Louis XV. born in 1710; Queen Marie, in 1703; the Dauphin, in 1729; the six Mesdames de France. The royal family is mostly from the Bourbon family in conjunction with the Duke of Orlans, the Duchess of Orleans, the widow of the late duke, who is now living, being a Bourbon; further, from the Bourbons and the Bourbon-Contis. Two sons of the late Duke of Orlans are living, a daughter is an abbess; of the Bourbon branch several are living, one son [a Bourbon] and his brother, who is called the Duc de Chartres, besides several daughters; there are also some from the branch Bourbon-Conti, and from the branch Bourbon-Cond. There are altogether twelve male and fourteen female descendants of the Bourbons and the Duke of Orlans.

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January 23, 24. I was at St. Denis where I saw the royal vaults, as well as the treasures which are preserved there, of which I shall treat more in detail below.

In connection with royalty in France there have further to be mentioned: 1. Stanislaus Leczinsky,131 King of Poland, born in 1677, 2. Catharina Opalinsky, his queen, born in 1683, 3. There is in Prance a dowager-queen of Spain, born in 1669, 4. Also another personage, born in 1704, a daughter of the Duke of Orlans.

In Spain are: King Philip, born in 1683, 2. Queen Elisabeth Fernese, born in 1692, 3. Ferdinand, Prince of the Asturias, born in 1713, 4. His sister Marie, Queen of Portugal, 5. Don Philippe, born in 1727, 6. Don Louis, Cardinal and archbishop of Toledo, 7. Two princesses, one Marie Therese, and the other Marie Antoinette; besides Don Carlos.

In St. Denis a great number of curiosities were to be seen: 1. A piece of clockwork, representing the passion of Christ and many other subjects, one after another, simply by means of weights. 2. The church is antique, brought to perfection chiefly by Dagoberrt;* the windows are curious on account of their stained glass and figures; all of the chapels are said to be rich. There was a marvellous cross of solid gold; a well-made iron grating, and posts of metal. 3. On the way to St. Denis I saw pyramids erected to the memory of Philip the Bold, the son of St. Louis, who had brought his father's remains with him in 1271. 4. Dagobert, the grandson of Chilperic, as far as has become known, was the first who was buried here. St. Louis caused a considerable number of epitaphs commemorating his predecessors, to be set up here. 5. The statue of Charles VIII is of black marble and bronze. 6. The tomb of Louis XII is the finest in respect to architecture. 7. That of Louis XIV is still covered, for it is not uncovered during the life-time of his successor.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 102 8. In the chapel of the House of Valois were Catharina de Medici and her husband Henry II; with several others. 9. Among those buried here, besides kings, are the Vicomte de Turenne marked by a fine epitaph, Sancerre,** Arnaud de Guillaume, Bertrand,*** all of whom where great men, and beloved. 10. They have been damaged somewhat by the various wars. 11. The emperor de chevau [?] is the only one who is known to have been buried here; he is in his imperial robes. 12. In respect to the treasures and armour much has to be observed, since they consist of precious stones, diamonds, massive gold, agates,[?] crowns, crucifixes, monstrances; in a monstrance was the largest diamond I have seen, also a very large one in the royal coronation crown, in which, I have been told, a considerable number of relies are enclosed; as well as in a large ruby and in other objects wrought of gold, which relies are partly from the cross of Christ, and partly from St. Denis, etc. 13. I was shown a cross of porphyry which was said to be the finest porphyry ever seen; it was brought here by Dagobert from Poitiers. There is some doubt as to the use which was made of it. I lodged at the ALamb."

* Modern investigations have shown, that there is not a trace left of the first church built by Dagobert in 630, nor of the second which was begun by Pepin in 754, and finished by his son Charlemagne in 775. Suger, the celebrated Abbot of St. Denis, erected a new church, which was dedicated in 1144, and destroyed by lightning a century later. The church as reconstructed by St. Louis from 1234 to 1284 forms the basis of the present building.

** Louis de Sancerre, conntable de France, who died in 1470.

*** Bertrand du Guesclin, Comte de Longueville and conntable de France, who died in 1380, in a, battle fought against the English.

The royal persons in England are as follows: 1. George II., born 1683; 2. Carolina Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Anspach, born 1683; 3. Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, born 1707; 4. Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, born 1721; 5. William Augustus of England, Duke of Cumberland; 6. Anna, wife of the Prince of Orange; 7; The Princesses Emily, Caroline, Mary Louisa; 8. James In: [the Pretender] in Rome, born 1688; 9. Two of his sons.

The provinces of France are as follow: Angoumais, Anjou, Auvergne, Berry, Blaisais, Burgundy, Bretagne, Bordeaux, Champagne, Chartrain, Dauphin, Franche Comt, Ile de France, Languedoc, la Manche, Limousin, Lorraine and the duchy de Bar, Maine, Navarre, Nivernois, Normandie, Orlanois, Pays bas, la Flandre, Brabant, Comt d'Artois, Hainault, Perigord, Picardie, Poitou, Provence, Rousillon, Tourenne, [&c.].

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July 30. I went to Passy, and saw the springs of Passy, of which there are two; they are far down in the earth, just as in a cellar; each consists of two streams, so that there are really four; the new springs, however, have three streams. They are chalybeate or vitriolic, just as with us [in Sweden]. They use the whole of it, and in order to set the iron out of it, they pump it into long earthen vessels, covering them with slate, and let the water stand there for a month, when all the ochre settles to the bottom, and the water becomes almost like sweet water; it is then filled into earthen bottles and filtered. A pint of it is sold for five stivers.

I drove also to [the convent of] Calvaire, which is on a high mountain* near Suresnes. There are seven pictures pretty well executed, representing the whole of Christ's passion. In the church the tomb of Christ is represented in the form in which it exists on mount Calvary. A large garden belongs to it, from which a view can be had of the neighbouring country including many small towns.**

* Now Mont Valrien.

** The monastery le Calvaire, built by Louis XIII, was formerly a favourite place for pilgrimages. Napoleon I. removed the monastery and erected in its place an educational institute for the daughters of members of the Legion of honour. After the restoration the place came again into the hands of an ecclesiastical corporation, and the pilgrimages began anew; but the year 1830 put an end to their possession, and in 1840 the building of the fortress of Mont Valrien was commenced.

1738.

March 12. At 3 o'clock in the morning I left Paris by diligence and arrived at Chlons [sur Saone] on the 15th, having passed through various villages, as well as through Auxerre. From Chlons I went by "treckschuyt," which is here called the "diligence par eau," to Macon, and thence to Lyons. I thus came through the Franche Comt, the whole of Burgundy, and Doubs, passing on the way several beautiful castles, one of which belongs to the Comte de Clermont, where the best wine grows, 1500 en queue [?]. The wine of Macon also is pretty good.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 104 The diligence par eau goes into the river Rhone, which flows through Lyons, and which has its origin in several streams in the Alps. Lyons or the old Lugdunum is a pretty large and considerable town, containing many large houses and palaces, especially around the Place Royal [Place Louis le Grand], where are two large palaces belonging to private persons. The place is adorned by an equestrian statue of Louis XIV in bronze, with fountains on each side. Lyons is a great place for manufacturing galloons, gold and silver lace, gold and silver cloth, and silk goods. It produces a great quantity of finely spun gold, the unmanufactured gold being worth seven-eighths of the manufactured article. Every year gold to the value of from 300,000 to 400,000 marks in silver is thus manufactured into gold wire; it comes from Genoa to Lyons; the weight of the gold amounts to upwards of 70 or 80 tons. The Archbishop of Lyons is the primate of the clergy in France; he has his jurisdiction like the pope. Villeroy is governor; he has survivance of the office which is hereditary. The Jesuits have a large convent where they make mithridate;* they have also a fine library which I visited. I stayed in Lyons for from four to five days.

* An antidote against poison, so called from Mithriadest, King of Pontus, its supposed inventor.

March 22. I left Lyons for Turin, crossing the Alps, and finally passing over the last and highest mountain, Mont Cenis where we had to undergo much fatigue, and where our lives were endangered by the snow which had fallen the previous night, which was so deep that our mules had fairly to swim in it, and we were obliged to dismount. It was fortunate that our party consisted of twelve persons besides six monks of the Carmelite order, and that we had an attendance of from fifty to sixty porters who paved a way for us. The night we passed on the mountain in the Grande Croix [inn]. Our halting places and the villages which we passed, were as follows: Bron, [St.] Laurent [de Mure] with a chteau, [la] Verpillire, Bourgoin, la Tour de Pin, Vigaborgho[?], Pont de Beauvoisin, where France terminates and Savoy begins; here too the King of Savoy met his last queen.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 105 Afterwards we came to Chambry, which is a handsome town, and thence to Montmlian [or Montmeman], Aiquebelle, Epierre, La Chambre, [St.] Jean de Maurienne, St. Michel, Lans-le-Bourg, and thus to Mont Cenis. Before leaving the mountain the Grande Croix [inn] is reached, where the view opens to Ferrars and Novalesa. Afterwards Susa is passed which is fortified by three strong citadels, then Giaconaro[?], St. Ambrogio and Rivoli with a handsome palace or chteau royal. After Rivoli comes Turin, where we arrived on March 30. [The whole route from Lyons to Turin is as follows:] Bron, St. Laurent de Mure with a chteau, Vigaborgho, Pont de Beauvoisin, Chambry, Montmeillan, St. Michel, Lans-le-Bourg,

Mont Cenis, Grande Croix, Perrara, Wovalesa, Susa with three citadels, Gioconaro, St. Ambrogio, Rivoli with a royal palace, Turin.

March 31. I took a view of Turin. On the tower is a bull cast in metal, life size, as a symbol of Turin. Before reaching the town a large and handsome monastery is seen, belonging to the Carthusians. I visited the royal palace, which is not large but handsome; there are larger houses on each side. An avenue of trees leads to the town, the length of which is six miles or three French leagues. A royal country residence, Superga, is seen on a high mountain. It was built by King Victor, [Amadeus II], the father of the present monarch, who relinquished the government in favour of his son, that he might marry his mistress without difficulty. He afterwards tried to regain possession, but his attempt was frustrated by his son, who arrested him at Rivoli, where he was kept a prisoner till his death, which happened from six to eight months afterwards.

In Turin I noted the following particulars: 1. The King [Charles Emanuel III], whose age is thirty-seven years and a half, looks like a plan of fifty. 2. The houses in Turin are magnificent, ten or twelve houses together forming one continuous building, which gives them an imposing appearance. 3. All who are in possession of riches are either called Counts or merchants. 4. The streets are not named, but the quarters (hrnen), which are called after a saint. 5. The rooms are not numbered, but named after a saint. 6. An air of grandeur is also given by the sedan-chairs: moving about.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 106 7. The palace of the Duke of Carignan is large. 8. The prime minister is M. d'Homre, a man of great intelligence, who has obtained from the pope all that he asked. 9. Among the convents that of the Carmelites is large; its church is in the best taste I have yet seen. That of the Capuchins (Franciscans) is out of the town. A monk of the name of Philippi planned the Carmelite church. L'glise de Lorraine (the church of Lorraine) near the castle is splendid but small. 10. The apartments in the royal castle are superbly furnished; they are resplendent with gold, silver, and mirrors, and adorned with paintings, among which are four excellent ones of Albano representing the four elements; likewise the forty-eight miniature portraits recently purchased in Rome for 18,000 florins. Among these are those of Luther and his wife. Luther and Calvin are there; the former painted with one eye. The paintings on the ceilings are also magnificent.

April 4, or Maundy-Thursday. I saw their magnificent processions, of which I counted nine; altogether there were from twenty to thirty. They had a great number of large wax-tapers; six flogged themselves so that the blood streamed from their bodies; others bore a cross of considerable weight; others had their arms stretched out; others, again, bore the insignia of crucifixion; lastly, a machine furnished with a large number of candles was carried, on which Christ was represented life-size in various positions, together with Mary. The same day Their Majesties went through the whole town. On Good Friday evening they have another great procession, with a machine, on which are Christ lying in a shroud, the head of John the Baptist, and Mary with a sword through her heart. All in the procession are either masked or have sadness expressed in their countenances; they are clothed in white, red, black, and blue. On Easter I was in the Chapelle Royale and heard beautiful music; a eunuch sang. I saw the king and queen.

April 7. I left Turin, and travelled through Chivasso, Vercelli and Novara to Milan. In Novara I was abandoned by my vetturino, and was compelled to travel alone with another vetturino who was not trustworthy, and who often drew his stiletto in arranging his year.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 107 I was on my guard, and he was led to think (inbillade) that I had not a stiver about me. The provinces of Novara and Tortona have become the possession of the King of Sardinia.

April 9. I arrived at Milan, which is a large and populous town. I was in the following places: 1. In the cathedral, which is two hundred ells long to the choir and high in proportion; it has five aisles with four rows of columns, all of pure marble. It is covered with marble on the exterior, and is decorated with many marble statues and ornaments; even the roof is of marble. They continue building from year to year; it will probably never be finished.* Among the marble statues in the interior St. Bartholomew's is considered the most remarkable; all the muscles are shown; but the subject does not seem to me well represented. a great number of silver lamps are continually burning. Under the choir are the tombs of many saints, especially the tomb of San Carlo, which abounds in silver ornaments on which the miracles of the saint are represented; an altar is erected in his honour, on which money is laid. 2. I visited the great hospital [Ospedate Maggiore], one of the finest and largest in existence; the portraits of all those who have contributed to its funds, painted by the great masters, are in a hall. The service in the hospital is performed entirely by bastards; for foundlings in great number are received in a drawer. The sick are treated well; every one in his bed, both women and men. There are special halls for the wounded, for there is a great number of them, on account of the many assassinations. I visited also the kitchen, the cellar, the building for washing, which are all excellent. 3. There is a smaller hospital for persons of quality, which is very well appointed,--all the attendants are fathers of a convent. 4. I saw the palace where the archbishop, who has recently been created a cardinal, resides: his name is Stampa. 5. The governor's palace which is close by is also large. 6. They have an opera-house; the theatre is said to be the very largest; yet it is not so large as it is reported; it has five tiers and it accommodates from 1500 to 2000 persons.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 108 7. I visited the principal monasteries. One which belongs to the order of Ambrosio,** is splendidly decorated with paintings; one of these in the hall up-stairs may be called a real chef d'uvre; if you are twelve or fifteen steps removed from it, it is impossible to think otherwise than that it stands out from the wall. In the garden a fig-tree was pointed out, where, it is said, Augustine was converted 1400 years ago. Each of the fathers has his domestic and valet de chambre; for they all belong to the aristocracy. 8. Another monastery, that of St. Victor, or of the Benedictines, is not inferior to this in any respect; there resided the Duc de Noailles;*** it has a pretty large garden; on the ceiling of the church, which is similar to St. Peter's in Rome, is Roman workmanship; it contains many fine paintings. 9. I afterwards visited the building of the Inquisition with its church; 10. Also the large convent for young ladies (couvent major des filles), where I conversed in the parlour with two nuns; I saw their procession and bought their flowers; a young person was also led into the parlour. 11. I took a view of the citadel on the two sides on which it has been besieged; there are two towers on the side next the town; on the others a wide plain stretches out. 12. I examined the Library,**** which consists of a great number of manuscripts and of old books written by the monks; the genealogy of the French kings was shown to me. The library itself is of little value, as it contains only old books. There is connected with it an academy of painting and sculpture; one hall was shown containing statues, and another which is devoted to paintings. 13. A regiment of cavalry was quartered in a monastery of the order of Franciscus de Paula,***** which is said to be the largest in Milan, and contains a hundred and fifty fathers; they are clothed like the Capuchins or Franciscans; their chapter is said to have been there, but it has now been removed to Rome.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 109 14. Afterwards I was in several churches and monasteries, and examined their paintings. 15. I was in the church of the Bernardines, which, in respect to the paintings on the ceiling and the walls which are its only ornaments, is the most magnificent that can be found. 16. I saw the place where those who die in the hospital are buried; it was recently built by a private gentleman on one side of the town; it has a portico and columns. 17. I witnessed the funeral of a canon, who was conveyed by his whole brotherhood to the church, which within and without was most beautifully decorated. The corpse itself was uncovered, draped in white and gold moire, with a cross in the hands and the head bare; all was perfumed with incense; persons with large wax-tapers encompassed it, singing and reading. A mausoleum of four stories was raised in the middle of the church; it was rather high and well-decorated; upon this the corpse was placed; on the following day the great mass was performed. 18. In the church of the Bernardines the altar was of marble; the pulpit and confessional of choice stones. 19. Ladies of quality have one or two lackeys going before them; one leads them, and one or two follow them: it is improper to fix one's eyes upon them. 20. Men go about leading sis goats and selling fresh goats' milk. 21. Afterwards I was in several nunneries and in their churches and gardens; also in the church of Alsach, or of the canons, where was a statue of Mary in marble, with four columns of silver, and other ornaments of silver and diamonds; twenty-five large silver lamps and silver candlesticks; pillars of jasper in the choir; also beautiful inlaid stones and many paintings.

* When the editor visited Milan in 1874, they were still engaged in repairing and finishing it.

** The present Ospedale Militare (Military Hospital) near the church of St. Ambrosio.

*** Adrien Maurice, Duc de Noailles, general in chief of the French and Sardinian troops, who compelled the imperial troops to withdraw from Italy, in 1735.

**** The celebrated ambrosian Library, founded in 1525 by Federigo Borromeo.

***** The so-called Minimi.

April 13. I left Milan in company with five Carmelite monks, who were taking the opportunity to see Venice on the way to their chapter in Rome. The journey from Milan to Padua is five days and a half. We passed this side of Bergamo, whence the best harlequins are said to come. Thence we came to Bresse or Brescia, which is a fine commercial town, and contains several handsome palaces. Afterwards we travelled through Peschiera, which is a strong fortress with fine, lofty walls, and arrived at Verona which is a pretty large and extensive town.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 110 I examined a few churches, and then visited the large amphitheatre, which was built by Augustus, and, with the exception of the two highest rows, is still entire. It will hold from 50,000 to 60,000 people, has seventy entrances, and seventy openings above, and a vault and vaulted rooms for beasts and slaves. I computed the circumference of the structure at 600 ells. Not far from this is another interesting building, which is said to have been erected by Scipio Africanus, and repaired by one of his family; it is now a dwelling-house. The rooms under the amphitheatre are occupied as shops. Afterwards I visited the opera; a new theatre has been built with a hundred and forty boxes. In respect to the shifting of scenes in the theatre, with their decorations, which all represent beautiful palaces and other fine prospects, also in respect to the singing and dancing, they surpass the French opera to such a degree, that it seems to be mere child's play in comparison with them. From Verona I continued my journey to Vicenza, where I visited several churches which were celebrated for their paintings, statues in marble, and their inlaid work, and likewise--especially the more recent ones--for their architecture. The cathedral was magnificent; thither the Tridentine Council had intended to remove, in case the plague had continued. I saw a theatre (Teatro Olimpico) which was built in the ancient style, with an amphitheatre for the spectators, adorned with statues; the front-elevation consisted of columns and statues; the interior represented a palace, from which the actors descended by two ways, and went through their performances. I then came to Padua, which is a large but antiquated town, possessing a university, but no palace of any consequence. The most interesting object was the church of S. Giustina, the like of which I never saw before. The whole floor is paved with white, red, and black marble; it has twenty altars, each of which is adorned with marble statues, and marble columns of various kinds, while the altar itself is constructed of inlaid stones representing some kind of painting; I counted there from eighty to ninety large marble statues, and the same number of small ones. The monastery is rather large.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 111 Afterwards I was in the church of S. Antonio, where I found likewise beautiful paintings and marble statues, especially in its chapel, where there are from eighty to eighty-eight silver lamps of considerable size, also candlesticks, and especially one of pure gold, which is rather large. There are also many tablets representing the miracles wrought by S. Antonio of Padua. The town-hall and the other public buildings are old-fashioned. On the evening of April 18 I sailed from Padua to Venice.

April 19. I arrived in Venice in a barque from Padua; and visited the two large squares [Piazza and Piazetta], where the houses of parliament and of justice are, and where the procurators* live; the mint; the church of St. Mark; the church of the Jesuits, which is of more recent architecture, [it was built from 1715 to 1730;] the church of S. Maria della Salute.

* The procurators were the most powerful officials of the Venetian republic.

April 20. I witnessed the festive return of the ambassador of Venice, when most people wore masks. He was received in the church of the Franciscans, far out of town, by the senators, who, arrayed in red cloaks, had gone to meet him there to the number of forty or fifty in company with the former Venetian ambassador; there were firing of cannon, an illumination on the water, and a ball.

[May] 15. I was present at the festival which they usually celebrate on Ascension-day; I joined them in their expedition and saw how the sea was consecrated. The masks continued for a fortnight. I was also at the opera. Every Saturday there is music in the Chiostro incurabile ed piet. I had lodgings near the Rialto bridge in the town. I was in company with Mr. Firencrantz.

August 9. After finishing my work I left Venice for Padua, and travelled thence to Vicenza and Verona, where I inspected again the great amphitheatre; they have a play there now. I saw also the opera-house, and all the antiquities in the neighbourhood. The opera-house has nine entrances, thirty-two rooms, etc.

August 14. I arrived at Mantua, which has few inhabitants, and where there is very little to be seen.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 112 The only objects of importance are the fortifications; the town is also fortified by nature on all sides, for it is surrounded by a morass, 1200 paces wide. It has two or three stone bridges; the water is higher on one side than on the other.

August 21. I went by barque to Ferrara, which belongs to the chair of St. Peter; it is a handsome town and has large, wide streets; the cathedral is fine. In the church of S. Maria del vado are very fine paintings; the remaining churches were passable. Afterwards I was in the palace of Baron Cerveles, which is superb and well kept; there are rooms with mirrors, and others decorated with pictures, &c.; also a fine silver service. In Ferrara the pope has a cardinal; an abb is placed over the militia, etc.

August 23. I arrived in Bologna. I was in the cathedral, and also in the monastery and church of the Dominicans, where St. Dominic died; his tomb, head, etc. are shown; in the church there are paintings of the best masters. In the town are many handsome palaces.

August 24. I was present at their annual festival, which assumed the form of an entertainment, when there was thrown to the people a large quantity of chickens, pigeons, geese, turkeys, and afterwards sheep; lastly Cardinal Spinola and two other persons distributed peacocks, then money, and finally purses. In the museum everything is in perfect order, and they have a complete collection in all the arts and sciences; in sculpture, painting, chemistry, physics, and astronomy. There are two cardinals in the town, and fifty governors, who are drawn by lot every two months. I saw the Bologna Stone,* which is obtained on a mountain two or three miles [leagues] from the town. I went some distance out of town to a monastery of the white Benedictines, which is large and costly.**

* The Bologna Stone is a radiated sulphate of barytes, found in roundish masses, composed of radiating fibres, first discovered near Bologna. It is phosphorescent when calcined.

** S. Michele in bosco is situated on an eminence about a quarter of an hour's walk from the town southwards. It belonged to a fraternity of the Benedictines called Olivetans, after the monastery on the Monte Oliveto near Florence, with which they were affiliated. The monastery was abolished in 1797, and changed into barracks.

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August 28. I arrived in Florence. The road between Bologna and Florence lies among the mountains. It is one of the finest towns, containing many beautiful palaces, and magnificent paintings, sculptures, and other rare objects. The church called S. Maria del fiore has a dome which is of marble on the outside and cost 18 millions [of francs]. Close by is the Church of S. Giovanni Battista [il Battisterio], where are sculptures in marble, and statues in bronze. In S. Giovannino [degli Scolopi] are beautiful pictures, as well as in S. Spirito, in Felice in the piazza, and in many others. In the Galleria [degli Uffizi] are most magnificent objects in Europe, rarities old and new, precious stones, mosaics, &c., which it is impossible to describe. The principal statue of Venus is there, amid many others. In the chapel* where the Dukes [dei Medici] are buried, may be seen the most splendid art, all kinds of choice stones and mausolea; it is not yet finished. In the Palazzo Pitti where the Prince** resides were most beautiful paintings by the best masters, and in a room below a magnetic stone two ells long, two ells broad, and an ell and a half high. I was in the garden, called Boboli, where there are likewise many statues, and which abounds in cypresses; there too is an amphitheatre. In S. Marco, which is a monastery, are beautifully inlaid stones, and enamelled work; a chemical laboratory is also there. The Library of S. Lorenzo [Biblioteca Laurenziana] consists entirely of old books dating two hundred years back. The Library of Magliabecchi [Biblioteca Magliabecchiana] is large; it is arranged alphabetically. The arsenal is not large.

* The tombs of the Medici are in the Church of S. Lorenzo.

** John Gasto, the last Duke of the house of Medici, died in July 1737, when he was succeeded by Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, who had been appointed his successor by the Vienna treaty of 1735.

August 31. We were out of the town to the Villa Imperiale [Villa Poggio Imperiale], where is a handsome avenue of cypress and laurel trees, and a most magnificent gallery of paintings by the best masters, mosaics, statutes, especially beautiful Greek statues, etc.;* likewise an orangery, a grotto, and fountains. Afterwards I was in the fine monastery S. Spirito.**

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 114 In the church of S. Croce di oro is a chapel containing most beautiful paintings and statues; the frescoes in the ceiling are so life-like, that they seem to be in relief. Afterwards we took a walk in the park outside the town [le Cascine?], where people usually go. In the evening I witnessed the illumination of a church, the SS. (Santissima) Annunziata, in honour of some one who had been a Florentine, and who had been canonized; the illumination was with torches; the streets also were illuminated; and there was a fine pyretechnical display from the roof of the church, etc.

* The art-treasures were removed from the Villa in 1860.

** This monastery is now almost entirely used for military purposes.

September 1. I departed for Leghorn; the road was fine, but there were mountains on both sides. Leghorn is a small town, but handsome and populous. It has a most splendid harbour for a thousand ships and upwards, which is protected on three sides by walls, a bastion, and some small citadels; on the fourth side it is partly defended by cliffs, so that the storm can agitate the water only from above; from sixty to seventy ships lay in the harbour. Leghorn had two citadels; the old and the new; the town is well fortified; it has three handsome galleys, where those condemned could be seen fastened two to two others by means of balls. I was in one of these ships.

September 5. I arrived at Pisa, which has an academy; it is a handsome town; the river Arno flows through it. Much marble is displayed here in chapels, churches, and also in some private houses. Their cathedral is entirely of marble on the outside; in the interior are many handsome pictures, sculptures, and ornaments. St. John the Baptist's [il Battisterio], which is close by, is circular; it is built of marble, both within and without. The belfry tower [campanile] is of marble, and consists of seven tiers of columns; but it leans. The Campo Santo is immediately adjoining; many graves containing the bones of saints are there; also a quantity of bacchanalian [?] urns which are oblong; their length, breadth, and height are according to the Sacred Scripture [?].

September 6. I returned to Florence, and was in the Santa Croce, where that fine chapel [mentioned above] is; I saw there beautiful altar-pieces; Galileo Galilei and Michael Angelo are buried there, and marble statues have been erected to their memory.

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September 7. I witnessed the ceremony of consecration of seven nuns; they mere in white from top to toe. The archbishop performed the ceremony, and changed his head-covering five times; he addressed questions to them, and they answered him in musical cadence; he lay down on the floor under a black cover for a long time; afterwards they received rings, as well as crowns and other things, partook of the sacrament, and then went out in procession with crowns on their heads. Many ladies in bridal array were present, and fine music was played.

September 9. I went into the Palazzo Riccardi,* the largest private palace in Florence. It contains a large collection of antiquities, sculptures, and inscriptions; I was also in the garden of Riccardi, which contains a large orangery. I witnessed for the third time, in a convent, the consecration of nuns; the ceremonies differed. The church of St. John [S. Giovanni] near the Cathedral was formerly a temple of Mars; it is octagonal; the work in bronze on its doors is most valuable; according to Michael Angelo its like does not exist; some said that they mere sent down from paradise.

* The former Palazzo dei Medici.

September 21. I went by way of Siena from Florence to Rome. On the way, in the neighbourhood of Siena, the Italian language is most correctly spoken. From Siena I came to Viterbo, which is a handsome little town, with two beautiful fountains.

During the months of July; August, and September the air is poisoned around Rome, especially in the low country, so that no traveller ought to sleep there; the same applies to Rome, but not to those places which have a high elevation. During this time it is also dangerous to change one's lodgings. [On the way between Siena and Viterbo I passed the towns] of Monte Pulciano, and [Monte] Fiascone.

September 25. I arrived in Rome in the evening, by the Via Flaminia, through the Porta del Popolo, and thus came to the Piazza di Spagna.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 116 I took lodgings first in the Hotel of the Three Kings (Tre Re), but afterwards removed to a house in the same Piazza, which is immediately below the residence Queen Christina used to occupy on the hill; so that I could converse easily from my lodgings with those who were in that house. During the first few days I took a cursory view of sundry places; saw where the pope lives own the Monte Cavallo during the summer; besides various squares, columns, obelisks, and churches; the Vatican, St. Peter's Church, about which I will report more in detail in what follows.

Ponte de Angelo [the angel's bridge] or Pons lius is the foremost bridge in Rome. Facing it, on the other side, is the Castello del Angelo [the angel's castle], and thence it leads to the Vatican and the Church of St. Peter. This bridge was built by P. lius Hadrianus of wood, but badly, and so that it could be taken down. One hundred and seventy persons, mostly strangers, coming from the Vatican, were drowned there at the jubilee in 1450, after which it was reconstructed and built of stone on four arches. Its length is seventy paces, and its breadth from ten to twelve. Clement VII adorned it in 1523 with two marble statues of Peter and Paul; and Clement IX, in 1669, with ten angels in marble, all of which together represent the passion [of Christ]; The statues were executed by several masters, but the designs were furnished by Bernini [not Barbini]. From the same bridge may be seen on the left three or four remains of the pons triumphalis, which was crossed by all those who celebrated a triumph; the first, it is supposed, was celebrated by Romulus, the last by Probus, altogether three hundred and twenty-two;

September 29. I visited the Pantheon or Rotunda, which was erected by M. Agrippa, fourteen years after the birth of Christ. Some say it was dedicated to Cybele, the mother of the gods; others, that it was built for Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and others; some finally say that it was intended for all the gods. Another building, however, seems to have been there before; as it is reported, that in the beginning there were two porticoes; that Agrippa made the one, put his name upon it, and destroyed the other. It is supposed also by some that it was Agrippa's tomb. It is said that the statue of Hercules was there, before which the Carthaginians offered every year a man.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 117 The temple was struck by lightning during the time of Hadrian, but it was repaired by Aurelius and Septimius Severus; and it was again destroyed by fire during the reign of Commodus. Under the Emperor Phocas in 607* it was dedicated to the blessed virgin and all saints; in the year 830, twenty-eight carts full of the bones of martyrs were conveyed thither, whence the church was called "S. Maria ad martyros;" it is reported that a portrait of Mary was drawn there by St. Luke. The church was repaired and put into its present state chiefly by Clement XI in 1707. The cupola and portico were originally covered with metal, but in 636 this was carried off. The cross-beams were of metal, which was employed in the church of St. Peter in the construction of the great altar of Peter. The church is 154 feet high, and 154 feet in diameter, in all directions. The opening alone in the roof, which is twelve paces in diameter, admits more light and distributes it more equally, than could be done by many windows. The sound is much increased in the building. A slight current of air prevailed towards the door, and under the opening there was some water, as it rained, but not much. Fifteen altars, and some four or five marble images are in the church; also fourteen columns of yellow marble, and fourteen columns of the same material corresponding with them in the wall. The portico is an object of admiration; it consists of sixteen pillars made of oriental granite or grey-stone, six and a half hand-breadths in diameter; they are high, made of a single stone, and larger than I have seen anywhere else; the wonder is how they could have been transported thither. The door is very large and of metal; the frame in which the door hangs is of stone, and all of one piece. Several inscriptions are in the building. The walls are thirty hand-breadths thick. It is reported that a wheel of porphyry and also a tomb of porphyry are there; but I could not see them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 118 The portico is twenty paces long and twelve paces deep.

* Phocas was the Fast-Roman or Byzantine emperor, who resided at Constantinople; he reigned from 602 to 6.0. In 608 the celebrated Colonna di Foca was erected to his honour in the Roman Forum, where it still stands. Phocas himself who was a debauchee and tyrant, was never at Rome. The Pantheon was dedicated to the worship of the Roman Catholic church by Pope Bonifacius IV, who filled the chair of St. Peter from 608 to 614.

The Piazza della Rotonda is without; it is adorned with an obelisk which was conveyed thither from the Church of S. Bartolommeo, in 1707, by order of Clement XI; it is surrounded by dolphins throwing water. The water-fountain itself dates from the year 1580. The obelisk was brought from Egypt, and bears Egyptian inscriptions.

It is reported that some ruins of the baths of Marcus Agrippa are preserved, but I could not discover them. These ruins are said to be magnificent; they are still covered with a beautiful stone, the floor is of glass, and they are richly gilded.

I was in the church of S. Ignazio, which is handsome, and contains beautiful paintings, especially on the ceiling. What I admired most was an altar in the fore-part of the church on the right-hand side; the marble columns on which it rested, the altar-piece, its sides and top were the most beautiful I have yet seen. Under the altar was a lovely casket of a blue oriental stone, adorned with silver and statues, and costly columns. At some distance from this is the tomb of Ludovisi,* which with its columns is beautifully sculptured of marble. Ludovisi contributed most of the money for this church. The Piazza di Ignazio was built by the Jesuits; it is small, but in good taste. The Collegio Romano of the Jesuits is fine and large; all are instructed there; and in the Seminario Romano, which is not a great distance from it, all nations are taught. Afterwards I was in the Church of Ges, which is very fine, abounding in marble, sculpture, and statues, which are most skilfully distributed, and in the ceiling blended with the most precious fresco paintings. I could not see it all, as a musical service was being performed. The Piazza di Ges is outside the church.

* Cardinal Ludovisi, who was a nephew of Gregory XV.

September 30. I examined many ruins, among which are the large amphitheatre [Coliseum], and the temples of peace (Pacis), of the sun (Solis), of the moon (lun), of Faustina;* and porticoes.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 119 I saw also the prison of St. Peter and St. Paul;** the door through which the former is said to have been led out by an angel; the stone pillar to which he was bound; the spring which issued close to it; the opening through which he obtained his food, etc. The former objects will be discussed more particularly hereafter.

* Remains of these temples are in the Campo Vaccino.

** S. Pietro in Carcere, which is under the Church of S. Giuseppe de'Falignani. It was originally a vault with a spring (tullianumi), and was afterwards used as a prison, under the name Carcer Mamertinus; Jugurtha and Catalina's fellow-conspirators were imprisoned there.

In respect to the seven hills or mountains [on which Rome was built], it appears from the map that near the Porta del Popolo were the Horti [Collis Hortorum, that is, the Hill of the Gardens], afterwards came: 1. Mons Quirinalis, 2. Viminalis, 3. Esquilinus, 4. Clius, 5. Palatinus, 6. Capitolinus, 7. Aventinus.

October 1. I visited the Capitol or Campidoglio, where are two galleries, and the Palazzo del Senatore, where our Bjelcke* lives. This hill was first called Mons Saturninus [the Hill of Saturn], because Saturnus was said to have lived there; also Mons Tarpeius, after the virgin Tarpeia, who was cast down thence on account of her collusion with the Sabines; but as a head was found there under the Temple of Jupiter, it was called Capitolinus. An oak-grove was there, appointed by Romulus as an asylum for [runaway] slaves, as an aid to the building up of Rome; further, a place of triumphs, which entered the Temple of Jupiter; sixty churches or sanctuaries were there, on account of which it was called cubiculum Deorum [a resting-place of the Gods]; likewise the curia Calabra, from which the priests announced solemn feasts--this is said to have been instituted in remembrance of the goose by which the Romans were aroused when the Gauls tried to ascend the hill. The old way led to the Campo Vaccino, which is now full of ruins.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 120 The Church of [S. Maria in] Araceli, or Ara primogeniti dei, is said to have been built where the Temple of Jupiter, which was so celebrated in ancient times, formerly stood,** with its pillars, and which was burnt down; it is in the charge of the Franciscans. The first mile-stone pointing to the Via Appia, which is square with an inscription, is still here, with a column close by; on the opposite side is its [modern] counterpart. The ashes of Hadrian are said to have been here. A hundred and twenty-six steps lead up to the church in Araceli; at the bottom of the steps leading to the Capitol are two lions from the Temple of Isis and Serapis; at the top two large horses with Castor and Pollux; likewise the trophies of Marius. In the middle of the square is a bronze statue which has been discovered and placed there; it is said to be that of [the Emperor] Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher; and further on [the river-gods] Nile and Tiber with a fountain. On the left is the large statue of Morphorio [Marforio], which is so called on account of having been found in the Forum Martis; there are also many old statues, and likewise [as has long been supposed] the sarcophagus of Alexander Severus and his mother Mamma,*** besides Egyptian idols, etc. The gallery of the Capitol [Museo Capitolino] contains a great number of fine statues, of emperors, gladiators, &c., two of which are of great value; likewise busts of all the philosophers, Plato, two of Cicero, and a hundred others; in another room are busts of the wives and daughters of emperors, two handsome ones of Agrippina, two also were noticed with peruques, one of which could be taken off; besides many other princes, and likewise popes; Sixtus V is there in bronze; the law of Titus Vespasian is there written on a tablet by Clement XI. In the building on the other side [Palazzo del Conservatore] are many interesting objects; in the court is the largest statue in existence of the Emperor Commodus and a still larger one of Domitianus.****

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 121 In the gallery itself are many curiosities: the signature of Queen Christina, when she visited the Capitol; and opposite to hers that of an English queen. The most interesting object was a statue in bronze representing the she-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus, with her hind-leg struck by lightning, as is reported by Cicero. The fasti consulares, i. e. a list of those who had been consuls, one half of which has been preserved, is likewise exhibited. All the measures, viz. mensur Roman are likewise preserved in a square stone of marble. Many beautiful paintings were exhibited; their number confused me so much, that I cannot recollect the most important among them. In the immediate neighbourhood is the Palazzo del duca Cafarelli; in the garden is a large heap of stones, which is said to have been a tower, or rather a Colonna rostrata, erected in honour of the first conqueror of the Carthaginians.

* Count Nils Bjelke was born in 1706. In 1731 he embraced the Roman Catholic religion; in 1735 he was appointed chamberlain to the pope, and in 1737 was created Senator of Rome, in which capacity he lived in the Palazzo del Senatore in the Capitol. He was very friendly towards Swedenborg, as appears from the account of Swedenborg's visit to him on February 2, 1739 (p. 128). Bjelke died in 1765.

** According to modern authorities it stands on the place formerly occupied by a temple of June Moneta.

*** Swedenborg, instead of Mamma, says Julia, but incorrectly.

**** These colossal statues are probably those of Tiberius and Claudius now in Room V of the Museum in the Lateran.

October 2. I visited the Churches of Ges and S. Ignazio, where sculpture and painting are admirably blended on the ceiling and on the walls. The chief object is the chapel of S. Ignazio; the saint, of pure silver, is behind a painting which can be lowered;* angels are there adorned with genuine stones; below, under the altar, are his remains; beautiful sculptures are on the sides, and columns of lapis lazuli. The church belongs to the Jesuits. afterwards I was in the Church of [SS. Luca e] Martina, which occupies the site of a former Temple of Mars, of which some remains are still visible; others maintain that it was the office of the Secretary of the Senate-it is very near the Capitol. The tomb of Martina is under the church; it contains many ornaments and fine statues. On the other side are specimens of the academy of sculpture and Painting,** which are fine. The altar-piece representing St. Luke is painted by Raphael of Urbino.

* After the order of the Jesuits was abolished by a papal decree in 1773, the silver statue is said to have been replaced by a silvered effigy of the saint in relief.

** The Academy of San Luca, which was established in 1595, is very near in the Via Bonella.

October 3. I took a view of the Theatrum Marcelli, which was built by Augustus in honour of Marcellus, his nephew,* the son of his sister Octavia; it is large and can accommodate 60,000 persons; it is built in the form of an amphitheatre. It belongs now to the Orsini family; the Cardinal Prussoli is said to reside in it at present.

* Swedenborg calls him Augustus' sonson, i. e. grandson, the Latin word nepos, which he evidently translates, meaning both nephew and grandson; but it is clear that Marcellus was the nephew and not the grandson of Augustus.

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The Isola Tiberina (the Tiber island) is 425 feet [paces:?] long and 50 feet [paces:?] wide; it contains the Church of St. Bartholomew, in which the apostle is buried, and which is built on the ruins of an old Temple of sculapius. On the beach are seen the ruins of a Templum Fauni. The island has two bridges; one is called Ponte Sestio, the other [Ponte de'] quattro capi; the former was repaired by the Emperor Valentinian. On one side of these bridges may be seen the Ponte Senatorio, built by Flavius Scipio; the senate crossed over it, when it consulted the Sibylline books; it is now called the Ponte S. Maria and is half broken down; ruins of other bridges may likewise be seen. On the other side is the Ponte Sisto; the old bridge, called Pens Janiculensis, was in the direction of the Porta Aureliana; it was rebuilt by Sixtus IV. In its neighbourhood are those who rebelled against the Neapolitan recruiting officers; likewise the Jews.

October 4. I was at the Villa Borghese, where there is a wonderful collection of statues, ancient as well as modern, of emperors and many others, together with urns, vases, columns of rare stone, tables, etc. Of ancient statues there is one that was found in the Temple of Victory, which is a female figure reclining on a bed; on the outside is Curtius on horseback plunging into the chasm [in high relief]; a gladiator in a fine attitude, with several others that need not be enumerated. Among modern statues Bernini's Daphne and some others are the finest I have yet seen. The building itself is surrounded with ancient and modern sculptures, and numerous columns are dispersed over the garden. The garden and park are as magnificent as if the place were the residence of a king; it was all the work of Cardinal Scipio Borghese, whose statue in marble may be seen in two places.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 123 There are fountains in it, and also an orangery. It would require several days to see and describe it all.

October 5. I saw the palace where the Pretender* lives, which is almost opposite to that occupied by the French embassy; it is situated between. the Church of the Apostles [SS. Apostoli], and that of S. Maria di Loreto, which is at a greater distance. Afterwards I visited outside the town the church of S. Stefano rotondo, where all the martyr scenes are depicted. It is a singular building, round, with pillars in the wall. In the middle is a tabernaculum, built by Numa and consecrated to Faunus, the largest of those times; others say it was dedicated to Hercules; it is encased in marble. I visited again the amphitheatre of Vespasian [the Coliseum], built for 87,000 persons, and finished by Titus. Games mere held there [at its opening] for one hundred days, which cost ten millions of Roman scudi. It was built by the Jews (the Palazzo Farnese was built of its stones); it is called Colloseo, from the colossal statue of Nero in front of it.

* James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, who styled himself James III; the so-called elder Pretender.

October 6. I was at the Villa Mattei, where the Mons Clius was formerly; all around here was the real Rome, the walls of which are still visible, reaching to S. Giovanni in Laterano. In the garden are many small square urns, a little obelisk, and many ancient statues; in the building also are urns, together with columns and various old statues. The garden is small, but no other contains so many urns. A colossal head of Alexander the Great is here; also a table of green porphyry.

Afterwards I was in the Church of S. Giovanni in Laterano, which was built by Constantine the Great, and is the oldest Christian church in the world. Many relics are near the altar: the heads of Peter and Paul, under a rich tabernacle or shrine; a famous column of metal filled with stones from the sepulchre of Christ. Statues of the twelve apostles in marble are there, larger than life-size; likewise the burying vaults of many popes and others; the most pompous of these is that of the present pope, Clement XII, with a sarcophagus of porphyry, handsome images of marble, and an altar-piece in mosaic. The facade of the building has also been finished by him in a gorgeous style; it is adorned with marble statues, eleven of which are at the top of the church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 124 The great Palace of Giovanni in Laterano is also there; the place where Constantine the Great was baptized is pointed out [il Battisterio or S. Giovanni in Ponte]. In the middle of the Piazza [di S. Giovanni in Laterano] is the largest obelisk, being 145 hand-breadths high. It is also the oldest; was conveyed from Thebes to Alexandria and thence to Rome; it is still well-preserved, and was erected by Sixtus V. In the immediate neighbourhood is the Scala Santa, where persons go up some steps on their knees, and crawl up to the chapel, or to the holy of holies. The palace of Constantine was near the fountain where he was baptized; afterwards it belonged to the family of Lateranus from which it derives its name.* Eight columns of it used to belong to the Palace of Pilate [?] and were conveyed hither. Near the church and the garden are seen the ruins of the palace of Constantine; two large hospitals are also in the neighbourhood.

* According to modern researches the place occupied by the Church and Palace of S. Giovanni in Laterano belonged originally to an ancient Roman family, by the name of Lateranus, who owned the grounds and buildings up to the time of the Emperor Nero. By his command the last owner, Plautus Lateranus, was executed, and Nero appropriated his possessions. The Lateran Palace thus became imperial property. Constantine the Great presented the palace to the pope, and it thus became the residence of the popes until they removed to Avignon. On their return to Rome they removed to the Vatican.

October 9. I was at the Villa Farnesi [Orti Farnesiani],* built on the ruins of the Palace of Tiberius, which was afterwards repaired by Nero and Vespasian; forty statues and fourteen busts are there; from this villa are visible the Mons Aventinus, the Circus Maximus, the temple where the she-wolf of Romulus and Remus was found, which is round; likewise the ruins of the palace of Augustus. I was in the Temple of Janus with four gate-ways; in its immediate vicinity is the triumphal arch of Antoninus Pius,** and close to it is the palace of Pilate,[?] which is still preserved.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 125 In the Campus Vaccinus I saw the columns of the Temple of Jupiter tonans; several belonging to the Temple of Concordia; likewise the Temple of Peace in three divisions,*** the Temples of Sol (the Sun) and Luna (the Moon);**** likewise that of Faustina.***** Afterwards I saw the triumphal arch of Severus on the place under the Capitol, and at a greater distance the triumphal arch of Constantine, with the spring which was close to it.

* On the Palatine Hill.

** Swedenborg means here probably the arcus argentarius, near the Church of S. Giorgio in Velablo, which mas erected by the merchants of the Forum boarium in honour of Septimius Severus.

*** The Basilica of Constantine was for a long time supposed to be the Temple of Peace, erected by Vespasian; this, however, was completely destroyed by fire under Commodus.

**** Probably what is now known as the double Temple of Venus and Roma near the triumphal arch of Titus; the colossal statue of Nero, in his character as the god of the Sun, stood immediately in front of that temple.

***** The Church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda is built in the interior (cella) of the Temple of Faustina, which was dedicated by Antoninus, in the year 141, to his wife Faustina.

October 12. I was on Monte Cavallo or the Quirinal Hill; and saw the four fountains,* the beautiful edifice built in accordance with the rules of perspective [the Quirinal palace]; the Church of St. Andrew [S. Andrea di Monte Cavallo], which is circular and handsome; the Piazza de Pilestrini [?] with its fountain,** the Porta Pia, etc.

* Quattro Fontane, i. e. the four fountains which are at the intersection of the Via de Quirinale and the Via dell quattro Fontane.

** Probably the Piazza Barberini with the Fontana del Tritone in the middle.

October 13. I visited the tomb of Cestius, which is a large pyramid; in the neighbourhood there is a burying place for foreigners; likewise the Mons Eustachii [Monte Testaccio] with its ancient cellars; the Church [of S. Paolo alle tre fontane] where St. Paul was beheaded, and the pillar* with the three springs which are said to have started out of the ground where his head fell; also the Church of St. Paul [S. Paolo fuori le mura] with its hundred columns.**

* A white marble pillar to which Paul is said to have been tied, while undergoing the sentence of decapitation. This church is one out of three churches belonging to the Abbadia delle Tre Fontane (the Abbey of the Three Fountains), about three English miles from the town southwards.

** This church was burned down in 1823. It has since been rebuilt, but in a different style.

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October 16. I was in St. Peter's church [S. Pietro in Vaticano], and saw both its exterior and interior; images of metal and marble, the graves of the popes. I was likewise present at a baptism at the magnificent font, where something was put into the mouth of the candidate, and something applied to his temples. Afterwards I examined the process by which mosaic is made; it looks very coarse when it is examined closely and before it is polished; glass beads are used which are split, and fastened into cement, and indeed on large thick stones which are grooved, like [some kind of] iron rods. Afterwards I was in the Castello del Angelo, and examined the angel on the top, and the four bastions; I saw also the cannon which was fired by Queen Christina, the rooms, the church, the prison, &c., likewise Cardinal Coscia;* from the top I had a view of the whole town. The day before I had been in the Palazzo Borghese, examining ah the paintings there; the stanza [the room] of Venus, the fountains, the small garden adorned with statues, and the court are handsome.

* He was imprisoned by Pope Clement XII on account of the vile and atrocious acts he had committed.

October 17. I visited the Mausoleum of Augustus, where a palace [now] is, [the Palazzo Corea]; a wall only remains of the old building, but Augustus' statue is said to be still preserved. Afterwards I examined the Therm of Diocletian, but only the walls. A monastery of considerable extent is there; its Fathers are called Hierosolymi; twelve of them are confined during the whole year; they obtain their food through a trap-door; one day in the year they come out: the others meanwhile drive about in carriages. I was also in the Churches of S. Bernardo [alle Terme], S. Susanna, and [S. Maria della] Vittoria; the last of these belongs to the barefooted Carmelites [Carmeliti Scalzi], its columns are of beautifully variegated and well matched marble; it contains fine statues, and fresco paintings on the ceiling, etc. In the neighbourhood are three fountains.

October 22. I was in the Church of St. Peter, and saw the tomb of Peter with its hundred silver lamps, and precious pillars. At the further end of the choir are four admirable statues in bronze.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 127 On one side is the marble statue of [Maffeo] Barberini [Pope Urban VIII], on the other that of [Alessandro] Farnese [Pope Paul III]. Marble statues have also been erected there by the orders of the Minimi, the Carmelites, the "Prdicatores," &c. to their founders; likewise a statue of St. Andrew, whose head is preserved here; of St. Helena Hierosolymitana, who received the image of Christ; also another holding in his hands some of the wood of the cross of Christ; and a bronze image of St. Peter.** Some of the niches destined to hold others are still empty. On the ceilings and along the walls are many paintings. The church consists of four divisions, one large area, and one which is shorter; thus altogether of six parts. The inscription of Borghese [Paul V] is on the exterior of the church. There is one of the doors, which is opened only when a jubilee is celebrated.

* Two of these figures are now in the Palazzo Farnese.

** All these statues are in the niches of the main-columns in the centre aisle.

October 25. I was in the Palazzo Farnese; in the court and vestibule are beautiful antique statues of large size; apart in a building is a group of two struggling with an ox,* which is of great value; it was found in the temple of Caracalla. In the palace itself there is a great quantity of smaller and larger statues; that of Alexander Farnese receiving a wreath while stepping upon two of his enemies, is the most beautiful.

* This celebrated group, called the Farnesian Steer, is now in the Museum at Naples.

October 26. I was again at the Villa Borghese; Daphne and Apollo, neas and Anchises, or [David] with a sling, all by Bernini, were the principal objects; further [reclining] hermaphrodite whose couch (matlas for matelas?) was by Bernini, a gladiator, and Anscarius [?], a beggar; likewise a table of black marble.

October 31. I examined the large column of Antonius,* with the pedestal, sculptures, and inscriptions, which have been found, but which were too large to be set up; under these far down in the ground, it is said a place has been discovered paved with flag-stones.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 128 Afterwards I was in the little church of S. Brigitta** on the Piazza Farnese, and in the chapel belonging to it which is above; there she died, and there also her daughter Catharine was, who has likewise been canonized; some of her relies are preserved there; only three friars are there who are Germans.

* This column is on the Piazza Colonna; it is usually ascribed to Antonius Pius, but it was erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius.

** A Swedish saint, born in 1304, died at Rome in 1373. She became far-famed by her "Revelationes St. Brigitt," which were first printed in Rome in 1488, and of which many editions have since been published.

November 20. I was in the Vatican, and saw the paintings of Raphael and of all others, and likewise the Conclave.* It is said to contain 12,000 rooms, but I do not believe that there are more than a thousand; still it contains twenty courts; the tapestry is not worth much. In one of the courts were some valuable statues, mostly Greek. I saw also the garden which contains the ashes of Nero.

* The place in the Vatican where the pope is elected by the cardinals.

December 9. I was at the Villa Ludovisi, which is a magnificent garden, with an endless number of statues and large urns. The Roman walls are seen there with their passages of communication. What I liked most there was a Satyr, and one of the avenues.

1739.

January 28. I was in [the Church of] S. Pietro in Montorio where Peter was crucified; the Franciscans are there; the place commands a view of the whole town. I visited also the four fountains of Paul (Acqua Paola) which are on the very top of the hill; thither the aqueducts are led. This beautiful structure was erected by Pope Paul V.

January 29. I was again in the gallery on the Campidoglio, where I witnessed the drawing of a lottery; likewise at the Villa Medici. There I saw two magnificent vases or layers of grey rock; an Egyptian column, Niobe and Thisbe, a lion, and a magnificent gallery, which now belongs to Don Carlos.

January 30. I was in the Longara where Queen Christina resided; the palace belongs to Duke Corsini, the nephew of the pope.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 129 A house and garden are on the summit of the hill, where the whole town is spread out before the beholder, the Church of St. Peter on the one side and the Campagna on the other.

February 2. I spent an hour and a half with Senator Bjelke,* by whom I was most courteously received.

* See foot-note at p. 118.

February 6. The Villa Pamphili was visited by me; I found a fine garden there, as well as paintings and statues. I examined also the aqueduct with arches underneath. Afterwards I visited the Palazzo Giustiniani, where statues and pictures alternate.* There was a gallery where the statues stood very close together; the best were a Lucretia by Bernini, and an ancient statue; likewise Minerva with her gis or shield, which formerly stood in the Temple of Minerva;** a goat, etc. Afterwards I proceeded to the Palazzo Barberini, where I saw many articles in silver, paintings of modern masters; the most important among the statues were an Adonis by Bernini, an antique Faun, a Priapus, &c. I was in the Vatican, in the other apartments, in [the Hall of] the Inquisition, etc., and likewise in the mosaic works.

* The pictures are now mostly in Berlin; the sculptures partly in the Vatican and partly in the possession of Prince Torlonia.

** This statue is now in the Vatican.

February 14. I was in the Vatican Library, which was fitted up by Sixtus V. I saw there splendid paintings, beautiful vases, large halls. All articles are kept in cases. I saw also [the MSS. of] Virgil and Terence,* and some ancient masks; likewise the splendid [Codex of the] New Testament;** the actions of a general painted in miniature, and other interesting objects. I do not believe that there are so many new as old books there.

* The celebrated MS. of Virgil dates from the fifth, and that of Terence, the so-called Bembinus, from the fourth century after Christ.

** The famous Vatican Coder of the New Testament dates from the fifth century.

February 15. I left Rome and travelled through Viterbo, St. Quirico, Siena, &c. to Florence.

February 20. I arrived in Florence.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 130

February 24. I saw the Grand-Duke, the Duchess, and her brother in the park; I was there two hours.

In Siena there is a handsome cathedral of marble, in which are twelve [two?] very fine statues by Bernini, etc., some paintings, and a beautifully inlaid floor; another church [St. John the Baptist's] is under the building.

February 27. I left Florence for Leghorn, where great preparations were being made for the reception of the Grand-Duke.* I arrived there on the 28th.

* Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, who on the extinction of the line of the Dukes of Medici, ascended the Tuscan throne in 1737.

March 5. There was an extraordinarily fine illumination with lamps upon the churches and houses; a pyramid with nine statues was erected in the market place; two fountains were there sending forth wine. The lamps were set in beautiful order. They shone finest when the figures were not intricate, as these: [Three drawings] etc.; more than half the surface of the water was illuminated by red, yellow, and white lamps. On March 6th they had a pyrotechnical display at considerable expense, but it was not marked by much ingenuity; the only noticeable piece was a coat-of-arms in blue flame on a black background. On the 7th there was a "Togana," when provisions placed on obelisks (p obelisks), to the value of 10,000 rix-dalers, were given to the people. On the 8th they had horse races; on the 9th racing in chariots; and on the 14th pugilistic matches, for which handsome prizes were appointed.

March 14. I left Leghorn for Genoa in a felucca; on the way we were in great fear of the Algerines.

March 17. I arrived in Genoa; it has a beautiful harbour, splendid palaces of Balbi [-Pivera], Negro, Doria, and others. I saw the government building (rdhuset) and also handsome paintings, where I found more living persons represented than I had seen before; likewise [the monument of] Columbus, who was a Genoese. I saw the doge, who is always in red down to the very shoes; for two years he is not allowed to go out [of the town]. I noticed how they voted. There are about eight hundred nobles, all clothed in black with small caps; they have flat noses and countenances.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 131 I visited a magnificent garden [Villa Pallavicini?]. It is to be observed that in the middle of March everything was here in bloom; oranges and lemons were ripe; olives were being removed from the trees, this being the time when they are gathered.

[Here ends Swedenborg's description of his journey from 1736 to 1739, as contained in Codex 88, pp. 504 to 542. A continuation of the journal is promised on p. 737, but the leaves containing pages 730 to 745 have unfortunately been removed from the book. In the description of the Swedenborg manuscripts made by his heirs in 1772, and printed in 1801, the following account of the missing pages is given: "On pages 730 to 733 and 741 to 745 is contained a description of some of Swedenborg's dreams in 1736, 1737, 1738, 1739, and 1740;" and in a footnote the following information is added: "These leaves were taken out of the volume into the safe keeping of the family itself." As the continuation of the journal of travel is promised on page 737, and the dreams are continued on p. 741, it appears that the missing portion of the journal amounts to two leaves only, and these leaves are now probably with those containing Swedenborg's dreams for the years above-named, which are still, it is hoped, in the possession of some member of the Swedenborg family.

From Document 124 it appears that about May 14, 1739, Swedenborg returned safely to Paris; between that time and November 3, 1740, when he reported himself again for duty at the College of Mines, (see Document 163) he published in Amsterdam his treatise entitled: onomia Regni Animalis. On the cover of Codex 88 the following words are written: "I finished writing my work on December 27, 1739, exactly at twelve o'clock" (see Vol. II of Swedenborg's photo-lithographed MSS., p. 141).]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 132


DOCUMENT 207.

SWEDENBORG'S JOURNAL OP TRAVEL IN 1743.*

* The Swedish original of this document is contained in Swedenborg's private note-book of the years 1743 and 1744, which is preserved in the Royal Library in Stockholm, and the contents of which were published in 1859 by Mr. G. E. Klemming, the Royal Librarian, under the title of "Swedenborg's Drmmar. A more detailed account of this work will be given in the Introduction to Document 208. With regard to the genuineness of the original see Note 149.

July 21. I left Stockholm, and arrived at Ystad on the 27th, after having passed the towns of Tlje, Nykping, Norrkping, Linkping, Grenna, and Jnkping. At Ystad I met the Countess De la Gardie150 with two of her daughters, also the two counts, her sons, and Count Fersen,151 Major Lantingshausen,152 and Magister Klingenberg.

July 31. General Stenflycht* arrived with his son and Captain Schchta. On account of contrary winds we could not sail until August 5. I travelled in company with General Stenflycht. On August 6 we arrived at Stralsund.

* Concerning General Stenflycht see footnote on p. 98.

August 7. Early in the morning we entered Stralsund. The Countess and the General left the same day. I looked again at the fortifications of Stralsund from the Badenthor, as well as from the Franken, Triebseer, and Knieper-thor [see Document 205, p. 9]. I visited also the house where King Charles XII had lodged, the Meierfeld Palace, and the churches of St. Nicholas, St. James (which was reduced to ruins during the siege), and St. Mary. I visited Colonel Schwerin,153 the commandant, the Acting Bishop (Superindendent) Lper, and Postmaster Crivits.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 133 In St. Nicholas' church I was shown a clock which was struck by lightning in 1670, 1683, 1688, exactly at 6 o'clock, as marked by the hand. Afterwards I examined the new fortifications outside the Knieperthor. I met Carl Jesper Benzelius.154 I examined the works by which the town is supplied with water; they consist of two Archimedean screws (slanggngar).

August 9. After leaving Stralsund I passed through Dammgarten. In the Mecklenburg territory I passed Ribnitz in coming to Restock, where I examined eight churches, five larger and three smaller ones, and also a convent; the ladies were, however, at liberty.

Thence I journeyed to Wismar, where there are six churches; the best among them are St. Mary's and St. George's.

August 11. After leaving Wismar I visited Gadebusch, where a battle was fought between the Swedes and the Danes, and then came to Ratzeburg, which is surrounded by a morass* which we crossed by a long bridge.

* Now a lake.

August 12. I arrived at Hamburg and took lodgings at the Kaiserhof, where the Countess De la Gardie150 likewise stayed. I met Baron Hamilton,156 Reuterholm156 Trievald,157 Knig,* Assessor Awermann, and was presented to Prince Augustus,158 the brother of His Majesty, who spoke Swedish; afterwards I was presented by Lesch, the marshal in chief, to His Royal Highness Adolphus Frederic;159 I submitted to him the contents [of the book],** which I am about to have printed, and showed him the reviews of the former [work].***

* Concerning agent Knig see footnote on p. 82.

** The book here indicated is the Regnum Animale, which Swedenborg was about to publish at the Hague.

*** The former work to which Swedenborg here alludes is his onomia Regni Animalis, which he had published in two volumes in Amsterdam in 1740.

August 17. I left Hamburg, and, after crossing the Elbe, came to Buxtehude. I there saw, to the extent of a [German] mile, the most charming country I have yet seen in Germany, having passed through a continuous orchard of apple-, pear-, plum-, walnut-, chestnut-trees, limes, and elms.

August 18. I came to Bremen, which has good ramparts and suburbs; the best is the Neustadt.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 134 Near the bridge leading to it are eleven river-mills lying close to one another. I examined the Town-Hall in the market-place, and the great Poland [statue], which is the sign of a free town; afterwards the Church of St. Nicholas, the Cathedral, and the Hospital. There are also some statues in the town.

August 20. I left Bremen for Leer, passing through Oldenburg, which is an earldom belonging to the King of Denmark. Leer has good ramparts, with sufficient water in the moats. I likewise passed through Neuschanz, Near Leer is a fortification called Leerort, belonging to Holland. I journeyed thence to Grningen, which is a large town under the Prince of Orange. In Leeuwarden I saw his palace, and the one used by his mother, which is called the Princess's palace; likewise the Town-Hall and several other buildings. We arrived there by canal-boat.

There are two roads from Grningen, one by Harlingen, and the other by Lemmer. The former place can also be reached by canal-boat, the latter, only by carriage; we chose the road to Harlingen through Leeuwarden.

From Harlingen which is a large town-

[Here the manuscript abruptly breaks off. The Swedish editor adds, "It is impossible to say whether the continuation was written or not, for the word Astad" (town) is at the bottom of page 6; this is followed by several blank pages; but it is certainly true that some pages (perhaps four) have been torn out. On the remnants of two of the pages which have been cut out large numerals, written by an unskilled (perhaps a child's) hand, are visible."

Swedenborg's only object in making this journey (as we learn from Document 164, B) was to print his Regnum Animale at the Hague; volumes I and II of that work were printed there. The Swedish editor was, therefore, quite right in making the following additional remarks in a note: "Whether the continuation of this journal of travel was written or not is uncertain: if it was, it could not have been very long; as the Journey from Harlingen to the Hague was all that was left for him to describe."]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 135

DOCUMENT 208.

SWEDENBORG'S SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE IN 1743.

INTRODUCTION.

The contents of the Note Book, from which Documents 207-209 are taken, were published in Stockholm, in 1859, by G. E. Klemming, the Royal Librarian, under the following title: "Swedenborg's Drmmar, 1744, jemte andra hans anteckingar" (Swedenborg's Dreams, 1744, with some other memoranda from his hand). This publication he dedicated to Prof. J. F. I. Tafel, of Tbingen, and Dr. J. J. G. Wilkinson, of London. In the preface he gives the following account of the note-book:

"A short time ago (October, 1858) the Royal Library acquired by purchase the original manuscript which furnishes the greater part of the contents of this publication. For a long time it had been in the keeping of R. Scheringsson, professor and lector at Westers, who died in 1849 in his ninetieth year; and it lay forgotten among his literary possessions for nearly ten years more, when it was offered for sale to the Royal Library. It was not possible to learn more of its history.

"The manuscript is an ordinary pocket-book in small octave, and bound in parchment with a tuck, having pockets on each side, according to the custom of the last century. It contains sixty-nine leaves, some, which probably were blank, having been torn out; and only fifty-four of these leaves, or to state it more accurately, a hundred and four pages, contain writing.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 136 The first leaves are taken up with the notes which Swedenborg made in 1743 of his journey to the Hague [Document 207], where he had gone to begin the printing of the Regnum Animale and to write out its continuation. The notes of his journey were, however, abruptly broken off, and they are succeeded by short statements about dreams and visions, with which are interwoven various facts concerning his outward life. As these notes embrace the critical period of Swedenborg's life, when he passed from worldly to spiritual things, they are of great importance, since they enable us to judge of his mental state, which they present as in a highly excited condition, and enable us to regard it more profoundly, than was previously possible. The editor, however, acts altogether in the capacity of a student of the history of literature, and limits himself to a simple communication of the document in the original form in which he found it. Certain conclusions will naturally present themselves to the thoughtful reader; and, besides, commentators will probably not be found wanting.

"With respect to the mode in which these notes are published, the editor has perhaps gone too far in the matter of accuracy, by marking with italics the many words which were not finished or where single letters or portions of words are indicated by mere final flourishes. Yet in dealing with a manuscript which was penned with so little care, that the writing is in many parts almost illegible and the meaning often doubtful, he preferred to expose himself to this charge, rather than to the opposite one of carelessness; especially as by doing so he would remove every ground of suspicion that he had intentionally falsified any statement. Words and letters which were entirely left out in the original are put in brackets; likewise explanations of words incorrectly written. Entire words and sentences printed in italics are underscored in the original. As a proof of the authenticity and genuineness of the printed copy, the editor refers to the photographic reproduction of p. 57, at the end of the volume, and to the certificate of Mr. F. A. Dahlgren of the State Archives, our distinguished reader of manuscripts, who kindly assisted in reading the proof-sheets, and shrewdly suggested the reading of many of the more difficult words." The certificate of Mr. Dahlgren in which he testifies to the faithfulness of the printed copy, is dated Stockholm, June 4, 1859.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 137 Such is the outward account of this important manuscript.

At the expense of one of the friends of the Swedenborg Society, an English translation of the Swedish original was prepared by Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson, shortly after one of the ninety-nine copies which had been printed by the Swedish editor arrived in London. Of this translation, which was deposited in the archives of the Society, a copy was taken without authority, we understand, and sent to the editor of the "Dawn: a Journal of social and religious progress," (published in 1861 and 1862); and the whole of the translation with the exception of nos. 190-192, and a few shorter paragraphs, appeared subsequently in the pages of that journal. With this translation, as contained in the "Dawn," our own translation which was prepared immediately from the Swedish original, has been carefully collated. That the translation in question, although furnished with notes by Baron Holmfeld, prepared specially for the "Dawn," but was simply a transcript made from an existing copy, appears very plainly from the fact that the copyist three times in succession mistook a capital L for a capital S; as appears from p. 41 of the "Dawn," where instead of "Major Lantingshausen, Superintendent Lper, Grand Marshal Lesch," we read "Major Sandstishusen, Superintendent Sper, Grand Marshal Sesch." as the original translation has disappeared from the archives of the Swedenborg Society, we were unable to make any further comparison.

The question of the genuineness of the original document will be found fully discussed, and settled in the affirmative, in Note 149, appended to this volume, to which we refer the reader; we shall, therefore, in this introduction limit ourselves to determining the place which the spiritual experiences recorded in Documents 208 and 209 occupy in the development of Swedenborg's character, and in his preparation for his mission.

Our next object, therefore, will be to present to the reader a clear outline of the mental and bodily states through which Swedenborg passed both before and after the experiences described in the following pages; and in doing so we shall strive to confine ourselves as much as possible to Swedenborg's own words.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 138 For in order to do justice to an author, and to understand him truly, he must be studied objectively i. e. he must be allowed to explain himself; and the reader and the commentator must endeavour to emancipate themselves from their own subjective states, i. e. from prejudice and all pre-conceived ideas.

The aim of Swedenborg's life, and thus the purpose of the experiences recorded in the following pages, are stated by him in his work entitled the "True Christian Religion" in these words:

"The Lord's Second advent is made by a man before whom He has manifested Himself in person, and whom He has filled with His Spirit to teach the doctrines of the New Church by the Word from Himself. This is meant in the Apocalypse by the New Heaven and the New Earth, and the New Jerusalem descending thence" (see headings to nos. 779 and 781).

That he himself is the man by whose instrumentality the Lord would effect His Second Coming, is declared by Swedenborg in the following passage: "As the Lord cannot [now] manifest Himself in person, and yet foretold that He would come again, and establish a New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, it follows that He would do this by a man, who could not only receive the doctrines of that church in his understanding, but also publish them by the press. I
testify in truth that the Lord manifested Himself before me, His servant; that He commissioned me to do this work, and afterwards opened the sight of my spirit, and so let me into the spiritual world, permitting me to see the heavens and the bells, and also to converse with angels and spirits, and this now continually for many years; and, likewise, that from the first day of my call to this office, I have never received any thing relating to the doctrines of that church from any angel, but from the Lord alone while I was reading the Word" (no. 779).

The necessity of a long preparation for this work he states in no. 850, in these words: "[On the question], Why did the Lord reveal the long list of arcana, which thou hast just enumerated, to thee who art a layman, and not to one of the clergy?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 139 I replied, that this was in the good pleasure of the Lord, who had prepared me for this office from earliest; but [I added] let me in turn ask you a question: Why did the Lord when He was on earth choose fishermen for His disciples, and not some of the lawyers, scribes, priests, or rabbis? Consider this subject well, draw your conclusions correctly, and you will discover the reason."

This question Swedenborg himself answered in another place ("Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," no. 20) in this manner: "I was once asked how I from being a philosopher had become a theologian. I replied, 'In the same way in which fishermen had been made disciples and apostles by the Lord; and that I also from my earliest youth had been a spiritual fisherman.' When asked what was meant by a spiritual fisherman, I replied that by a fisherman in the spiritual sense is meant a person who investigated and teaches natural truths, and afterwards spiritual truths in a rational manner. To the question, how this was proved, I answered, 'By these passages of Scripture,' quoting Isa. xix. 5, 8; Ezek. xlvii. 9, 10; Jer. xvi. 6; from which it appears why the Lord elected fishermen for His disciples and said to them, 'Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men' (Matt. iv. 18, 19; Mark i. 16, 17), and why He said to Peter after he had caught many fishes, 'From henceforth thou the origin of this meaning of fishermen from the 'Apocalypse Revealed,' where it is shown that natural truths are signified by water (nos. 50, 932), and also by a river (nos. 409, 933); further, that by a fish are signified those who are in natural truths (no. 408), and hence by 8 fisherman, those who investigate and teach truths."

That a thorough understanding of natural truths was one of the chief means by which Swedenborg was prepared by the Lord for his sacred office is clearly stated by him in the Lord for his sacred office is clearly stated by him in the following passages:

"What the acts of my life involved, I could not distinguish at the time they happened, bat by the Divine mercy of God-Messiah I was afterwards informed with regard to some, even many, particulars. From these I was at last able to see that the Divine Providence governed the acts; of my life uninterruptedly from my very youth, and directed them in such a manner, that by means of the knowledge of natural things I was enabled to reach a state of intelligence, and thus by the Divine mercy of God-Messiah, to serve as an instrument for opening those things which are hidden interiorly in the Word of God-Messiah.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 140 Those things, therefore, are now made manifest, which hitherto mere not manifest." (Adversaria, Part II, no. 839).

In a letter addressed in 1766 to Prelate tinger Swedenborg specifies the time within which he was thus prepared. He says: "I was introduced by the Lord into the natural sciences, and thus prepared, and indeed from the year 1710 to 1744, when heaven was opened to me." From this passage we learn that when Swedenborg wrote the contents of his notebook in 1743 and 1744, the preparation for his work "by a study of the natural sciences" was at an end, and that the time was approaching when he was to enter upon that "office," for which "he had been prepared by the Lord from His earliest youth."

We see, therefore, that Documents 208 and 209 cover the ground of Swedenborg's transition period, when "from a philosopher he was made a theologian," and when the veil was removed, and "heaven was opened to him."

The following particulars, taken from Document 209, throw additional light, on the nature of Swedenborg's office, and the preparation he underwent for the work he had to perform.

"I perceived that I had received a talent for the promotion of God's glory; I saw that all had worked together to this end, and that the Spirit had been with me from my youth for this very purpose" (no. 110, April 22, 1744).

That the time had approached when he must leave the investigation of natural things, and devote himself exclusively to spiritual things, he states clearly in no. 126 (April 29): "All this represents that I must employ my remaining time in writing upon higher subjects, and not upon worldly things, which are far below; indeed, that I must write about what concerns the very centre of all, and what concerns Christ. May God be so gracious as to enlighten me respecting my duty; for I am still in some obscurity as to the direction whither I am to turn."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 141

That Swedenborg's philosophical studies were one of the principal means by which he was prepared for the perception of spiritual truths, is stated in Part III of the Regnum Animale, which he was then, September 30, 1744, through the press: "This signified that what I had written there with God's help, was of such a nature, that it would lead me on still farther, and that I should see still more glorious things" (no. 176).

The most pointed declaration, however, that he was about to be changed from a philosopher into a theologian, Swedenborg makes in no. 135, where he says: "Henceforth speculation, which has hitherto been a posteriori, will be changed into a priori;" in other words, from being an analytical philosopher, he is about to become a theologian, when he would see the truth from the Lord by the synthetic method.

Swedenborg's preparation for his office consisted, however, not only in a special training of his intellectual faculties, but also in a peculiar discipline of his will or affectional nature, as appears from no. 195. "This was a prediction that the Lord Himself will instruct me, as soon as I have attained that state in which I shall know nothing, and in which all my preconceived notions will be removed, which is the first state of learning; in other words, that I must first become a child, and that then I shall be able to be nurtured in knowledge, as is the case with me now."

In order, therefore, that Swedenborg might be instructed by the Lord, he had to become childlike and innocent, and thoroughly humble in heart. The terrible struggles and temptations which he had to undergo, before his will was thoroughly subdued, and he was willing to act as a mere "instrument" in the hands of the Lord (nos. 167, 177), he minutely describes in Document 209, from beginning to end. He there uncovers the uncleanness and the evils which were to be removed from him, and specifies the evils to which he is particularly inclined. But in the end he becomes thoroughly humble in heart (nos. 17, 63, 69), his sins are forgiven (nos. 90, 166), the Lord removes from him "the love of self and pride" (no. 200); and he is finally told that "his looks have improved, and that his appearance is like that of an angel" (no. 196).*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 142

* That Swedenborg's preparation for his office was not only of the understanding, but also of the will, and that he was regenerated as to his will, when his spiritual sight was fully opened appears from the following passage in the "Spiritual Diary:" "It was observed and instilled into my mind, that everything that a man has done in the life of the body returns in the other life. For there are perpetual changes of state, into which man is introduced, so that there is not a single state of the life of the body, which does not return in the other life; consequently hatreds and the like, which man has not only done, but also thought. *** But it is to he observed that with the evil, all the evils which they have done and thought return in a most vivid manner; while with those who are in good and faith such is not the case: for with them all the states of good, of friendship, and of love return with the greatest delight and felicity. Experimental proof that there is no evil with me" (no. 4109).

That the Lord might fill this man with His spirit, and enable him "to teach the doctrines of the New Church by the Word from Himself," it was not however sufficient that "by means of the knowledge of natural things he should reach a state of intelligence," and that he should be in a state of good; it was further necessary that his spiritual sight should be opened, and that "he should associate with the angels of heaven." This he clearly states in the following passage: "This internal or spiritual sense, and the arcana of the state of the Church in the heavens and on the earth, which are contained in that sense, cannot be revealed to any one, unless he know that sense, and unless it be granted him at the same time to have consort with the angels, and to speak spiritually with them" ("Last Judgment," no. 42.)

Several reasons are given by him why it was necessary that his spiritual sight should be opened. He says in the "Arcana Coelestia," no. 67: "The hidden things of the internal sense of the Word can never be known, unless the nature of the things in the other world be made known, because so very many of the things contained in the internal sense have respect to them, and describe and involve them."

This reason he states in the "Spiritual Diary," no. 200 in these words: "There are many things in the Word respecting God-Messiah, as well in the Old as in the New Testament, which cannot but be unintelligible; the reason, however, is that the character of the men living at the present time has altogether changed from that of the men who lived in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Primitive Christian Church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 143 If the men of modern times had lived in those times, they might have known these things well from experience and from inward revelation; yet these things may be known still better from the state of the spirits and human souls that now fill the lowest sphere of heaven. This also is the reason I am permitted to adduce from them the experience of things altogether obliterated in these days, and thus to remove this state of ignorance."

Again he says, "In order that the True Christian Religion might be manifested, it was absolutely necessary that some one should be introduced into the spiritual world, and receive from the Lord's mouth genuine truths from the Word. For to do this from the false churches which exist at the present day, where it is impossible to see a single genuine truth from the Word, except such as is encompassed with and steeped in falsities and coheres with falsities, would be like attempting to sail to the Pleiades, or like undertaking to dig out the gold which is in the centre of the earth" (Invitatio ad Novam Ecclesiam, no. 38).

Let us now see what is meant, in the case of Swedenborg, by the opening of the spiritual sight. In a tract on which he was engaged a short time before his death, and which was printed by Dr. Immanuel Tafel in the "Spiritual Diary," Part VII, Appendix I, pages 168 and 169, we read as follows: "In place of the miracles that were done in the Church before the Lord's Coming, at the present time [i. e. in the case of Swedenborg himself] there has been a manifestation of the Lord Himself, an introduction into the spiritual world, and thereby immediate light from the Lord, illustration in such things as constitute the interiors of the church, but principally an opening of the spiritual sense of the Word, in which the Lord is in His Divine light. These revelations are not miracles; for every man is as to his spirit in the spiritual world, yet without being separated from his body in the natural world. In my case, however, there is a certain separation, but only as to the intellectual part of my mind, and not as to my will part."

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The opening of Swedenborg's spiritual sight implied therefore a separation of the intellectual part of his mind from the body. How this separation was effected shall now be examined. In the "Arcana Coelestia," no. 9281, we read: "Man has an internal and an external respiration; his external respiration is from the world, but the internal from heaven. When man dies, external respiration ceases, but internal respiration, which is tacit and imperceptible during the life in the body, continues. This respiration is altogether according to the affection of truth, thus according to the life of one's faith. Those, however, who are in no faith, which is the case with those in hell, derive their respiration, not from the interior, but from the exterior; they thus breathe in a contrary way, wherefore on approaching an angelic society where respiration from the interior prevails, they begin to be suffocated, and become as if dead; they therefore cast themselves down into their hell, where they again receive their former respiration which is opposed to the respiration of heaven." In the "Arcana Coelestia," no. 805 we read, "The man of the Most Ancient Church had an internal respiration, thus one which agreed with, and was similar to, the respiration of the angels; this respiration was varied according to all the internal states of man. This respiration, however, became changed in course of time among their posterity, until finally in their last posterity [before the flood] after every angelic quality had been destroyed, they could no longer breathe with the angelic heaven; which was the real cause of their extinction. After these times internal respiration ceased, and thereby communication with heaven; and external respiration succeeded."

From this it follows that for one to have communication with heaven, and have his spiritual sight opened, he has to be initiated into the internal respiration of the angels. On this subject Swedenborg relates with reference to himself: "I was first accustomed to this [internal] respiration in infancy while saying my morning and evening prayers, and also sometimes afterwards while examining the concordant action of the heart and lungs, and especially while in the act of composing those works which have been published.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 145 I then noticed for several years that there was a tacit respiration which is scarcely perceptible; about this it was also granted me afterwards to think and to speak. In this wise I was introduced from my infancy into such respiration, especially by intense speculations, in which [external] respiration is quiescent: for otherwise no intense speculation on the truth is possible. Afterwards also, when heaven had been opened to me, so that I could speak with spirits, I was so fully introduced into this respiration, that for the space of almost an hour I did not draw any breath: there was only so much air inhaled that I was able to think. In this manner I was introduced by the Lord into internal respiration Perhaps also in my dreams; for I noticed again and again that after falling asleep, [external] respiration was almost entirely withdrawn from me, so that on awakening I gasped for breath. This kind of respiration, however, ceases when I do not observe, write, or think on any [i. e. spiritual] subject, and reflect only upon this, that I believe these facts, and that they take place in innumerable ways. Formerly I was not able to see these varieties because I could not reflect upon them; but now I am able to do so, because each state, each sphere, and also each society [of heaven], especially the interior ones, have in me a suitable respiration, into which I come without reflecting upon it. By this means it is also granted me to be present with spirits and angels" ("Spiritual Diary," no. 3464).

* Swedenborg means here "The Economy of the Animal Kingdom," "The Animal Kingdom," and "The Worship and Love of God," which were published by him before 1748, when the above paragraph was penned.

We are instructed here how the opening of Swedenborg's spiritual sight and the separation of his intellectual faculty from his body were effected. But as his understanding could only gradually be emancipated from the limitations of the body, and accustomed to breathe in the atmosphere of heaven, and to see in the light of the angels, therefore the opening of his spiritual sight was a very gradual process, as he declares in the following passage: "I was elevated into the light of heaven interiorly by degrees, and in proportion as I was elevated, my understanding was elevated, so that I was gradually enabled to perceive things which at first I did not perceive, and finally such things as it had been impossible for me to comprehend" ("Heaven and Hell," no. 130).

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The nature of Swedenborg's spiritual states, before the light of the spiritual world had perceptibly dawned upon him, he describes most clearly in the following passage written on the 27th of august 1745: "Before my mind was opened, so that I could converse with spirits, and thus be persuaded by living experience, there existed with me for several years such evidences, that I now wonder I could remain all the while unconvinced of the Lord's government by means of spirits. During several years, not only had I dreams by which I was informed concerning the things on which I was writing [see Note 161]; but I experienced also, while writing, changes of state, there being a certain extraordinary light in the things which were written. Afterwards I had many visions with closed eyes, and light was given me in a miraculous manner. There was also an influx from spirits, as manifest to the sense as if it had been into the senses of the body; there were infestations in various ways by evil spirits, when I was in temptations; and afterwards when writing anything to which the spirits had an aversion I was almost possessed by them, so as to feel something like a tremor. Fiery lights were seen,* and conversations heard in the early morning, besides many other things; until at last a spirit spoke a few words to me, when I was greatly astonished at his perceiving my thoughts.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 147 I was afterwards, when my mind opened, greatly astonished that I could converse with spirits; as the spirits were that I should wonder. From this it may be concluded how difficult it is for man to believe that he is governed by the Lord through spirits; and how difficult it is for him to give up the opinion that he lives his own life of himself without the agency of spirits" (Spiritual Diary no. 2951). [See Note 162]. An additional reference to those dreams which Swedenborg had before he was fully introduced as to his spirit into the spiritual world, was made by him in the beginning of 1746, in the "Adversaria." After speaking of dreams, visions, and representations, in a general way, he says there: "That these things are so I can attest; and their being so ought the less to be doubted, because, by the Divine mercy of God-Messiah, they have happened so frequently, that they have become quite familiar to me. I learned them partly by dreams which I had at first during a number of years, when I learned something of their real signification [see Note 161], and partly by the other revelations [i. e. visions and representations]; and by additional revelations, as for instance, when the very letters appeared written before my eyes, and were read to me, &c. &c. But I am not yet permitted to say more concerning these" (Vol. II, no. 183).

* This appearance of fiery lights Swedenborg describes more particularly in his "Adversaria," Vol. III, no. 7012, in these words: "Flames signify confirmation; such a flame has, by the Divine mercy of God-Messiah appeared to me many times, and indeed of various sizes, and of different colours and lustre; so that while I was writing a certain little work, scarcely a day passed, for several months, without a flame appearing to me as bright as a chimney-fire; this was at the time a sign of approbation, and it was before the time when spirits began to speak with me in an audible voice."

An allusion to this sign of approbation will be found in the photolithographic edition of Swedenborg's Manuscripts, Vol. VI, page 318, where he treats in a, compendious form of the ACorpuecular Philosophy" (Philosophia corpuscularis in Compendio), and where, at the bottom of the page, he asserts the truth of his article in this form: "These things are true, because I have [received] the sign" (Hc vera sunt, quia signum habeo).

Another description of the degree in which his spiritual sight was opened during that time is given by him in the "Spiritual Diary," under the date of August 31, 1747, in the "Spiritual Diary," under the date of August 31, 1747, in these words: "For nearly three years [about the middle of 1744], I was allowed to perceive and notice the operation of spirits, not by a sort of internal sight, but by a sensation which is associated with a sort of obscure sight, by which I noticed their presence, which was various, their approach and departure, besides many other things" (no. 192).

If now we take a retrospective view of Swedenborg's spiritual experiences before he was admitted consciously into the spiritual world, we find that his first spiritual manifestations were no doubt in the form of dreams, as appears from our concluding remarks on Document 206 (p. 130); for we see there that Swedenborg had commended as early as 1736 to write down some of his remarkable dreams, a practice which he seems to have continued till 1740.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 148 As the record of these dreams is, however, unfortunately lost, we cannot tell whether he was as early as 1736, "informed" by his dreams "concerning the things which he was writing." The next spiritual manifestation, in point of time, was the appearance of "fiery lights" mentioned in the footnote on p. 145, which we are able to trace back as far as 1740; for the article on "corpuscular philosophy," the truth of which Swedenborg declares was confirmed to him by "a sign," was written in the early part of 1740, as is proved by the dates affixed to the various excerpts and observations contained in the volume from which the article is taken.

The next record of Swedenborg's spiritual experiences consists of the memoranda constituting the present Document. In these the general contents of some dreams which he had in the month of December, 1743, are given, together with some references to his mental states and tribulations at that time. He began a minute account of his dreams on March 24, 1744, and of these dreams we know that "he learned in part their signification;" and that by them "he was informed of the things concerning which he was writing," These dreams alternating with minute descriptions of his mental states and temptations, and indications of his whereabouts during that time constitute Document 209.

This most important period of his life will be found more fully discussed in Note 168 treating of "the date of the opening of Swedenborg's spiritual sight."

After these preliminary explanations we direct the attention of our readers to the text of Document 208.

              
1. [December].*--[I dreamt] of my youth and of the Gustavian family.

* See Note 163.
2. Of Venice and the beautiful palace.
3. Of Sweden and the white clouds in heaven.
4. Of Leipzig, and the one who lay in boiling water.
5. Of him who plunged with a chain into the deep.
6. Of the king who gave something so precious in a peasant's hut.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 149
7. December. Of the servant who desired me to depart.
8. Of my joys at night.

I wondered at myself, that so far as my own sensation told me, I had not any concern remaining for my own honour;

That I was no longer inclined towards the sex, as I had been all my life long.*

* See Note 161, v, F.

9. How I had been almost the whole time in a state of ecstasy, while awake.

10. How I opposed myself to the Spirit;

And how I then enjoyed this, but afterwards found that it was nonsense, without life and coherence;

And that, consequently, a great deal of what I had written, in proportion as I had denied the power of the Spirit, was of that description; and, indeed, that thus all the faults are my own, but the truths are not.

Sometimes, indeed, I became impatient and thought I would rebel, if all did not progress with the ease I desired, after I no longer did anything for my own sake. I found my unworthiness less, and gave thanks for the grace.

11. How, after arriving at the Hague [see Note 163], I found self-interest and self-love in my work had passed away; at which I wondered.

How my inclination (hogen) for woman, which had been my chief passion (hufwudpassion), suddenly ceased.*

* See Note 161, v, F.

How during the whole time I slept extremely well at night; which was more than favourable.

About my ecstasies before and after sleep.

My clear thoughts about matters and things.

How I resisted the power of the Holy Spirit; and what took place afterwards. About the hideous spectres which I saw, without life; they mere terrible; although bound, they kept moving in their bands. They were in company with an animal, by which I, and not the child, was attacked.

It seemed to me as if I were lying on a mountain, below which was an abyss; knots were on it. I was lying there trying to help myself up, holding on to a knot; without foot-hold, and an abyss underneath.--This signifies that I desire to rescue myself from the abyss, which yet is not possible.

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How a woman lay down by my side; it seemed to me as if I were in a state of wakefulness. I desired to find out who she was. She spoke in a low voice; but said that she was pure, while I had a bad odour. She was, I believe, my guardian-angel, for temptation then began.

DOCUMENT 209.

SWEDENBORG'S SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE IN 1744.*

* Concerning the original of this Document, see the Introduction to Document 208, p. 134. For the sake of convenient reference the editor has numbered the paragraphs of this Document.

As an Introduction to this Document read Note 161, containing "Swedenborg's Philosophy of Dreams."

1. March 24 X 25.* I was standing [in my dream] beside a machine which was set in motion by a wheel; I became more and more involved in its spokes (stngar), and was carried up, so that I could not escape: when I awoke.--This means either that I ought to be kept longer in straits, or it describes the state of the lungs [with the embryo] in the womb, on which subject I wrote immediately afterwards.** It had reference to both.

* The mark X between two dates signifies the intermediate night. This sign is also used by Swedenborg in his manuscript Codex 58, p. 175, which is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. He says there: AWhat I wrote here was pronounced to me in a wonderful manner; see the dream of July 1 X 2 " (Vide somnium, July 1 X 2).

** At the time when Swedenborg began writing his spiritual experience of 1744, he had prepared for the press the manuscript of the Regnum Animale as far as Vol. I, no. 272 (p. 331 of the Latin Edition, and p. 398 of the English Edition); for the allusion which he makes in no. 1 to "the state of the lungs in the womb," is one of the subjects discussed in that paragraph, where we read: "The lungs which open the scene and commence the drama of this life, are then constricted and closed, and neither emit nor admit the vital breath of the body." For further information on this subject see Note 164, iv, which treats of "Swedenborg's Studies in 1743 and 1741."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 151

2. I was in a kitchen-garden (rtegrd) containing many fine beds, one of which I desired to possess; I looked around, however, to see if there was a way out, and when it seemed to me that I saw one, I thought of another. Some one was there picking away a heap of small (synlig) vermin, and killing them; he said that they were bugs which some one had brought and thrown in, and which infested those who were there. I did not see them, but I saw some other smaller vermin which I let fall into a white linen sheet, [and took] out together with some woman.--This meant the uncleanness which has to be rooted out of me.

3. I went confidently (fritt) and boldly down a large staircase, at the end of which was a ladder was a hole that went down to a great depth; it was difficult to cross over to the other side, without falling into the hole. On the other side were some persons to whom I reached out my hand to be helped: I awoke.--There is danger of my falling into the abyss, unless I receive help.

4. I spoke long and familiarly with our Successor in Sweden,* who was changed into a woman; and afterwards with Carl Broman** [to whom I said], that he ought to be in his favour; upon which he replied something. Afterwards I spoke with Erland Broman,167 [and told him] that I had returned here.--I do not know what this signifies, unless it has something to do with what follows.

* Duke Adolphus Frederic11 of Holstein-Gottorp; see also Note 159.

** See Note 113, Vol. I; the original has Carl Brokman.

5. I came into a splendid room where I conversed with a lady who was the governess. She was just on the point of telling me something, when the queen through into another room. It seemed to me that she was the same woman who represented our Successor [see no. 4]; upon which I left the room; for I was rather meanly dressed, as I had just come off my journey, and wore a long, worn out over-coat, and was without hat and wig. I was surprised that she [the queen] deigned to come after me; she informed me, that some person had given his mistress all his jewels; but had received them back again, when she was told, that he had not given her the best; [upon hearing which] she threw away the jewels.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 152 She urged me to re-enter, but I excused myself by the plea that I was so negligently dressed, and had no wig, and so must go home first. She said that this did not matter.-The meaning of this is that I should then write and commence the epilogue of the second volume,* to which I wanted to write a preface, that was not, however, required. I acted on this instruction. What she said about the jewels had reference to the truths** which had, indeed, been discovered, but which were withdrawn again, because she was indignant at not receiving all. Afterwards I saw the jewels in [her] hands, and a large ruby in the middle.

* This epilogue closes Vol. I of the Regnum Animale, p. 4121 of the Latin edition. See Note 164, iv, A.

** See Note 161, ix.

6. March 25 X 26, It seemed to me as if I took a key and went in. The porter examined the keys which I had, when I showed them all, [to see] if I had two; it seemed, however, as if Hesselius76 had another. I was arrested and put under guard, when many came to me in carriages. It appeared to me as if I had done nothing wrong; but it, nevertheless, occurred to me that the fact of my having taken the key might be interpreted unfavourably: I awoke.-This may be explained in several ways; that I had taken the key to anatomy, while the other one which Hesselius76 had was the key to medicine,* or, that the key to the lungs, and consequently to the motion of the whole body, is the pulmonary artery;** or else [it is to be explained] spiritually.

* See Note 161, ix.

** Swedenborg was then engaged in preparing for the press the second part of the Regnum Animale, which treats of the lungs and the organs connected therewith. See Note 164, iv.

7. I desired to be cured of an illness. A heap of rags was offered me to buy for this purpose; I took half, and left the other half; but I gave all for the rags (igen slarfworna). The person said that he himself would purchase something for me that would cure me.--The thoughts of my body were rags, with which I desired to cure myself; but they were good for nothing.

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8. Afterwards I stepped out and saw many black pictures. One that was black was thrown to me. I saw that he (the person) could not move (foga sig) on account of his foot.*--The meaning is, I believe, that natural reason (ratio naturalis) cannot agree with spiritual reason.*

* See Note 161, xii, and Note. 166, i.

9. March 30 X 31. I saw a number of women,* one of whom wrote a letter. I took it, but do not know what became of it. She was sowing (sdt), and a yellow man struck her on the back; and wished her to have more blows; but it was enough.--This I believe concerns what I am writing, and have written, namely, our philosophy.**

* See Note 161, iv, A. and vi.

** See Note 161, iv, A.

10. I saw a handsome woman* at a window where a child was placing roses; she took me by the hand and conducted me.--This signifies what I am writing;* and also, as I believe, the source of my trouble (min plga), by which I would be led.

* See Note 161, iv, A.

11. I saw a magnificent procession of men;* they were adorned, and all looked so charming, that I have scarcely ever seen anything more beautiful; but it soon disappeared.--This, I believe, signifies experience, or experimental truth, which is now in a state of great abundance.'

* See Note 161, vi.

12. April 1 X 2. I rode on a horse in the wind. I went into all the rooms, into the kitchen and other places seeking some one, but could not find him. The rooms were untidy. At last I was led in the wind into a hall, where I received two leaves of fine bread,* and also found him again. Many people were there and the hall was clean and in good order.--It signifies the Lord's Supper.

* See Note 161, x.

13. King Charles [XII]* was sitting in a dark room, and said something, but indistinctly. Afterwards some one at the table inquired whether he knew what he was asking for; when he said, Yes.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 154 He then closed the windows, and I helped him to arrange the curtains. I then got on horseback, yet did not take the way I thought; but went over hills and mountains, riding all the time, with a heavy load behind me. I could not ride away [from it], and the horse became fatigued by the load, when I desired it to turn in somewhere; it entered, when it became like some slaughtered, bloody, red animal, and lay down.--This signifies that I received everything I could think of for my information, and that I am perhaps pursuing a wrong method. The load behind me by which I became so weary and dead on the way, is the remaining part of my work.

* See Note 161, v.

14. I stepped out of a carriage, which was being driven into a lake. While driving into it the coachman called to another carriage to take care; there was real danger upon driving in. I looked at the other carriage; behind, it seemed to have a screen, which was opened like an umbrella. I, together with the person who sat behind, took the screen, stepped in and shut it up.--It meant that the beginning of my work was difficult. The second carriage was warned to be on its guard, and I, that I should draw in my sails, and not make my notes so long.*

* Swedenborg alludes here to the notes under the text of the Regnum Animale.

15. April 2 X 3. Two persons came; they entered into a house which although built, was not yet furnished. They went round, but did not seem favourably impressed. We saw that our power was gone, and were afraid of them. One of them approached me and said that they had determined to inflict a punishment upon me next Monday Thursday, unless I removed. I did not know how to get out, but he said he would show me the way: I awoke.--This signified that I had invited the Highest to me into an unprepared and untidy hut,* and that He found it unbecoming, wherefore I was to be punished. He, nevertheless, most graciously pointed out a way to me, by which I could escape their wrath.

* See Note 161, xiii.

A beggar was there, who exclaimed, that he wanted to have some bacon; when they offered him something else, he still called out for bacon: I awoke.--This, I believe, signifies the same.

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16. I saw two troops of soldiers, dressed in blue, marching in two bodies past my window, which was partly open. I desired to look out and watch the marching of the first corps, which seemed to me magnificent: I awoke.-This means a gracious protection, so that I may escape destruction.*

* See Note 161, v.

17. N. B. April 3 X 4, the day before Easter. I experienced nothing the whole night,* although I repeatedly woke up; I thought that all was past and gone, and that I had been either forsaken or exiled. About morning it seemed to me as if I were riding and as if I had had the direction pointed out. It was, however, dark, and when I looked I found that I had gone astray on account of the darkness; but then it brightened up, and I saw how I had gone wrong, and noticed the way, and the forests and groves which I was to go through, and also heaven behind; when I awoke. My thoughts then, of their own accord, turned upon this, and afterwards on the other life, and it seemed to me as if everything was full of grace. I burst into tears at not having loved, but rather provoked, Him who had led me and pointed out the way to the kingdom of grace; and also at my being unworthy of acceptance by grace.**

* That is, Swedenborg had no dreams that night.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

18. April 4 X 5. I went to the Lord's table.

(One courier more was said to have come; I said that this probably was-----)*

* These words are crossed out in the original.

There was sung the melody and a line I remember from the hymn: "Jesus is my best of friends."**

**The whole of this hymn, in an English translation, is given in Note 169.

It seemed to me as if the buds had opened and were green.

19. April 5 X 6. Easter was on the 5th of April, when I went to the Lord's table.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 156 Temptation still continued,* mostly in the afternoon till six o'clock: but it assumed no definite form. It was an anxiety felt at being condemned and in hell; but in this feeling the hope given by the Holy Spirit,** according to Paul's epistle to the Romans v, 5, remained strong.

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See Note 165, iv.

The Evil One had power given him to disturb my inmost mind by various thoughts. On Easter day,* after the Holy Supper, I was inwardly glad, although outwardly sad. The temptation came on in the afternoon, in an entirely different manner, but strongly; for I was assured that my sins were forgiven, and still I could not govern my fugitive thoughts so as to restrain some expressions opposed to my better understanding; I was, by permission, under the influence of the Evil One.** The temptation was assuaged by prayer and God's Word; faith was there in its entirety, but confidence and love seemed to be gone. I went to bed at nine o'clock; but the temptation, accompanied by trembling,*** continued until half-past ten. I then fell into a sleep, in which the whole of my temptation was represented to me; how Er[land] B[roman]****167 sought by various means to get me on his side, so that I might be of the same party (in luxury, riches, pride);***** but he could not gain me over; I persisted in my resistance even more strongly after he had incurred my contempt. Afterwards I was with a snake of a dark grey colour, which was lying down, and was B[roman's] dog. I struck at it many times with a club, but never could hit it on the head; it was in vain.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 157 It tried to bite me, but could not; I seized it by the throat, when it could not bite me, and I could not do it much harm; but, finally, I grasped it by the jams, which I pressed hard, and also by the nose, which I squeezed so that something like matter or poison started from it. I was told that although the dog did not belong to me, yet if it bit me, I should have to chastise it. Thereupon it seemed to me as if I told him [Broman] that I was not going to say a single word to him, and thus had an estrangement from him. When I awoke, I was uttering the words: Hold thy tongue!--From this, without any further explanation, may be seen the nature of the temptation, and, on the other hand, the greatness of God's grace by the merit of Christ and the operation of the Holy Spirit;****** to whom be glory forever and ever. The idea at once struck me, how great the grace of the Lord is, who accounts and appropriates to us our resistance in temptation; although it is purely God's grace,******* and is His and not our work; and He overlooks the weaknesses which we display in it, which yet must be manifold. I thought also of the great glory our Lord dispenses, after a brief period of tribulation (see Note 165, iv).

* The original has Pingstdagen (day of Pentecost), but there is no doubt that the reading should be Pskdagen (Easter).

** See Note 162, i, E.

*** See Note 162, i, F.

**** The Swedish editor suggests here that Er. B. might also stand for Ericus Benzelius, but as the name Erland Broman has already occurred once in full, in no. 4 of the present document, and as the character of that man, as described by Swedenborg (see Note 167) accords fully with what he relates here concerning Er. B., we may take it for granted that these initials stand for Erland Broman, and not for Ericus Benzelius.

***** See Note 161, i.

****** See Note 165, vi.

******* See Note 165, viii.

20. I then fell asleep, and it appeared to me the whole night, how I was joined, first in various ways, with others, on account of being sinful and how afterwards I was enveloped in wonderful and indescribable circumvolutions, and so, during the whole night, was inaugurated in a wonderful manner. It was then said, 'Is there any Jacobite more than honest' (mon nogon jacobit r mehr n redlig), and in conclusion I was received with an embrace; afterwards it was said that he ought not to be called so, the name being given, but so; but I do not recollect the name, unless it be Jacobite. The signification of this I cannot describe: it was a mystical series.

21. Afterwards I awoke and slept again many times; and all [I dreamt] was in answer to my thoughts; yet so, that in every thing there was such life and glory, that I can give no description of it; for it was all heavenly; clear to me at the time, but afterwards inexpressible.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 158 In short, I was in heaven, and heard a language, which no human tongue can utter with its inherent life, nor the glory and inmost delight resulting from it.*

* See Note 162, ii.

22. Besides, while awake, I was in a heavenly ecstasy, which is also indescribable.*

* See Note 162, ii.

I went to bed at nine o'clock, and arose between nine and ten; I had thus been in bed for twelve or thirteen hours. Praise, and honour, and glory be to the Highest; hallowed be His name! Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts!

23. How I learned by experience the meaning of this: not to love the angels more than God; as they had nearly overthrown the whole work. In comparison with our Lord no attention must be paid to them, i. e. to them in respect to the help they can render; since their love is far lower than His.

24. By some rays of light in me I found that it would be the greatest happiness to become a martyr; for on beholding inexpressible grace combined with love to God, a desire was kindled in me to undergo this torture, which is nothing compared with eternal torment; and [a conviction then] that the least of the things that one can offer is his life.

25. Both in my mind and body I had a sensation of such indescribable delight, that had it been more intense, the body would have been, as it were, dissolved in pure bliss.*

* See Note 162, ii.

This took place in the night between Easter Sunday and Easter Monday, and during the whole of that day.

26. April 6 X 7. N.B.; N.B.; N.B. In the evening I came into another kind of temptation.* Between eight and nine o'clock in the evening, while I was reading God's miracles wrought through Moses, it seemed to me as if something of my own understanding was mixed up with it,** so that I was not able to have so strong a faith as I ought. I believed, and yet did not believe. I was thinking that for this reason angels and God appeared to shepherds, and not to a philosopher, who allows his understanding to come into play, which at all times would lead him to ask, why God took the wind, when He called the grasshoppers together [Exodus x, 13], why He hardened Pharaoh's heart, and did not work directly, with other similar things, which I considered, and the effect of which was such, that my faith was not firm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 159 I looked upon the fire, and said to myself, "In this case neither ought I to believe that the fire is, since the external senses are more fallacious than what God says, which is the Truth itself; I ought rather to believe this than myself.*** With these and other similar thoughts I passed an hour, or an hour and a half, and in my mind was engaged with the Tempter. I must observe that on the same day I had gone to Delft,**** and had had the grace of being engaged in profound spiritual thought, my thoughts being more profound and beautiful than they had ever been before, and, indeed, during the whole day. This was the work of the Spirit, who had been with me.

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See Note 166, i.

*** See Note 166, i, and 165, ix, A.

**** Delft is a Dutch town, not far from the Hague, in the direction of Rotterdam.

27. At ten o'clock I went to bed, and in little more than half an hour afterwards I heard a noise under my head. I then thought that the Tempter was gone.* Immediately afterwards a tremor came over me, powerfully affecting me from the head over the whole body, accompanied by some sound;** this was repeated several times. I felt that something holy had come over me. I then fell asleep, and about twelve, one, or two o'clock at night a most powerful tremor seized me from head to foot, with a sound like the concourse of many winds.** By this sound, which was indescribable, I was shaken, and thrown [from the bed] on my face. While at the moment I was thus thrown down, I became wide awake,*** and I then saw that I had been prostrated. I wondered what all this meant, and then spoke, as if I were awake.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 160 I noticed, however, that these words were put into my mouth: "O Thou Almighty Jesus Christ, who of Thy great mercy deignest to come to so great a sinner, make me worthy of this grace!" I lifted up my hands, and prayed, when a hand came and strongly pressed my hands; I then continued my prayer, and said, "O Thou, who hast promised to receive in mercy all sinners, Thou canst not otherwise than keep this Thy word!" I lay on His bosom (skte****), and looked at Him face to face. It was a countenance with a holy expression, and so that it cannot be described; it was also smiling, and I really believe that His countenance was such during His Life upon earth.***** He addressed me and asked, if I had a certificate of my health (om jag har sundhets pass)? I answered, "O Lord, Thou knowest this better than I;" when He said, "Do it then!"--This, as I perceived in my mind, signified, "Love me really, or do what thou hast promised." O God, impart to me grace for this! I perceived that I could not do this by my own strength. I now awoke in a tremor.****** I again came into such a state that, whether asleep or awake, I was in a train of thought. I thought, "What can this mean? Has it been Christ, the Son of God whom I have seen? But it is sinful in me to doubt this." As we are, however, commanded to try the spirits, I reflected on everything; and from what had happened the previous night I perceived, that during the whole of that night I had been purified and encompassed and preserved by the Holy Spirit, and thus had been prepared for this purpose; and then [I reflected] that I had fallen on my face, and I thought of the words I had uttered, and considered that the prayer did not come from me, but that the words were put into my mouth, yet so that it was I who spoke, and further, that all was holy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 161 From all this I perceived that it was the Son of God Himself who had descended with such a noise, by which I had been prostrated on the floor; who made the prayer, and thereby Himself declared that He was Jesus. I prayed for grace, because I had so long entertained doubts on the subject, and because it had entered into my thoughts to demand a miracle, which I now found was unbecoming. Thereupon I began to pray, and prayed only for grace; more I could not utter; but afterwards I added to this prayer, and prayed that I might receive love, which is Jesus Christ's work, and not my own. In the mean time tremors often passed over me.*******

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See Note 162, i, F.

*** By Swedenborg's becoming "wide awake" is meant that his spiritual eyes were opened so that he could see into the spiritual world, where all those things happened which he relates.

**** This word means both bosom and lap.

***** The Swedish editor says here, "The time which had hitherto been accepted for Swedenborg's first revelation, viz. April 1745, in consequence of this notice has to be placed a whole year earlier, and the place where this revelation took place has to be changed from London to the Hague." As to the true date of the opening of Swedenborg's spiritual sight, see Note 168.

****** See Note 162, i, F.

******* See Note 162, i, F.

28. About day-break I fell asleep again, and then had continually in my thought, how Christ conjoins Himself to mankind; holy thoughts came, but they were of such a nature as to be unfathomable; for I cannot express with my pen the least part of those things which happened. I only know that I have had such thoughts.

29. I saw my father in another dress, which was almost reddish. He called me, and took hold of my arms, which were in short sleeves, but with cuffs at the end. He took both cuffs or ruffles, and tied them with my ribbons.--My having ruffles signifies that I am not among the clergy, but that I am and ought to be in a civil office.

Afterwards he asked me what I thought about this question: that a king had given leave to marry, and thus to change their condition, to thirty who had been ordained into the priesthood. I answered that I had thought and written something on such a subject; but that this has no connexion with it. But immediately afterwards I found that I could answer is accordance with my conscience, that it is not allowable for any one to change that condition or state into which he has entered, no matter what it may be. He said that he was of the same opinion. But I added that if the king had resolved upon this, the matter was settled. He said that he would give his vote in writing; if there are fifty [votes], the matter remains as it is (s blir derefter). I noticed as remarkable, the circumstance that I did not call him, My father, but My brother.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 162 I afterwards thought what was the reason of this, when it seemed to me that my father was dead, and that consequently he who was [i. e. appeared as] my father must have been my brother.

I must not forget that it also entered into my thoughts, that the Holy Spirit desired to lead me to Jesus, and present me to Him, as a work that had been prepared by Him,* and that I must not claim anything to myself; but that all is His, although of grace He appropriates it to us.

* See Note 165, i.

I then sang the hymn which I had selected, "Jesus is my best of friends," no. 245.*

* An English translation of this hymn will be found in Note 169.

30. This much have I learned thus far in spiritual things, that there is nothing for it but to humble oneself, and with all humility to desire nothing but the grace of Christ.* I strove from my own self to obtain love; but this is presumptuous: for when any one has God's grace, he leaves himself to Christ's pleasure, and acts according to His pleasure; a person is happiest when he is in God's grace.* With the humblest prayer I had to ask forgiveness before my conscience could be appeased; for before doing so, I was still in temptation. The Holy Spirit taught me all this, but I in my weak understanding passed over humility, which yet is the foundation of all.

* See Note 165, viii.

31. April 7 X 8. Throughout the whole night I felt as if I were going down deep by ladders and passing through various rooms; yet I was confident and felt safe, so that the descent was without any danger to me; in my dream also this verse occurred to me: "Depth below nor height above E'er shall hold my soul enticed," &c.*

* See hymn, "Jesus is my best of friends," Note 169.

32. It seemed to me afterwards as if I were with a number of others at a clergyman's to dinner. I paid about a louis-d'or for my meal, and thus more than I ought to have done. On taking my departure I had two vases of silver with me, which I had removed from the table.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 163 This troubled me, and I tried to send them back again; it seemed to me also as if I had some plan for doing so.-This, I believe, signifies that in temptation I paid my own (with God's grace), and more than I was obliged (God's grace*); but that from this temptation I have learned much in spiritual things, which are meant by the vases of silver** I intended to send back to the clergy-man, and indeed that for the glory of God we ought to make returns to the church at large in some form or other; this, it seems to me, will also perhaps be done.

* See Note 165, viii.

** See Note 151, xiii.

33. Afterwards I was with a very large company at another clergyman's, where, it seemed to me, I had been before. Upon alighting it seemed to me as if there were so many of us that the clergyman would be over-run; I did not like his being burdened by so great a number.--This means that at improper times I had many unruly thoughts, which were beyond my control; these were also represented by roving Poles and hussars who had appeared to me before; they seemed, however, to go away.*

* See Note 161, vi.

34. I was also in a temptation,* where thoughts invaded me which I could not control; nay they poured in so powerfully, that all my other thoughts were kept under, and full liberty was given them to resist the power of the Spirit, which leads in a different direction;** the infestation was, indeed, so strong that unless God's grace had been stronger, I must either have succumbed or become mad. During that time I could not direct my thoughts to the contemplation of Christ, whom I had seen for that brief moment (see no. 27). The action of the Spirit and its power affected me so, that I almost lost my senses.-My visit to the second clergyman was meant by all this. I can only compare this to a pair of scales, in one of which is our own will and our sinful nature, and in the other God's power.*** These our Lord disposes in temptation, so that they are in a state of equilibrium; as soon then as it is borne down on this side, He helps it up again.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 164 Such have I found to be the case, speaking in a natural manner; from which it follows that this is far from being our own power, for that draws the scale down, and is rather opposed to, than co-operating with the Spirit's power; and, consequently, it is entirely our Lord's work, which is thus disposed by Him.

* See Note 162, i E.

** See Note 165, iv.

*** See Note 165j, x.

35. I then found that things were reproduced in my thoughts, which had entered into them long before; and I saw confirmed thereby the truth of God's Word that there is not the least word or the least thought which God does not know, and for which we ourselves should not be responsible, were it not for God's grace.*

* See Note 165, viii.

36. This have I learned, that the only thing in this state--and I do not know any other--is, in all humility to thank God for His grace, and to pray for it, and to recognize our own unworthiness, and God's infinite grace.*

* See Note 165, viii.

37. It was wonderful that I could have at one and the same time two thoughts, which were quite distinct: one for myself who was occupied entirely by different thoughts, and at the same time the thoughts of the temptation, in such wise that nothing was able to drive them away. This kept me in such a state of captivity that I was at a loss whither to fly, for I carried them with me.

38. Afterwards, when various things occurred to me, of which I had thought long ago, and which had become fixed in my mind, it was just as if I had been told that I had found reasons for excusing myself--this also was a great temptation for me--or again reasons for attributing to myself the good that I had done, or rather that was done through me: but God's Spirit prevented even this, and caused me to find it otherwise.

This last [temptation]* was severer than the first, as it went to the innermost, and to resist it I received a stronger evidence of the Spirit; for at times I broke into a perspiration.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 165 What then arose in my mind had no longer the effect of condemning me; for I had a strong assurance that I had been forgiven; but the desire came to excuse myself, and make myself free. Very often I burst into tears, not of sorrow, but of inmost joy at our Lord's deigning to be so gracious to so unworthy a sinner; for the sum of all I found to be this, that the only thing needful is to cast oneself in all humility on our Lord's grace, to recognize one's own unworthiness, and to thank God in humility for His grace: for if there is a feeling of glorification contained in it, the tendency of which is towards our own honour-whether it is a glorification of God's grace or of anything else--such a feeling is impure.**

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See Note 165, viii.

40. While I was thinking, as is often the case, suppose some one should consider me as a saint, and on that account think highly of me; nay, suppose: as is done by some simple-minded people, he should not only revere but also adore [me] as one whom he considers a holy man or a saint; in this case I found that in the zeal in which I was, I was willing to inflict upon him the greatest possible pain, rather than that sin should be laid upon him. I saw also that I must entreat the Lord with the most earnest prayers, not to have any share in so damnable a sin, which would then be laid to my charge. For Christ, in whom dwells the fulness of the Godhead, must alone be addressed in prayer,* because He graciously accepts the greatest sinner, and does not take into account our unworthiness, wherefore we must not approach any except Him in prayer. He is omnipotent, and the only Mediator;** what He does on account of others who have been sanctified, is His concern, not ours.

* See Note 165, ii.

** See Note 165, i, and v.

41. I found that I was more unworthy than others and the greatest sinner, for this reason, that our Lord has granted me to penetrate by thought into certain things more deeply than many others; and the very source of sin lies in the thoughts I am carrying out; so that my sins have on that account a deeper foundation than those of many others; and in this I found my unworthiness and my sins greater than those of other men.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 166 For it is not sufficient to declare one's own unworthiness, since the heart may be far removed from such a declaration, and it may be a mere matter of the imagination; but actually to see that such is the case, is due to the grace of the Spirit.

42. Now, while I was in the spirit, I thought and strove by thought to attain a knowledge of how to avoid all that was impure; I noticed, however, that this intruded itself from the ground of the love of self, on all occasions* whenever anything was reflected upon; as, for instance, when any one did not regard me according to my own estimation of myself, I thought, Oh, if you only knew what grace I have, you would act differently; this then was not only impure, but originated in the love of self. At last I found this out, and entreated God's forgiveness, and I then wished that others also might have the same grace, as they perhaps either have had or will have. From this I observed clearly that there was still in me that same pernicious apple which has not yet been converted, and which is Adam's root and his hereditary sin.* Yes, and an infinite number of other roots of sin remain in me.

* See Note 165, vii.

43. I heard some one ask his neighbour at the table, whether any one could be melancholy who had an abundance of money. I reflected, and if it had been proper for me in company, or if the question had been addressed to me. I would have answered, "a person who has every thing in abundance, is not only subject to melancholy, but is even exposed to that higher kind of melancholy which belongs to the mind and soul, or to man's spirit which causes it. I wondered that the person could raise such a question. To this I can the better testify, as all that I can reasonably require has been bestowed upon me by God's grace in abundance. I can live plentifully on my annual income; I can carry out what I have in mind, and yet have a surplus. I can therefore bear witness that the sorrow or melancholy which arises from want of the necessaries of life, is of a lower and corporeal kind, and does not equal the other.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 167 (The power of the Spirit prevails in the one kind, but whether it does in the other I do not know, for it is possible that the other is intensified on mere bodily grounds. Still I will not go further into this subject).*

* The passage enclosed in parenthesis was evidently crossed out by the writer immediately after he had penned it.

44. I saw a bookshop, and immediately the thought struck me that my work would have more effect than that of others; yet I checked myself at once; for one serves another, and our Lord has more than a thousand ways by which to prepare a man, so that each and every book must be left to its own merits, as a means near or remote, according to the rational condition of every man. Still arrogance at once crops up: may God control it, for the power is in His hands!

45. I experienced so much of the Lord's grace, when I resolved to keep my thoughts in a state of purity, as to feel an inmost joy;* still this was accompanied by pain of body, which could not bear the heavenly joy of my soul, wherefore I commended myself most humbly to God's grace, that He would do with me according to His good pleasure. May God grant me humility to see my frailty, impurity, and unworthiness.

* See Note 162, ii.

46. All the while I was in society constantly as before, and no one could [observe] the least change in me; this was of God's grace*.... I was not allowed to mention the large measure of grace which had fallen to my lot; for I perceived that on the one hand it could serve no other purpose than to set people thinking about me either favourably or unfavourably, according to their disposition towards me; and, on the other hand, it would not be productive of any use, if the glorification of God's grace [served to encourage] my own self-love.**

* See Note 165, viii.

** This paragraph, according to a statement of the Swedish editor, is crossed out in the original, the pen having been drawn through each line. After a good deal of trouble a portion of the writing has been deciphered by him. The words in brackets have been supplied by the translator.

47. The best comparison I could make of myself was with a peasant elevated to power as a prince or king, so that he could have whatever his heart desired; and yet there was something in him which desired to teach him that he himself knew nothing.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 168 By this comparison, however, it is seen that it is Thy hand [O God] which causes this great joy. I was apprehensive, however, that he [the peasant] was not able to place himself in [the way of] this grace.

48. April 8 X 9. It seemed to me, as if I held a dog on my knees, which, to my astonishment, was able to talk, and ask after its former owner Swab.66A* It was of a blackish colour, and even kissed me.--I awoke, and entreated Christ's mercy for cherishing so much pride and arrogance, by which I flatter myself.

* See Note 161, i.

Afterwards it seemed to me that on my day of prayer, which was yesterday, many things had been packed up for the army.*

* That is, it had provided Swedenborg with states useful in his next temptations.

49. A young woman dressed in black then came in and said that I had to go to----. Whereupon she came behind me holding me so firmly along the whole back with her hands, that I could not move. I prayed some one standing by to help me, when he got her away; but I had no power to move my arm myself.--This had reference to the temptation on the previous day, and to my inability to do any good from myself. I then heard as if some one were whistling, when he [she?] went away, and I was seized with a tremor.*

* See Note 162, F.

50. Afterwards I saw some one in St. Peter's church going into the vault underneath, where Peter is lying. He was taken out, but it was said that another was hiding there.

It seemed to me as if I were at liberty to go in and out. May God lead me.

Afterwards I saw all my impurity, and recognized that I was unclean from head to foot.--I called on the mercy of Jesus Christ.

It then seemed to me that "I poor sinful creature" was brought before me. This [i. e. the prayer from the Swedish prayer-book containing this sentiment] I read the following day.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 169

51. April 9 X 10. The whole day of the 9th I spent in prayer, in songs of praise, in reading God's Word, and fasting; except in the morning when I was otherwise occupied, until the same kind of temptation came, and I was compelled to think on subjects contrary to my own will.

52. This night I slept very tranquilly. At three or four o'clock I awoke and lay awake, but in a kind of vision. I could look up and be observant whenever I chose, so that I was not otherwise they awake, and yet in the spirit there was an inward gladness which diffused itself over the whole body. All seemed in a wonderful and transcendent manner (p fwerswinnerligit sett) to approach and conspire (abouterade); to rise up as it were and nestle in infinitude as a centre, where Love itself was;* thence it seemed to extend itself around and thus down again. In this manner it moved in an incomprehensible circle [spire?] whose centre was Love, around and thus hither again; that Love moved towards and into a mortal body, so that I became filled with it. I likened that inward feeling of gladness to what is felt by a chaste husband who is in an actual state of love, and enjoys its supreme delight with his spouse. Such a supreme feeling of bliss was shed over my whole body, and indeed, for a long time, even during the whole time before I fell asleep, and after I awoke for a half, nay for a whole hour.** Now, when I was in the spirit and yet awake--for I could lift up my eyes and be awake--and when I came into the same state again, I saw and perceived that that supreme Love*** was the source of that inmost and real feeling of gladness; and that in proportion as I could be in that Love, as the same proportion I was in a state of bliss; but as soon as I came into another love which did not centre in it, I was beyond its influence. When there was thus an affection for self, or some other affection, which did not centre in that supreme Love, I was no longer in that state of gladness; a slight chill crept over me, I shivered and felt a pain, whence I found that that was the source of my pains sometimes, and also of that great pain and sorrow when the spirit is troubled; likewise when a person receives Christ at the communion in an unworthy manner this causes him in the end to be in eternal torments and constitutes hell; for the Spirit visits upon man such an unworthiness.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 170 From the state in which I was, I came still deeper into the spirit, and although I was awake, I could not control myself, but was seized with an irresistible impulse to throw myself on my face, to raise my hands, and pray, as before [see no. 27], about my unworthiness, and to ask with the deepest humility and reverence for grace, that I, who am the greatest of sinners, may receive forgiveness of sins. I then noticed that I was in a similar state to that in which I had been the night before; but more I could not see, as I was awake. I wondered at this, and it was then shown to me in the spirit, that a man in that condition is like one who has his head down and his feet up; and it occurred to me why Moses had to take off his shoes, when he was to approach the Holy One; and also why Christ washed the apostles' feet, and answered Peter that it is sufficient to mash the feet.*-Afterwards I perceived in the spirit that what proceeds from the centre itself which is Love, is the Holy Spirit,**** which is represented by water;***** for this was mentioned, and also aqua (water) or unda (a wave). In short, if a person is in such a state that he is not influenced by a love which centres in himself, but by one which centres in the common good, such as on earth or in the moral world represents love in the spiritual world; and if he is not in that love for the sake of himself or of society, but for the sake of Christ, whose love constitutes also the centre--if a person is in such a state, then he is in a right state; Christ is [then] the ultimate end, and the rest are mediate ends leading directly towards the ultimate end.*

* See Note 165, ii and iv.

** See Note 162, ii.

*** See Note 161, xii.

**** See Note 165, iv.

***** See Note 161, vii.

****** Compare Note 166, iv.

53. Afterwards I fell asleep, and saw one of my acquaintances sitting at a table; he saluted me, but I did not notice it at once, and before I returned his salutation he became offended and addressed some harsh words to me. I tried to excuse myself, and at last succeeded.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 171 I said, I am habitually engaged in thought, so that I do not observe when I am saluted, and sometimes pass my friends in the streets without noticing them. I appealed to an acquaintance who was present to bear witness to that, when he affirmed it; I added that no one was more desirous to be polite and humble than I (and may God grant that this may ever be so). This was on account of the previous night, when I indulged in thoughts different from what I ought to have done. May our Lord, in His infinite grace, excuse me. My friend, however, made no reply; whence it seemed that he was satisfied, as I thought.

54. April 10 X 11. I came into a low room where there were many people; but I looked only at a woman who was in black, but not ill-looking; she went far into a chamber, but I would not follow, though with her hand she beckoned me towards the door. Afterwards I went out, when I found myself several times stopped by a spectre which attached itself to me, covering the whole of my back; finally it disappeared. I came out, when a hideous spectre approached me and did the same; it was an ugly old man; at last I escaped from them.--These were my thoughts on the previous day, when I, indeed, looked upon myself as entirely unworthy, and thought that I would never be able to continue in this state during the whole of my life-time; nevertheless I comforted myself with this thought, that God is mighty in everything, and that His power was doing this; yet there was something in me, that prevented my submitting myself to God's grace as I ought to have done, thus suffering Him to do with me according to His good pleasure.

55. On stepping out, I saw many people sitting in a gallery, when, lo, a stream of water* came rushing down through the roof; it was so impetuous that it penetrated everything that was in its way. Some tried to close the opening so that no water might come in; others tried to escape that it might not reach them; others again dissipated the stream into drops, while some directed it outside the gallery.--This, I believe, meant that the power of the Holy Spirit* flowed into my body and thoughts; part of it I stopped up, from another part I sought to escape, and still another part I turned aside: for the people** signified my thoughts and my will.

* See Note 161, vii.

** See Note 161, vi.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 172

56. Afterwards I came out thence, and began in thought, in a certain way, to measure and divide into parts what proceeded from the centre to the circumference [see no. 52]. It seemed to be heaven; for there appeared afterwards a heavenly lustre.--I can, indeed, make guesses about this; but I am not allowed to look upon them as certain, because it concerns something in the future.

57. Whilst I was in the first struggle, I called on Jesus for help, and it ceased. I also folded my hands under my head, and then it did not come a second time. I was, nevertheless, in a tremor* when I awoke, and heard now and then a dull sound; but I do not know whence.**

* See Note 161, i, F

** See Note 162, i, E.

58. Afterwards, when awake, I began thinking whether all this was not mere phantasy; and I then noticed that my faith was vacillating. I therefore pressed my hands together, and prayed that I might be strengthened in faith, which also took place immediately. Again, when thoughts occurred to me about my being worthier than others, I prayed in like manner, whereupon these thoughts at once vanished; if, therefore; our Lord in the least withdraw His hand from any one, he is out of the true path, and also out of [a state of] faith, as has been manifestly the case with me.

59. I slept this night about eleven hours, and during the whole of the morning was in my usual state of internal gladness, which was, nevertheless, attended with a pang: this, I thought, arose from the power of the Spirit and my own unworthiness. At last, with God's help, I came into these thoughts, that we ought to be contented with everything which pleases the Lord, because it is for the Lord [and not for us] to say; end, further, that the Spirit is not resisted, when we receive from God the assurance that it is God's grace which does all things for our welfare:* for if we are God's, we must be delighted with whatever He pleases to do with His own; still me must ask the Lord for this, because not even the least thing is in our own power.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 173 For this the Lord gave me His grace. I reflected upon this, desiring to understand the reason why all this happens.** Yet this was sinful; for my thoughts ought not to have gone in that direction, but I ought to have prayed to the Lord for power to control them. It ought to be enough for us [to know] that it so pleases the Lord. In everything we ought only to call upon Him, pray to and thank Him, and with humility recognize our own unworthiness.

* See Note 165, viii.

** That is, why Swedenborg had to experience these peculiar states.

60. I am still weary in my body and mind; for I know nothing except my own unworthiness, and am in pain on account of being a wretched creature. I see by this knowledge that I am unworthy of the grace I have received.

61. I observed also that the stream of water which rushed down [cfr. no. 55] penetrated the clothes of some one, as he withdrew. It is possible that a drop of it reached me, and that it urges me on so; suppose the whole stream [had descended upon me]?

I therefore accepted the following creed: God's will be done; I am Thine and not mine.*

* This is crossed out in the original. See also no. 69.

God give His grace for this [work]; for it is not mine.

62. I learned that a person may be in spiritual anguish; even though he be assured by the Spirit that his sills are forgiven, and although he have the hope and confidence that he is in God's grace.

63. April 11 X 12. I dreamt during the whole night, yet I recollect only very little. It seemed to me as if I were instructed the whole night in many things which I do not remember. I was asleep for nearly eleven hours, and what I recollect seems to be this: 1. The substantial or essential points which one ought to pay attention to and to seek after were mentioned. 2. The thymus gland and succenturiate kidneys were mentioned.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 174 Of this I make the following explanation: As the thymus gland secretes the impure serum from the blood, and the renal glands or succenturiate kidneys remit the same in a purified condition into the blood,** such is the case with us, I believe, in a spiritual manner. 3. My sister Caisa*** appeared, who had done something wrong, and then lain down and screamed; when our mother came, she assumed quite a different expression and language.****--The explanation of this shall be given afterwards. 4. A clergyman was there who preached to a large congregation, and at the end spoke against another person--whether he mentioned his name or not I do not know. A man, however, rose and spoke against him, saying that it ought not to be so. I met them afterwards in a private company, and the question arising, it was said that the punishment for such a course was disgrace and a fine of three marks Swedish. The preacher did not seem to know that it was a punishable offence. It was said that one begins with what amounts to a fine of one mark Swedish, then two marks, &c.--This signifies that it is wrong to preach, or speak, or write against any one in particular, because this is a punishable offence and libelous, as it affects one's reputation and honour. 5. Afterwards my knees moved involuntarily, which perhaps signifies, that I have become somewhat humble; which also is the case and the effect of God's grace; for this I give thanks in the most humble manner.*****

* The thymus gland and its relation to the succenturiate kidneys or suprarenal capsules (glandul renales), are treated of by Swedenborg in the Regnum Animale, Latin Edition, Vol. II, no. 379, p. 225; English Edition, Vol. II, no. 441, p. 290. See Note 164, iv.

** See Regnum Animale, English Edition, Vol. II, p. 290, no. iii; Note 164, iv.

*** Catharine, see Note 5, C., and Document 9, Table IV, p. 91.

**** See Note 161, i.

***** See Note 161, xii, and Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

64. Afterwards I perceived in myself, and perhaps from point 3 in my dream, that in every particular thought, and even in that which we consider pure, an infinite quantity of sin and impurity is contained,* and likewise in every desire which enters from the body into the thoughts; these spring from great roots.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 175 Although, therefore, a thought may appear pure, it, nevertheless, is a fact that a person may think in a certain way from timidity, hypocrisy, and many other causes, as may also be traced out by an exploration of the thoughts; so that on this account man is so much the more unable to free himself from sin, and there is not a single thought which is not very much alloyed with uncleanness and impurity [compare no. 178]. It is therefore best that man should every hour and every moment acknowledge that he is deserving of the punishment of hell; but that God's grace and mercy which are in Jesus Christ overlook it [see Note 165, ii]. I have, indeed, observed that our whole will into which we are born, and which is ruled by the body and introduces thought, is opposed to the Spirit which does this;* wherefore there is a continual strife, and we can by no manner of means unite ourselves with the Spirit, which by grace is with us; and hence it is that we are dead to everything good, but to everything evil we are inclined from ourselves.** For this reason we must at all times acknowledge ourselves guilty of innumerable sins; because our Lord God knows all, and we only very little about them; we know only so much as enters into our thoughts, and only when it also enters into the actions do we become convinced of it.*** (It is also to be noticed--****)

* See Note 165, vii.

*That is, which conveys to us God's grace and mercy; see Note 165, vii.

** See Note 165, vii.

*** See Note 166, i.

**** These words are crossed out in the original.

65. April 12 X 13. I perceived that it is as I had also thought by the Spirit on the previous day, and as had been represented to me by some sort of luminous spiritual writing,* viz. that the will has most to say in the understanding;** for on inhaling the breath the thoughts press in from the body, and on exhaling it they are as it were driven out or rectified; so that the very thoughts have their alternate play like the respiration of the lungs. The inhalation of the breath belongs to the will, and its exhalation to nature, and at each respiration the thoughts also undergo their changes, so that when wicked thoughts entered the mind, I had only to hold in the breath, whereupon they ceased.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 176 From this the reason may be seen why in deep thought the lungs are kept in a state of equilibrium and at rest, and breathe more naturally, and why the breath is then inhaled more rapidly than exhaled, just the reverse of what is usually the case; likewise, why, when a person is in a state of ecstasy and the breath is retained, the thoughts are as it were absent; which is also the case in sleep, when both the inhalation and exhalation belong to nature, and when that is represented which flows in from above. The same may be also deduced from the brain, where all the inmost organs together with the brain itself are in a state of expansion during inhalation, and where the thoughts originate and have their course.***

* See Note 161, i, B, and G.

** See Note 166, ii.

*** A summary of the action of the will and of nature in respiration is given by Swedenborg in the Regnum Animale, Latin Edition, Vol. II, no. 346, pp. 162, 163; English Edition, Vol. II, no. 410, p. 209 (u). This part he probably saw through the press at the time; while the part which he was preparing for the press was the chapter on the thymus gland, which he mentions in no. 63, (2). Still it is possible that during the day he was engaged on the chapter treating of the diaphragm, which follows that on the thymus gland, and where in the Latin Edition, no. 389, note I (English Edition, no. 451, note I, p. 318) he likewise discusses the action of the will and nature in respiration. See Note 166, iii.

66. Afterwards I arrived at a place where amazingly large and high wind-mills were going at a frightful speed. I came then into darkness, so that I crept on the ground, being afraid of some of the sails taking hold of, and thus killing me; I really got beneath a sail, which then stopped, and I brought myself into such a position that the sail helped me.--On the previous day I had had conflicting thoughts, which were signified by the sails of the mill;* so that at times I was at a loss which way to turn. With God's grace, however, they were tempered, and I escaped safe and sound; wherefore, glory and honour be to God, who has respect for my weakness!

* See Note 161, xii.

67. Afterwards it seemed to me as if I was in company with some, who appeared desirous of making gold; but they saw that they had to climb up, which they were unable to do, and that otherwise it was impossible for them to make gold. This continued for some time, until at last I was together with two, who, nevertheless, persisted in climbing up, although our Lord was not with them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 177 I said that this could not be done, and then went up before them; I had a rope and pulled, and I then perceived that there was something beneath which pulled strongly against me, and at last I saw that it was a man against whom I struggled, and whom I thus brought up. I was glad then and told them it was as I had said.--The signification of this I think is, that gold means that which is good;* that aurum (gold), consequently, is that which is good and well-pleasing to God; in order to receive it we must climb up to Him, and this does not lie in our power, even though we suppose that we are able to do it from our own strength;** we then also find that there is some one who pulls strongly in an opposite direction; but ultimately the victory is gained through God's grace.***

* See Note 161, ix.

** See Note 165, vii.

*** See Note 165, viii.

68. After this I was for a long time in the same thought, which gradually appeared in a reddish light; by which was signified the presence of God's grace in that thought.* The sum and substance of this was, that we must really do what is good and execute it with God's grace and in the faith granted by God,** and that this is what is meant by making gold;*** for in that case we receive from our Lord everything that we need, and what is useful to us. This was represented to me very powerfully, viz. that that which is good must be carried into effect, and that in this lay [the meaning of] gold.

* See Note 161, vii.

** See Note 165, x.

*** See Note 161, ix.

69. After getting up, I was in great fear of our Lord. I was, as it were, in a state of cold, and at every least wink or thought which caused me to fear, I was seized with a chill. God's grace thus showed me that I had to strive after salvation amid fear and trembling.* But I have for my motto: God's will be done; I am Thine and not mine [see no. 6;]; as therefore I have given myself from myself to the Lord, He may dispose of me after His own pleasure.**

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 178 In the body there seemed to be something of discontent, but in the spirit joy;*** for the grace of our Lord does this. May God strengthen me therein!

* See Note 165, x.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 134.

*** See Note 162, ii.

70. I was continually in a state of combat between thoughts which were antagonistic to one another. I pray Thee, O Almighty God, that Thou wouldst grant me the grace of being Thine and not mine. Pardon my saying that I am Thine and not mine; it is God's and not my privilege to say so. I pray for the grace of being Thine, and of slot being left to myself.

April 13 X 14. 71. It seemed to me as if the grace of the Spirit was working in me during the whole night. I saw my sister Hedwig,5 with whom I would have nothing to do*-- This signifies that I must not touch the onomia [Regni] Animalis,** but leave it.

* See Note 161, i, C.

** That is, that Swedenborg must not go on with the method which had followed in this work; but that he must follow that according to which he had worked out the Regnum Animale.

72. It seemed afterwards that when the time was passing slowly, she first said to her children, go out and lock [the house], and then that they might play at backgammon or cards; whereupon they sat down and beguiled their time with it, and likewise by sitting down to a meal.--This, I believe, signifies that there is nothing wrong in this, if it is done in the right [spirit]--*

* See Note 161, iv, F.

73. During the whole day I was in conflicting thought, which tried to destroy that which was of the Spirit by abusive language. I found therefore that the temptation was very strong.* By the grace of the Spirit I was led to fix my thoughts on a piece of wood or a tree, then on the cross of Christ, and on the crucified Christ; and whenever I did so the other thoughts fell down flat, as of their own accord. I bore down this thought so strongly upon the other, that it seemed to me I should crush the tempter with the cross, and drive him away; when I was relieved for a time. Afterwards I had to fix my thoughts upon it so intently, that whenever it escaped from them and my interior vision, I fell into temptation thoughts.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 179 God be praised who gave me this weapon! May God graciously keep me in it, that I may have my crucified Saviour constantly before my eyes. For I dared not look upon my Jesus whom I have seen,** because I am an unworthy sinner; but I ought rather to fall upon my face, and it is Jesus who then takes me up to Himself, that I may see Him. For this reason I look upon the crucified Christ.

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See no. 27.

74. April 14 X 15.       It seemed to me as if I were racing down the stairs, lightly touching each step; I came down safely and without danger. A voice came from my dear father, "You are frightening people thus, Emanuel!" He said it was wrong, but he would let it pass.--The reason of this was, that I had been too bold yesterday in the use of the cross of Christ; but by God's grace I came through without danger.

75. I climbed up on a platform [jay klengde mig p en lafwe], and broke off the neck of a bottle; some thick stuff came out, covering the floor upon which it flowed down.--This, I believe, means that yesterday a good deal of evil was rooted out of my thought. I sat down upon that which was written,* showing what I have still to do.

* Probably his MS. for the printer.

76. I heard a bear growling, but did not see it. I dared not remain in the upper story of the house, because a dead carcase was there which it might scent. I therefore came down into the room of Dr. Morus,l66* and shut the windows.--This signifies temptation, it may be to greed and also to something else; likewise, that I am progressing in my anatomical speculations.'

* The Swedish editor has Dr. Morsus, but he agrees with the editor of these Documents, that the original which is very difficult to make out bears also the reading of Morus; the letter being written by Swedenborg, thus bearing a similarity to the written character of s.
'See Note 161, i.

77. Doctor Morus seemed to court a pretty maiden, and obtained her consent; he had permission to take her where he pleased. I jested with her, saying that she liked to say Yes, and the like.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 180 She was a handsome maiden, and grew taller and more beautiful.--The meaning is, that I was to inform myself about the muscles and explore them.*

* Swedenborg treats of the muscles in the Regnum Animale, throughout the whole of the chapter on the diaphragm; especially in the Latin Edition, nos. 387-390, English Edition, nos. 449-453. He also wrote a special treatise on the muscles about that time, which is contained in Codex 58 of his MSS., leaves 139 to 137, and which is photo-lithographed in Vol. VI of his MSS., pages 13 to 25. See Note 161, iv, and Note 164, iv.

78. I had a preternaturally good and long sleep for twelve hours. On awaking I had the crucifixion of Jesus and His cross before my eyes. The Spirit came with its heavenly and almost ecstatic life in so high a degree, and permitted me, as it were, to rise higher and higher in it, that if I had ascended still higher, I should have been dissolved in this real life of joy.*

* See Note 162, ii.

79. It then appeared to me, in the spirit, that I had gone too far; that I had embraced in my thoughts Christ on the cross, when I had kissed his feet, and afterwards moved to a distance, falling on my knees and praying before Him crucified: it seemed as if the sins of my weakness were forgiven, whenever I did this. It occurred to me that I might have Him before the eyes of my body in an image; but I found that such would be far from right, and, indeed, a great sin.

80. April 15 X 16. It seemed to me as if I were climbing up a ladder front a great deep; others, women, came after me.* I stopped, and frightened them purposely, and then went up. A green sward received me, where I lay down. The others came after me, they were women, and lay clown beside me; one was young, and the other a little older. I kissed the hands of both, and did not know which of the two I should love.*--Those who, finally, came up with me, and whom I met, saluted, and received again, were my thoughts and my mental occupation (ouvrage d'esprit), which are of two kinds.**

* See Note 161, iv, A, B.

** See no. 85, (1).

81. Afterwards I came to a place where many men* were assembled; a great number of handsome young people were collected in a crowd in one spot; fresh numbers joined them, among them Henning Gyllenborg170** on horseback; I went to meet him, kissed him, and stood by him.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 181 The meaning of this is, that I come back again to the things of my memory and imagination,*** and salute them; consequently that I return to the upper and lower faculties.****

* See Note 161, vi.

** See Note 161, ii.

*** See Note 161, vi.

**** By the two faculties, the upper and the lower, Swedenborg means here those of the memory and the imagination. The relations between these and the supreme faculty of thought are described by him in the Epilogue to Volume II of the Regnum Animale, Latin Edition, no. 398, p. 270, and English Edition, no: 460, p. 348, especially in Note i; see Note 164, iv.

82. Afterwards I returned, and was at home in my own house. I was visited by many people. I knew I had hidden away a pretty little woman* and a lad, and I kept them hidden. There was otherwise but a poor store of provisions in a heap. I was unwilling to get out my plate, on which I was to have a collation; neither was I willing to lead them into an interior gorgeous room, which was well furnished.--This signifies that I have come home to myself again, having acquired that knowledge which is now written;** and that in time perhaps I shall make use of it, bring out the silver plate, and lead people into the handsome apartment.

* See Note 161, iv.

** Swedenborg seems to have finished here the manuscript for Vol II. of the Regnum Animale, which is all that he printed at the Hague.

83. It seemed to me, as if I were accusing some one, but I do not recollect whom; in the end, however, I crossed out and excused something; since the person himself had said it was so; the words, however, were buried.--This means that I accused, and again excused myself, because I confessed all myself.

84. The word Nicolaitan, or Nicolaus Nicolai (Nicholas of Nicholas) was mentioned.--I do not know whether this means my new name.

The most singular thing is, that I now represent the inner man, and, as it were, another than myself; that I visit my own thoughts, frighten them, i. e. the things of my memory; that I accuse another.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 182 This shows that matters are changed now; and that I represent the inner man, who is opposed to another [i. e. the external man]. For I prayed to God that I might not be my own, but that God might please to let me be His. This has now lasted for twenty-one days.

85. I have since found that most of this has a different meaning: 1. The two women* signified, that I would rather be in philosophical than in spiritual studies; that this, consequently, rather exhibited my own inclination. 2. My kissing Henning Gyllenborg, and seeing so many people,** signified that I not only was delighted at being in the world, but also inclined to boast of my work. 3. Nicolaus Nicolai*** was a philosopher who every year sent leaves of bread to Augustus; this signified first of all, that I considered it my duty to be again reconciled to our Lord, since in spiritual things I am a stinking corpse.**** On this account I went to our ambassador Preis171 and he called on Pastor Pombo, that I might receive anew the Lord's Supper, which was also granted. I met him with the ambassador and went in with him; this was our Lord's providence. The same day I dined with Ambassador Preis, but had no appetite.

* See no. 80.

** See no. 81.

*** See no. 84.

**** See Note 165, vii.

86. April 17. I received the Lord's Supper at the house of Pastor Pombo.

87. April 17 X 18. I had fearful dreams. I dreamt how the executioner roasted the heads which he had struck off; and how for a long time he put the roasted heads one after another into an empty stove, which never was filled; these were said to be his food. The executioner was a tall woman who laughed, and had a little girl with her.

88. Afterwards I dreamt how the Evil One led me into various deep places, and bound me. I cannot remember it all. Being thus tied, I was cast into hell.*

* See Note 162, i, E.

89. A great procession was to take place from which I was excluded; I was to have come away from it. Yet I insisted on making my way there, and sat down, but was advised to go away.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 183 I went. I nevertheless had another place where I could see the procession, which had not yet come.

90. As I am certain, however, that God grants His grace and mercy to all poor sinners, who are willing to be converted, and who with unshaken faith take refuge in His inconceivable mercy and the merit of the Saviour Jesus Christ,* so also I feel assured of His grace, and leave myself to His protection, since I believe most firmly that I have received forgiveness of my sins.** This is my consolation, which may God for the sake of Jesus Christ*** strengthen.

* See Note 165, vi.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

*** See Note 165, i.

91. I was this day at intervals in interior anxiety, and at times in a state of despair; still I was assured of the forgiveness of my sins. In consequence of this a cold sweat (en stark pers) sometimes broke out on me until 10 o'clock, when with God's help I fell asleep.* A voice then seemed to say to me that some command would be given me from within. I slept for an hour and a half; although in the night I had slept for more than ten hours. With God's grace I had a preternatural sleep; and this has been the case now for an entire half year.**

* See Note 162, i, E.

** From this it would seem that Swedenborg came into this state about the middle of October 1743.

92. April 18 X 19. It seemed to me as if we were labouring a long time to bring in a box which contained precious things; the time, indeed, was so long, that it reminded one of Troy;* they persevered with it, and at last removed the part below. It was then brought in in triumph, and they kept on sawing and sawing.--This shows how we must labour in order to gain heaven.**

* Swedenborg alludes here to the wooden horse which was with great difficulty dragged inside the walls of Troy.

** See Note 165, x.

93. I seemed to have a plain match with me, but at home a precious one, which I was not willing to exchange for one of gold.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 184 This signifies that I shall perhaps obtain knowledge of a noble kind, upon which I may expend my time.

94. My lower extremities (nedwid) seemed to be wrapped in several folds of blanket, which were wound around in various ways; and just then came a -- -- This means that I continue to be protected so as to keep in the right direction.

95. There was a very well-trained dog, of a dark brown colour, which followed me. Whenever any reptile came, the dog raised itself up; when we approached a water, it went in, to explore its depth.-This means perhaps Tobit's dog.

96. I saw in a window a strange but lively animal of a dark brown colour; it rushed in through another window. What it had on its back was rubbed off, and was changed into a handkerchief. I examined it and found it to be small, but could not show it to any one else. It was in the interior of a chemist's shop. I asked whether I should shoot it.--This signifies that I am to be instructed in something which will be of use in curing, and in other things.

Afterwards it seemed that it was shown to me, that I should be told or given to understand when I went wrong.

97. I saw Mr. Knig* and Prof. Winbom172 coming; i. e. I was going to live with them; on week-days, with those who are not Christians: for Knig was said not to be a Christian. By Winbom's coming and going were signified the Sundays.**

* The Swedish Agent Johann Frederic Knig at Hamburg; see Document 206, p. 82; and Document 207, p. 132.

** See Note 161, i.

98. The same day I was somewhat disturbed in mind, as I could not control the thoughts, which flowed in against my will both in a negative and an affirmative form.* I was at Divine service, where I noticed that thoughts on matters of faith, respecting Christ, His merit and the like, even though they be entirely favourable and confirmatory, still cause a certain disquietude, and give rise to opposing thoughts which cannot be resisted, whenever man tries to believe from his own understanding, and not from the Lord's grace.**

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 185 At last it was granted me by the grace of the Spirit to receive faith without reasoning upon it, and thus to be assured in respect to it; I then saw, as it were, below me my own thoughts, by which faith was confirmed; I laughed in my mind at them, but still more at those by which they were impugned and opposed. Faith appeared to be far above the thoughts of my understanding.** Then only I got peace: May God strengthen me in it! For it is His work, and mine so much the less, as my thoughts, and indeed the best of them, destroy more than they are able to promote. Man smiles at himself, both when he thinks in opposition to faith, and when he desires with his understanding to confirm what he believes. It is therefore a higher state--I am uncertain whether it is not the highest--when man, by grace, no longer mixes up his understanding in matters of faith although it appears as if the Lord with certain persons permits the understanding to precede such states of assurance in respect to things which concern the understanding. "Blessed are they who believe and do not see."** This I have clearly written in the Prologue, nos. 21, 22;*** yet of my own self I could never have discovered this or arrived at its knowledge; but God's grace has wrought this, I being unconscious of it; afterwards, however, I perceived it from the very effect and the change in my whole interior being. This, therefore, is God's grace and His work, and to Him alone belongs eternal glory.**** From this I see how difficult it is for the learned, more indeed than for the unlearned, to arrive at such a faith, and consequently to conquer themselves [to such a degree] that they are able to smile at themselves:***** for man's worship of his own understanding must first of all be abolished and overthrown; and this is God's work and not man's. It is also God's work for man to continue in that state.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 186 Faith is in this wise separated from our understanding, and resides above it. This is pure faith; the other, so long as it is mixed up with our own understanding, is impure. Man's understanding must be put in bonds and under the government of faith.****** The ground of faith, however, must be this, that He who has spoken it is God over all and Truth itself. That we must become like little children must, it seems, be understood in this sense.******* Much of what I have experienced agrees with this, perhaps also the roasting of so many heads, which were the food of the Evil One, and their being thrown into a stove.********

* See Note 162, i. e.

** See Note 165, xi, 8.

*** The Prologue to the Regnum Animale, English Edition, Vol. I. pp. 13, 14.

**** See Note 165, viii.

***** See Note 165, ix, A, and Note 166, i.

****** See Note 165, ix, A.

******* See Note 161, vi.

******** See no. 87.

99. That confirmations also obscure faith, may be seen from this consideration, that the understanding never goes beyond mere probabilities, and thus is constantly engaged, as it were, in trying major and minor terms.* On this account the confirmations of our own understanding are always subject to doubt, by which the light of faith is darkened.** Faith, consequently, is purely God's gift, and is received by man when he lives according to the commandments of God, and when he continually prays to God for it.***

* See Note 166, i.

** See Note 165, xi, 8.

*** See Note 165, ix, B, and x.

100. April 19 X 20. I had a different kind of sleep altogether; I dreamt much, and afterwards a tremor came over me;* yet I could not bring anything to my remembrance, for each time I tried it escaped me.

* See Note 162, i, F.

101. I clasped my hands, and on awaking it seemed to me as if they were pressed together by a hand or finger.-This means, with God's help, that our Lord has heard my prayers.

102. Afterwards I was in vision, which is neither a state of sleep, nor of wakefulness, nor of ecstasy.* It was represented to me that King Charles [XII]3** the first time fought in vain; but that afterwards in his second battle against the Saxons he was victorious, and covered with blood.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 187 Still later the Muses (Camen) also were victorious.--This signifies that with God's grace I conquered in the strife, and that the blood and merit of Jesus helped me;*** further, that in my studies also I shall reach the end I have proposed to myself.

* See Note 162, i, C.

** See Note 161, v.

*** See Note 165, vi.

103. I then arose, full of God (en hel Gud). God be thanked and praised! I do not will to be my own; I am certain of it, and believe that Thou, O God, lettest me be Thine, all my life long, and that Thou dost not take away Thy Holy Spirit from me, which strengthens and upholds me.

104. This day I was in most severe temptation* so that whenever I thought of Jesus Christ, ungodly thoughts immediately pressed in, which I could not control as I wished. I beat myself. Yet I can affirm, that I never was of better courage than to-day, and that I was not in the least faint-hearted and pained as on previous days, although the temptation was most severe. The reason is, that our Lord has given me this strong faith and confidence, that He helps me for the sake of Jesus Christ** and according to His own promise; so that I then experienced what effect such faith has.

* See Note 162, i, E.

** See Note 165, i.

105. I was also possessed of such courage, and was so incensed against Satan, that I desired to slay him with the weapon of faith. Hence may be seen what effect the right kind of faith has, without being reasoned out and without being strengthened by man's reasoning.* Yet this is God's grace alone. If this had happened before, I should, without doubt, have been faint-hearted. I was, nevertheless, afraid I might have offended our Lord by thus striving, as it were, to set myself free; wherefore I asked His forgiveness with all the humility of which I was capable.--This most probably was signified by Charles XII being all covered with blood.**

* See Note 165, ix, A.

** See no. 102.

106. April 21 x 22. It appeared to me as if I had gone astray in the dark, and had not gone out with the others. I was keeping by the walls, and at last came to a handsome house, where there were some people who wondered at my coming that way.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 188 They came to meet me, and told me that this was not the way. I said that in the hall (i wind) perhaps there was an opening this way; which they denied.--This means that I had gone most fearfully astray on the previous day.

107. There was a great dog which came under the cover where I was lying, and licked my throat. I was afraid it would bite me; but this but this did not happen, and I was told that it would not bite me.--This signifies the incidental thoughts which I had, and that I was precluded from thinking on what is holy.

108. Afterwards I was with some actors. Some one said that a Swede had come to visit me. We drove in. A large staircase was got ready for him. It was a dog wrapt up, with a pup which it was suckling.-My awful thoughts were signified thereby. The dog was fastened to a measuring rod, or something like it, and would not go away; in another room was at last torn off.--This means that I am freed from them.

109. It appeared to me in vision as if something were torn asunder in the air; which probably means that my conflicting thoughts are to be torn apart.

Upon awaking I heard the word: alt nd (all is grace); by which is signified that all that has happened is grace,* and for the best.

               *See Note 165, viii.

110. Afterwards, because it seemed to me I was so far separated from God that I could not yet think of Him in a sufficiently vivid manner (s lefvande), I came into a state of doubt whether I should not direct my journey homewards; a crowd of involved reasons [then] came, and my body was seized with a tremor.* Yet I gathered courage and perceived that I had come [to Holland] to do that which was best of all, and that I had received a talent for the promotion of God's glory; I saw that all had helped together to this end; that the Spirit had been with me from my youth for this very purpose;** wherefore I considered myself unworthy of life, unless, I followed the straight direction.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 189 I then smiled at the other seducing thoughts; and thus at luxury, riches, and distinction, which I had pursued. All these I saw to be vain; and I discovered that he who is without them, and is contented, is happier than he who possesses them. I therefore smiled at all arguments by which I might be confirmed; and with God's help made a resolution. May God grant His help.

* See Note 162, i, F.

** See Introduction to Document 208 p. 139.

111. It seemed to me as if I heard a hen cackle, as happens immediately after it lays an egg.

I further noticed that faith is a sure confidence which is received from God, which, nevertheless, consists in every man's acting according to his talent for doing good to his neighbour, and continually more and more; that a man must do so from faith, because God has so ordered it, and must not reason any more about it, but do the work of love from obedience to faith, even though this be opposed to the lusts of the body and its persuasions.* Wherefore faith without works is not the right kind of faith.** A man must in reality forsake himself.

* See Note 165, x.

** See Note 165, ix, B.

112. April 22 x 23. I had depressing dreams about dogs that were said to be my countrymen, and which licked my neck, but without biting; besides other dreams *** * In the morning awful thoughts haunted me, just as on the preceding day, viz. that the Evil One had taken possession of me; yet with the consolation that he was without, and that I would soon be relieved. While I had the most damnable thoughts, the worst that possibly could be, Jesus Christ was presented vividly before my internal sight; and the operation of the Holy Spirit came over me, from which I knew that the devil was gone. On the following day also I was in a state of infestation, in conflicting thoughts, and in strife. In the afternoon I was mostly in a tranquil state, and thought of God, though engaged in worldly things. I was then travelling to Leyden.

* See note 161, iv, F.

113. April 23 x 24, in Leyden. It seemed to me as if I were put to flight by a woman, who drove me into the sea, and upwards [ochop]; at last I struck heras hard as I could with a plate on the forehead, and pinched her face; so that she seemed to be conquered.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 190 These were my infestations, and the struggle with my thoughts, which I had vanquished.

114. It seemed as if the words interiorescit (he becomes more interior), integratur (he is being made whole) were pronounced.--This means that I am being inwardly purified by means of my infestations.

Afterwards something holy was dictated to me during the whole night; the concluding words were sacrarium et sanctuarium; when I found myself in company with a woman* whom I loved ***--This signifies extreme affection for what is holy; for all love derives thence its origin***

* See Note 161, iv, B.

115. Afterwards I slept a little, and it appeared to me as if a quantity of oil mixed with mustard was floating about.--This probably denotes the state of my life in future; that there will be joy in it mixed with adversity; or perhaps it means a medicine intended for me.

This took place in Leyden on the morning of April 24.

116. April 24 x 25, in Amsterdam. During the whole night, for about eleven hours, I lay in a strange trance; [I know not] whether I was asleep or awake. I knew all that I dreamt, but my thoughts were kept bound, which at times produced perspiration. I cannot describe the nature of the sleep, during which my double [conflicting] thoughts were as it were severed, or rent apart. Among other things I dreamt that I spoke several times with King Charles XII.,* and that he spoke with me in broken French, which I did not understand; at which I wondered. Even when I conversed with others, and thought he did not hear me, he was close by, so that I blushed at what I said.--This signifies that God speaks with me, and that I comprehend only the least portion of what he says, because it is in representations, of which I understand as yet but very little;** and, further, that He hears and perceives everything that is spoken, and every thought that any one entertains.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 191 It is also most certain that not a single thought escapes from any man which He does not see; in fact He sees every thing; He sees [in me] a thousand times more than I see myself.

* See Note 161, v.

** See Note 161, i, A.

117. April 25 X 26.* It seemed as if women and men were sitting in a ship, ready to start off. One was holding my dog,** which I took from him. He showed me the way home into a beautiful room where there was some wine.--This perhaps means that I should send my work over to England; and that I was to be taken somewhere to-day where I should enjoy myself; which also took place at H. Hinr. Posch.***

* This date is crossed out in the original.

** The original is either hud (skin) or hund (dog).

*** The Swedish editor instead of Posch, suggests Pasch, which is a Swedish name.

118. April 25 X 26, at the Hague. I enjoyed a good, refreshing sleep for about eleven hours, during which I saw several representations. It appeared to me as if a married woman was pursuing me, but I was saved.--This signifies that the Lord saves me from temptations and persecutions.

119. A married woman desired to have me, but I liked an unmarried one; whereat the former became angry and persecuted me. I, nevertheless, obtained the unmarried one,* in whose company I was, and whom I loved.--This probably means my thoughts.

* See Note 161, iv.

120. There was a woman who owned a large and fine estate;* I was to marry her, and we strolled over her possessions. It was piety and, I believe, wisdom* who owned this property. I was in her company and loved her in the usual way,** which seemed to be in the place of marriage itself.

* See Note 161, iv, A.

** See Note 161, iv, B.

121. It was also represented to me in a certain manner that I was not to contaminate myself by reading other books treating on theology and similar subjects; because all this I have from the Word of God and the Holy Spirit.*

* See Note 162, iv.

122. April 28 x 29. Last night it seemed to me as if I saw King Charles XII., to whom I had previously dedicated my work; but now it seemed to me as if he had risen from the dead; and as if I were going out to dedicate [my work] to him as to any other.

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123. I came out of a certain way, which was a cross-way. I was directed to go up [a certain eminence], but it seemed to me as if it were only for a few days, wherefore I went back again to the plain, where there were many people. I desired to go away, but was very much pushed about.

124. I gave some fruits to a gardener to sell. He sold them, and returned me two carolins, but it was said that he had retained for himself thirteen dalers; about which I did not trouble myself.

125. *** I saw a fat and red woman who showed me something repulsive.* I would have nothing to do with her.

* See Note 161, iv, C, F.

126. All this, it seems to me, represents that I must employ my remaining time in writing upon that which is higher, and not upon worldly things which are far below; and, indeed, that I must write about that which concerns the very centre of all, and that which concerns Christ.* May God be so gracious as to enlighten me respecting my duty; for I am still in some obscurity as to the direction whither I am to turn.

* See Introduction to Document 208, p. 139.

127. Some one, it seemed, wrote something short to King Frederic;4 he observed that it was short, and gave several orders to a person, who first was a woman and afterwards a small man, to worry the writer in various ways with love-intrigues and the like. They did their best, but I saw that they could not do him any harm or injury. He said that now between the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh day (so many days had passed since my temptation) he would borrow a great deal and go to heaven, and that he would not pay those from whom he borrowed. This I told to Swab [either Anders or Anton, see Note 66] that he should report it to the King.--This seems to signify, that if I go on with the other [work] which I have proposed to myself, I shall have borrowed from the spiritual with which to go to heaven, which I am unwilling to repay until the very last.

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128. April 30 X May 1. I saw some one on guard armed with a sword; the sword was pointed and sharp; and he had something stuck on his coat-sleeves. I was in danger from him; for I saw that he was intoxicated, and, consequently, might do harm.--This signifies that on the previous day I had drunk more than I ought, which is not of the spirit, but of the flesh, and thus sinful.

129. Afterwards, it seemed to me, I was in company with my deceased brother Eliezer,* who was attacked by a boar, which laid hold of him and bit him; I tried to drag the animal down with a hook, but could not. Afterwards I went up and saw that he was lying between two boars, which were eating his head. I could not get any one to help him; I ran past.--This denotes, I believe, that on the previous day, I had indulged my appetite and partaken too freely of the necessaries of life, which is also a work of the flesh, and not of the spirit. For such is the life of swine, which are forbidden by Paul; of such a nature are the so-called feasts (comessationes).

* See Note 161, ii.              

130. On the following day I was more on my guard, but I fell into a somewhat strong temptation.* At the idea that henceforth I should apply force to my appetite, I came into a strange condition, and as it were into a state of chagrin; yet I was soon relieved from it, after praying and singing a hymn; especially when I would no longer be my own, but live as a new creature in Christ.

* See Note 162, i, E.

131. Afterwards several days in succession I was generally for a few hours in spiritual anxiety, without being able to tell the cause; although I seemed to be assured of God's grace. In the afternoons, however, I was in a state of great happiness and spiritual peace.

132. On leaving the Hague in the "treckschuyt" for the land of the Meuse (Marslandzskuten),* which was on the thirteenth of May, it seemed to me that my brother Jesper52** was put in prison on my account, and also another person.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 194 I had put something into a carriage and imported it, for which, it seemed to me, I was responsible. The judges by whom he was to be judged came in, holding in their hands two papers covered with writing. In the mean time I saw birds* which came flying towards me; these I struck on the neck with a sharp knife, so that they died. The judges afterwards came and released my brother Jesper, whom I then kissed for joy.--This signifies that my thoughts,* had been running wild, but with the Spirit's help I killed them; and on that account was declared free.

* The Swedish editor suggests Maaslandskuiten, treckschuit frn Maasland, the "treckschuyt" from the land of the Maas or Meuse.

** See Note 161, xi.

133. On my arrival in England by Harwich (Harderwick) I slept only a few hours, when much appeared to me which seemed to concern my work here. This took place on May 4 X 5, according to the English calendar.*

* The Calendar as improved by Pope Gregory XIII was not introduced into England until 1762, wherefore upon arriving in England Swedenborg found himself thrown back twelve days. As we see from no. 132 he left the Hague on May 13, and he arrived in England in reality on the 16th.

(a) [It seemed to me] as if I had lost a bank-bill, and the finder got only nine stivers for it. The same was the case with another who found a similar note, and which was purchased likewise for only nine stivers. I then said in jest that it was puritanism (pietasteri).--By this is probably shown of what quality people are in England, part of them honest, part dishonest.

134. (b) There were some who admired my engravings, which were well done. They desired to inspect my first sketches, to see whether I had been able to sketch them in the same way in which they were finished.--This apparently means that my work is approved, and that people believe that I possess the ability to do it.

135. (c) A little letter came into my hands for which I paid nine stivers. On opening it a large book with blank paper was contained in it; in the middle of it were many beautiful drawings; the rest consisted of blank paper. A woman was sitting at my left hand;* she came round to my right, and turned over the leaves, when the drawings came out.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 195 It seemed to me that the meaning of the letter was that in England I should order a number of such, designs or patterns to be drawn. The woman had a thick neck, and was bare both sides down to the feet; her skin was bright as if it had been polished, and on her thumbs was a miniature painting.--This apparently signifies that with God's help I shall execute many handsome designs in my work; and that henceforth speculation, which has hitherto been a posteriori, will change into a priori;** this seemed to be signified by the change of position.

* See Note 161, iv.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

136. (D) It seemed to me as if I had been ordered on a commission with Bergenstjerna,125* money being granted for the purpose. The commission, with which I was very much pleased, was it seemed to me to be in Sicily; yet I was to be on my guard there against scorpions.--This probably means that, after my work is done, I shall receive something else as a commission, which perhaps will have to be carried on in some other place; perhaps also it means that the commission will be on some other matter.

* See Note 161, i.

137. May 5 X 6 [old style]. In London I was beaten by a big man, which I bore patiently. Then I had to sit on a horse and ride by the side of a carriage, when the horse turned its head, caught me by the head, and held me.--What this means I do not know. I must have done something wrong to a pious shoemaker, who had been with me on the journey, and with whom I was then lodging; or else it means that I did not think of my work.

138. This is the sum of all: 1. That there is nothing but grace, by which we can be saved. 2. Grace is in Jesus Christ, who is the seat of grace (the mercy-seat). 3. Love to God in Christ promotes salvation. 4. Man then allows himself to be led by the spirit of Jesus. 5. Everything that comes from ourselves is dead, and is nothing but sin, and worthy of eternal damnation. 6. For good can come from no other source save the Lord.*

* See Note 165, ii, and vii.

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139. May 19 X 20, in London. On the twentieth I was to go to the Lord's Supper in the Swedish church, after I had had many pernicious thoughts, from which I perceived that my body is in a continual state of rebellion; this was also represented to me by scum, which was to be skimmed off. On Sunday morning it came very clearly from the Spirit into my lips, that this [i. e. the Holy Supper] is the manna* which descends from heaven. This came to me neither in sleep nor in a state of wakefulness, but it came most distinctly into my thought and into my lips that by this is signified Christ in the Lord's Supper.* The day before I had been prepared, so that I was interiorly tranquil and peaceful, being contented with the Lord's dispensation; the whole time also I felt the strong influence of the Holy Spirit, and the whole body was filled with a delight in the heavenly kingdom upon earth.**

* See Note 161, x.

** See Note 162, ii.

140. I could not control myself so entirely as not to have carnal desires; yet without any intention of causing their ultimation. Yet it seemed tome in my dream that my having accompanied Prof. hlreich109* to sundry places was not so altogether against the Divine Providence; as about it I did not receive an admonition, as about other of my doings. It however happened, as had been represented to me in a dream some days before, that I was in one day twice in danger of my life; so that if God had not protected me, I should have lost my life in two places. The particulars I will not describe.

* See Note 160, iii.

141. The internal state of delight, however, continued so strong in the mornings, evenings, and during the day, especially when I was by myself alone, without company, that it may be compared to heavenly joy on earth.* In this state I hope to continue, so long as by our Lord's grace alone I walk in pure paths and have right intentions; for as soon as I turn aside, and try to find my joy in worldly things, this state of delight ceases.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 197 God alone knows whether the principle of the interior which is the influx of God's Spirit,* is constantly with man. This [i. e. the interior] is sensible of every least degree of its exaltation; wherefore I was thinking, that if I have heavenly joy, why should I seek after worldly, which in comparison is nothing, is inconstant, pernicious, rebellious, and destructive.

* See Note 166, iv.

142. By various circumstances I was led into the church belonging to the Moravian Brethren, who maintain that they are the true Lutherans, and that they feel the influx of the Holy Spirit, as they tell each other; further, that they have respect only to God's grace, to Christ's blood and merit,* and that they go about in simplicity. On this subject I shall speak more fully some other time; for as yet I am not allowed to join their brotherhood. Their church was represented to me three months ago just as I saw it afterwards; all were dressed there like clergymen.

* See Note 165, vi.

143. June 11X12. I was thinking about those who resist the Holy Spirit, and about those who suffer themselves to be led by it. There appeared to me a man in white with a sword, another went to meet him, but was wounded by his sword; he renewed the contest, when he was very severely struck about the ears and temples. Another came and fought with him; he also was pierced so that blood appeared. I had a long spear, and was thinking that if he should come towards me, I would hold that before me; but just at the time when he was not far from me, I saw him cast away his sword, and go his way. As I was wondering at this, I perceived that one was going before me, who was offering his sword, and was willing to give it up, and surrender at discretion. This was the reason the other threw away his sword.

144. June 15X16. The 16th was a Sunday. My former life was represented to me, and how afterwards I walked where there were precipices on all sides, and how I turned away from them. I then came into a glorious grove,* with most beautiful fig-trees in all directions in vigorous growth and arranged in order, on one of which the withered fruit seemed to remain.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 198 The grove had trenches on all sides except that where I was. I contemplated passing over a high bridge, which had earth and grass on the top; yet I did not venture, because it looked dangerous. At some distance from it I saw a large and very handsome palace with wings; where, it seemed to me, I desired to take lodgings in order to have always the prospect of the grove and the trenches. A window was open a long way down in one of the wings; there I thought I should like to have my room.--This means that on Sundays I ought to be engaged with spiritual things, which were represented by the noble grove.* The palace** was most likely the plan of my work which looks towards the grove [i. e. spiritual things], whither I purpose to look by means of it.

* See Note 161, viii.

** See Note 161, viii.

145. June 20X21. It seemed to me as if a deliberation was carried on, whether I was to be admitted to the society there, or to any of their councils. My father came out and told me that what I had written on Providence was the finest. I recollect that I had written simply a small treatise on the subject.* Afterwards I was found one night in the church, but naked, with nothing on but a shirt, so that I did not venture to come out.--This means, perhaps, that I am not yet clothed and prepared, as I ought to be.

*This work was never published by Swedenborg, although he had announced its publication (see Document 201, Vol, I). The manuscript has since been lost, or perhaps it was destroyed by the author himself.

146. June 26X27. I was somewhere with many people. I went past my garden, which looked very much out of order; no doubt in comparison with the heavenly garden.--I heard for a long time a report, as if cannons were being fired against the enemy in various directions; I had an idea that the enemy were beaten. A messenger also came who stated that the Danes had made an attack with 10,000 men; that they had mostly advanced sword in hand, but had everywhere been beaten back. I was also in another place, and desired to start out to visit the battle-field. Many where I was intended to fly, as they were of the Danish party; but I advised them to remain, as they were in no danger but the Danish soldiers only.--I saw afterwards that I was protected by a large screen; also that I had something the matter with my left foot, of which I was not aware; it was bound up, but would soon be right again.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 199 In a large cage there was a little bird, which had been hidden away a long time; it was still alive, and having got something to eat and drink it went in and out of the cage.--I saw Ericus Benzelius6 wearing a wig with two locks behind; he walked as though weary and old. I followed him, and saw that he entered a church and sat down in the lowest place.

147. July 1X2. Something very wonderful happened to me. Violent tremors came over me, one after another, as many as from ten to fifteen*--just as when Christ manifested to me His Divine grace.** I expected to be thrown on my face, as happened the last time, but I was not. With the last of these tremors I was raised up; and with my hands I felt a person's back; I passed them over the whole back, and over the chest below. Immediately the person lay down and I saw the countenance in front, but very obscurely. I was then upright on my knees, and was considering whether I should lie down beside him; but did not, as it did not seem permitted. All the tremors commenced in the body below, and ran up to the head. This took place in vision, when I was neither awake nor asleep;*** but when I had all my thoughts collected. The internal man separated from the external felt all this. After I was fully awake, several tremors similar to the former passed over me. It must have been a holy angel, since I was not thrown on my face.--Our Lord knows best what all this means. It seemed to me as if I had been told before, that I should have something for my obedience or for something else. God's grace is exhibited both towards the internal and the external man with me. To God alone be glory and honour!

* See Note 162, i, F.

** See no. 27.

*** See Note 162, i, C.

From what follows and from other indications I perceived that it signified this: that I shall discover the truths about the internal sensations, but on the back, and obscurely as to their front. For before this came over me, it seemed to me as if I had been told that this was an announcement in respect to what I had hitherto done; afterwards also it appeared to me, as if it had come to a point when my mean stivers were exchanged for better coin; then also a little gold was given me, although there was some copper amongst it.*

** See Note 164, vi, vii, and ix, A.

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148. July 3X4. With overflowing tenderness I, as it were, took leave from her [i, e. a female friend], kissing her; when another appeared at some distance from her.* The effect of this was, that upon awaking I was constantly in a state of heated love.** It was stated, however, and regrets were expressed that the subject treated by me was not understood.--This signifies that I have now finished writing on the senses in general and the operation of the interior faculties; which subject, in the form in which I have sketched it out, cannot be comprehended; and that now I approach the following part which treats on the brain.***

* See Note 161, iv, A, and C.

** See Note 161, iv, B.

*** See Note 164, v to ix, also ix, B.

149. July 7X8. I saw how all in an oblong globe concentrated itself upwards in its higher part; in the lower part of the globe there was something like a tongue; which afterwards spread out.--This, as I believe, signifies that the innermost is a holy place (sanctunrium), and that it is, as it were, a centre for the globe below; further, that, as is shown by the tongue, a greater part of this sanctuary will be discovered. I believe that I am destined for this. This was no doubt the meaning of the sanctuarium with which I was to busy myself [cfr. no. 114], and which is confirmed by this, that all objects of the sciences are represented to me under the form of women.* It was also confirmed by this, that a deliberation was held whether I should be admitted into the society where my father was [cfr. no. 145].

* See Note 161, iv, A.

150. I also lighted upon these assuring thoughts, that the Son of God is love, and that for the purpose of doing good to mankind, He took upon Himself their sins, even to their heaviest punishment; for if there be justice mercy must exist by love.*

* See Note 165, v.

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151. July 9X10. I was in company with the King* and conversed with him; and then he went into a room. Afterwards I spoke with the Princes, his sons,* with whom I became acquainted; they talked among themselves about me. I said I felt overcome with love and veneration. On taking my departure I saw that the Queen's table was laid. I was not dressed as I ought to have been; for, as before [see no. 5], I had hastily taken off my white jacket; I wished to go upstairs and put it on again. I mas speaking with my father, who kissed me, because I had reminded him not to swear: meanwhile the Queen came up with her suite.--This means that I am becoming acquainted with God's children; for on the previous day I had selected for myself other lodgings.

* See Note 161, v.

152. July 14X15. I was speaking with Brita Behm,50* who, it seemed to me, had given birth to a son; yet as Schwedes50 had been dead a long time, I wondered how this could be. The child, however, died, and in its stead were the two Rosenadlers.** She took me into a large and costly carriage, of surpassing magnificence, and conducted me to Count Horn.104 There preparations were made for dinner; I went away, but was to come back again. I was flying along and came to a handsome town which I descried; yet I perceived that I was flying wrong, and turned back.--This signifies my work on the internal senses and the brain [see no. 148], which was compared to the two sons of Brits Behm.* My being conveyed in a costly carriage to Count Horn, who was the President of the College of Chancery and Prime-minister,*** and thence to another town, means perhaps that my work will be prolonged to the soul.****

* See Note 161, ii.

** By the two Rosenadlers are meant Johan Adrian and Carl Albrecht, the sons of Johan Rosenadler and Eva Schwede, the daughter of Brita Behm. See Note 51, Volume I.

*** See Note 161, v.

**** Swedenborg's work on the brain, which is mentioned here and in no. 148 was continued to the Soul. For on pp. 221-223 of Codex 58 (Vol. VI of the photo-lithographed edition of his MSS., pp. 81-83), he introduces into his treatise on the brain a chapter on the soul; and after defining the soul on p. 221 as "the universal essence of its body," he declares on p. 223 (Vol. VI photo-lithographed MSS., p. 83) that "the soul is as it were a, divinity presiding over a certain microcosm or universe," and proves this at some length. In a marginal note, however, which runs along the whole of this passage, he says: "It is to be observed that what is said here must not be inserted in the chapter or thesis, because it is premature; but it is to be kept in reserve. Such seems to me the purport of a command I have received (Observandum, quod hc non inserenda sint in capite seu these, nam prmaturum est; sed reservanda; ita videar jussus," instead of the word jussus Swedenborg first wrote monitus, but he crossed out monitus, and wrote jussus instead).--The admonition that Swedenborg was not to continue there his dissertation on the brain to the soul, he seems to have received above in no. 152. See Note 164, viii and ix.

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153. I crossed a water on a footbridge; a ship was lying by; I came to a hole. I then thought of bread,* that large and small leaves were taken there every day.--It is probably the Lutheran church; Christ is compared to the spiritual bread.*

* See Note 161, x.

154. July 21X22. I saw a congregation where every one bad a little crown on his head; and where two stood in front with very large and magnificent crowns. One of them spoke full of joy half in French, and half in German.--The martyrs who received crowns were denoted thereby; for of these I had thought on the previous day; but who the two [in front] were, and whether one of them was Huss, I do not know.

155. A little child* would take hold of me, and take me with him; but it seemed to me as if at last I refused [to go].--This means that we must be like children in respect to the Lord. Since children have now been represented to me twice, and also in the preceding night, I lighted upon these thoughts, that we must not trouble ourselves for what is spiritual to such a degree that it comes to us through our own power, nor for worldly things; but that like children we must cast all our cares upon the Lord.

* See Note 161, vi.

156. I made my way into a church, and desired to come out in time; but it was full. I, nevertheless, forced my way through, when I came to an empty bench on which lay a cloth; with this I tried to cover myself.--This signifies that I desire to make my way into the church by my own care, and that I desire to preserve my incognito. This also I did on the previous day; yet such care ought to be submitted to our Lord.

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157. On awaking I bad a vision, when I saw much gold before me; the air was full of it.-It denotes that the Lord, who disposes all things, gives me in spiritual and worldly matters all that I need, whenever like a child I cast my care upon Him.

158. July 22X23. It appeared to me as if I took a very high flight, but in such a circle that I came down just as I became tired. I saw a beautiful saloon, with costly tapestry suspended from the walls, all in one piece.--This signifies that on the previous day I had this in my mind and at heart, that the sum of all is, that we must allow Christ to care in spiritual and worldly things.

I saw a boy running off with one of my shirts, and I ran after him.--It means probably that I had neglected to wash my feet.

159. July 24X25. Among other things it appeared to me as if I were in company with many persons, and as if we made merry. It seemed to me that I was to be some one's guest; I went thence on a journey, but was under the impression that I was to come back again. As I travelled on, however, without thinking of it I altered my course towards a different direction. I met one who said that he had cut out a set of bed-curtains for me; he said something, however, against my science.--I do not know whether I am to follow a different method with my work; and whether a preparation is to be made thereby for something else. I am in the dark about it.

160. July 27X28. I saw my father* in a beautiful surplice before a congregation. He conversed with me in a friendly manner, and desired to introduce me to some one in an inner room, who appeared to be asleep, and to whom he wished to speak about me. I withdrew softly, for fear of awakening him.-This meant, that I was then beginning to read the Bible in the evenings; and that an Saturday evening I was afraid I had not prepared myself properly.

* See Note 161, iii.

161. July 29X30. I saw a great beast with wings, which at times looked like a human being, yet with a great gorge; it did not dare to touch me. I pursued it with a sword, yet, I had no chance, nor was I strong enough in my arms, to strike it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 204 At last I saw it standing before me with a gun, from which it fired something like poison, without, however, doing me any harm: for I was protected. Immediately afterwards I thrust my sword into its jaws, yet without much effect. I ascended higher; it seemed to me as if some one said that it was slain.--The previous day I had been thinking of the woman and the dragon in the Book of Revelation [chap. xii], and I wished I could be instrumental in killing the dragon; when yet nothing is in my power, but only in the Lord's.

162. July 30XAugust 1. I was a long time in a state of holy tremor,* yet at the same time in a deep sleep. I was thinking I should see something holy, and it seemed to me that I was thrown on my face; but I cannot affirm this with certainty. Afterwards I was removed thence, and discovered near me beneath my back some one, with whom I seemed to be acquainted. I was annoyed at his having withdrawn me thence, and when he was about to depart I told him he must not do so again. The tremor continued; but I did not see anything else.--This signified that something holy had come to me, and had effected me thus; and also, that I was led to my work upon the senses, which I began writing to-day;** and that I did not wish to be drawn away by it from that which is more important.

* See Note 162, i, F.

** Swedenborg began writing out for the press Part III of the Regnum Animale; a portion of which was published by him in London, in l745, under the title, De Cute, Sensu Tactus et Gustus; et de Formis Organicis in Genere (the Skin, the Senses of Touch and Taste, and Organic Forms generally). See Note 164, ix, C.

163. Afterwards I was waiting for a procession of horses. Large, beautiful horses, of a yellowish white colour, came in great numbers, and were followed by some beautiful ones in pairs; they came to me fat, large, and beautiful, decorated with fine harness.

This signifies the work upon which I have now entered; the last was upon the brain. I find by this that I shall have God's assistance in it; I believe that He will aid me in it.*

* See Note 164, ix, C.

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164. August 4X5. I saw one approaching me with a drawn sword; I also seemed to have a sword with a silver hilt. But when he reached me, I had nothing but a broken sheath. He lay down on my back and bit my hands; I called for help, but none came.

Afterwards, I boasted of my strength* in the presence of As[sessor] B*** This signifies that daily I sin against my God in the thoughts which cling to me; and from which no man, but God alone, can deliver me; likewise that I had boasted to D. H. about my work. On the following day I had intended to go to the communion; but I forbore, when from the above I found that none but God alone can give absolution from sins; wherefore it was given me also to observe some things with respect to confession [before the communion].

* See Note 161, iv, F.

165. August 8X9. I arrived in Sweden and found the country divided into two kingdoms. The larger one was in the direction of Upland, the other in the direction of rebro; there were two kings, the latter was less powerful; his dominion, nevertheless, was said to extend to Bohus[ln]. I was with this king,* and his power increased. It seemed to me as if a decree were issued that I should become Secretary in Java; but I was found unfit for the place, as I could not converse in the language; I, nevertheless, went. afterwards I dreamt about small birds, which alighted round my head, and had to be removed.--It means that I had not properly arranged and carried out the subject of the corpus reticulare Malpighii.**

* See Note 161, v.

** This subject is treated of by Swedenborg in Part III of the Regnum Animale, nos. 433 to 437 of the Latin Edition, and nos. 495 to 499 of the English Edition (pp. 397 to 404). See Note 164, ix, D.

166. August 26X27. During the last few days I was very much troubled and oppressed by my sins, which, it seemed to me, had not been forgiven, and which prevented my attending the Lord's Supper the last time. [See no. 164.] The previous day, however it seemed to me that I had been relieved. During the night the soles of my feet appeared all white.*--This signifies that my sins have been forgiven;** and also many other things, as for example, that I was received again into favour.

* See Note 161, xii.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

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167. August 27X28. It seemed to me as if I took a book out of my father's library. Afterwards I came into a ship and sat down with one where the rudder usually is; another was sitting at my right side. When I rose from my seat, some person occupied it, and when I desired to resume it, he moved up further to the right, and made room for me. A woman was sitting at my left, and another before me. I rose and allowed her to sit there; she sat down, but no fauteuil was there, only an arm-chair, and I was sitting in front of her. Wine was brought on board; which when poured into a wine-glass looked like cowslip wine. One of these glasses was offered to me, which I emptied at a draught. It was the most delicious beverage I ever tasted; and without knowing what it was, it entered into my thoughts that it was heavenly nectar. The same man continued to sit in his place on the right near the rudder.--This signifies the assistance I receive in my work from a higher hand, so that I am employed simply as an instrument;* on this account there was also one among those who followed me, whose business I said it was to sweep clean.
This too signifies me.

* See Introduction to Document 108, p. 140.

168. September 1X2. I thought of going to the Lord's table on the second of August [September], since, according to my best knowledge, I was assured of being relieved from my sins;* but I then noticed a large dog which ran towards me, yet without doing me any harm; I pointed it out to one who sat beside me, to whom it likewise did no harm.--This means either that on the previous day I desired to boast of one of my visits, or that others around me use flattering language.

* See Introduction to Document 108, p. 140.

169. Afterwards it seemed to me as if I heard that Didron* had left his King with whom he was in great favour, and joined the Danes; also that he was slain there, and that his wife, who was false, was the cause of it. I waited for his body.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 207 I heard just now, and it was also breathed into me, that I ought not to leave the Church of Christ, nor [go] to that place to take the Lord's Supper, that if I did so I should become again spiritually dead.** More I could not understand of this, so that there must be some mystery connected with it. When I abstained from the Holy Supper [cfr. no. 164], I was illuminated by the Holy Spirit, which is usually the case when I act according to command.

* Didron is the name of a Swedish noble family, many members of which served with distinction in the Swedish army.

** See Note 161, ii.              

170. September 16; on a Sunday afternoon. In the night between the fifteenth and sixteenth I saw in my dream two kings, the King of France and the King of Poland* who proposed sublime things to me. Afterwards I saw a little girl who sang to me, when I went out.--This signifies that what I had written was well-pleasing; it was the last of the first chapter on the sense of touch.**

* See Note 161, v.

** The last portion of the first chapter on the sense of touch, which treats on the use of touch, extends from p. 136 to 144, in Part III of the Regnum Animale, Latin Edition, and from p. 555 to p. 561 in Vol. II of the English Edition. See Note 164, ix, E.

171. Immediately after dinner, while I was sleeping, a woman* appeared to me, but I did not see her face. She was very stout, and dressed entirely in white. I desired to purchase from her something to drink; she replied that she had nothing left. There was one present who yielded me his right to get a glass from her which she had concealed in her dress. She was looking for it, when I saw how very stout she was, as if she were with child.** After looking in the folds of her sleeve, she found again what she had for drinking. I thought it was chocolate, but it was wine. I thought I would not have it, if it were chocolate; but immediately afterwards I awoke. It seemed to me then, as well as several times before, that I perceived a very strong smell of wine. I wondered most at her snow-white clothes.--I do not understand very well what this signifies; and whether she was the woman who was with me, when the word sanctuarium was mentioned [cfr. no. 114], and who was now with child, for I did not see her face.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 208 It means probably that I am engaged now in writing and in bringing forth*** what I have undertaken; as during the whole day I found myself in a full state of illustration respecting the matters I had in hand.****

* See Note 161, iv.

** See Note 161, iv, D.

*** See Note 161, iv, D.

**** See Note 162, i, B.

172. September 17X18. I saw the King of Prussia, and one who said he was going to rouse a feeling of hostility between the Kings of Prussia and France.

173. September 18X19. It seemed to me that I was going over a field, which was very rough; I had an iron staff in my hand which towards the last was not heavy to walk with. I reached the end of the piece of ground, when I lay down in a bed. A very large ox, of a black colour, came against me with its horns, in order, as it seemed, to gore me. I was frightened, but was told that I should come safely through it; when I awoke.--Something will happen to me after I have gone through the first chapter on the sense of touch [cfr. no. 170].

174. September 21. Before I fell asleep that day, which was a Sunday, I was deeply occupied in my thoughts upon the things on which I am writing. "Hold your tongue, I was told, "or I will slay you;" and I saw some one sitting on a piece of ice. I was frightened. It came upon me just as in a vision. I thee restrained my thoughts, and one of the usual tremors* came over me.--The meaning of this was, that I should not continue thinking so long, especially on Sundays; perhaps also in the evenings.

* See Note 162, i, F.

175. September 29X30. This was the night between a Saturday and a Sunday. I saw the gable-end of the most beautiful palace which could possibly be seen; its middle seemed illuminated as with bright sunshine. I was told that it was resolved in the society that I should become an immortal member of it, which no one ever before had been, unless he had died and were still living [in the other world]. Others said that there were several [in this condition]. The thought occurred to me whether it was not most important to be with God, and so to live as that he would look favourably upon what I had finished writing respecting Organic Forms generally,* and especially the conclusion.**

* The dissertation on "Organic Forms generally" fills nos. 470 to 486, in the first chapter on the sense of touch in the Latin edition, and nos. 531 to 547, in the English edition; see Note 164, ix, F.

** In the conclusion of this dissertation Swedenborg shows how good and truth are appropriated by man, and evil and falsity rejected.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 209

176. Afterwards some one told me that he would call upon me at ten o'clock, but he did not know where I lived; and I answered, as it then seemed to me, that I lived in the gable end of that palace.--This signified that what I had written there with God's help, was of such a nature that it would lead me on further and that I would see still more glorious things.*

* See Introduction to Document 208, p. 149.

177. Afterwards I was with women,* but would not touch them, as I had previously had to do with holier things. Many things then occurred to me which I left to God's good pleasure, since I am an instrument with which He may do what He pleases;** but I should like to be with those mentioned first; yet not my will but God's be done.

* See Note 161, iv.

** See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

God grant that I do not mistake in this; I believe I do not.

178. October 3, in the afternoon. I was taking a little nap, when it was represented to me how the inmost of individualities (unitates) consists entirely of the end which is the reason of the cause;* so that if our thoughts are also considered as individualities, they contain within themselves no other end and no other reason, than what comes either from the Spirit of God or from the body.** When this comes from the body, all from the inmost is sin: for all that we propose to ourselves is opposed to what is spiritual. What it is which gocerns us, we can easily find out, if we reflect on our loves which accompany [thought].*

* See Note 166, iv.

** See Note 165, iv.

179. October 3 to 6. I have noticed several times that there are various kinds of spirits. The one spirit, which is that of Christ, is the only one that hits all blessedness with it;* by other spirits man is enticed a thousand ways to follow them; but woe to those who do so.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 210 Another time Korah and Dathan occurred to me, who brought strange fire to the altar, and could not offer it;** such is the case when a different fire is introduced than that which comes from Christ. I saw also something like a fire coming to me.*** It is necessary therefore that a distinction should be made between spirits; which, however, cannot be done except through Christ Himself and His spirit.****

* See Note 165, iv.

** Book of Numbers, chap. xvi.

*** See Note 162, i, D.

**** See Note 165, iv.

180. Afterwards it was represented to me in sleep what terrible danger I had been in the night between the 29th and 30th of last month, when I was upon ice which afterwards could scarcely bear me, and I came then to a fearfully great chasm; a person on the other side could not come to my assistance, wherefore I turned back. God alone through Christ* has helped me in this danger: for He is as a Lord and Master to me, and I am His slave; and to Him, without whom no one can come to God,** be all honour and thanks!

* See Note 165, i.

** See Note 165, ii.

181. October 6X7. There was a vivid and yet gracious appearance as if all was overcast by black crape or skin, which was shining, yet had no consistence; it was said that it could not endure, wherefore it was wrapped up, and I received a promise of greater enlightenment; there was also an appearance as of an inward light. This [viz. the wrapping up] I was trying to do from my own self on Sundays.--This denotes that by my own understanding and my own phantasy I desired to enter into something which is compared to crape, and which did not stand the proof.

182. I was further informed respecting my book upon the "Worship and Love of God," which was said to be a Divine book;* I believe it was to contain also something about spirits; my book on the Infinite (de Infinito)** I thought treated on something similar; but I did not receive an answer to this [suggestion].

* A work entitled "The Worship and Love of God" (De Cultu et Amore Dei) was soon after, in 1745, published by Swedenborg in London, containing two parts. Part III was left by him in an unfinished state, partly in proof-sheets and partly in manuscript, and in this condition is preserved now among the Swedenborg MSS. in the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. A fac-simile edition of this part is contained in Vol. W of the photo-lithographic edition of the Swedenborg MSS. An English translation of Parts I and II appeared in London in 1801, and another in 1898; an American edition was published some time afterwards.

** See first footnote on p. 6. Vol. II.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 211

183. Afterwards I lighted upon these thoughts, and received this instruction, viz. that all love for whatever object, as, for instance for the work upon which I am now engaged--whenever such an object is loved [for its own sake], and not as a medium for the only love, which is to God and Jesus Christ,* is a meretricious love. For this reason also this love is always compared in God's Word to whoredom.** This I have also experienced in myself. But when love to God is man's chief love, then he does not entertain for these objects any other kind of love than that of promoting thereby his love to God.

* See Note 165, i.

** See Note 161, iv, B.

184. I seemed also to see the Czar Peter, with other Russian magnates, who despised me because I had half sleeves. I do not know to what party they belonged.

On several occasions fine bread with other things was given to me. May God grant that this be, as I believe, the spiritual bread.*

* See Note 161, x.

185. From this, and from what has been said before, it may be seen how easily human beings may be led astray by other kinds of spirits,* who represent themselves to men according to the quality of the love of each: for loves are represented by spirits, even in the very operation when women [the rest of the sentence is wanting].

* Cfr. no. 179.

186. October 7X8. I desired to follow a certain way, but saw a little boy going up a narrow footpath. I followed him, but came into a fog. It seemed to me as if there were soldiers. I walked on crouching and was afraid. I thought, however, that they were not enemies, but some of our own people. But when I could not see any road before me, I turned about, and came into a room in a state of disorder. I asked for another apartment, and after obtaining it, I asked for some water.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 212 The person said it was fresh but muddy;* whereupon I ordered some milk, and awoke.--This means that I was on a wrong way, and followed my own understanding into a fog. In such a case we are afraid of our own people, as of enemies; but when we pursue the right way, we are afraid of nobody. By the water is meant that my understanding is still turbid;* and by the milk that it requires to be strengthened more.

* See Note 161, vii.

187. Afterwards I saw in a vision somebody who wore a black cloak; this was taken away from him, when he disappeared.-This means that the former blackness [see no. 181] vanished; which is the case when a man follows this [i. e. the right] way and puts his trust entirely in God and Christ,* and not in himself; or in other words when he does not make flesh, i. e. his own understanding, his arm.

* See Note 165, iv.

188. I found besides that we are soldiers to fight continually against Satan. If we have God's Spirit and life, then it is daily a victory, but if we have it not it is daily a defeat. We fall into one defeat after another.* If such be the case, we must not despair, but trust in God's grace.

* See Note 165, iv.

189. Last night it seemed to me as if I had seen a commission of a lieutenant-captain or something of the kind but I asked Secretary Bierchenius129* to report that I wished to retain my former appointment as assessor.--By which is signified that I did not know what is meant by being a soldier and fighting against Satan: for God sends angels to man to assist him to fight. This is meant by the black cloak which was taken off [see no. 187]. God Himself has deigned to enlighten me.

* See Note 161, i.

I saw also in vision a heart filled with blood, by which is meant love.*

* See Note 161, xii.

190. October 8X9. This night was the most delightful of all; since I saw the kingdom of Innocence. Below my feet I saw the most beautiful garden which could possibly be seen. On every tree in the garden there gradually appeared white roses.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 213 Afterwards I came into a long room, where beautiful white cups were standing, which were filled with milk and bread, and which looked so inviting that nothing can be imagined more so. I was in company with a lady, of whom I have no particular recollection. I then went back, when a dear little innocent child* came to me, and told me that the lady had gone without taking leave. She begged me to buy her a book, which she wished to take with her, but which she did not show me. I then awoke.

* See Note 161, vi.

Besides this it seemed to me as if I entertained in a house or palace which stood apart a large company of people who were my acquaintances. Among them were Senators Lagerberg86* and, I believe, Ehrenpreus173* and others. All this was at my expense, and it seemed to me as if it was going to cost me a large sum; the thought kept coming continually, that it was expensive; but every now and then I did not care for that, for I noticed that the whole was borne by the Lord, who owned that property, or exhibited it to me.--This signifies that I was in the kingdom of Innocence, treating the worldly-minded people there without seeing them. It means either that my work is not like them, although I treat them with it, or something else. The child was innocence itself;** with this I was quite touched, and I wished that I might be in a kingdom where all is innocence. I regretted that on awaking I had to leave it. I do not know what is meant by the lady who went away without taking leave.

* See Note 161, i.

** See Note 161, vi.

On the next day, or on the 9th, my eyesight was so strong that I could read the Bible with the small print without the least difficulty.

191. October 9X10. In a vision there appeared to me a fire as of coal, which was burning briskly.--This meant the fire of love [see Note 161, vii].

Afterwards there was signified to me by a representation *** [see Note 161, iv, F], that on the previous day I was engaged with my work,* which is entirely different from the other** and [proceeds from] an entirely different love; and [I was in doubt] whether the former work should prevail*** (om den skulle rda), and whether it should not rather be regarded as mere talk and as a plaything only, when compared with the other.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 214 Upon awaking I fully made up my mind to abandon the former work;**** and I should have done so, if it had not afterwards seemed to me in my sleep, that I had been sent to a certain place with a letter. I did not find the way; but my sister Hedwig5 saw the letter, and said it was intended for Ulrica Adlersten,***** who had it appeared longed for me. I went there, and saw also Schnstrm.81 Afterwards I had continually a sensation as if they went up to the brain and down again.--By this I was confirmed to go on with my work.****** May God grant that this be not against His good pleasure, since as soon as I break off my sleep I at once come into the effort to abandon it; besides God Himself helped me to arrive at this resolution.******* To God alone be praise and honour!

* Swedenborg alludes here to the elaboration for the press of Part III of the Regnum Animale; see Note 164, x.

** The other work is that on "The Worship and Love of God" (see no. 182).

*** The meaning of this seems to be, whether Swedenborg should go on with the Regnum Animale, or not.

**** He alludes here to the elaboration for the press of Part III of the Regnum Animale; see Note 164, x.

***** Ulrica Aldersten was the wife of Swedenborg's first cousin, Albrecht Schnstrm;81 see Document 9, p. 85, no. 3.

****** Swedenborg seems to have been in doubt whether to proceed with the printing of Vol III of the Regnum Animale, or not; see Note 164, x.

******* He appears to have gone on with the printing of the Regnum Animale until October 27, when he began the preparation of his other work, De Cultu et Amore Dei; see no. 202.

A child fell over my foot, hurt himself, and screamed; I helped him to get up, and said, Why do you race so?--This no doubt meant that I was too much in a hurry with that [i. e. the second work].*

* The other work is that on "The Worship and Love of God" (see no. 182).

192. October 10X11. I was in company with a woman,* yet did not approach her. I afterwards met a gentleman whom I asked whether I could enter his service, since I had lost my place through the war. The answer was, No.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 215 They played as it were basset;** the money kept changing hands, and I was present with them all the time. I asked my servant whether he had said that I owned some [money]; he answered, No, and said that he would give no other answer.--This signifies the Moravian church [see no. 148], that I am with them and yet not accepted by them; also that I say I have no knowledge about religion, but have lost all;*** further that they who play basset keep losing and winning.

* See Note 161, iv, E.

** Basset is a game of cards, played in the last century, resembling the modern fare; it is said to have been invented in Venice by a nobleman, who was banished for the invention.

*** See Note 168, iii.

193. October 12X13. It seemed to me as if some one was beaten and scourged; yet afterwards he preached above and below with greater zeal, and did the same [as before].--By this is meant that when any one receives chastisement from our Lord, he is afterwards gifted with greater zeal and spirit to go on with that to which he is led by the Spirit; so that chastisement and punishment augment them.* On the previous day I was thinking that I was so glad; I allowed my thoughts free course, [and wondered] whether punishment would cause a change in this: the above is the answer to this question.

* See Note 165, iv.

194. Afterwards I seemed to say to myself that the Lord Himself will instruct me.*-For, as I discovered, I am in such a state that I know nothing on this subject [i. e. on religion, cfr. No. 192],** except that Christ must be all in all, or God through Christ, so that we of ourselves cannot contribute the least towards it, and still less strive for it: wherefore it is best to surrender at discretion, and were it possible to be altogether passive in this matter, it would be a state of perfection.***

* See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

** See Note 162, iii.

*** See Note 165, vii.

195. I saw also in a vision how some beautiful bread was presented to me on a plate.*--This was a prediction that the Lord Himself will instruct me, as soon as I have attained that state in which I shall know nothing, and in which all my preconceived notions will be removed from me; which is the first state of learning: or, in other words, that I must first become a child, and that then I shall be able to be nurtured in knowledge, as is being the case with me now.**

* See Note 161, x.

** See Note 162, iii.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 216

196. October 13X14. Among other things I was told that during the last two weeks I have begun to improve in my looks, and to appear like an angel.*--May God grant that this be so! May God aid me in this, and not take away from me His grace!

* See Introduction to Document 208, p. 141.

197. October 15X16. In a vision I saw how some one bearing a heavy load of boards fell under its weight; another came to his assistance, but I did not see how he was helped.

In my sleep I saw that at last I went up by a foot-bridge, seeing a great gulf and dangers before me, but I managed to climb up after another person by means of a rope, without, however, seeing the top, or how I might reach it.--This signifies that they who strive to help themselves into the kingdom of heaven by their own effort, or to rise on high by themselves, labour in vain, and are exposed to constant danger; which labour becomes light, when they address themselves to God, who is man's help in such a case.*

* See Note 165, vii.

198. October 18X19. I dreamt how a big dog, which I thought was fastened, flew at me and bit me in the leg. Some one came and held its terrible jaws, so that it could do no more mischief.--The day before I had been at the Medical College hearing a lecture, when I was rash enough to think that I should be mentioned as one of those who understood anatomy best; I was glad, however, that this was not done.

It appeared to me in vision the following night as if a crooked leg (snefot, i. e. snedfot) went out of my body.--This probably signified that by that bite I had become like one with a crooked leg.

199. October 19X20. I dreamt how I saw one beast after another. When they opened their wings, I saw that they were dragons.* I flew over them, but struck against one.--Such dragons signify spurious loves, which do not appear as dragons, until their wings are discovered.**

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 217 I was engaged then in writing on this subject.

* See Note 161, xi.

** See Note 161, xi.

200. October 20X21. It was most gracious and wonderful that on the previous day I had felt myself unworthy of all the grace God had been pleased to exhibit towards me; for love of my own self and pride mere so deeply rooted in me; I therefore prayed to God that He would remove them from me, since this is not in my own power.* In the evening I found myself in a most curious state of mind, such as I had never experienced before: for I despaired of God's grace, although I knew that God is so gracious, and that He has shown greater grace towards me than towards any one else. There was an anxiety in the soul, but not in the mind, though I became conscious of it only in the mind itself, without feeling any pain in the body.

* See Introduction to Document 208, p. 140.

Afterwards I fell asleep, when it seemed to me as if I were closely followed by two dogs: after a long time I got out of their reach, when I was told in my thoughts, that the object of these strange pains was to cure me of them. Whenever, therefore, the root of what is deeply ingrained in man is removed, such a feeling of pain is caused; this is well-worth being remembered and preserved in the thoughts.

201. Afterwards I saw a great King, who was King of France.* He went without a suite, and had but a small regal court. No one from these indications could have seen that he was a king. Some person with me, it seemed, would not recognize in him a king, whereupon I said that he was of those who did not care for such things. He was courteous towards all without distinction, and conversed also with me. On going out, too, he had no suite, but took upon himself the burdens of others, and wore garments similar to theirs.

* See Note 161, v.

Thence I came into another large society, where I found every thing much more magnificent.

Afterwards I saw the Queen; when the chamberlains entered and bowed before her, she also made a deep reverence; and there was no pride in her.--It signifies that in Christ there is not the least pride, but that He makes Himself equal with others, although He is the greatest King.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 218 He does not trouble Himself about what is great, and he likewise takes upon Himself the burdens of others. The Queen, by whom is meant wisdom, partakes of the same character. She also has no love of self; and does not think herself greater on account of being a queen.

* See Note 165, ii.

202. October 26X27. It was foretold to me that the twenty-seventh of October would come again; when I undertook "The Worship and Love of God."* It seemed as if it were Christ Himself with whom I associated, as with another person, without ceremony. He borrowed a small sum of money from another amounting to about five pounds. I was disappointed that He did not borrow the money from me. I took up two bank-notes, of which methought I first let one drop, and then the other. He asked what they were; I replied that I had found two, one having been probably dropped by Him. I offered them and He took them. In such an innocent way we seemed to live together; it was the state of innocence.

* See Note 164, x.

203. Afterwards I was in my room with another, an acquaintance or relative. I told him that I would show him that I had a better apartment. I accordingly went out with him first into an adjoining room, which extended a great length; it was a whole suite of rooms, but did not belong to me. Some one in a bed asked what he wanted. I left, and went with him into my own saloon. On opening the door I found that a whole market-place was lodged there. Immediately before me many articles were exposed for sale. Beyond this the flank of a large palace was visible; but this was removed, and then everything before me and at the sides appeared full of beautiful earthen-ware; it looked like porcelain, and had just been placed there. On the side they were still busy arranging it. Afterwards I went into my own little chamber which was also shining.--By this is signified the whole of that work upon which I am now entering in God's name; in front, before me, is the part on "The Worship of God," at the sides that treating on "The Love" [of God].

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 219 There is also signified thereby that I must not take of the articles manufactured by others,* as those were contained in the saloon which I had rented; but that I must use my own. My chamber, which was adjoining, signified this other work; and the room at the side signified the one which did not belong to me. May God lead me in the right way! Christ said that I must not undertake anything without Him.

* See Note 162, iv.

204. I mounted a fine black horse. There were two of us. The horse was fiery; it first went out of the way, but afterwards turned round.--This signifies my undertaking, which as yet appears dark to me, but at last will move in the right track.

205. While I was going with my friend through a long passage, a pretty maiden* came and rushed into his arms and as it were sobbed. I asked her whether she knew him. She did not answer. I then took her away from him, and led her by the arm.-This was my new work to which she addressed herself, from which I took her in this way.

* See Note 161. iv, A.

206. In the morning there appeared to me in a vision a market, like the "disting"* market. It was in my father's house at Upsal, in the saloon up stairs, in the entrance, and all over the house.--This signifies the same [as above, cfr. no. 203]; so that this must be done, and indeed with a greater degree of certainty.

* The "disting" is a large market or fair which is held at Upsal in the month of February. It is said to have taken its origin from a feast which was celebrated in ancient times, about that period of the year, in honour of the goddess Disa, and which was called "Disablot" (worship of Disa). About the same time also a "ting" i. e. a court was held among the assembled people, where goods were exchanged.

207. In the morning, on awaking, I fell into a swoon or fainting fit, similar to that which I experienced about six or seven years ago at Amsterdam, when I entered upon the onomia Regni Animalis; but it was much more subtle, so that I was almost dead. It came upon me as soon as I saw the light. I threw myself upon my face, when it gradually passed off. In the mean time short interrupted slumbers took possession of me. So that this swoon or deliquium was more interior and deeper; but I soon got over it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 220 This signifies that my head is being cleared, and is really being cleansed of all that would obstruct these thoughts; as was also the case last time; because it gave me penetration, especially whilst writing. This was also represented to me now, in that I appeared to write a fine hand.*

* See Note 162, i, B.

[Thus ends the remarkable diary of Swedenborg's spiritual experience in 1744. After a few blank pages there is another entry marked: 11X12, recording some experience he had with Prof. hlreich,109* similar to that described in no. 140, under the date, May 19X20. From this it would seem that the date of these memoranda is June 11X12, 1744, and that no. 205 which now follows ought in reality to come after no. 143.]

* See Note 160, iii.

208. ***I * left Prof. lreich.** On the may there was deep water; but at the side there was a passage (en gng), where was very little; wherefore I stepped out at the side, for it did not seem necessary for me to walk through the deep water.

* See Note 161, iv, F.

** See Note 160, iii.

A rocket seemed to burst over my head, which shed many sparks of beautiful fire.--It means perhaps love for what is high.*

* See Note 161, vii.

209. On another blank page in the back part of the original manuscript volume the author gives a further explanation, in Latin, of a statement made by him in no. 149, to this effect: All objects of the sciences, viz. all truths, were represented to him under the form of women or virgins,* and he declares himself there to be their "devoted servant;" although these words are afterwards crossed out.

* See Note 161, iv, A.

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SECTION IX.

SWEDENBORG'S CORRESPONDENCE

FROM 1749 TO 1772.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 224

DOCUMENT 210

FIRST LETTER OF J. WRETMAN147 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original of this Document is preserved in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London, where it was deposited, with the other letters addressed by Wretman to Swedenborg, by the Editor of these Documents.

Well-born Sir,

I was glad to learn from your esteemed letter of the 10th (old style), 21st (new style) of the present month that the letter from England which I forwarded to you had been duly received. Another letter from Sweden is now enclosed to you; the postage of both letters, according to your instructions, having been charged to your account.

I have the honour to remain

       Your Most Obedient servant,

              JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, Nov. 25, 1749.

To Mr. Em. Swedenborg, at the Sign of St. Joseph, Care of Mr. Beckers, Rue de St. Pierre, Air La Chapelle.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 225

DOCUMENT 211.

SECOND LETTER OF J. WRETMAN147 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original of this Document is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London, (see foot-note to Document 210).


Well-born Sir,

Taking the opportunity of sending you a letter from England, I have the honour of wishing you a very happy New Year. May you enjoy numberless returns of this festive season, in a state of perfect health and with all the blessings you may desire.

With these wishes I have great pleasure in commending myself to your favour, assuring you that, with all due deference, I shall forever be

Your most obedient servant,

       JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, January 9, 1750.

To Mr. Em. Swedenborg, at the Sign of St. Joseph, Care of Mr. Beckers, Rue de St. Pierre, Air La Chapelle,

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 226

DOCUMENT 212.

THIRD LETTER OF J. WRETMAN174 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The original of this letter is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London (see footnote to Document 210).

Well-born Sir,

I was delighted to have the honour of receiving your acceptable letter of the 2nd inst., and should have liked very much to hear that the letter from England had duly arrived.

In case any parcels arrive from England by post, they shall be paid for and kept subject to your orders. Messrs. Grill112 of this place have informed me that two parcels have been left in their care by a skipper from England: one of which is addressed to Jansonius Wacsberg and the other to Jacob Verlouw, Amsterdam; but as the latter bookseller has failed, and it is supposed that these parcels concern you, we desire to know in what way you mould like to dispose of them. Meanwhile I remain, with all due deference,

Your most obedient servant,

       JACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, January 20, 1750.

To Mr. Em. Swedenborg, at the Sign of St. Joseph, Care of Mr. Beckers, Rue de St. Pierre, Air La Chapelle.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 227


DOCUMENT 213.

FOURTH LETTER OF J. WRETMAN174 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original of this letter is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London (see footnote to Document 210).

Well-born Sir,

In agreement with instructions contained in your honoured letters of the 11th and 24th of last month, I notified to Messrs. Grill112 that the parcels of books which had arrived must remain in their care, until you dispose of them otherwise. Of the parcels which were to arrive from England by post, I have not yet heard anything. The Mallium Sana which you wish is not known here at all; at least it is not kept for sale; but they have promised to inquire for it. As soon as I receive even a small quantity of it, it shall be forwarded to you, together with the melon seeds; but I am at a loss to know what you mean by cocombes, unless you intend it for coucombre [cucumber] seed. I shall therefore delay executing your order until I receive more minute instructions. The bulbs of the tulips, hyacinths, and others must be put into the ground in autumn, before the frost begins; for if they be planted in spring all will not come up; the flowers must be left [i.e. they must not be cut off], or the bulbs will die. For four or five florins some of each might be collected, and sent to Sweden by the first ship. If then all the flowers do not come out, the loss will be small compared with the trouble of planting them.

With usual deference I remain

       Your obedient servant,

              JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, February 10, 1750.

To Mr. Em. Swedenborg, at the Sign of St. Joseph, Care of Mr. Beckers, Rue de St. Pierre, Aix La Chapelle.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 228

DOCUMENT 214.

FIFTH LETTER OF J. WRETMAN174 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original of this letter is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London (see footnote to Document 210).

Well-born Sir and kind Patron,

I was delighted to hear by your kind letter of August 21 that you had safely reached home, and that the box containing the sugar had likewise been delivered in good time. I received at the same time your remittance of 52 florins 10 stivers by draft on Messrs. Anthon and John Grill,112 which has been honoured, and by which your account with me has been settled. I was very glad to hear that your garden and residence escaped the last terrible fire in Stockholm. The signs of the times look threatening, especially for the Swedish shipping interest. When the Court of Denmark shows an ill-will against that of Sweden by calling back their ambassador without his taking leave, it looks very badly, and the whole North in this case will be involved in war for the sake of France and England.

I commend myself to your constant favour, and I, with profound deference, have the honour to remain always

Your obedient servant,

       JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, September 1, 1759.

To Mr. Em. Swedenborg, Assessor in the Royal College of Mines, Stockholm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 229

DOCUMENT 215.

BARON VOS HATZEL* TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.**

* Some particulars respecting Baron von Hatzel are furnished by Count Gustavus von Bonde in Document 216.

** The German original of this letter is contained in the Bergius Collection, Vol. XVI, p. 278, in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Well-born Sir,

From my venerable, pious, and deeply learned friend, his Excellency Count G. Bonde,175 I first heard of the extraordinary insight and illumination wherewith the Almighty has been pleased to gift you; but subsequently I was able to perceive and see it more clearly by the writings which you have published in London, and some of which I have read with amazement. Now, as from my early youth, with the talent which God has entrusted to me, I have striven after truth, and have preferred theosophy to all other things, the desire has sprung up in me not only to make your acquaintance, but also in many things to become your disciple, and by following the same way in which you began and have succeeded so well, to reach, under your guidance, the same fountain of wisdom and intelligence, and taste of its waters; and in making this request of you I am not impelled by the desire to become great, or wealthy, or distinguished above others, but only to acquire wisdom. As you will not be displeased with my motive, and as you can be convinced of its purity by the spirits with whom at your own pleasure you hold familiar intercourse; and as you yourself know and teach that all good is and must be communicated to others, I therefore flatter myself that you will promote what I intend, and not withhold your help, and, especially, that you will kindly point out to me in which of the five books of Moses, in, which chapter, and in which two verses, lies concealed the power of entering into consort with spirits;*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 230 likewise, how this power is to be used, and how one must comport himself. It is a great favour which I here ask from you whom I love; yet, if I consider that true love refuses nothing, I am confident that you will the more readily grant my request, as you may rest assured, that I seek the good and the true solely for the sake of the good and the true and for the sake of their use; and that I shall be most profoundly grateful to you, my amiable preceptor, and prepared at all times to render any service in return. If you comply with my request, you will thereby facilitate and promote very much my intention to translate all your writings into the High German and French languages, in order that the Divine Truths contained therein may be made accessible even to the uneducated. Will you kindly take my ideas, or rather my request, into consideration, and examine whether I am a capable subject or not, and act according to your discretion; and whatever you may do, I shall be pleased therewith, and submit to your judgment respecting me? Should you be inclined to accept the testimony of his Excellency Count von Bonde, he will willingly speak in my favour, and endeavour to prevail upon you to answer me. He will also undertake to forward to me the letters with which you may graciously favour me. As soon as I receive your reply to which I look forward eagerly, I shall take the liberty frankly to communicate to you some points which have struck me in reading your writings. But meanwhile I pray that God may keep you for many years in a state of health, and that He may speed His work through you.

* The idea that there are two verses in the Sacred Scripture by which man receives the power of holding converse with spirits, has been widely spread among necromancers of all ages.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 231

I commend myself to you with all due consideration, and have the honour to remain, with profound esteem and genuine love,

Your obedient and faithful servant,

       L. BARON VON HATZEL,
Chevalier Grand Croix de I'Ordre Constantinien de St. George.

P. S. Have you ever read Edelmann's176 writings? What do you think of them?


DOCUMENT 216.

COUNT GUSTAVUS BONDE175 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*       

* A copy made from the original Document is contained in the Bergius Collection, Vol. XVI, p. 280, in the Library of the academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Well-born assessor,

On account of our old friendship I hope you will not be displeased at the freedom I take in recommending to you one of my friends in Holland, and the request he makes in the enclosed letter. His name and address are as follows: M. d'Hatzel, Baron, Chevalier et Grand Croix de l'Orde Constantinien, Rotterdam. After corresponding with him for several years on matters connected with medicine and some other sciences in which he is versed, he wrote to me in the spring that he had read some of your rare writings, and had heard that their author was living here in Sweden; wherefore he begged me very much to inquire about it, and to let him know. On receiving my answer he sent me the enclosed letter begging me to recommend its contents to you in the best manner. As his handwriting is very indistinct and illegible, I have had it copied, that you may read and understand it better.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 232 In his letter to me he writes that he has derived inexpressible pleasure and light from your writings in matters on which he has speculated for many years; wherefore he begged me the more to advocate his request. If you choose to grant his desire, and send me a reply to his letter, I will take care to get it into the hands of the owner.

I willingly make use of this occasion to remind you of a kind promise you made, to honour me this summer with a visit, and to examine my little garden, so far as it deserves this name; when you may rest assured that you will be more than welcome, and when I shall have an opportunity of assuring you still more of the constant esteem with which I

Your most dutiful servant,

       GUSTAVUS BONDE.
Hssleby, (Hesselby), August 7, 1760.

DOCUMENT 217.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO COUNT GUSTAVUS BONDE.175*

* The original of this important letter is preserved in the Archives of the Bonde Family in Sfstaholm, (see Forssell, Catalogue of the MSS. preserved in Sfstaholm). A copy of the original letter countersigned by Count G. A. Sparre and Baron Axel Hjalmar Leijonhufvud, was most kindly forwarded by these two nobles to the Editor of these Documents, on February 22, 1869. A copy prepared from Swedenborg's original draught of the letter is contained in the Bergius Collection, Vol. XVI, p. 281.

Your Excellency,

I thank you for the honour of your letter, and your very kind invitation to Hesselby. The letter from Baron Hatzel of Rotterdam, which you enclosed to me, I ought, in conformity with his wishes, to have answered; but as it concerns the writings which were lately published in England, and which appeared without my name, on that account I must not enter into any literary connection with any one abroad, and thereby acknowledge myself as their author.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 233 But it is different in my own country. Those abroad, however, may be answered through the medium of others; and I therefore humbly beg that you will remember me kindly to him, and excuse my not being able to give him an answer with my own hand; you will express to him also my pleasure at his having derived satisfaction and light from the perusal of these writings, which is a sign of his having been in a state of illustration from heaven; for the matters which are there treated of cannot be comprehended without illustration, since they do not belong to the external but to the internal understanding. With respect to some verses in the books of Moses, which possess the property and power of introducing man to intercourse with spirits or enabling him to speak with them; I do not know of any verses in Scripture which have this property more than others; I only know that the Word of God is everywhere written in such a style, that when a man reads it with affection and attention, spirits and angels have a part in it, and adjoin themselves to him; for the Word of God is so written that it forms a bond of union between heaven and earth (see what is written on this subject in the work on Heaven and Hell, nos. 303 to 310). The Lord, nevertheless, so disposes it, that spirits and men are seldom brought together so closely as to converse with one another;** for by intercourse with spirits men are brought into such a condition as to their souls, that they are speedily in danger of their life;*** wherefore I would dissuade all from cherishing such desires. The Lord Himself has been pleased to introduce me into converse and intercourse with spirits and angels for the reasons which have been explained in my writings; wherefore I am protected by the Lord Himself from the many desperate attempts and attacks of evil spirits.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 234 The way in which spirits and men are kept apart is this; spirits are kept in spiritual, and men in natural, thought and speech; whereby they are separated so as to make one only by correspondences; the nature of which has likewise been treated of. As long therefore as spirits are in a spiritual, and men in a natural state, they are not brought together so as to converse with one another, although they are together in affection; but when spirits converse with men they are out of their spiritual state, and in a natural state like men, and then they may bring them into danger of soul and life, as has been stated above. For this reason they have to be kept apart, so that the spirits do not know anything of man, nor man of them, although they are always together; for man cannot live unless he be associated with spirits, through whom he is connected with heaven and hell, and thereby receives his life.

* In his original draught Swedenborg had added here the following words: "The bookseller who has these writings for sale has also been forbidden to make my name known."

** In the original draft the following words are added here: "for this is more dangerous than men suppose."

*** The following words are added in the original draft: "Unless the Lord Himself bring them into this condition, and take them under His care, I and protect them specially, as is the case with me."              

I am bold enough to pray you most humbly to write to Baron Hatzel; remember me kindly to him, give him my excuse, and communicate to him, as an answer to his letter, as much as you please of what I have here written; for he writes on this subject in his letter to me, and desires information. I remain, with all deference and respect,

Your most humble servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, August 11, 1760.

DOCUMENT 218.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO COUNT GUSTAVUS HPKEN.285*

* The copy of Swammerdam's Biblia Natur presented by Swedenborg to Count Hpken containing the Swedish original of the above letter is now in the possession of Prof. Lovn of the Carolinska Institutet in Stockholm.

Your Excellency,

When I had the honour of being with you, I promised to send you my Regnum Minerale; but on looking for it I found that it was gone, and I remembered then that I had given it to the Library in Stockholm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 235 In order to fulfil my promise I send you instead Swammerdam's Biblia Natur, which will perhaps interest you more than the Regnum Minerale. I have no longer any use for this book, since my attention has been directed from natural to spiritual things.

I remain with deference,

       Your most humble servant,

              EM. SWEDENBORG.
April 10, [1760?]


DOCUMENT 219.

SIXTH LETTER OF J. WRETMAN174 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original of this Document is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London (see footnote to Document 210).

Well-born Sir and kind Patron,

I was very much pleased to learn from your favour of June 21, that the pyramids of box-tree which I forwarded to you, have arrived safely, and that they meet with your approval. I have been also informed by my brother that the amount charged has been paid to him; for which I express to you my best thanks. A better opportunity could not have occurred, than when I sent it at your desire by Capt. John Frederic Last, with very small charges for freight.

Four figures of box-tree, packed in baskets, at
5 florins 5 stivers                                                 21       --
Baskets, earth, straw, &c.                                          1       4
Invoice, customs' examination, and taking on board              1       16
Sound dues and agio                                                        10
The whole sum in Dutch currency                                    24       10

Will you kindly pay this sum, like the last, to my brother, John Wretman in Stockholm, and also ask Mr. Peter Hultman,111 on the strength of the contract which I made with the skipper, to have the figures delivered to him, and to give them good quarters.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 236 You must not think that they are dear, because they require several years' growth and watchful care before they are so far ready as to do service in the held, and I hope also that like faithful grenadiers they will stick to their posts.* I desire nothing more than that they may please you, and that I may forever enjoy the favour of being

Your humble servant,

       JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, September 27, 1760.

* Respecting these box-trees, which were planted before Swedenborg's house, see Document 5, no. 6.

To Mr. Emanuel Swedenborg, Assessor in the Royal College of Mines, Stockholm.

DOCUMENT 220.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO BISHOP FULENIUS.9*

* The Swedish original of this letter is preserved in the Cathedral-Library of Linkping among the letters of Bishop Filenius.

Right Reverend Doctor and Bishop,

Most honoured Brother,

       I had the honour of receiving your favour in which you informed me of the engagement which has since terminated in the marriage of your and my sister's daughter, Anna Dorothea Filenia, with Magister Samuel lf,177 professor and lector. With all my heart I wish them success and happiness; and may they be long and permanently blessed therewith, to their own and their parents' heartfelt joy, which will also be a joy to me.

With deference and hearty congratulations for a blessed New Year I remain, Right Reverend Doctor and Bishop,

Your most humble servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, January: 6, 1763.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 237

DOCUMENT 221.

FIRST LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* Swedenborg's letters to Dr. Beyer came at an early period into the possession of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm; where they were preserved among the Swedenborg MSS. Together with the original draughts of some of the letters which had remained in Swedenborg's possession these letters were bound in one volume at the expense of Augustus Nordenskld (see Note 35, Vol. I, p. 639). In a catalogue of the MSS. prepared by Secretary Wilcke, who died in 1796, it is stated that this volume was "lent to Wadstrm."36 Of the nineteen letters belonging to the Collection, sixteen mere printed in the ASamlingar fr Philantroper," a Journal published by the Philanthropic Exegetic Society in Stockholm during 1788 and 1789 (see Note 20, Vol. I, p. 692). The letters seem to have remained afterwards in the possession of one of the heirs of Gustaf J. Billberg, Secretary of the Society "Pro Fide et Charitate" (see Note 119, Vol. I, p. 705), until some time in 1866 or 1867, when they were unfortunately dispersed. In 1868 and 1869 the Editor of these Documents obtained a clue to the whereabouts of some of the letters, and the Librarian Ahlstrand of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, acting on his information, succeeded in establishing the proprietorship of the Academy to them. Mainly through the exertions of T. A. af Billbergh, Fiscal-Advocate in the Court of Appeals, most of the letters have been restored to the Library of the Academy. A few he was unable to regain; one of these has since found its way into the British Museum, where it is exhibited in one of the glass-cases. Ten of the letters which were published in the ASamlingar fr Philantroper," appeared in an English translation in the New Jerusalem Magazine of 1790, and from that source they were introduced by Dr. Im. Tafel into Part II of his German collection of the Swedenborg Documents; to these he subsequently added six of the remaining letters which had been published in the Swedish periodical. All these letters were introduced into the enlarged edition of the English translation of the Swedenborg Documents, published in 1855; but only fourteen of them are in the American reprint of 1847.

The original of the above letter which has never before appeared in print, is preserved in the Library of the academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Reverend Doctor,

As an opportunity offers, I make use of it to send you the beginning of the Apocalypsis Revelata, so far as it is printed. I send you two copies. The remainder, or as much as may then have appeared, will follow next spring, so as to complete your copies.

I remain in all friendship

       Your obedient servant,

              EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, October 1, 1765.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 238

DOCUMENT 222.

DR. BEYER22 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* A copy taken from the Swedish original is contained in the Bergius Collection, Vol. XVI, p. 275, in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Well-born Sir,

A long felt sense of duty impels me to return you my humble thanks for the printed sheets of the Apocalypsis Revelata which you kindly sent me. Since receiving them my zeal has very much increased, and I rejoice at the good hope which you kindly hold out in respect to it. It cannot be otherwise, when one ponders over it more deeply, than that the spiritual sense reigns in this book hitherto so completely sealed. The desire was long since awakened in me, and becomes stronger from day to day, to go through the whole of your theological writings; and by the kindness of my cousin I have succeeded in getting most of them into my hands, and have also had the opportunity to read a great part of them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 239 I refrain from describing to you the joy I have often experienced, and how the glorious truths are beginning to shine before me; also how, in accordance with my wishes, I should not rest until I had read all the writings over and over again, were I not prevented by my daily occupations and engagements. I was pleased to see in the light of the sound and genuine philology of modern times, that your system of doctrine does not militate against it, but rather seems to kindle a purer light. But I have, nevertheless, been troubled for some time that you do not anywhere speak of the writings of the apostles as being God's Word. They had likewise an immediate influx of God's Spirit; they were God-inspired ([scanner unable to insert word]) in no less a degree than the prophets. It has also seemed to me as if you were not willing to look upon their writings and declarations as correct in every way. Several things have occurred to me to afford some solution of it; and I respectfully submit to you whether it is to be understood that according to your opinion the apostles were certainly influenced by God's Spirit, and indeed to such a degree that, in agreement with God's distinct promise, the very words were instilled into them; but that the difference must be attributed to the doctrine, and the word out of which doctrine is derived, which had to be accommodated to the comprehension and the method of thought prevailing in the churches of that time; so that not the same relation of correspondence in spiritual and heavenly things can exist in their word and doctrine, as in the remaining portions of God's Word, which me have; but that the doctrine of the apostles was, nevertheless, pure, correct, and Divine. Paul, so far as I can see, certainly does not differ from you in the doctrine of faith, of good works, imputation, &c.; and he seems to confirm, in Hebrews, v, 11 to 14, the unpretending view which I have expressed above. I should like some expression from you on this subject, if it could be done without inconvenience to you. Another wish I have besides, to see the subject of marriage fully treated of, which among those who have delicate feelings awakens embarrassing questions of conscience, and by the generality of men is not well understood, and still less properly explained.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 240

The great kindness you have already shown me, emboldens me to ask you to procure for me through Captain Sjgrd volumes I, II and VIII of the Arcana, Coelestia, i. e. everything before no. 2760 and after no. 9442. Mr. Beyer promises to pay for them in his account with Messrs. Hasselgren. All the remaining books have arrived from England, but these they were unable to find. I am under the sense of no small loss, as long as I have no access to them. I am also dissatisfied with myself for daring to cause you so much trouble. With all deference I remain

Your humble servant,

       GABRIEL ANDERSSON BEYER.
Gottenburg, March 18, 1766.

DOCUMENT 223.

SECOND LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this Document is Letter II in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper," from which the above translation has been made. In the English and American editions of the Swedenborg Documents this Document, in a translation taken from the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790 (p. 139), figures as no. I of Swedenborg's Letters to Dr. Beyer.

[Reverend Doctor],

I have at last brought the Book of Revelation to a close, and send you eight copies of it; two bound, and six in sheets, which you will please to dispose of in the following manner: one copy for yourself, one for the Bishop,* one for the Dean,** one for Dr. Rosn,45 one for the burgomaster, Mr. Petterson, one for the library; the two remaining copies you may lend out to your friends. At the conclusion of every chapter there are memorable relations separated from the text by asterisks which you will please to read over first. From these a thorough knowledge may be gathered of the wretched state into which the Reformed Churches have been brought by Faith alone. I am now going from this place to England, where some noise is probably being made, on account of the bishops of England being somewhat severely treated in the memorable relations; yet necessity required it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 241 I remain [with all friendship]

Your obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, April 8, 1766.

* Bishop Lamberg (see Note 178).

** Dr. Ekebom (see Note 179).

DOCUMENT 224.

THIRD LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original from which the above translation has been made is preserved in the British Museum in London; part of it was printed as Letter III of the "Samlingar fr Philantroper." A translation of this portion constitutes Letter II in the English and American editions of the Swedenborg Documents, taken from the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, p. 140.


Reverend Doctor,

I had the pleasure yesterday to receive your favour of the 18th of March. This week I will go to London, and towards the close of July or the beginning of August I intend to return to Sweden, when I shall be pleased to renew my conversations with you at Gottenburg.

I learn from your letter that you did not receive Vols. I, II, and VIII of the Arcana Coelestia, when yet the person in London has still some complete copies in stock. As soon as I arrive there, I will inquire how this has happened, and send you the missing volumes; or else I will forward you a complete copy, without any payment whatever.

In respect to the writings of the apostles and Paul, I have not quoted them in the Arcana Coelestia, because they are doctrinal writings, and consequently are not written in the style of the Word, like those of the prophets, of David, of the Evangelists, and the Book of Revelation. The style of the Word consists altogether of correspondences, wherefore it is effective of immediate communication with heaven; but in doctrinal writings there is a different style, which has indeed communication with heaven, but mediately.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 242 They were written thus by the apostles, that the new Christian Church might be commenced through them; wherefore matters of doctrine could not be written in the style of the Word, but they had to be expressed in such a manner, as to be understood more clearly and intimately. The writings of the apostles are, nevertheless, good books of the church, insisting upon the doctrine of charity and its faith as strongly as the Lord Himself has done in the Gospels and the Book of Revelation; as may be seen and found evident by every one who in reading them directs his attention to these points. That Paul's expression in Romans ii, 25, concerning Justification by Faith, has been quite misunderstood, is proved in the Apocalypsis Revelata, no. 417, to which you may refer; wherefore the doctrine of Justification by Faith alone, which constitutes the theology of the Reformed churches at the present day, is built on an entirely false foundation. With my kindest remembrances to your and my friends, I remain with esteem,

Your obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, April 15, 1766.

DOCUMENT 225.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO THE [SWEDISH] AMBASSADOR [IN PARIS].*

* The Swedish original of this letter is lost. The English translation of which the above is a reproduction with a slight alteration of style, was first published in the appendix to the second edition of "A theosophic treatise on Influx," by Swedenborg, which appeared in 1784. The appendix was also published under the separate title of "An Eulogium on the lately deceased Mr. Emanuel Swedenborg, to which is added a variety of anecdotes and observations on Mr. Swedenborg," &c. (p. 35). The original draughts of Documents 225, 226, and 239 seem to have been discovered by the brothers Nordenskld among the Swedenborg MSS., and brought to London in 1583 by C. F. Nordenskld (see Note 20, Vol. I, p. 622).--The letter does not seem to be addressed to the Swedish ambassador at the Hague, because Swedenborg speaks of having put the books "in charge of a captain," and he desires to be informed in London whether "the books have arrived." That the letter was written to the Ambassador in France is made probable from the fact that two copies of the work were addressed to the "Cardinal de Rohan," who was a Frenchman and lived in Paris. The Swedish ambassador in Paris, at the time when Swedenborg wrote the above letter, was Count Ulric Scheffer, with whose brother, Senator C. F. Scheffer, he was intimately acquainted, and whom, with Senators von Hpken and Palmstjerna, he had defended before the Swedish Diet in 1761, (see Document 196). That Swedenborg, about the time when this letter was written, sent a box of books to France appears from Document 238.

Your Excellency,

I passed the winter at Amsterdam, and during that period published an Explanation of the Book or Revelation, entitled Apocalypsis Revelata, containing arcana hitherto unrevealed.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 243 I have sent your Excellency twenty copies of it. Messrs. Howen and Zoon are acquainted with the captain who has charge of them. Two copies of the work I addressed to the Cardinal de Rohan,* two to the Royal Society of Sciences, two to the Secretary of State, and one is intended for the Royal Library. In the same work are inserted various Memorable Relations of my intercourse with the spiritual world; these are separated from the test by asterisks, and are placed at the end of the explanation of each chapter: as they contain some remarkable particulars, they will probably excite the reader to a first perusal. Besides this I have published a New Method for finding the Longitude, which I discovered in my youth.** Of this I send your Excellency ten copies, that you may distribute them to such as possess a knowledge of astronomy. Should a suitable opportunity present itself, I shall esteem it a favour, if your Excellency would send two copies of it to the Royal Society in Berlin. This week I shall set out for London, where I intend to stay about ten weeks, and where I may be informed whether the books have arrived.

* Cardinal de Rohan-Gumen was born in 1734, and on account of his distinguished birth was raised at an early period to the dignity of Archbishop of Strasburg. One of his ancestors, Duc Henri de Rohan, had been one of the chiefs of the Huguenots; and the family had always been favourably inclined towards Protestantism; which seems to have been one of the reasons why Swedenborg presented the Cardinal with two copies of his Apocalypsis Revelata. This distinguished prelate died in 1803.

**Concerning this edition of the AMethod for finding the Longitude," see Document 203.

[EM. SWEDENBORG.]
[Amsterdam, about May or June, 1766.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 244

DOCUMENT 226.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE [IN STOCKHOLM].*

* The above Document was published in the English language in 1784, in the Appendix to the second edition of Swedenborg's "Intercourse between the Soul and the Body;" where the Swedish original is is not known. For further particulars respecting the history of this document see the footnote to Document 225.

I have at last finished the explanation of the Book of Revelation, and circulated it in all the universities in Holland, Germany, France, and England; and am going to send seventy copies to Stockholm, of which your honour will please to take five, and give them to the following senators: Senator Hpken,28 Senator Scheffer,l36 likewise to Nordencrantz,l33 the counsellor of commerce, and Bishops Menander180 and Sereniusils;181 the other five you will please to distribute among your friends. The remaining sixty copies I desire to be kept safe until my return home. I intend to distribute them among the academies and libraries of Sweden, and among clergymen who are qualified for a more than ordinary position. Four I intend to present to the Court, and the remainder to universities and [theological] seminaries in foreign parts. It will give me great pleasure to hear of your own and your dear father's welfare.

I remain

       Your [obedient servant,]

              [EM. SWEDENBORG'S.]
[Amsterdam, about May or June, 1766.]

P. S. I shall depart for London this week.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 245


DOCUMENT 227.

FOURTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The original of this hitherto unpublished letter of Swedenborg to Dr. Beyer, is preserved among the Swedenborg MSS. in the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Reverend Doctor,

I send you herewith a complete set of the Arcana Coelestia, and likewise the last volume of those which were still wanting in yours; they are, however, all unbound. I thought at first of bringing them to you myself; but I changed my mind about; travelling to Gottenburg, as an opportunity offered of going to Stockholm directly, which will be next week. Should any one be able to make use of my travelling carriage on his way to Stockholm, or should any one wish to buy it, it may be left to them.

The unbound copy of the Arcana Coelestia is a present for the Bishop,* to whom you will please to give my best respects; as well as to my friends. With friendship and a desire to serve you I am

Your most obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
London, August 22, 1766.

* Bishop Lamberg (see Note 178).

To the Reverend Doctor Beyer, Gottenburg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 246

DOCUMENT 228.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG* TO ARCHBISHOP MENANDER.180*

* A copy of the Latin original of this Document was discovered by the Editor during his stay in Sweden in 1869. From this the above translation has been made. In 1784 an English translation of this letter was published in the appendix to the first English edition of the "Doctrine of the Lord;" and in 1785 a French translation appeared in the appendix to the French edition of the "Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," published in London. From the latter Dr Im. Tafel prepared the translation which he included in his German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents." The English translation of this letter which is contained both in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents" was prepared by the English editor either from the French translation of 1785, or from Dr. Tafel's German translation.

Most reverend Doctor and Bishop,

I send you a lucubration of my youth on finding the longitude of places by land and sea by means of the moon, which has just been published at Amsterdam,* and communicated to the learned societies and universities; and I would kindly ask you to put it into the hands of the professor of astronomy at bo, so that if it meets with his approval, he may put it in practice. Several in foreign parts at present compute ephemerides by pairs of stars according to this method; and after they have been computed for several years, a great practical use is expected from them.

* Concerning this edition of the "Method for finding the Longitude," see Document 203.

The Apocalypse has now been explained, or rather revealed, but I have not yet met with opportunity for sending it to you, and at the same time to the Library.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 247

Will you kindly point out to me some one in Stockholm who will take the copies in charge?

The question is discussed by some, whether the present day is the consummation of the age, and at the same time the Coming of the Lord, and [the establishment of] a New Church by Him. Some believe that the faith of the present day, which is a faith in God the Father for the sake of the Son, is the real saving faith; but in the Apocalypsis Revelata it is shown that that faith has destroyed the church, that it has abolished religion, and that it has thus devastated and consummated all things of worship, so that there is no longer any truth nor any good, and that the works which are called the fruits of that faith, are nothing else than such eggs as are treated of in Isa. lix, 5; wherefore they who have confirmed themselves in that faith with its [spider's] web, and who believe that the goods which they do are the fruits of that faith, are very much deceived and in a state of delirium; nor can they be led out of this state except by rejecting the confirmation of that faith, and by adopting faith in Jesus Christ, which contains no such things; concerning this faith see "The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem respecting Faith," nos. 34 to 37.

The falsities of the faith of the present time are these: First, That the Lord has taken away the damnation of the Law; when yet He has not taken away the least jot of the Law; for every one will be judged according to his works, Rom. 11, 10, 13; 2 Cor. v, 10, &c. But the Lord has taken away damnation, because without His coming into the world no one could have been saved. Secondly, That the Lord has fulfilled the Law is, indeed, the truth; for thereby He has alone become justice or righteousness; but thereby He has not delivered man from the Law: for the Lord fulfils it with all those who shun their evils as sins, and approach Him only; because they who shun certain sins which they discover in themselves, are in the effort to shun all sins, as soon as they become acquainted with them. Thirdly, That the Lord's merit should be imputed to man, is a thing impossible; the Lord's merits are two in number, viz., His having subjugated hell, and His having glorified His humanity.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 248 These two cannot be imputed to another; but by them He acquired the power of saving those men approach Him, who examine themselves, and shun their evils as sins. Fourthly, That God the Father should be approached in prayer, and be asked to have mercy for the sake of the Son, and to send the Holy Spirit, is an inverted may of worship, and also conveys a clear idea of three gods, viz. that the Father is one, the Son another, and the Holy Spirit a third; and if it is declared that by the Son is understood His human nature, then the idea of the Lord becomes that of two. Fifthly, That man is justified by an oral profession of the above faith, provided it be done with confidence and assurance, is false, see Romans n, 10; James i, 22. In such a faith there is neither truth nor good, nor consequently anything of the church, nor of religion; for the truth of doctrine constitutes the church, and the good of life religion. Sixthly, It is maintained that good works or the goods of charity are the fruits of that faith; when yet the nexus between that faith and good works has not yet been discovered by the community of the church; nay, it is declared that good works by no means preserve or retain faith; and that therefore there are no other works of that faith except such as are of the Holy Spirit interiorly in man, concerning which man himself knows nothing; while any good works which he may do himself, are simply moral and civil goods, which contribute nothing whatever to man's salvation. Seventhly, That the saying of Paul, in Romans iii, 28, on which the theology of the present day in respect to salvation is founded, is falsely understood, hits been clearly shown in the Apocalypsis Revelata, no. 417. Besides these there are many other things which I do not mention here, from which it may appear, that if any one produces fruits from that faith, he produces those eggs which are treated of in Isa. lix, 5. For it is taught in the New Church that faith can never produce the goods of charity, as a tree produces its fruits; but that the truths which are called the truths of faith teach how man ought to think concerning God, and how he ought to act towards his neighbour, and that charity receives these truths in its goods, as the fruits receive their juices and their flavour from the tree; and that thus the juices and flavours of the fruits or good works springing from the faith of the present day, which is treated of above, consist of the confirmations of this faith, which are falsities; these are contained in its goods, of which man is ignorant, but which is felt by the angels.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 249

[EM SWEDENBORG.]
[Stockholm, middle of September, 1766; see Document 203, A and B.]

DOCUMENT 229.

FIRST LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO C. F. TINGER.182*

* The Latin original of this Document, from which the above translation has been made, was printed in Volume IV of Clemm's "Vollstndige Einleitung in die Religion und gesammte Theologie" (Complete Introduction to Religion and the whole of Theology), Tbingen, 1767; it was afterwards reprinted in Dr. Im. Tafel's German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," and in 1856 it was inserted in the enlarged English edition of these Documents ("Supplement," p. 76). The first English translation of this letter was published in the Appendix to the second edition of the "Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," London, 1784; where it is stated on p. 41, that it was prepared from the Danish translation. This translation was republished in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790: p. 34; and afterwards in the "Intellectual Repository" for 1840, p. 356. The same translation was afterwards introduced into the English and American editions of Dr. Im. Tafel's "Swedenborg Documents."

Having returned within the last few days from a journey abroad to Holland and England, I received two of your letters, the one dated October 13, 1765, together with the other; for which I offer you my thanks. The words: "From things heard and seen" (ex auditis et visis) I have inscribed on five works, 1. Heaven and Hell, 2. The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine, 3. The Last Judgment, 4. The White Horse, 5. The Inhabitants of the Planets. The following works were published afterwards: 1. Of the Lord, 2. Of the Sacred Scripture, 3. The Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem, 4. Of Faith, 5. Of the Spiritual World, 6. The Wisdom of the Angels respecting the Divine Providence, 7. The Wisdom of the Angels respecting the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 250 These seven works, however, do not exceed seventy-two sheets; This year there has been published the Apocalypsis Revelata, which was promised in the treatise on "The Last Judgment," and from which it may be clearly seen that I converse with angels, because not the smallest verse in the Apocalypse can be understood without revelation. Who can help seeing that by the New Jerusalem is understood a New Church, and that its doctrines can be discovered only by the Lord alone, because they are described there by mere typical things, i. e. by correspondences; and, likewise, that these can be published to the world only by means of some one to whom a revelation has been granted? I can solemnly bear witness that the Lord Himself has appeared to me, and that He has sent me to do that which I am doing now, and that for this purpose He has opened the interiors of my mind, which are those of my spirit, so that I may see those things which are in the spiritual world, and hear those who are there, and which [privilege] I have had now for twenty-two years. The mere bearing witness, however, does not suffice at the present day to convince men of this; but any one of a sound understanding may be confirmed by the testimony of my writings, and especially by the Apocalypsis Revelata. Who has heretofore known anything about the spiritual sense of the Word? and about the spiritual world or heaven and hell? also, about man's life after death? Should these and many other things be perpetually hidden from Christians? They have now for the first time been disclosed for the sake of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, that they [its members] may know them; others, indeed, shall also know them, who yet do not know them on account of their unbelief.

The works which I mention above are sold by Mr. Lewis, Paternoster Row, near Cheapside, London, England. These writings of mine concerning the New Jerusalem cannot be called prophecies, but revelations.

Farewell, and remember kindly

       Yours sincerely,

              EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, September 23, 1766.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 251

DOCUMENT 230.

FIFTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this Document is preserved among the Swedenborg MSS. in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It is printed in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper," of 1788 as Letter IV. The first English translation was made by Mr. J. Strand, and printed as Letter II. in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, p. 31; thence it was introduced as Letter III into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."

Reverend Doctor,

I arrived here in Stockholm as early as September 8. The trip from England was made in eight days; a favourable wind increasing to a perfect storm carried the ship along in this style. I have since received yours of the 17th inst., and am glad to hear that yourself and my other friends at Gottenburg are well. You will please remember me kindly to them all.

I wish much blessing to the intended "Collection of Sermons" (Prdiko Bibliotheket); and I send you herewith my subscription for it. I presume you will use all necessary precaution in this work, because the time has not yet arrived when the essentials of the New Church can be received in this manner. It is difficult to convince the clergy, who have been confirmed in their dogmas at the universities: for all confirmations in matters of theology are, as it were, glued fast in the brain, and can with difficulty be removed; and as long as they are there, genuine truths can have no place. Besides, the New Heaven of Christians out of which the New Jerusalem will descend from the Lord, Rev. xxi, 1, 2, is not yet fully established.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 252

Here in Stockholm it is now generally believed that faith and charity must advance together, and that the one cannot exist without the other, as good works are the fruits of faith, and show themselves in a state of justification. Very few among the Lutherans, however, think beyond this; although the learned have not yet discovered any nexus between faith and good works; wherefore they class good works entirely among moral and civil things, and hence call them good, yet without their availing anything for salvation; besides several other things. They are also right in this, because from such a faith no other works can be derived; it is different with faith in Jesus Christ.

With respect to the Lord's Divine Humanity, it is not opposed to the Formula Concordi, where we are taught that "in Christ God is Man, and Man is God," and where Paul's statement is confirmed that "in Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily;" besides other passages.

Of the writings of Bhme* I am unable to judge, as I have never read them. I remain with respect and friendship

Your obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, September 25, 1766.

* See Notes 40 and 41.

To the Reverend Doctor Gabriel Andersson Beyer, Gottenburg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 253

DOCUMENT 231.

C. F. TINGER182 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* This letter was originally written in the Latin language; a German translation was published in 1767 by Dr. Clemm in his "Vollstndige Einleitung," &c. (see footnote to Document 229), p. 210, and reprinted by Dr. Im. Tafel in his German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents" (p. 350 to 364). It has never before been translated into English.

                            Stuttgart, October 7, 1766.

As I am here on matters of the Diet (Landschaft), I received yesterday your favour of September 23. I have in the mean time obtained the catalogue of your books, and have read the remaining books, especially that which treats of the Wisdom of the Angels;* and have found therein much that agrees with the Holy Scripture. But, my dear Sir, you will scarcely be willing to believe how much I had to suffer on your account, for having translated merely the things seen recorded in the first volume of your work.**

* Prelate tinger means here "The Wisdom of the Angels respecting the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom," and "The Wisdom of the angels respecting the Divine Providence."

** In his work entitled: "The Earthly and Heavenly Philosophy of Swedenborg and others" (Swedenborg's und anderer Irdische und Himmlische Philosophie, Frankfort and Leipzig, 1765), tinger had translated the memorable relations appended to the various chapters in the first volume of the Arcana Coelestia.

You solemnly bear witness in your letter that the Lord Himself appeared to you and sent you to do that which you are now doing. I believe that your sight has been opened like that of Gehazi to see things which are without a parallel. I believe that from having been a celebrated philosopher you have become a prophet* and seer, as has been the case in the first times.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 254 But as the spirits of the prophets who speak from the spirit, are subject to the prophets to whom it is granted to speak according to the spirit, 1 Cor. xii, 1, you will have no objection to being tried.

* Swedenborg expressly repudiates in his first letter to tinger (Document 229) the character of a prophet which he attributes to him here; for he says, "My writings concerning the New Jerusalem cannot be called prophecies, but revelations."

Is not the Sacred Scripture, yea the Holy Revelation, a book to which all have access who read and hear? We read in Isa. xxxiv, 16, "Seek ye in the Book of the Lord; no one of these shall fail." An inhabitant of this earth is therefore told to seek even before he has received from you the discovery of the spiritual sense. If nothing of the unknown things of heaven may be understood without you, the Revelation, before your time, has been read in vain.* But it is given there to understand, that all have to expect a city whose architect is God.**

* Dr. Imanuel Tafel in reply to this says (p. 351), "This is a most incorrect conclusion. For is it the only purpose of the Sacred Scripture, to teach us 'the unknown things of heaven?' The Sacred Scripture has not been among men in vain, if it gave to each at all times what he then needed and was able to comprehend; and, according to Swedenborg, this knowledge the Sacred Scripture was able to dispense even before the revelation of the spiritual sense. It is quite possible, however, that our wants at the present time are different from what they were in former times; and, likewise, that our faculty of comprehension at the present time is more matured than it was formerly, and this might very well have been the reason why the spiritual sense is discovered now and was not before; besides, the revelation of the spiritual sense at the present time does not exclude the possibility of some, according to their need and their faculty of comprehension, discovering some things of the spiritual sense before, although not so clearly, and not so correctly."

** The same writer says (p. 381), "Certainly, 'a city was to be expected whose architect would be God;' yet it would be absurd, and at the same time contradictory, to understand a material city thereby; for by comparing collateral portions of Scripture, it becomes very evident that a spiritual city must be understood by it."

What new doubts you raise thereby in me, who have been so anxious to hear of your discoveries! The world is unbelieving enough, without your depriving it of the power of understanding a real city by God's city.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 255 You say it must be understood spiritually. Please send me another reply before you die; or doubts will enter into our minds even on what you have stated concerning man's state after death.

Jehovah appeared unto Gideon (Judges vi, 4), saying, "I have sent thee." Gideon replied, "Shew me a sign that thou talkest with me." You have given us several remarkable signs touching man's existence after death. They are important, but not sufficient to cause us to believe that the Revelation of John is to be understood only spiritually, and not corporeally and literally. You also, I suppose, have asked for signs; but your signs are not for us. Give us a sign that your doctrine of the New Jerusalem is true; God cannot say anything contradictory to His spirit. I pray you therefore to crave permission from the Lord, who has appeared to you, to interrogate John as to the truth of your explanation. As you have conversed with Enos, you may unhesitatingly demand to speak with the twelve apostles and with Paul, whose epistles you do not quote. Or would you have us believe you rather than Paul, and rather than John? Does not Paul say, "Should any one preach another gospel unto you, let him be accursed?"* Why do you never make mention in your writings of having conversed with the twelve apostles or the twenty-four elders?

* Dr. Immanuel Tafel retorts here (p. 353), "This passage does not apply to Swedenborg; for by 'another gospel' tinger understood here either a new Word of God, or a new doctrine from the Word opposed to that which was preached by the apostles. Yet Swedenborg never pretended to publish a new Word of God, and it would have to be proved first that his doctrine is contradictory to that preached by the apostles. But the fact of Swedenborg's revealing many new things in the former Word, i. e. many things which were heretofore not noticed in it, and his confirming these things by corresponding experiences, does not by any means militate against the Word of God and against the doctrine of the apostles; but, on the contrary, is quite in conformity therewith."

But suppose, as Paul says, a false angel of light, who is opposed to the literal sense of John's Revelation, should have resolved and said, "I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of Swedenborg" (2 Chron. xviii).

How important the Word spoken by Jesus at the end of the Revelation (xuii, 18), "If any one shall add,------and if any one shall take away from the words."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 256 But if you say, "the city is not a city of walls, of pearls, of the fountain of life," is not this equivalent to taking away? And again, by declaring in your book concerning the New Jerusalem, that the New Heaven and the New Earth signify the New Church, and that the city which comes down signifies its heavenly doctrine, do you not thereby take every thing in the Holy Revelation in a sense different from what is warranted by the unequivocal meaning of the words?*

* Dr. Immanuel Tafel says (p. 354), "it plainly appears from the above that tinger believed exclusively in the literal meaning of Scripture, the utter insufficiency of which has been glaringly shown in modern times.

You do not seem to be acquainted with the purpose of eternities in Christ, as taught in the Ephesians and Colossians, or you would not declare that the earth will continue to exist as a seminary of spirits. The planets, for all we know, may be seminaries of spirits. The Scripture is mute on the subject.

According to my opinion a person may have been in the spiritual world for two thousand years, as they have been described by Zinzendorf, and yet on the day of the Lord, after wood, hay, and stubble have been burnt up, he will have to think of it differently. All this I write out of love and remain

Your obedient servant,

       F. C. TINGER, Abbot

DOCUMENT 232.

SECOND LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO F. C. TINGER182*

* The Latin original of the second letter of Swedenborg to tinger, from which the above translation has been made, was likewise published by Dr. Clemm in 1767, (see footnote to Document 229). It was afterwards reprinted by Dr. Im. Tafel in his "Swedenborg Documents," p. 356, and inserted in the supplement to the enlarged English edition of 1855, p. 76. The first English translation of this letter, prepared from the Danish translation, was published in 1784 in the appendix to the second edition of the "Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," p. 48; and was transferred thence to the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, p. 34: The same translation was afterwards with a few changes introduced into the English translation of Dr. Im. Tafel's "Swedenborg Documents," published in England and America.

I. Query: Is a sign required to show that I have been sent by the Lord to do what I am doing? Answer: Signs and wonders do not take place at the present day, because they compel externally, and internally do not convince.

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What effect did the miracles in Egypt and Jehovah's descent on Mount Sinai have upon the Israelitish people, who, notwithstanding, after the lapse of a month made for themselves a golden calf, and worshipped it in place of Jehovah. And what effect did the Lord's miracles have upon the Jewish nation, by whom He was notwithstanding crucified? The same would be the case now should the Word appear in the clouds with the angels and trumpets; as described in Luke xiv, 16, 29-31. The sign, given at this day, will be illustration, and thence an acknowledgment and a reception of the truths of the New Church; with some also there will be an illustration which speaks (illustratio loquens),* which is more than a sign. But some sign will perhaps still be given.

* Swedenborg here evidently means himself from what he has said in the Invitatio ad Novam Ecclesiam, nos. 43, 44, and 58.

II. Query: Whether I have conversed with the apostles? Answer: I have conversed with Paul for an entire year, and also on the subject of what he wrote in his epistle to the Romans, iii, 28. Three times I spoke with John, once with Moses, a hundred times with Luther, who confessed to me that, contrary to an admonition received from an angel, he accepted the doctrine of faith alone solely for the purpose of separating from the Papists. With the angels, however, I have now conversed for twenty-two years, and I am still conversing with them daily; these the Lord has associated with me.

There was no use in my mentioning this in my writings; for who would have believed it? and who would not have said, show me a sign that I may believe? And this every one would say who did not see it.

III. Query: Why from being a philosopher I have been chosen? Answer: The cause of this has been, that the spiritual things which are being revealed at the present day may be taught and understood naturally and rationally: for spiritual truths have a correspondence with natural truths, because in these they terminate, and upon these they rest.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 258 That there is a correspondence of all spiritual things with all things of man, as well as with all things of the earth, may be seen in the work on "Heaven and Hell," nos. 87 to 102, and nos. 103 to 115. For this reason I was introduced by the Lord first into the natural sciences, and thus prepared, and, indeed, from the year 1710 to 1744, when heaven was opened to me. Every one also is led by means of natural things to spiritual things; for man is born natural; by education he is made moral, and afterwards by regeneration from the Lord he becomes spiritual The Lord has granted to me besides to love truths in a spiritual manner, i. e. to love them, not for the sake of honour, nor for the sake of gain, but for the sake of the truths themselves; for he who loves truths for the sake of the truth, sees them from the Lord, because the Lord is the Way and the Truth (John xiv, 6); but he who loves them for the sake of honour or gain, sees them from himself; and seeing from oneself is equivalent to seeing falsities. Falsities that have been confirmed close the church, wherefore truths rationally understood have to open it. How else can spiritual things which transcend the understanding, be understood, acknowledged, and received? The dogma which has been handed down by the papists, and accepted by the Protestants, viz. that the understanding is to be held in bondage under obedience to faith, has a second time closed the church, and what else is to open it again, except an understanding illustrated by the Lord; but on this subject see the Apocalypsis Revelata, no. 914.

IV. I am very sorry that you should have had to suffer for the translation of the book on Heaven and Hell; but what suffers more at the present day than truth itself? How few there are who see it, yea, who are willing to see it! Do not allow yourself to be discouraged thereby, but be a defender of the truth. I remain

Your most obedient

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 11, 1766.

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DOCUMENT 233.

F. C. TWGER182 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG*

* The Latin original from which this translation has been made, was published by Dr. Clemm in 1767 (see footnote to Document 229); and was afterwards reprinted by Dr. Im. Tafel in his German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," p. 359. It has never before been translated into English.

Your favour of November 11 was received with the greatest pleasure. As this is a subject of prime importance to those who are of a clear mind, allow me to ask you for some further information for this purpose (ea Lege), that you may not be under the impression, that instruction can be received from any man of God with the same degree of certainty as from the words of Jesus Christ, whether the words be dictated to him in heaven or on earth in the form of a canon. According to Matt. v, 18, heaven and earth shall pass away, but His words shall not pass away. He alone who dwells in the bosom of the Father has the prerogative, that His words shall endure through all ages, intensively, extensively, and protensively, without any increase or decrease; for, although the spirit of Christ has moved all the prophets, still no one has been inspired with the same purity, all being mere instruments.

You say there is no need of signs; yet you add, "But some sign will perhaps still be given." This is well.

Again you say that you have conversed with John three times; we therefore ask, in place of a sign from you, that you should converse with him a fourth time, and ask him, whether that city is to be understood in a proper or in a metaphorical sense; and also, whether your spiritual explanation agrees more with the words of the text, than that of our countryman, the late Prelate Bengel,183 whose literal interpretation has acquired fame everywhere, even in Rome.

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Some, indeed, maintain that it is wrong to interrogate the dead; but you, in accordance with Hebrews xii, 25, and with leave given from on high, have approached the living, the spirits of the just who have been made perfect; if therefore, most venerable man, you would relate to us the conversations you have had with Paul and John, with Moses and Luther, each of your books would acquire much greater power. In this particular, however, you do not favour us.

Most undoubtedly I have wondered much that you, from being a philosopher, should have become a seer and prophet. I have often said to the scoffers who pronounced me a fanatic on your account: Is it possible that a philosopher who, like Wolf,18 has weighed and measured everything, should all at once, as is maintained, have become an imbecile; that he should have suddenly ceased to think according to the rules of order, and yet, for twenty-two years have written, from his own seeing and hearing, systematically and in agreement with sundry passages of Scripture, on man's state after death? Let philosophers solve the problem, how he could have come into such a state while exhibiting so much symmetry. A book has come into our hands entitled: Dreams of a Spirit-seer (Trume eines Geistersehers), in which the author* exalts you as much by praises on the one hand, as he drags you down by criminations on the other, for fear of his seeming a fanatic. The theologians in the universities condemn you on account of your errors in respect to the Trinity, justification, and redemption, which you explain according to Dippel's185 method.

* The philosopher Immanuel Kant (see Note 184).

The nature of Christ's descent to hell is most admirably explained by you; and if your books had no other use but that, it would be sufficiently great. Many also by a perusal of your writings believe in the immortality of the soul, which they had denied before.

A most clear-headed man attributes [in your books] more to the science of correspondences, than to prophecy. Of what use is it, [says he,] to know anything from the mouth of angels, when yet the angels together with the blessed have in the end to derive their information from the priesthood of Christ; which with your angels you certainly do not acknowledge with a sufficient degree of reverence, with your knees, as it were, bent, and your feet [un]covered.

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Let this be sufficient, and may erroneous views like the above not deceive you in, and deprive you of, the hope of your New Church. One thing more I would like to ask you, viz. that you would write a history of your life explaining how and by what interior incidents it happened that from a philosopher you have become a revelator.

Farewell and remember

       Your sincere and obedient

              F. C. TINGER.
Stuttgart, December 4, 1766.


DOCUMENT 234.

SIXTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original from which the above translation has been made is preserved among the Swedenborg MSS. in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed in 1788 in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper," as Letter I. The first English translation was published in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, p. 73; and it has been transferred thence, as Letter IV, to the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg's Documents."

MEMORANDUM.

Several questions have been propounded to me by your friend, to which you will please to receive the following as an answer:

I. My opinion concerning the writings of Bhme* and L----I have never read either; I was forbidden to read writers on dogmatic and systematic theology, before heaven was opened to me; because unfounded opinions and inventions might thereby have easily insinuated themselves, which afterwards could only have been removed with difficulty;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 262 wherefore, when heaven was opened to me, I had first to learn the Hebrew language, as well as the correspondences according to which the whole Bible is composed, which led me to read the Word of God over many times; and as God's Word is the source whence all theology must be derived, I was enabled thereby to receive instruction from the Lord, who is the Word.

* See Notes 40 and 41, and also Note 161, iv.

II. Query: How soon a New Church may be expected? Answer: The Lord is preparing at this time a New Heaven of those who believe in Him, acknowledge Him as the true God of heaven and earth, and look to Him in their lives, which means to shun evil and do good; for from that heaven the New Jerusalem is to come down; see Rev. xxi, 2. I daily see spirits and angels, from ten to twenty thousand, descending and ascending, and being set in order. By degrees, as that heaven is being formed, the New Church likewise begins and increases. The universities in Christendom are now first being instructed, whence will come new ministers; for the new heaven has no influence over the old [clergy] who deem themselves too learned in the doctrine of justification by faith alone.

III. About the promised treatise on infinity, omnipotence, and omnipresence.* Answer: There are many things on these subjects interspersed throughout the "Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence," nos. 46 to 54, and 157; also in "Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom," nos. 4, 17, 19, 21, 44, 69, 72, 76, 106, 156, 318, and in the "Apocalypse Revealed," no. 961; these subjects will be further treated of in the arcana of Angelic Wisdom concerning Conjugial Love: for to write a separate treatise on these Divine attributes, without the assistance of something to support them, would cause too great an elevation of the thoughts; wherefore these subjects have been treated in a series with other things which fall within the understanding.

* This work was promised by Swedenborg in 1763 in the preface to the Doctrine of the Lord.

I have with pleasure perused your "New Essays on the Gospels" (Nya Frsk fwer Evangelierne); fine interpretations are given in respect to the First Coming of the Lord.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 263 I wish to give here the signification of a manger, of the baptism of John, and of Elias. A manger signifies instruction from the Word, because mules and horses signify the understanding of the Word (see "Apocalypse Revealed," no. 298); and a manager contains their food; there being no room in the inn, signifies that there was no place of instruction in Jerusalem; wherefore it is said to the shepherds, who signify the church to come, "This shall be the sign unto you; ye shall find the babe lying in a manger" (Luke n. 12). The baptism of John prepared the heavens, so that the Jewish people might subsist, when God Himself should come down among them. John signified all the prophecies in the Old Testament respecting the Lord and His advent; likewise Elias, because he was the chief of the prophets.

As here [in Stockholm] they now begin to think more of charity than before, asserting that faith and charity cannot be separated, therefore faith alone begins also to be called Moravian faith.

[EM. SWEDENBORG.]
Stockholm, February, 1767.*

* The date in the original letter is not in Swedenborg's handwriting, but was inserted by Dr. Beyer. On the back of the paper is written: the Reverend Doctor Beyer.

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DOCUMENT 235.

SEVENTH LETTER OF JOACHIM WRETMAN174 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The Swedish original from which the above translation has been made is in the Archives of the Swedenborg Society, London (see footnote to Document 210).

Well-born Assessor and kind Patron,

It will be a great pleasure to me to hear that you continue to enjoy good health. I received the following answer from Rouen, dated June 29, 1766, concerning the books which were shipped last summer to France: "We received the box of books from Captain Peter Boores, and have consigned them to a friend for distribution. It is detained in the syndical chamber of the libraries in Paris; but as the books are addressed to gentlemen of note, they will no doubt be released, but not without causing our friend some trouble in going to and fro."* I have not heard anything since, wherefore I have no doubt that they were duly distributed. My chief object in making this communication is to. have the opportunity of presenting to you some of the seed of the well-known egg-plant or tree, which must be sown as soon as the frost is out of the ground. I shall be glad to hear of their doing well, and of your being pleased with them.

* Further particulars respecting these books may be learned from Document 228, whence it appears that they were addressed to the Swedish Ambassador in Paris, Count Ulric Scheffer. about the same time, and while the books were on their way to Paris, there was a change of administration in Sweden, which resulted in Count Scheffer's recall; so that on the arrival of the books he was no longer in Paris to receive them. He was succeeded by Count G. Ph. Creutz.

Besides I have the honour of commending myself to your precious and constant favour, and. remain always, with all due deference,

Your humble servant,

       JOACHIM WRETMAN.
Amsterdam, March 21, 1767.

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DOCUMENT 236.

FIRST LETTER OF J. C. LAVATER186 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG,*

* The English translation, constituting the above Document, appeared first in the "New Jerusalem Magazine," of 1790, p. 179; the editors of which state that the Latin original was then in their possession. It was afterwards introduced into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."

Most reverend and excellent Man,

I doubt not but that you are often troubled with letters from foreigners with whom you are unacquainted, and as you are much engaged in meditation, business, travel, and the company of persons of renown, you will probably consider the present application from an unknown Swiss as trifling and impertinent. Yet knowing that so great a man is my contemporary, I cannot help inquiring of him a few things which seem to me to be of the greatest importance; as I know no person in the world but yourself (who have given proof of an extraordinary and almost Divine knowledge) capable of solving my questions, I will therefore take the liberty of proposing them, trusting that you will condescend to satisfy me therein as soon as possible.

I. I have been engaged these three years heart and soul in writing a poem on the future happiness of Christians,* and have lately written several letters particularly to Zimmerman,** in Hanover,*** the present celebrated physician to the King of England, and my intimate friend, to the end that I might collect the opinions of the wise and learned, before I publish the poem itself.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 266 I most fervently wish to have your opinion also, which would be of great use to me; but I do not know whether you are conversant with the German language; I would willingly send you a copy, or if you please, translate the principal parts into Latin.

* The title of this work, which was published at Zrich from 1768 to 1773 in three volumes, is: "Prospects into Eternity" (Aussichten in die Ewigkeit).

** Johan Georg von Zimmerman, the celebrated author of a work on "Solitude" (Ueber die Eisamkeit), in four volumes.

*** The original English translation has here "Hanoverian," but as Zimmerman was a native Swiss, who subsequently resided in Hanover, we have taken the liberty of correcting this passage.

II. I have long been convinced from the Holy Scriptures and my own particular experience, that God frequently answers faithful and ardent prayers in such a manner, that on account of them not only wonderful things have been done, but even real miracles effected. I am now writing a dissertation on this subject, and therefore beg to know your opinion. You probably do not doubt that God and Christ still work miracles for the sake of the faithful, who are much united to him; perhaps some certain instances, which are beyond doubt, may have come to your knowledge.--Is it true that a very pious girl in Stockholm, of the name of Catherine Fagerberg, by means of prayer and an extraordinary faith, has, when asked, quickly cured many persons otherwise incurable? Could you furnish me with certain and authentic proofs of the truth thereof?

III. As I have heard and read much of your familiar converse with the spirits of the deceased, may I be permitted, most respected man, to propose to you some questions, from a mind that is very sincere and tilled with respect towards you, by the solution of which I may be convinced concerning these almost incredible reports.

1. Felix Hess, a friend of mine, died March 3, 1768,--whether he will appear to me, while I am living, and when, and in what manner?--whether he will reveal to me any thing respecting the happiness of those in heaven, or concerning my ecclesiastical destination on earth?

N.B. I fervently desired him before his death to comply with my request if possible.

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2. Henry Hess, brother of the deceased, my very good friend, whether, and when he will be convinced of that power of faith and prayer which I teach; and of which he still entertains doubts?--and which of the inhabitants of Zrich who are yet in a doubtful state will be convinced?

3. Shall I ever be so happy as to converse with angels or spirits of the deceased without any false fanaticism, and without disobedience to the commandment of God not to interrogate the dead; and by what manner of life, or by what virtues I can arrive at such a high privilege?

4. Whether the dream I had on June 9th, this year, proceeded from Felix Hess?

Be not angry, thou most excellent and learned man, with a very studious disciple of the truth, who will neither be rashly credulous, nor be a disbeliever, but who has an open breast, ready to receive from his inmost soul whatever truth beams forth. Farewell, do not suffer me long to wait in vain for an answer. May God and Christ, to whom we belong, whether living or dead, be with you,

JOHN CASPER LAVATER

of Zrich,

Minister of the Word of God.
Zrich in Switzerland,
August 24, 1768.

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DOCUMENT 237.

SEVENTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this Document is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Reverend Doctor,

By Captain Magnus Sjgrd I send you a copy of the recently published work on "Conjugial and Scortatory Love." Should any of the friends in Gottenburg desire it, you will find on a slip enclosed in the book, the address where it may be purchased in Amsterdam; as soon as I hear their wishes on the subject, the books shall be despatched by the first opportunity. My address you will likewise find on the slip of paper. Please give my best respects to the Bishop,* the Dean,** Burgomaster Petterson, and to Dr. Rosn.45 I remain in all friendship and fidelity

Your most obedient servant and friend,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam. October 1, 1768.

* Bishop Lamberg (see Note, 178).

** Dr. Ekebom (see Note, 179).

To the Reverend Doctor and Lector Gabr. Ander. Beyer, Gottenburg.

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DOCUMENT 238.

THIRD LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO F. C. TINGER.182.*

* The Latin original of this Document was in the possession of Prof. Veesenmeyer in Ulm, but after his death it could not be found among his papers. By the kind permission of the Professor, Dr. Im. Tafel took a copy of the letter in 1833, and inserted it in his German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," p. 362. A portion of the letter, beginning with the second paragraph, had been previously printed by tinger himself in a German edition of Swedenborg's work "The Earths in the Universe," (p. 222), which was translated by one of his nephews, and seen through the press by him in 1770. In the Appendix to that work (p. 223) is also printed the Latin original of the paper on "The natural and spiritual sense of the Word," which accompanies this letter. Both these documents, as printed by Dr. Im. Tafel, mere introduced into the Supplement to the enlarged English edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," pp. 78 to 81. The above is the first complete translation of the Document into English. As much of it as had been printed by tinger, had appeared before in an English dress in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, together with the paper on "The natural and spiritual sense of the Word" (see pp. 35 to 38); and thence it was incorporated into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."


Reverend and Most Honoured Councillor,

I was glad to receive your letter, dated Murhard, October 28. I am sorry you have not yet received the three copies of the work on "Conjugial and Scortatory Love." I took them to a place in Amsterdam, whence similar parcels are despatched to various parts of Germany. I think they are first conveyed to Arnhem, and are taken thence by coach or carrier to their appointed places. I directed it to Wurtemberg. Should the parcel have arrived there, it is most probably in one of the hotels or inns where the carriers come, or where they stay.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 270 If an opportunity offer, nine other copies shall be forwarded, together with the treatise on the Planets. I asked the porter by whom your letter was delivered, whether his master knew of another opportunity; but he has not yet returned to give me an answer; should one occur, I will not fail on my part to avail myself of it.

You suggest a doubt in respect to Christ's having power given Him over all flesh, when yet the angels and the inhabitants of heaven have not fleshy, but shining bodies. To this be pleased to receive kindly the following reply: In the above passage by all flesh are understood all men, wherefore in the Word in various places mention is made of all flesh, which signifies every man. With respect to the bodies of angels they do not appear shining, but, as it were, fleshy; for they are substantial though not material, and substantial things are not translucent before the angels. Everything material is originally from what is substantial; and into this every man comes after he has laid aside his material coverings by death. On this account man after death is a man, but purer than before; comparatively as what is substantial is purer than what is material. That the Lord has power not only over all men, but also over all angels, is evident from His own words in Matthew, "All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth" (xxviii, 18).

As in your letter you speak of the natural and spiritual sense of the Word, and lest it should be believed that I have written anything contradictory to these senses, I add a separate piece of paper on which these two senses of the Word are described. I shall ever remain, most venerable and excellent Sir,

Your most faithful servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, November 8, 1768.

THE NATURAL AND SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD.

That in the Word there is an internal or spiritual sense, in its external or natural sense, as a precious stone in its matrix, or as a beautiful infant in its swaddling clothes, is a truth which has heretofore been altogether unknown in the Christian world, and hence also it is altogether unknown what is meant by the consummation of the age, the Coming of the Lord, the Last Judgment, and the New Jerusalem, on which subjects many things are spoken and predicted in the Word of each Testament, both Old and New.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 271 Without the unfolding and opening out of the literal sense of the Word by its spiritual sense: how can any one know intellectually what is signified by the things which the Lord predicted in Matthew xxiv, and also in the Book of Revelation, and in like manner in Daniel, and in the Prophets, in many passages? Make the experiment yourself if you be so disposed, and read those passages of the prophetic Word which treat sometimes of wild beasts and cattle, sometimes of pools and swamps, sometimes of forests and brakes, sometimes of valleys and mountains, sometimes of screech-owls, of ochim, tziim, satyrs, &c., &c.; try whether you can perceive anything Divine therein, unless you believe it to lie concealed interiorly, on account of its being inspired by God, just as a precious stone lies concealed in its matrix, as was said above. That the precious stones, or treasures, which lie concealed within are those things which the internal sense contains, is fully demonstrated in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, nos. 5 to 26; and in the same Doctrine it is further proved that the literal sense is the basis, continent, and firmament of its spiritual sense, nos. 27 to 36; also that Divine Truth in the literal sense of the Word is in its fulness, in its sanctity, and in its power, nos. 37 to 40; and, likewise, that the doctrine of the church is to be drawn from the literal sense of the Word, and to be confirmed thereby, nos. 50 to 61; and, finally, that by the literal sense, through the medium of the spiritual sense, there is effected conjunction with the Lord, and consociation with the angels, nos. 62 to 69.

To the above I will add something new from the spiritual world: The rulers of the church who flock into that world after death, are first taught concerning the Sacred Scripture, that it contains a spiritual sense, which in the world was unknown to them; and they are also told, that the angels of heaven are in that sense, whilst man is in the sense of the letter; and further, that a translation or change of the latter sense into the former is effected with man, while he reads the Word in a state of holiness;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 272 that there is then a kind of unfolding or unswathing, like the breaking of the shell enclosing an almond, whereupon the shell is dispersed and the naked almond passes into heaven, and is received by the angels; and that it is also like the casting of a seed into the ground, where it is stripped of its coverings, and the germ is put forth. The seed in this case is the Word in the sense of the letter, and the germ which is put forth thence is the spiritual sense; the latter passes to the angels, and the former remains with man. The seed, nevertheless, remains with man in his mind as in its soil, and in time produces its germ and fructifies it, provided man by the seeds of life which are the truths of faith and the goods of charity, is conjoined to the Lord, and consociated with the angels. The above rulers are further admonished to receive thoroughly this belief, that the Word in its bosom is spiritual, because Divine; and that unless they receive this belief, they may be seduced by satans, so that they even deny the sanctity of the Word; in which case the church with them is dissipated. This further argument is also urged upon them, that if they do not believe the internal sense of the Word, the Word may finally appear to them as some unpolished and unconnected writing, or even as a book of all heresies, because from the literal sense, as from a kind of lake, heresies of every sort may be drawn forth and confirmed. Those who believe the internal sense of the Word, are after wards received into companies of angelic spirits, who in process of time are elevated into heaven and become angels; but those who do not believe, are removed into companies of spirits, who in course of time are cast into hell, and become satans. Those are called satans there, who in the world had falsified every truth of the Word, and who in consequence thereof had imbibed falsities, so that at last they could no longer see anything of truth.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 273

DOCUMENT 239.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO A GENTLEMAN BY LEYDEN IN HOLLAND.*

* The above, together with Documents 225 and 226, was originally published in the Appendix to the second edition of Swedenborg's work on "the Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," published in 1784. For further particulars see footnote to Document 225.

I had lately the honour to send you a copy of a work published at this place, which contains an abridgment of all the doctrinal points treated or in all my other writings. I think of making a tour to Leyden in a few week's time, when I shall be glad to be informed of the opinion of the learned in your city respecting the work. It is sold by Christian Seep, Bookseller, Amsterdam.

[EM. SWEDENBORG.]
[Amsterdam, beginning of March, 1769.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 274

DOCUMENT 240.

EIGHTH LETTER TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original, from which the above translation has been made, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was published in the "Samlingar fr Philantropper" in 1788, as Letter V. The first English translation appeared in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, (p. 141). And this translation was afterwards introduced as Letter V into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."


Reverend Doctor,

I had the pleasure of receiving yours of November 23, 1768. The reason I did not answer it sooner was, that I postponed until a little work was published entitled, "A Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church signified by the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation," in which work are fully shown the errors of the hitherto received doctrine of justification by faith alone, and the imputation of the righteousness or merit of Christ. This treatise was sent by me to all the clergy in Holland, and will come into the hands of the most eminent in Germany. I have been informed that they have attentively perused it, and that some have already discovered the truth, while others do not know which way to turn; for what is written therein is sufficient to convince any one that the above-mentioned doctrine is the cause of our having at the present day no theology in Christendom. I intend sending to you by the first ship twelve copies of the work, which you will please to dispose of in the following manner: one copy of the Bishop,* one to the Dean,** and the rest, except your own, to the "lectors" of theology, and to the clergy of the town; since no one can better judge of the work, than he who has thoroughly mastered the arcana of justification.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 275 After this little work has been read, will you kindly request the Dean** to express his opinion concerning it in the Consistory; when all those that can, and are willing to see the truth, will accede.

* Bishop Lamberg (see Note 178).

** Dr. Ekebom (see Note 179).

Here [in Amsterdam] they frequently inquire of me respecting the New Church, when it will come? To which I answer: By degrees, in proportion as the doctrine of justification and imputation is extirpated; which perhaps will be brought about by this work. It is known that the Christian Church did not take its rise immediately after the ascension of Christ, but increased gradually, which is also understood by these words in the Revelation, "And the woman flew into the desert, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent" (xii, 14). The serpent or dragon is that doctrine.

In about a month I shall leave here for Paris, and that for a purpose which must not be divulged beforehand.

With respect to the visions of several persons mentioned in your letter, they are nothing but fantastic visions. With my respectful compliments to the Bishop,* and my other friends in Gottenburg, I remain with hearty friendship

Your faithful servant,

EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, March 15, 1769.

* Bishop Lamberg (see Note 178).

To the Reverend Doctor and Lector Gabr. Anders. Beyer Gottenburg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 276

DOCUMENT 241.

NINTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22 *

* The Swedish original, from which the above translation has been made, is preserved in the Library of the academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" in 1788, as Letter VIII. An English translation is contained in the Supplement to the enlarged English edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," published in 1855 (p. 5).

The P.S. which is added to the letter has hitherto been published as a separate document; but by a comparison with Document 244, where Swedenborg introduced the identical words of this postcript, it is made evident that it belongs in reality to Document 241. The Swedish original of this postscript, written on a separate leaf, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" of 1788, after Letter XVIII. An English translation appeared in the Supplement to the enlarged English edition of the "Swedenborg Documents," p. 10.


Reverend Doctor,

I herewith send you ten copies of the published treatise on "Conjugial Love," which when an opportunity offers you may sell at nine copper dalers per copy. The book is very much in demand in Paris, and in many places in Germany.

Of the work last published entitled, ABrief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem," I sent you only one copy, which you will please to keep for yourself alone and not communicate to any one else: for it will cause a change in the whole of that theology which has up to the present time prevailed in Christendom, and partly sets forth also that theology which will be for the New Church. What is written therein will be thoroughly understood by scarcely any one in Gottenburg except yourself.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 277 This little work has been sent to all professors and clergymen in Holland, and has already reached the principal universities of Germany; it is being translated into English in London, and will also be published in Paris. We must therefore first wait for the judgment which is passed upon it abroad, before it is generally made known in Sweden. You will, therefore, keep it for the present for yourself alone.

On April 26 I shall leave for Paris; and I remain, with loving friendship,

Your most obedient servant and faithful friend,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Amsterdam, April 23, 1769.

P. S. In the short treatise [Brief Exposition], which I have sent you, as well as in all my former writings, I do not mean a Son of God born from eternity, but the Son of God conceived and born in the world, in whom is the Divine Trinity. In the Apostles' creed, which was the confession of faith of the Apostolic church, no other Son of God is mentioned, nor is any other meant in the Gospels, Luke i, 32, 35; Matt. iii, 17; xvii, 5 John xx, 31; 1 John v, 20, 21. The reason, however, why the Nicene Council afterwards adopted a Son of God from eternity, and added still another Divine person, was this, that it could not discover any other expedient for expelling the erroneous doctrine of Arius; and for this reason, especially, the present church insists that reason shall be bound, and placed under obedience to a blind faith. But, that this does not transcend man's faculty of comprehension, and that he is able to see and thus to believe, may be seen in no. 117, and afterwards in no. 44.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 278

DOCUMENT 242.

SECOND LETTER OF J. C. LAVATER186 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.*

* The English translation, constituting this document, appeared first in the ANew Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790, p. 245, together with Document 236; the editors state there that the Latin originals of these two documents were then in their hands. The letters, in the form in which they appear there, were subsequently embodied in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."


Most noble, venerable, and beloved in Christ our Lord,

I have taken the liberty of writing to you a second time, as it is likely you may not have received my other letter on account of your travels; but I have at last learned by what means this will probably reach you.

I revere the wonderful gifts you have received from God. I revere the wisdom which shines forth from your writings, and therefore cannot but seek the friendship of so great and excellent a man now living. If what is reported be true, God will show you how much I seek to converse with you in the simplicity of my mind. I am a young man not yet thirty years old, a minister of the gospel; I am and shall remain employed in the cause of Christ as long as I live. I have written something on the happiness of the future life. O, if I could exchange letters with you on this subject, or rather converse!

I add some [of my] writing: You shall know my soul.

One thing I beg of you, Divinely inspired man! I beseech you by the Lord not to refuse me!

In the month of March, 1768, died Felix Hess, my best friend; a youth of Zrich, twenty-four years of age, an upright man, of a noble mind, striving after a Christian spirit, but not yet clothed with Christ.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 279 Tell me, I pray, what he is doing? paint to me his figure, state, &c., in such words, that I may know that God's truth is in you.

I send also a cipher writing which you will understand, if what is reported of you be true. I request it may not be shown to any person.

I am your brother in Christ; answer very soon a sincere brother, and answer the letter I have sent in such a manner, that I may see what I am believing on the testimony of others.

Christ be with us, to whom we belong living or dead.

       JOHN CASPER LAVATER,

Minister at the Orphan Asylum.
Zrich in Switzerland,
September 24, 1769.

DOCUMENT 243.

TENTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish, original from which the above translation has been made, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" of 1788, as Letter X. The English translation of the letter, which was incorporated in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents," appeared originally in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" for 1790, pp. 30 and 75.


Reverend Doctor and Dear Friend,

Shortness of time would not permit me in my last letter to answer the point about the boy from Skara. If the account about him is true, it proves the communication of spirits with man. A genteel and rich family here in Stockholm are desirous of taking the boy into their house, and of educating him in whatever branch he may wish to learn.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 280 Should this arrangement be acceptable to the boy, and an opportunity present itself of his being brought here in company with a person travelling this way, the family would be pleased; in that case thirty dalers in silver might be furnished him to cover his travelling expenses, and if on his arrival he address himself to me, he will be taken to the family.

I pass by his vision of white serpents, as this took place in his tender infancy; for which reason I do not enter into its explanation; besides, it may be explained either negatively or affirmatively. But his knowing the use of herbs and [the cure of] certain diseases, if really the case, is not on account of such diseases and cures existing in the other life among spirits and angels. There are, however, spiritual diseases [and cures] corresponding to natural diseases and cures in this world; wherefore, when such effects take place, they are due to correspondences. As there are no natural diseases among spirits in the spiritual world, neither are there any hospitals; but instead of these there are spiritual madhouses, in which are those who theoretically denied God, and in others such as denied Him practically. Those who in the world were idiots, on their arrival in the other world are likewise foolish and idiotic; but when their externals are removed and their internals opened, as is the case with all, then they are endowed with an understanding in accordance with their genius and their previous life; for real madness and insanity reside in the external or natural, and not in the internal or spiritual man.

I will now give you an account of my first youth: From my fourth to my tenth year I was constantly engaged in thought upon God, salvation, and the spiritual diseases (passiones spirituales) of men; and several times I revealed things at which my father and mother wondered; saying, that angels must be speaking through me. From my sixth to my twelfth year I used to delight in conversing with clergymen about faith, saying that the life of faith is love, and that the love which imparts life is love to the neighbour; also that God gives faith to every one, but that those only receive it who practise that love.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 281 I knew of no other faith at that time, than that God is the Creator and Preserver of nature, that He imparts understanding and a good disposition to men, and several other things that follow thence. I knew nothing at that time of that learned faith which teaches that God the Father imputes the righteousness of His Son to whomsoever, and at such times, as He chooses, even to those who have not repented and have not reformed their lives. And had I heard of such a faith, it would have been then, as it is now, above my comprehension.

I remain with all affection and friendship

       Your most obedient servant and friend,

              EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 14, 1769.

To the Reverend and Most Learned Doctor and Lector Gabriel And. Beyer, Gottenburg.


DOCUMENT 244.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO COUNT HPKEN.83*

* A copy of the Swedish original is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences; it is printed in Part III of "Nya Kyrkan och dess inflytande," &c., p. 7.


[Your Excellency,]

I had the honour to receive on the 14th inst, your Excellency's favour, dated November 5. I am glad that the last two books have arrived. It is certain that the ABrief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church" meets with adverse criticisms, as was foreseen by your Excellency; yet only in the beginning, as long as men are in darkness on account of preconceived and false principles. Since, however, that which is rational has light within itself, even in theological matters, therefore, the truth will gradually be seen and acknowledged, as has been the case in many places abroad.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 282 But as I am doubtful whether this change has already taken place in Stockholm, I have delivered only one copy to Bishop Benzeltjerna10 with strict injunctions that it is by no means to be communicated to any one else; for Benzelstjerna in my estimation is a rational man even in theology, and does not accept irrational things from obedience to faith. The reason why a preference is accorded to Catholics is stated in no. 105 and the following numbers; but there is another reason besides, because the purpose is to establish a universal church in all Christendom. When this preliminary treatise was finished, the whole heaven from east to west, and from south to north, appeared to me covered with beautiful roses of a dark scarlet colour, so that all who were present with me in the world of spirits, were astonished at it; this was a sign of the assent and the joy of the New Heaven.* In the short treatise which I have sent you, as well as in all my former writings I do not mean a Son of God born from eternity, but the Son of God conceived and born in the world, in whom there is the Divine Trinity. In the Apostles' creed, which was the confession of faith of the apostolic church, no other Son of God is mentioned, nor is any other meant in the Gospels, Luke i, 32, 35; Matt. iii, 17; xvii, 5; John xxi, 31; 1 John v, 20, 21. The reason, however, why the Nicene Council afterwards adopted the tenet of a Son of God from eternity, and added still another Divine person, was, that it could not discover another expedient for expelling the erroneous doctrine of Arius; and for this reason especially the present church insists that reason shall be bound, and placed under obedience to faith. But that this does not transcend man's comprehension, and that he is able to see and thus to believe, may be seen in no. 117, and after it in no. 44.**

* The same phenomenon is described by Swedenborg in a "Sketch of an Ecclesiastical History of the New Church," (see Volume VIII of the photo-lithographed MSS., p. 1) in these words: "After the 'Brief Exposition.' &c. had been written, the angelic heaven from the east to the west, and from the south to the north, appeared of a dark scarlet colour with the most beautiful flowers; it appeared so before me, the kings of Denmark, and others. at another time it had a beautiful flaming appearance."

** Compare postscript to Document 241.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 283

Your Excellency's pleasure in my writings gladdens my heart, and I thank you for it with all due respect, remaining,

Your Excellency's most humble servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 17, 1769.

DOCUMENT 245.

SWEDENBORG'S CONTROVERSY WITH THE CONSISTORY OF GOTTENBURG.

INTRODUCTION.

A carefully prepared digest of the acts of this important controversy occupies Part I of a work which appeared in 1847, in the Swedish language, under this title: AThe New Church and its influence upon the study of theology in Sweden. A contribution to the Swedish Church history of later years." (Nya Kyrkan och dess inflytande p Theologiens Studium i Sverige). Upon this work, which we have reason to think was written by our well-known friend Dr. Kahl of Lund, we have mainly drawn for the materials used in the preparation of this Introduction, and of some of those historical parts which as connecting links between the particular documents composing this larger document.

The documents themselves which illustrate this episode in Swedenborg's life, are derived (1) from the "Nya Kyrkan," &c. (2) from the "Minutes respecting Swedenborgianism and the so-called Sermon-Essays" (Handlingar rrande Svedenborgianismen och de s kallade Prediko-Frsk), under which title was published, in a quarto volume of upwards of 200 pages, the official record of the Proceedings of the Consistory of Gottenburg from March 22, 1769, to February 7, 1770; and (3) from the published and unpublished letters of Emanuel Swedenborg written during that period.

With respect to the origin of this controversy, we read in the "Nya Kyrkan,"&c. (p. 10) as follows:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 284 "For twenty years Swedenborg had continued to publish his theological works without being disturbed by any one, and he had distributed them to the libraries of universities and to the learned in England, Holland, France, Germany, and Sweden. Sundry theologians also, e. g. Hartley, tinger, Beyer, Rosn, and Lavater, had studied his writings, expressing admiration and approval of his teachings. Most, it is true, had simply glanced over the title-pages of these works without taking any further notice of their contents. But no one had considered himself called upon to protest against the circulation and the reading of these writings, although they contained views which could not easily be made to harmonize with what was regarded as orthodox in the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches of the eighteenth century. Swedenborg's writings, however, were composed in a language which was not generally understood. They were possessed only by the learned, who are not always inclined to judge the orthodoxy of theological productions by the standard of the conclusions of the Council of Trent, the Heidelberg Catechism, or the Formula Concordi, and who, besides, are not fond of submitting the settlement of doctrinal or exegetical controversies to spiritual or civil courts. But gradually Swedenborg's friends in his own country by reviews, translations, and sermons, began to introduce a knowledge of his religious views to a class of readers who, unaccustomed to a deeper investigation of the Scripture and to higher theological speculation, regard as heterodox and heretical all religious knowledge which in any degree changes or modifies the sanctioned doctrines, or which is above the sphere of the doctrinal text-books in current use. A new epoch now began to open in the history of Swedenborg's writings, at least in Sweden.

"Several of the Swedish clergy found fault with the views of the New Church, and insisted that they should be formally opposed, as militating against the Evangelical Lutheran faith. Such an opposition first manifested itself in the diocese of Gottenburg, and the immediate cause of it was as follows: In the 'Clerical News' (Presttidningen)" a monthly magazine, published at Gottenburg by Dr. Rosn a "lector" (professor) in that town, a review of Swedenborg's Apocalypsis Revelata had been inserted; and another "lector," Dr. Beyer, had edited a collection of sketches for sermons under this title: 'New attempts at explaining the texts for Sundays and Holidays (Nya Frsk till frklaring fwer Sn-och Hgtidsdags-Texter), Gottenburg, 1767; in which the texts are explained in the spirit of Swedenborg's teaching.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 285 These literary productions strengthened in many quarters the conviction which had previously been gaining ground, that these theological doctors shared Swedenborg's religious views; and no length of time elapsed before the clergy gave evidence of this conviction, by word and deed.

"At a meeting of the clergy held at Gottenburg in September 1768, Dean P. Aurelius of Grimmeton insisted 'that, for his own sake and that of the brethren at home, the Consistory should employ the most stringent measures for stopping the circulation of such recently published books as contain doctrines which militate against God's Word and the symbolical [dogmatic] writings of the church' (see 'Handlingar' p. 3). In agreement therewith, but in less objectionable and more considerate terms, Dean A. Kollinius of Seglora submitted a memorial to the Consistory, dated October 12, 1768, in which he prayed, 'that the Bishop and the members of the Consistory, as the most competent judges in theological matters, would enlighten the clergy, as to how far the writings of Swedenborg are really objectionable; so that in case these writings contain merely innocent theological problems, a mistaken zeal may not raise up heaven and earth against them; but, in case they really militate against, and present as irrational, the evangelical doctrine in the form in which it is explained from God's Word in our symbolical writings it may be looked upon as a real crime, at least in those who exercise the function of teachers, to seek to imbue others with the religious principles of Swedenborg.'"

The author of "Nya Kyrkan" says here: "Af Kollinius' prayer had been acted upon, and the members of the Consistory had gone into the fundamental question, i. e. if they had compared Swedenborg's and Luther's systems, and had examined how much of what is really bad and unchristian is contained in the former system....a long and wearisome religious contest would no doubt have been prevented."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 286 On p. 14, he continues, "A calm exegetical and critical examination of Swedenborg's system, however, was never considered for a moment; nothing was thought of but the stringent measures insisted upon by Aurelius, by which 'the circulation of Swedenborg's writings might be stopped.' Beyer's and Rosn's opponents, without making any previous examination, took it at once for granted, that Swedenborg's system was unbiblical and heterodox, and they, consequently, appealed first to the Consistory and afterwards to the higher authorities, as though they were tribunals of inquisition, with the keys of loosing and binding doctrinal questions in their hands, and which, without any previous examination and investigation, might pass sentence of condemnation in the most uncompromising spirit of hierarchy. The majority of the Consistory, nevertheless, disappointed the expectations of the dissatisfied members of the clergy in this respect. Bishop Lamberg178 was not willing to treat this question in an inquisitorial fashion, and the attempt to make of the Consistory a tribunal on matters of faith miscarried in the very first instance. The majority of this body, consisting of Bishop Lamberg, and the "lectors" Beyer,22 Rosn,45 Roempke,187and Wallenstrle,188 did not consider themselves called upon, 'as the most competent judges in theological matters,' to express an opinion with regard to the actual value (halt) of Swedenborg's doctrines, since thus far they had not had the opportunity of procuring for themselves his expensive theological writings, and still less had they time to study them."

Dr. Beyer, at the request of the Consistory, had prepared the draught of a reply to the resolution passed at the meeting of the clergy in 1765. From this we make the following extract:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 287

A.

DR. BEYER ON SWEDENBORG AND HIS WRITINGS.*

* See "Handlingar rrande Swedenborgianismen," &c., p. 6.

"Swedenborg is generally known to be, as to his person and life, a God-fearing and virtuous, and also a quiet, peaceful, and well-reputed citizen; and in the public prints is declared to be a giant of learning in the various sciences; but especially is he known to have an unbounded veneration for the Divine Word. The thoughts of such a man on matters of religion ought surely not to be condemned rashly, and without a previous most thorough examination...

"So long, however, as such an investigation and examination have not been made, this Consistory does not deem itself justified in declaring that the works of Assessor Swedenborg are to be classed among the number of prohibited books; and, consequently, they do not feel themselves called upon to endeavour to obtain in the proper place an order for their prohibition.

"But meanwhile, both in respect to the writings of Assessor Swedenborg, which are written in Latin, a foreign tongue, and according to a transcendental method, as well as in respect to all other writings, the following words of the Lord and their meaning furnish a safe rule of criticism to all the learned, by the application of which they will not only not fail in their judgment, but also be freed from error: 'If any one will do the will of Him who has sent Jesus,' or if any one has the desire and purpose to live as the Lord has given us to understand is well-pleasing to Him--'he shall know,' or he is able to know 'whether a doctrine is of God,' and thus is Divine, or whether it has a merely human source and thus ought to be rejected" (John vii, 17).

In pursuance of a resolution written by

       G. A. BEYER.
February 15, 1769.

The opposition in the Consistory consisted of Dean Ekebom,179 Dean Kullin,189 and Pastor Hempke,190 whose sentiments found utterance in the following document from the pen of Dr. Ekebom, Dean of Gottenburg:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 288

B.

DR. EKEBOM'S179 CHARGES AGAINST SWEDENBORG.*

* See "Handlingar;" &c., pp. 7 to 11.

"On the question, whether the published theological writings of the well-born Assessor Swedenborg are to be regarded as orthodox or heretical, and in what light they ought to be looked upon and judged by the clergy of our diocese, I submit with due deference to the favourable consideration of the Bishop and of the Venerable Consistory the following remarks:

"First, To the person of Assessor Swedenborg I leave all the honour and esteem to which he may lay claim on account of his advanced age, his rank, his merits, and his insight into the various sciences. I do not judge either him or any one else. The Lord is He who knows and judges both him and me.

Secondly, I am not acquainted with the religious system of Assessor Swedenborg, nor shall I take any trouble to become acquainted with it. I am told that this knowledge may be chiefly acquired by studying his published writings on 'the New Jerusalem,' on 'Charity and Faith,' on 'the Lord,' &c., none of which works I have possessed, read, or seen.

"Thirdly, Nevertheless, in thinking of the conversations which Assessor Swedenborg had in this place, at various times, with myself and others, and in comparing them with his so-called Apocalypsis Revelata, of which he wits bind enough to send me a copy from Amsterdam,* I must confess that his doctrines appear to me corrupting, heretical, injurious, and in the highest degree objectionable.**

* See Document 223.

** Read in this connection what the Rev. T. Hartley says in Document 258, no. 18.

"In proof of this I will confine myself to stating the following points:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 289

(a) "The Sacred Scripture has been hitherto badly and perversely explained (A. R. p. 21, no. 1). Too much has been made of the literal sense, of which the true meaning cannot be comprehended, before the spiritual, the angelic, and the Divine sense has first been collected. Since the Last Judgment, which took place in the spiritual world as early as l757, and since the Coming of the New Jerusalem, this sense has been for the first time revealed by God to Assessor Swedenborg, who, as far as this is concerned, does not seem to be unwilling to be regarded as a God-inspired man (Vir Theopneustos). Again, the Sacred Scripture has been written by mere correspondences; and without the knowledge of correspondences, and a special illustration and hence revelation, it cannot be understood in by far the greater number of passages (see Preface). How then should he who is not in a state of illustration, or who does not understand the doctrine of correspondences, know e. g. that [scanner unable to insert symbols], to receive sight (recipere visum) signifies that they who have been in ignorance of the truth would receive intelligence; that to receive hearing (recipere auditum) signifies, that they who had not heard before concerning God and the Word would listen and obey; that to be resuscitated from the dead signifies that they who otherwise would have perished are made alive; that a garden, a grove, a forest signify wisdom and knowledge; that the olive-tree, the vine, the cedar, the oak signify the celestial, the spiritual, the rational, natural, and sensual food and truth of the church; that a mountain, a hill, a valley signify the higher, lower, and lowest things of the church; that Egypt signifies knowledge, Ashur reason; Moab the adulteration of good, the sons of Ammon the adulteration of truth, Tyre and Sidon the thoughts of truth and good? I ask, can the Sacred Scripture with such an explanation remain any longer the fundamental ground (principium) for the knowledge of Faith, Religion, and Revealed Theology.

(b) "God is one in essence and in person, in whom is a Trinity, and the Lord is that God. The Lord is the Only God, in whom is the Trinity (Preface). The whole Trinity is in the Lord. His Divine (the Divine nature) is called Father. His Human (the Human nature) is the Son.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 290 And the Divine Proceeding (i. e. as much as I could gather on this subject), the Divine virtue and operation which enlightens and sanctifies us, is the Holy Spirit (cfr. A, R. pp. 59, 629, Latin edition).

(c) "No safisfaction for the sins of the world is given. The purpose of Christ's Coming into the world was the subjugation of hell, and its removal from man; and Christ removed it by contests against it, and victories over it; and He reduced it into order and under obedience to Him (A. R. pp. 59, 60).

(d) "Justification by faith alone is abused, with gross contempt, throughout the whole of Swedenborg's work.

(e) The following is his explanation of the essential parts of the Holy Supper: By the bread and the blood of the Lord nothing else can be understood than the Divine in itself, and from itself; by flesh is understood the Divine Good of the Divine Love, and by blood the Divine Truth from that Good (A. R., p. 208, Latin Edition).

(f) "Of the conversations and statements of those who departed this life with a profession of faith alone, I find a short, but derisive doctrinal exposition in the memorable relation on p. 208 of the Apocalypsis Revelatat.

"In consideration of what I have here quoted to you in haste; I submit to your judgment, whether Swedenborgianism is not in all its parts diametrically opposed to God's revealed Word, and the dogmatic writings of the Lutheran church; whether it is not full of the most intolerable fundamental errors, which overturn the very foundation of faith and of the whole Christian religion; and, consequently, whether it is, not merely schismatic, but in the highest degree heretical, and in most of its parts Socinian and thus, in every sense, objectionable?

"For the above reason, and by virtue of my office as a member of the Consistory, and as a pastor in this town where Assessor Swedenborg has resided some time,* and has had opportunity for spreading his views and attaching to himself disciples, I cannot refrain from urging the following resolutions:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 291

* Swedenborg never resided in Gottenburg; he only passed through it on his way to Holland or England.

"First, that the clergy of the diocese be admonished in the most earnest manner to be on their guard against the theological writings published by Assessor Swedenborg.

"Secondly, That Pastor Kollinius be urged to make a positive statement containing the names of 'the leading men in this place of whom report says that they favour and follow Assessor Swedenborg's theological principles,' so that innocent men who shun all false and heretical learning may escape suspicion; and that those who favour and promote false views may be treated according to law and royal decrees.

"Thirdly, As leading men (by whom may be meant members of the clergy either of the town, or of the Diocese, or perhaps even members of the Consistory seem to have become the subject of a most unworthy suspicion among the clergy of the diocese, that our Bishop, who is placed as a superintendent over the clergy, and likewise over the gymnasia and schools of his diocese, be instructed on the part of the Consistory, to report the present as a most important matter of the Church in the Rouse of the Clergy at the approaching Diet, which will not fail to take such steps and measures to prevent the spread of Swedenborgian doctrines, as their precious official oath and the exigency of the case demand, and as the law prescribes.

"O. EKEBOM.
"Gottenburg, March 22, 1769."

On March 30, after the Minutes containing Dr. Ekebom's charges against Swedenborg had been read, Dr. Beyer caused the following reply to be inserted in the Minutes for publication.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 292

C.

DR. BEYER'S REPLY TO DR. EKEBOM.*

* See AHandlingar," &c. pp. 11 to 14.

"As a further and necessary complement of the passages which Dr. Ebebom179 entered on the Minutes, On March 22, from Assessor Swedenborg's theological works, I desire to communicate here a passage upon which I lighted in his last published work on 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love' (no. 82); because it furnishes a kind of summary of the assessor's system of religion. The passage referred to literally translated reads as follows: 'Afterwards a man came running from the northern quarter in great haste; he looked at me with a threatening countenance, and addressing me in a passionate tone of voice, said: 'Art thou he that wishes to seduce the world by instituting a New Church which thou understandest by the New Jerusalem about to come down from God out of heaven; and by teaching that the Lord will gift with love truly conjugial those who embrace the doctrines of that church; the delights and felicity of which love thou exaltest to heaven? Is not this a mere fiction? and dost thou not hold it forth as a bait and enticement for others to accede to thy new [doctrines]? But tell me briefly, what are those doctrines of the New Church that I my see whether they agree or disagree:?" I replied, "The doctrines of the church understood by the New Jerusalem are as follows: First, That there is one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and that He is the Lord Jesus Christ. Secondly, That a saving faith is to believe in Him. Thirdly, that evils are to be shunned because they are of the devil, and from the devil. Fourthly, that goods are to be done because they are of God, and from God. Fifthly, that these are to be done by man as from himself; but that it ought to be believed that they are done by the Lord with man, and by means of man." Having heard these things his fury abated for a while; but after some deliberation he again looked at me with a stern countenance, and said: "Are these five precepts the doctrines of the faith and charity of the New Church?"

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 293 I replied, "Yes." He then asked sharply, "How can you demonstrate the first, that there is one God, in whom there is a Divine Trinity, and that He is the Lord Jesus Christ?" I said, "I demonstrate it thus: Is not God one and indivisible? Is there not a trinity? If God is one and indivisible, is He not one person? If He is one person, is not the trinity in that person? That He is the Lord Jesus Christ is evident from these considerations, that He was conceived from God the Father (Luke i, 34, 35), and thus that as to His soul He is God; and hence, as He Himself says, that the Father and He are one (John x, 30); that He is in the Father, and the Father in Him (John xiv, 10, 11); that he that seeth Him and knoweth Him, seeth and knoweth the Father (John xiv, 7, 9); that no one seeth and knoweth the Father, except Him who is in the bosom of the Father (John i, 18); that all things of the Father are His (John iii, 35; xvi, 15); that He is the Way, the Truth, and the Life; and that no one cometh to the Father, but by Him (John xiv, 6); also that He is of Him, because He is in Him; and, according to Paul, that all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily in Him (Col. ii, 9); and, moreover, that He hath power over all flesh (John xvii, 2), and that He hath all power in heaven and in earth (Matt. xxviii, is): from all of which it follows, that He is God of heaven and earth." He afterwards asked how I prove the second, "that a saving faith is to believe on Him?" I said, "By these words of the Lord: This is the will of the Father, that every one who believeth on the Son should have eternal life (John vi, 40). God so loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish, but have everlasting life (John iii, 15, 16). He that believeth on the Son, hath eternal life; but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him" (John iii, 36). He afterwards said, "Demonstrate also the third and the following:" when I replied, "what need is there to demonstrate that evils ought to be shunned because they are of the devil and from the devil; and that goods ought to be done, because they are of God, and from God; also that the latter are to be done by man as from himself; but that he ought to believe that they are to be done by the Lord with man, and by means of man?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 294 That these three points are true is proved by the whole Sacred Scripture from beginning to end; for what else is insisted upon there in general, except that man must shun evils and do goods, and believe on the Lord God? Besides, without these three points there is no religion; for does not religion relate to life? and what is life but to shun evils and do goods? and how can a man do the latter and shun the former except as from himself? "Therefore, if you remove these three points from the church, you remove from it the Sacred Scripture, and you also remove religion; and when these are removed the church is not a church." The man, after hearing these things, retired, and was musing; but still he departed in indignation?

"As to the rest I fully agree with the Doctor where he says: "I do not judge either him [Assessor Swedenborg], or any one else. The Lord is He who knows and judges both him and me.' But for this very reason I cannot agree with him in his judgment afterwards, where he declares at the same time that 'Swedenborgianism is in all its parts diametrically opposed to God's Holy Word, &c.; that it is heretical, Socinian, and thus in every sense objectionable.' I do not see any ground for passing this judgment without a previous knowledge of his system of religion, and before bringing the matter and the person in question in a lawful manner before the proper tribunal; otherwise we should be guilty of arbitrariness of the kind which is described in the Code of Laws, chap. xxv, paragraphs 21 and 22; in order to avoid this I deem it necessary that this subject should be submitted for lawful examination to the proper authority. Should the venerable Consistory nevertheless find sufficient reasons in what has thus far been advanced, for regarding the writings of Swedenborg as seductive--on which subject, for the reasons above stated, I suspend my own judgment--I still think that in this matter we cannot address ourselves in a lawful way to any one else than in humility to His Royal Majesty, who will perhaps most graciously decide, what steps are further to be taken with the matter in a lawful way.

"BEYER."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 295

Dr. Rosn,45 who had been absent at the last two sittings of the Consistory, handed in on April 5 the following opinion on Swedenborg's writings:

D.

DR. ROSN45 ON THE WRITINGS OF SWEDENBORG.*

* See "Handlingar," &c., pp. 21 to 23.

"My thoughts respecting the well-born Assessor Swedenborg and his theological writings are as follows:

"Were I, in violation of the law, to condemn any one unheard, or to condemn the writings of an author without having properly examined them, I might, indeed, after a superficial examination find a good deal in these writings which is opposed to our accepted creed. Yet I should be very slow in regarding as a Socinian him who, with ail due reverence, regards Christ as God, even though he should condemn a good many [other doctrines]. And, again, it would be difficult for me to believe that any one denies the atonement who attributes to the Lord all merit and all righteousness, and all possible as well as all real redemption, &c. As the author, however, on account of his absence cannot defend himself orally, and as I am not yet very well acquainted with his writings, the whole of which I have not yet seen, I consider it a Christian duty not scornfully to reject what I have not properly examined.

"It is true that in my "Clerical News" (Preste-Tidningar) for April 1768, I gave the general public some information about the Apocalypsis Revelata; yet I was neither then nor am I now prepared to give a circumstantial account of it, free from all mistakes. I have seen that the great Ernesti38 has been too hasty in his judgment; and I see now that Dean Ekebom179 has not been as accurate as he ought to have been, but attributes to Assessor Swedenborg expressions which do not at all occur on p. 21 of the Apocalypsis. In the edition of that work which is in my hands there is not a word written about the 'Sacred Scripture having been hitherto badly and perversely understood,' but we read that 'the Apocalypse has hitherto not been understood', and this is what every one says who ventures into its depths.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 296 Besides it is difficult for a man possessed of the greatest learning, even though he be thoroughly well disposed and impartial, to be assured that he has a true insight into the Swedenborgian system. On reading the first line of p. 275 of the Apocalypsis Revelata, where our assessor makes this statement, that 'the Lord by the passion of the cross did not remove sins but bear them,' it struck me at once that our author contradicted altogether what is written in John i, 29. It was only, when a long time afterwards I came across the author's 'Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord,' that I became acquainted with his true meaning: for there it is written on p. 23, that 'the Lord by the passion of the cross has not removed sins, but that He is removing them' (quod non abstulerit peccata, sed auferat illa); whence it appears that Assessor Swedenborg according to the letter does not contradict the above passage, but respects it as a part of God's Word. From this, however, I do not desire to draw any other conclusions than that, first, a person may easily run into error and pass a wrong judgment, if he draw rigorous conclusions from one or two passages taken out of their context, or which are picked up here and there in his writings; and secondly, that according to the Swedenborgian system the Lord has both borne, and is removing the sins of men.

"Nevertheless, I do not go security for the whole of the above-named system, nor for my accuracy in understanding it; wherefore I do not venture in so hasty a manner to enter into a criticism of the so-called 'Swedenborgianism;' especially as neither I nor my colleagues are under any order from those high in authority to examine it. Still I am examining it without any exhortation, as time and opportunity permit me, and as long as I enjoy the advantage of having in my hands the Assessor's Arcana, which the Right Reverend Bishop has lent to me...*

* Compare Document 227.

"With respect to the resolutions which were brought before the Consistory at its last meeting, it does seem just, first, that the clergy should be informed what judgment has been passed on the writings of Swedenborg by the learned, whether this judgment be favourable or unfavourable;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 297 secondly that the Bishop be requested to have the whole matter investigated in a legal manner, through the action of the venerable House of the Clergy; and thirdly, that Dean Kollinius should be requested to name the leading persons who in this place are promoting Swedenborgian views. I observe, however, that my vote in this matter is superfluous, as the Consistory have already executed the resolutions passed at their last meeting."

[Rosn]

Meanwhile Swedenborg himself who was staying at the time in Amsterdam, had been informed by Dr. Beyer through a friend of the attempt which was being made by Dr. Ekebom179 to cast odium on his writings and to deter others from reading them. He hastened to defend himself in a letter addressed to the Consistory, which was enclosed in the following letter to Dr. Beyer:

E.

ELEVENTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this letter, from which the above translation has been made, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed as part of Letter VI in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" for 1788. An English translation of it was published in the Supplement to the enlarged English edition of the "Swedenborg Documents" (p. 4).

"In a letter addressed to me by the highly esteemed Mr. Peter Hammarberg:194 I received a copy of the opinion expressed by Dr. Olof Ekebom,l79 Dean of Gottenburg, on the subject of the writings which have been published by me. Enclosed you find my reply, which you will please to hand in to the venerable Consistory, after having first taken a copy of the letter for yourself, and another for the Bishop,l78 which you will please forward to him, so that my reply may not be suppressed in the Consistory.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 298 Should the Dean not be willing to withdraw and utterly repudiate his opinion, I insist that both the Dean's opinion and my reply be printed, as is the case with the opinions expressed by the Council, the Courts of Appeal, and the various Departments, so that I may institute a criminal process. Next week I intend to set out for Paris; in case anything of importance take place in this matter, I may be informed of it by a letter addressed to me in Paris, Care of the Ambassador, Count Gust. Phil. Creutz.l93 Desiring to be remembered kindly to my friends and patrons in Gottenburg, I remain, most reverend and most learned Doctor and Lector,

"Your most obedient servant and faithful friend,

"EM. SWEDENBORG.

"Amsterdam, April 15, 1769."

F.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG'S REPLY TO THE OPINION EXPRESSED BY DR. OLOF EKEBOM,179 DEAN OF GOTTENBURG, BEFORE THE CONSISTORY, ON MARCH 22, 1769.*

* The Swedish original of this Document from which the above translation has been made, was first printed in the "Handlingar," &c., of 1769 (pp. 25 to 28). Afterwards it was reprinted as part of Letter VI of the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" for 1788. The first English translation appeared in the "Intellectual Repository" for 1812, from which it was embodied in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Docoments."

Read before the Consistory on April 26, 1769.

"I have received the opinion expressed by the Dean of Gottenburg before the Consistory on the subject of the Doctrine of the New Church, which has been published to the world by our Saviour Jesus Christ, through me His servant, in the 'Doctrine of the New Jerusalem,' and in the 'Apocalypse Revealed;' and as I find that the Dean's opinion is full of reproaches, and also here and there contains untruths, I deem it too prolix to answer each of them separately, especially as I perceive that they are written by a person who does not seem to have a bridle for his tongue, nor eyes in his forehead, to see those things which are written in these works in conformity with God's Word and an enlightened understanding; such persons are described by the Lord Himself in Matt. xiii, 13 to 15.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 299 I shall take from the Doctor's opinion only these words, that the doctrine is 'in the highest degree heretical and in most of its parts Socinian.'

"The doctrine cannot be called heretical, since it acknowledges and affirms: first, the Divine Trinity (see 'Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord,' no. 55 and the following numbers, also 'Apocalypse Revealed,' nos. 961, 962); secondly, the Sanctity of the Holy Scripture, especially its literal sense (see 'Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture,' no. 27. et seq., no. 37 et seq., no. 50 et seq., and 'Apocalypse Revealed' nos. 200, 898, 911); thirdly a Christian Life (see 'Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem from the precepts of the Decalogue,' from beginning to end); fourthly, the connection between Faith and Charity (see 'Apocalypse Revealed,' in many places); fifthly, that Faith in God must be based upon our Saviour, according to His own words in John iii, 15, 16; vi, 40; xi, 25, 26; and xx, last verse; but especially John iii, 35, 36, and Col. n, 9. Likewise, in accordance with the Formula Concordi, where we read that in Jesus Christ, God is Men, and Man God, pp. 607, 762, 763,765, 840 et seq.; that His Human Essence has been exalted into Divine Majesty and power, pp. 337 et seq., 607, 608 et seq., 774, 834 et seq., 844, 847, 852, 861, 863, 869; that Jesus Christ has all power in heaven and on earth, pp. 775, 776,780, 833; that also as to His Human Essence He governs all things by His most immediate presence, pp. 337, 375, 600, 608, 611, 738, 768, 783, 784, 785, 786, Appendix, pp. 149, 150; besides many other things (see edition of Leipzig, 1765).

"On the strength of all these passages, and of what the Lord Himself teaches in John xiv, 6 to 11, according to the doctrine of the New Church, Faith in God is based on the Saviour Himself. From this alone it may be seen with how little show of reason and lack of pertinence this doctrine has been attacked with abusive language, and further, that no one of sound understanding can say that it is 'full of the most intolerable fundamental errors,' that it is 'corrupting, heretical, injurious, and in the highest degree objectionable.' Such abusive language is used, although the Dean in his Opinion (paragraph 2) admits his not having read my writings, in these words.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 300 I am not acquainted with the religious system of Assessor Swedenborg, nor shall I take any trouble in order to become acquainted with it. I am told that this knowledge may be chiefly acquired by studying his published writings on the "New Jerusalem," on "Charity and faith," on "The Lord," &c., not one of which works I have possessed, read, or seen.' Is not seeing and judging of any one's writings in this manner like being blind before and having eyes behind, and these even covered with a film? And can any one competent to judge in spiritual or temporal matters regard an outburst of feeling expressed in such language otherwise than as criminal? The 'Doctrine [of the New Jerusalem],' mentioned by the Dean, is in Gottenburg, and might have been consulted by him, if he had chosen to do so. The Dean likewise abuses the spiritual sense of the Word, which our Saviour suffers to be revealed at the present day; as if that sense prevented the Sacred Scripture 'from being any longer the fundamental ground of the knowledge of Faith, Religion, and Revealed Theology,' when yet in the 'Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture' the following points are proved and demonstrated: I. That the literal sense of the Word is the basis, continent, and firmament of its spiritual sense, nos. 27 to 36; II. That in the literal sense of the Word Divine Truth is in its fulness, its sanctity, and its power, nos. 37 to 49; III. That the doctrine of the church must be drawn from the literal sense of the Word, and be confirmed thereby, nos. 50 to 61; IV. That by the literal sense of the Word there is conjunction with the Lord, and consociation with the angels, nos. 62 to 68, besides several other things. Concerning the spiritual sense, and its inestimable benefits, see nos. 5 to 26, and also the 'Apocalypse Revealed,' nos. 200, 898, 911, as well as in a thousand other places.

With respect to the second point where the doctrine is called Socinian, it is a cursed blasphemy and lie: for Socinianism signifies a denial of the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ; when yet His Divinity is principally affirmed in the Doctrine of the New Church, and it is proved therein that the Saviour has completely atoned for and redeemed mankind, so that no one could have been saved without His Coming (see 'Apocalypse Revealed,' no. 67, and several other places); wherefore, I look upon the word 'Socinian' as a downright insult, and a diabolical mockery.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 301

"This, together with the rest that is contained in the Dean's Opinion, may be taken for what is meant by 'the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth after the woman to drown her, when she was yet in the wilderness' (Rev. xii, 15); and it may come to pass that what is mentioned immediately afterwards, may likewise take place, 'And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ' (verse 17). That the New Jerusalem signifies the New Church, which is to be the Bride and Wife of the Lamb, may be seen in the 'Apocalypse Revealed,' nos. 880 and 881; that this church will undoubtedly come, because the Lord Himself has predicted it, you may see in the Revelation xxi and xxii; also in Zechariah xiv, 7 to 9; and in the last chapter of the Revelation in these words: 'I Jesus have sent mine angel, to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and race of David, the bright and morning star. And the spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him who heareth say, Come. And let him who is willing, receive the water of life gratis' (Rev. xxii, 16, 17).

"EM. SWEDENBORG.

"Amsterdam, April 25, 1769.

"P. S. I request that this letter be laid before the venerable Consistory. Likewise, that a copy of it be sent to the Right Reverend Bishop."l78

On May 3, 1769, Dr. Beyer submitted to the Consistory the following letter from Emanuel Swedenborg, containing an additional reply to Dr. Ekebom:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 302

G.

TWELFTH LETTERS OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

"Reverend Doctor,

"Before departing for Paris next week I desire to make the following addition to the reply I made to Dr. Ekebom's Opinion. It is stated there that I have written: First, 'that the Sacred Scripture has been hitherto badly and perversely explained' (Apocalypse Revealed, p. 21, no. 1); this is a pure falsehood, for in the place quoted no expression like this occurs. Secondly, 'that no satisfaction is given for the sins of the world,' which is likewise a pure falsehood. Thirdly, 'that justification by faith alone is abused.' This is true, since faith alone is faith separate from charity or good works; and faith separated from charity has been rejected by the Court of Appeals in Stockholm; and also afterwards by the University of Upssl, and probably also by the Universities of Lund and bo. Dr. Ekebom,179 it seems, does not yet know that good works which follow faith freely and spontaneously, and are called fruits of faith, works of the spirit, and works of grace, and which are done in a state of justification, according to the Formula Concordi itself have no connection with faith, and therefore do not contribute anything to salvation; nay it is stated that it would be injurious should they connect and mix themselves with faith; and that which has no connection is in itself separate. Among the quotations from the Formula Concordi concerning the Divinity of Christ which I sent in my last reply, some are erroneously given, viz. 337, 375 which ought to be 737, 775. On the same subject I add here a clearer and more comprehensive collection of extracts the Formula Concordi (see the Leipzig edition of 1766), which is as follows: That in Christ God is Man and Man God, pp. 607, 765.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 303 That Christ, true God and Man, is in one indivisible Person, and abides to eternity, pp. 600, 762, 763, raised to the omnipotent Power of God; forasmuch as He was such a man, that the Human Nature had so close and so ineffable a union and communion with the Son of God, as to become One Person, p. 607. That Christ's Human Nature 840 et seq. That Christ, as to the Human Nature, has been from the Council of Ephesus, and Chalcedon; next from the Fathers, as Athanasius, Augustine, Chrysostom, Eusebius, Cyril, Eustachius, Gregory, Epiphanius, Theodoret, Basil the Great, Theophylact, Hilary, Origen, Nicephorus, Nyssenius, Vigilius Leo, pp. 840 to 878. It is also confirmed from the Word in many places, pp. 608, 844, 847, 852, 861, 863, 869. That Christ's Human Nature has received the most excellent, the greatest, and supernatural properties, and the celestial prerogatives of majesty, strength, and power, p. 774. Moreover, the spirit of all wisdom, pp. 781,782. That Christ operates in, with, and through, both natures, and through the human, as by the organ of Deity, pp. 773, 779,847. That this takes place by the hypostatic union, glorification, and exaltation, pp. 774, 779. That in the state of humiliation He emptied Himself and did not put forth and manifest that majesty always, but when it seemed good to Him, until He put off the form of a servant after the resurrection, and entered into the very Divine Glory and Majesty, pp. 608, 764, 767. That by virtue of the hypostatic union He wrought miracles even in the state of exinanition, pp. 167, 767. That Christ is our Redeemer, Mediator, Head, High Priest, and King, as to both natures, p. 773. That Christ was essentially exalted to the right hand of God, according to His Human Nature, p. 608. That He is at the right hand of God, that He has risen above all the heavens, and actually fills all things, and rules everywhere, not only as God, but also as man, as the prophets have prophesied concerning Him, into the possession of which power He actually came according to the Human Nature, p. 768. That the right hand of God is everywhere, and that Christ according to His Humanity governs all things by His presence, and holds all things under His feet, p. 600.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 304 That through the unity of the person were given to Christ, as to the Human Nature, Majesty, Glory, Omnipotence, and Omniscience, with the most inward dominion of all things, pp. 737 et seq., 608 et seq., 834 et seq., Appendix, pp. 147, 148. That Christ, by personal union and exaltation according to the flesh, being seated at the right hand of God, received all power in heaven and on earth, p. 833. That Christ, even according to the Human Nature, has all power in the heavens and the earth, pp. 775, 779, and is confirmed by passages from the Scriptures, pp. 775, 776, 780. That Christ according to the Human Nature is omnipotent, pp. 3, 10, 611, 768, 783, 789, Appendix, p. 150. That the regal office of Christ is this, that as God-Man, in both natures, as King and Lord of heaven and earth, He might govern, by His inmost presence, all things in the kingdom of power, grace, and glory, pp. 787, 876, Appendix, p. 149. That the flesh of Christ is vivifying, and that Christ possesses the power of vivifying according to the Human Nature, pp. 776, 777, 783, Appendix, p. 152. That Christ, according to both natures, is to be adored and worshipped, agreeably to the Augsburg Confession, P. 226, appendix, p. 151. That Christ overcame the devil, hell, and damnation, p. 767, in addition, pp. 613, 614, 788, appendix, p. 150.

* The Swedish original, from which the above translation has been made was printed first in the "Handlingar," &c. of 1769 (pp. 28 to 31) It was afterwards reprinted as Letter VII in the "Samlingar fr, Philantroper" for 1788. The first English translation was published in the "Intellectual Repository" for 1812, in conjunction with Document 245, F, and thence was transferred to the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."

"Should double the number of quotations from the Formula Concordi be required concerning the Person of Christ, as well as concerning Justification by Faith alone, they shall be produced another time.

"EM. SWEDENBORG.

"Amsterdam, April 22, 1769.

"P. S. Will you kindly communicate to the venerable Consistory either this original letter, or a copy thereof; it would be well that the Right Reverend Bishop should also receive a copy."

The author of "Nya Kyrkan," &c., says with regard to Swedenborg's reply to Dr. Ekebom (p. 21): "To a document like that of Dr: Ekebom, which lacked all scientific and diplomatic tact, no milder reply than that made by Swedenborg could be expected.... The Dean of Gottenburg made no attempt to rebut Swedenborg's arguments, but contented himself with reproaching Dr. Beyer in the Consistory for acting as Swedenborg's messenger; he gave him also to understand that 'perhaps, before he was aware, he himself might be brought up on account of his Sermon-Essays.'"

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 305        

The author of "Nya Kyrkan," &c., continues on the same page, "The old odium theolgicum, so well known in ecclesiastical history, took possession of the members of the Consistory of Gottenburg; and those of one party it filled with an extravagant zeal for orthodoxy, and those of the other with as great an anxiety on account of their faith. To the latter party belonged Beyer and Rosn,45 against whom the persecution was directed, and most frequently they were joined by Roempke.l87 The other party was headed by Dean Ekebom,179 who in most cases was supported by the Bishop178 and the other members of the Consistory. The proceedings of the case were seen through the press by an Assessor, of the name of Aurell,191 under the title, 'Minutes respecting Swedenborgianism and the so-called Sermon-Essays.' These Minutes begin with March 22, 1769, and were closed on February 7, 1770, during the whole of which time the Swedenborgian controversy continued without interruption; for as soon as one question was settled another was quickly raised. When Dean Kollinius refused to give the names of the 'lending men in the place who mere thought to favour Swedenborg's theological principles,' saying in a discreet and noble manner that 'his object in sending in his memorial had been to obtain enlightenment, and not to bring any one into ill repute,' Aurell191 directed his accusation against Beyer's Sermon-Essays, or his Collection of Sermons; and when this accusation also miscarried, since Roempke187 with the consent of the Consistory had granted permission that it should be printed, Aurell procured from some of the students of the gymnasium the notes which they had taken of Beyer's lectures, and he requested permission to have them printed under the name of 'dictata,' so that the public generally might convince themselves of their heterodoxy. Permission having been refused, 'since Beyer's dictata had been penned by inexperienced students who had neither sufficient intelligence fully to understand their teacher's meaning during the lesson, nor learning enough to express it intelligibly and satisfactorily,' Aurell sent a copy of these 'dictata' privately to Bishop Filenius,9 who was at the time the Speaker of the House of the Clergy, and, although related to Swedenborg, one of his bitterest antagonists.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 306 They did not even scruple to summon the students of the gymnasium before the Consistory, in order that they might bear witness against their teacher; in short Aurell and Ekebom left no means untried by which they hoped to calumniate a system of religion which they did not understand, and to cast odium upon such as favoured it, accusing them of a desire to proselytize among the students of the gymnasium, and among the public at large."

Meanwhile Bishop Lambergl78 had gone to Stockholm, where Swedenborg had likewise arrived. From that place Swedenborg wrote the following letter dated October 13, 1769, to Dr. Beyer which proved another apple of discord. For Dr. Beyer having received the writer's permission, had it printed and circulated among his friends in Gottenburg. The following translation is made from the original letter, which contains some passages that mere left out in the printed copy:

H.

THIRTEENTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this letter, from which the above translation has been made, is preserved among the Swedenborg MSS. in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, together with Swedenborg's original draught of the same. In the form in which it was printed at Gottenburg, it appeared as 'Letter IX in the "Samlingrar fr Philantroper." The first English translation appeared in 1784 in the Appendix to the second edition of Swedenborg's work, "The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body," (p. 38); the same translation in an improved form was printed in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" for l790 (p. 38), whence it found its way into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents" as Letter VI.


"Reverend Doctor and Dear Friend,

"Your letter of the 18th inst. came duly to hand, and in reply it may not be unpleasant to you to hear a short account of what occurred to me upon my arrival here.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 307 I arrived here in Stockholm at the beginning of the month, and found high as well as low pleased that I had come, and favourably disposed towards me. I was soon invited to dine with His Royal Highness, the Crown-Prince,12 and had a long conversation both with him and the Crown-Princess. Afterwards I dined with some of the senators, and conversed with the leading members of the House of the Clergy; likewise with the bishops who are here present, all of whom treated me with kindness, except Bishop Filenius.9 On being informed that my copies of the work on 'Conjugial Love' had been confiscated at Norrkping, I inquired of Bishop [M]ennander180 of bo, Bishop Benzelstjerna10 of Westers, Bishop Ltkeman192 of Gothland, and Bishop Lamberg,178 how the matter stood. They all answered that they knew nothing on the subject, except that the books were lying in store until my arrival, so that they might not be scattered; also that Bishop Filenius9 had made an announcement to that effect in the House; that the House itself had not discussed the matter, and still less had given its consent to have them confiscated; no notice to that effect therefore had been entered in the Minutes, so that the Reverend House of the Clergy had no share in the matter, but only Bishop Filenius. I had some dispute with the latter on the subject, who insists that they be not delivered without an examination, and is unwilling to agree that the examination of this book, which does not treat of theology but chiefly of morals, is unnecessary, and that such a procedure is paving the way for a 'dark age' (sculum obscurum) in Sweden. [This ill-will of Bishop Filenius is due to domestic affairs and to party-spirit, and is representative of the persecution by the dragon and the stinging of the locusts in the Revelation: such causes at least have suggested themselves to me, but I shall leave their determination to another time and opportunity.*]

*This has been omitted in the printed copy.

"The procedure of Bishop Filenius, however, does not affect me, since I have brought with me thirty-eight copies, and had previously sent in five; more than half of these are already distributed to the Bishops, the members of the House of the Clergy, the Senators, and Their Majesties, the King and Queen;77 and after the rest are distributed, there will be more than enough in Stockholm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 308 Those that are detained at Norrkping will be sent abroad, where there is a great demand for them.

"I send you herewith a little tract which I published in London on 'The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body.' It has been sent to the various scientific societies and to the universities in England and France. You will please to read the very last lines in it. This tract is now probably translated into English.*

* The first English translation of this work was prepared by the Rev. T. Hartley and printed in 1770.

"The small treatise entitled 'A Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church," I have sent only to Bishop Benzelstjerna,10 with strict injunctions not to lend it to any one: for there are few in Sweden who penetrate with their understandings into any matter belonging to theology, and unless they do so, they cannot receive any enlightenment from God's Word. For instance, they cannot understand that in Romans iii, 28, and Gal. ii, 16, an imputative faith in the merit of Christ is not meant, but the faith of Jesus, which is a faith from Jesus in Jesus; and, likewise, that the works of the law of the decalogue are not there meant, but the works of the Mosaic law, which were simply for the Jews; and, further, that in Romans iv is understood the imputation of the faith of the present church; nor are they willing to be enlightened in such texts of the Scriptures as concern God's Son, that by the Son of God is not understood a Son of God from eternity, but a Son of God conceived in time from Jehovah God, and born of the virgin Mary, according to the distinct words of Luke i, 32, 35; Matt. iii, 17; xvii, 5; John xx, 31; 1 John v, 20, 21, and other places. This is likewise agreeable to the Apostles' Creed, where no other Son of God is mentioned, whence it follows that the primitive church knew of no other. A Son of God from eternity was adopted in the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds, because they could find no other way by which to refute and expel the errors of Arius, (compare the Apostles' Creed). I therefore adhere to the Apostolic church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 309

"To worship God the Saviour cannot be prohibited throughout Christendom, and still less among the Lutherans (see the Augsburg Confession, p. 19, and also the 'Apology,' p. 226); nor can it be denied that in Christ Man is God and God is Man, with many other things which I mentioned in a former letter. The Formula Concordi explains also a divine trinity in those who were born by faith (p. 693, apology, p. 130); how much more then is a Divine Trinity in God the Saviour, &c. &c. (Col. ii 9). All this, however, and much more, will be demonstrated in a work which will be published two years hence.* The 'Brief Exposition' is a forerunner of it, and is to prepare the way for its reception. This little preliminary treatise has been spread throughout the whole of Christendom, Sweden excepted, because theology is now in its wintry state, and here in the north the night lasts longer than in southern parts; wherefore they in their darkness may be supposed to kick against everything of the New Church which belongs to the understanding or to reason. Still there are those in the ecclesiastical order who exceptions to this rule; I apply also to myself what the Lord has said to His disciples in Matt. x, 16.

* Swedenborg refers here to the "True Christian Religion," which was published in Amsterdam in 1771.

"What you relate respecting your wife in her dying hours, was caused especially by the impression of two clergymen, who associated her in her thoughts with those spirits, from whom she then spoke; it happens sometimes with some in the hour of death that they are in the state of the spirit. Those spirits that first spoke through her belonged to the followers of the dragon, which was cast down from heaven (see Rev. xii), and who became then so filled with hatred against the Saviour, and consequently against God's Word, and against everything belonging to the New Church, that they cannot bear to hear Christ mentioned. When the sphere of our Lord descends upon them out of heaven, they become like raving maniacs, and seek to hide themselves in holes and caverns, and thus save themselves, according to Rev. vi, 16. Your deceased wife was yesterday with me, and informed me of many things which she had thought, and spoken to you, her husband, and with those who led her astray.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 310 Were I at this time near you, I might relate to you many things on this subject, but I am not permitted to write about them.

"I have no time at present to express myself about the boy concerning whom you write.*

* Concerning this boy, see Document 243.

"With my kindest regards to you and to my friends, and especially to the Councilmen Wenngren195 and Hammarberg,194 I remain in all friendship and sincerity, reverend Doctor.

"Your most obedient servant,

       "EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
"Stockholm, October 30, 1769.

"P. S. You may show this letter to others, and if you choose you may have it copied and printed. Two honourable friends in London* have invited me to England, and I am considering whether I shall go thither next spring.

* The Rev. Thomas Hartleyl and Dr. Messiter,2 see Document 1, Vol. 1 (p. 5).

"I have been informed that a letter has been printed in Gottenburg, in which it is stated that in Paris I was ordered to leave that city. This is a direct falsehood, as can be proved by Count Creutz,l93 our ambassador in Paris."

On the effect which the printing of this letter produced in Gottenburg, the author of "Nya Kyrkan," *c. (p. 24) expresses himself as follows; "This letter, which was published separately, serves to show that even in the matter of exegesis Swedenborg was in advance of his age. But being printed in Gottenburg at a time when generally throughout Sweden they had not the faintest idea of the possibility of any other interpretation of the Bible than that supplied by the Reformers, it could not but pour oil upon the flames of controversy which raged for a long time both in the Consistory and in the Diocese. Speaking of the necessity of admitting the use of the understanding in matters of theology, and of the long winter of theology in the north; declaring that Romans iii, 28, treats simply of the faith of Jesus, and not of the imputative faith of the merit of Christ; and desiring to enlighten the clergy in passages from the Word concerning the Son of God--all this opened old wounds and caused new sores."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 311        

The printing of Swedenborg's letter, however, created a stir, not only in Gottenburg but also in the Diet in Stockholm, as appears from the following letter, which was addressed by Bishop Lamberg178 to the Consistory on December 4:

I.

BISHOP LAMBERG178 TO THE CONSISTORY OF GOTTENBURG.*

* The first letter of the Bishop is printed in the "Handlingar," &c., p. 127; the second on p. 107.

"Yesterday afternoon I brought the [Swedenborgian] matter before the Ecclesiastical Committee, who had already held three sessions on the subject, and who will soon be prepared to bring it for discussion before the whole House. This much for any one who fills the public office of a teacher to defend this doctrine, or to spread it among others. We demand, and justly, that no one shall be invested with the office of teacher, whether in the school or in the church, who has taken an oath on the Symbolic [dogmatic] Books, and yet prefers the writings of Swedenborg, although they militate against the principal points in these books.

"The scandal made by the letter which I mentioned in my last, and which was printed in Gottenburg, is indescribable. If any one has not read his writings, he may yet judge from this letter alone what the intention of this man is in respect to our precious doctrine of salvation. Socinianism* manifests itself there so clearly, that no one except the merest idiot in polemics can dare to deny it. What scandal this infamous (ohyggeligt) letter must also have caused among the honourable clergy of the diocese, who are so zealous to preserve purity of doctrine, upon discovering that this letter was printed in Gottenburg, in the centre of the diocese, and in that place where the Bishop and the Consistory have their seat.

311



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 312 I cannot express in sufficiently strong language the great sorrow I feel in this matter, and I urge upon you, as I have already done in my last letter, to send me as speedily as possible a reply to the questions I have propounded, so that those measures may be adopted which I counsel for checking in future the arbitrary spirit in our clergy."

* See what Swedenborg himself says on the charge of his being a Socinian in his reply to Dr. Ekebom (Document 245, F. p. 299).

The position which the Bishop of Gottenburg was determined to take, in respect to the doctrine promulgated by Swedenborg, appears still more clearly from the following extract from a letter which he addressed to a friend in Gottenburg, on November 16, and which was inserted in the Minutes of the Consistory of December 5:

... "I intend in future to keep the strictest guard, lest this cancer should spread. I have proposed to myself even to read all the writings of this singular man, in order to expose before the eyes of the diocesan clergy, by a pastoral letter or some other means, this doctrinal system, which is sufficiently tinged with Mohammedanism. I have long since regarded everything belonging thereto as so absurd, that no rational man. If he make but the least claim to education, can be beguiled by it. But when people get tired of God's Word, which is true and able to teach, then it seems that the Lord of the Word suffers them to be carried away by the most arrant nonsense" ......

The person who had to suffer most for the printing of Swedenborg's letter was Dr. Beyer,22 who, in his capacity of Dean (Decan) of the Consistory, had given his official consent to its being printed. Against him, therefore, were chiefly directed the attacks of Dr. Ekebom179 and of his co-adjutor, Assessor Aurell;191 and after the case of the Gottenburg Consistory against Swedenborg and Dr. Beyer had been brought by Bishop Lambergl78 before the House of the Clergy, those two men sought by every means to stimulate the zeal and inflame the animosity of the leading men of that House, Assessor Aurell accordingly sent an inflammatory letter, dated December 9, to Bishop Filenius,9 the Speaker of the House of the Clergy, in which he used the following language:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 313

J.

ASSESSOR AURELL191 TO BISHOP FILENIUS.9*

* See "Handlingar," &c., p. 162.

..."I entreat you to take the most energetic measures to stifle, punish, and utterly eradicate the Swedenborgian innovation and downright heresies, by which we are encompassed. Convinced, by the decided stand you have taken, that you have, as the foremost defender of our religion, both the power and the means in your hands of preserving God's honour, and having His power and will declared among men in a genuine and uncontaminated form, all those whose minds are still free from nonsense, and who are unaffected and undisturbed in their senses, place, like myself, their hope and consolation in you, and trust that you will take proper measures, so that the boar which devastates and the mild beast which desolates our country may be driven out with a mighty hand, and that that which God's hand has planted and confirmed may be established among us."

The author of "Nya Kyrkan," &c., remarks here: ABy such language and by such means Aurell191 sought to get the better of his adversaries. During the most illustrious times of Vaticanism, Rome's 'defender' had a Torquemada or some other Great Inquisitor to express such sentiments in the most beautiful language, and to execute his will. 'God's honour, His power and will: were then synonymous with the only saving Roman Catholic church, and all those who sought to reform its abuses and purify its doctrines were 'driven out like wild beasts' or burned at the stake. But such has never been the mode of proceeding in protestant Sweden, at least not in the eighteenth century. Ecclesiastical tradition among us had frequently to give way to Biblical truth, and an arbitrary will to argument. Nevertheless, Aurell's letter was received approvingly by the Speaker of the House of the Clergy, whose reply, which is dated December 28, is as follows:"

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 314

K.

BISHOP FILENIUS9 TO ASSESSOR AURELL.191*

* See "Handlingar," &c., pp. 130 to 133.

"I have the honour to offer you my best thanks for the two letters you had the kindness to address to me. The first, which was dated December 9, inclosed twelve sheets of the Minutes of the Most Venerable Consistory of Gottenburg concerning the circulation in the diocese of Gottenburg of the gross errors, which the well-born assessor Emanuel Swedenborg has published in respect to our pure doctrine of salvation; likewise an infamous (ohyggeligt) letter of the above-named Assessor, dated October 30, which had been printed at Gottenbnrg, together with 'A Short Synopsis of some of his printed works,'* all of which unfortunately hear witness of his delusions and confused ideas in respect to most of the eternal fundamental truths of our Evangelical Christian faith; and also two copies of crude dictata composed in the Swedenborgian mode of thought and intended for the youth in the Royal gymnasium of your town. Your second letter, which has likewise reached me, was dated the 20th of this month; in this letter were enclosed sheets 13 and 14 of the printed Minutes mentioned above, together with a sad account of how this abominable infection, which is not grounded in sound reason, and still less in God's Holy Word, but consists of untruthful visions and dreams, by various means is beginning to spread like a cancer.

* Aurell seems to have printed a collection of passages from Swedenborg's published writings, to which Dr. Beyer refers in his 'Defence' (Document 245, P) under the title of Excerpta.

"Since the copies of Assessor Swedenborg's so-called 'Delights of Wisdom concerning Conjugial Love,' which arrived from Amsterdam on May 1 for the opening of the Diet in Norrkping, were at my request detained in the custom-house of that town, nothing more has been heard in Stockholm, either before or since, concerning the singular movements and sports of the delirious fantasy of the Assessor 'from things heard and seen,' except that soon after his arrival a petition was handed in to the House of the Clergy, requesting the release of the confiscated books.

314



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 315 How very much, therefore, was I surprised when in the middle of October I learned for the first time what had happened in Gottenburg, through reading by mere chance eight sheets of the printed Minutes of the venerable Consistory, by which also the members of the House of the Clergy were amazed, when they saw how far the hallucinations of a human mind, disturbed by imaginary visions and fables, could go in their madness, when complete licence is given them to spread themselves, so that they impose even upon discreet people, who are unwilling to have their darkness enlightened by the good and pure revealed Word of a saving God, and who do not allow God's Spirit, which is always connected with the Word, to exert the vivifying force of the Word in their hearts. The House of the Clergy could not help being amazed also at the rashness of the printer Smitt, in daring to print the above-mentioned rude letter of the Assessor, dated October 30, which first came to my own knowledge and to that of the House in November.

"You, as well as Dean Ekebom179 and the worthy Deans Aurelius and Kollinius, who, in these troubled times of our Zion, have displayed so much cautious attention and zeal in what concerns God's honour, will please rest assured, that throughout this confused affair all the Christian, delicate, cautious, and severe measures will be taken which the exigencies of the case require, so as to save from eternal damnation those souls which Jesus, the only begotten Son of God from eternity, has redeemed by His blood and His death.

"It is a matter of the deepest regret that Assessor Swedenborg, who has at all times been universally honoured, and who besides has been distinguished for his learning in the sciences of mining and physics, should now, at his advanced age, have been for several years in a state of second childhood, and so much possessed by a perverted imagination, as to be no longer able to bear contradiction or receive enlightenment.

315



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 316 It is very grievous indeed, and to be lamented with tears, that there should be men among us who 'went out from us, but have not been of us' (1 John ii, 19), and who suffer themselves to be deceived by all the puffs of a foolish learning, and for this reason have rendered themselves amenable to the severe judgment of God, because they received not the love of truth, that they might be saved; and for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie' (2 Thess. ii, 10, 11).

"May God for Christ's sake take pity on the flock of His heritage and on the vineyard which His right hand has planted, and not suffer it to become the prey of fools; but may He humiliate all haughty spirits, and those who with inflated arrogance try, by dazzling others with something new, however false and foolish it may be, to seduce their souls, and to falsify our true doctrine of God, by using all their power to undermine the foundations of our most holy faith, to defile our faith in Jesus Christ, our crucified Saviour, our only hope of salvation, and the immovable foundation and       corner-stone of our faith; and who dare to set up in its place the most infamous and untruthful nonsense, until with a will-o'-the wisp, they extinguish the feeble light of reason in God's people, and lull to sleep the heart, which is deceitful above all things, in a licentious and carnal security, which is of nature and without grace in Christ.

"The whole of this infamous matter has, in accordance with the laws of the country, been entrusted, with entire confidence, to the highly enlightened and wise care of the judicial power, having been consigned to the hands of Mr. von Rosier,196 the high, well-born Chancellor of Justice, and Knight of His Majesty's Order of the Polar Star, to whose solid learning and zeal for God's honour, for the sanctity of the law and the impartial administration of justice, His Royal Majesty, our Most gracious King, by the unanimous recommendation of the Houses of the Diet, has lately confided the trust of this high office. All the papers which have been received respecting this delicate matter have already been most respectfully submitted to his discreet, profound, and sympathetic consideration.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 317 With the sincerest wish for all grace and felicity in the New Year which will soon begin, and ever afterwards, I remain, though personally unknown to you, with much respect and friendship

"Your most Obedient servant,

       "Petrus Filenius.
"Stockholm, December 28, l769."

At the time Bishop Filenius sent the preceding letter to Assessor Aurell, Swedenborg wrote the following letter to his friend, Dr. Beyer:

L.

FOURTEENTH LETTER OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The original of this Document, from which the above translation has been made, together with Swedenborg's first draught of the same, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed as Letter XI in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" for l788. The first English translation was published in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" for 1790, and this translation was embodied in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."


"Reverend Doctor and Dear friend,

"Your letter, which was written on the 2nd of December, I have received only to-day, through neglect of the letter-carriers who have kept it thus long in their hands. Your last letter also, containing 30 dalers in silver, was duly received, for which please accept my best thanks. I have likewise received the printed letter, about which there was at first a great ado in the House of the Clergy. Such a noise, however, does no harm; for its effect is like that of fermentation in the preparation of wine, by which it is cleared of impurities; for unless what is wrong is ventilated, and thus expelled, what is right cannot be seen and adopted.

"I have indeed heard about the doings in the Ecclesiastical Committee of the venerable House of the Clergy, yet have not taken a single step in defence of the case; for I know that our Saviour Himself defends His Church, especially against those who refuse to enter through the true door into the sheepfold, that is, into the church, and thus into heaven; such are called thieves and robbers.

317



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 318 The Lord Himself says, 'He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber; I am the door, by me if any one enter, he shall be saved, and shall find pasture' (John x, 1, 9). I have also been told by an angel from the Lord that 'I may rest securely on my arms in the night,' by which is meant the night in which the world is now immersed in respect to the things of the church.

"I have also read the Appendix to the 'Spy,' no. 48, and in the last expressions perceive the author's interior meaning, which is not difficult to see.

"With respect to the two clergymen of whom your deceased wife spoke, she did not mention their names, for which reason neither can I mention them. It is well known that among the clergy also there are false spirits, not only in this country, but also throughout the world. After saying these words among other things, she departed among the spirits of the dragon who in the day of her death first spoke through her, and she is still with them. "An extract from Dr. Ekebom,179 in the proceedings of the Consistory on December 6, has likewise been communicated to me, where he continues his usual unbecoming invectives. I look upon these as mere barkings, against which I must not lift a stone, and cast it at him with a view of driving the dogs away.

"I am glad that you are translating into Swedish the little work on the 'Intercourse between the Soul and the Body.' It has been very well received abroad in all places, as well as by many intelligent persons here in Stockholm. I remain in all friendship and affection, Reverend Doctor,

"Your most obedient servant and friend,

       "EMAN. SWEDENBORG
"Stockholm, December 29, 1769."

Meanwhile the Chancellor of Justice, Rosir,l96 to whom, as we have seen from Bishop Filenius' letter, (p. 315) had been referred the difference between the Consistory of Gottenburg on the one hand and Emanuel Swedenborg and Dr. Beyer on the other, after examining carefully the whole case, expressed himself in his memorial to the King, dated December 29, 1769, to this effect:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 319 On the one hand he said "It is sometimes more prudent to leave erroneous and absurd doctrinal views alone, since, as experience has shown, by such an examination they become better known, and more widely spread:" on the other hand he said, the duty of his office required him not to disregard a matter of so great importance for the whole country, as the Swedenborgian theology has proved to be, from being able for a longer time to produce so great a stir, as is shown by the printed Minutes. He, therefore, in the above memorial proposed those measures which were carried into effect by the following Regal Resolution, dated January 2, 1770.

M.

ROYAL RESOLUTION.*

* See "Handlingar," &c., p. 163.


"Adolphus Frederic, by the grace of God, &c.

"Our especial favour and gracious pleasure, under God almighty, to the true men and subjects, the Bishop and members of the Consistory.

"Our Chancellor of Justice in a humble memorial has reported to us the stir which the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and the so-called Swedenborgianism which thence has taken its rise, have caused in the diocese which has graciously been entrusted to your charge. We deem it necessary to make known to you this same memorial, which is enclosed to you herewith together with the sealed acts belonging thereto. It is also our gracious will and order that as soon as possible you report to us in a humble memorial, not only how you have found the doctrinal views of the above-mentioned Swedenborg, and in case they be deemed erroneous, what measures have been taken to prevent them spreading, and likewise why at the very beginning you did not make a humble report to us on this subject; also how you regard the so-called 'Sermon-Essays,' which have been examined by yourselves in your censorial capacity, and whether you have found them in all points agreeing with our pure evangelical doctrine, or how far you have discovered in them anything deviating therefrom; in the latter case you will also report to us whether the author of these essays is known to you, or can be discovered by you.

319



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 320 It is also your duty to make a more thorough examination of the so-called dictata, and to inform us how all these are connected; also whether it cannot be traced out how far the students, in what is found there to be erroneous and objectionable, have received instruction from others. The proceedings of all your examinations have to be submitted to us. Besides, Lector Dr. Beyer22 will have to give an account of himself individually in those matters that have been brought up against him. Further, as we deem it indispensable that a legal investigation be made in respect to the person who caused Swedenborg's letter of October 30, 1769, to be printed, a gracious order in connection therewith has just been forwarded to the Court of Appeals at Jonkping. In respect to the importance and delicate nature of this matter, it is likewise our desire to enjoin you to have a watchful eye upon all theological works announced for publication, so that, in accordance with the laws in respect to the liberty of the press, they be first examined by you, and, in case any book appear without permission, or be found to militate against our profession of faith, that the copies be at once confiscated, and the author subjected to a fine; further, that reviews or translations of Swedenborg's works, or of other similar writings, which contain anything conflicting with our pure doctrine, are not to be passed without your most careful examination; especially when not written in the Latin language, and when they contain any refutation, in the substance of the review, by which they may exert an injurious influence upon the more simple-minded people, who are not thoroughly grounded in learning. Again, although we entertain a gracious confidence in our faithful subjects the clergy, that they will not allow themselves to be led astray by any erroneous doctrines, but rather that with attention and zeal for our pure faith they will seek to administer their precious office, and when called upon will meet diligently and prudently the erroneous views that may be brought up against it, we, nevertheless, desire to impress upon them the warning, that they should carefully watch over themselves and their hearers, and that, in case they find anything erroneous obtruding itself upon them, they immediately make a report to you on the subject.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 321 And, finally, we desire to impress upon the Bishop, and in case of his absence upon his substitute, that he regularly and frequently inform himself as to the manner in which theology is taught in private and in public, in the gymnssia and in schools.

"All of this those whom it concerns have to carry into effect. And we hereby commend you to the grace of God Almighty.

"ADOLPHUS FREDERIC.
"The Council-chamber, Stockholm, January 2, 1770.

"P. F. VON HEGARDT."

The King's letter caused several resolutions to be passed by the Consistory of Gottenburg. A circular letter was sent to the clergy of the Diocese, containing the requisite warnings and monitions; and although in the Royal instruction not a single word about the suppression of Swedenborgianism is contained, Dr. Ekebom, nevertheless, gave utterance to this idea; notwithstanding the objection of most of the members of the Consistory that nothing had as yet been proved, either in Stockholm or Gottenburg, which deserved the epithet of heretical and false or which showed that Swedenborgianism had been refuted.

Doctor Beyer now voluntarily furnished the information, that he had had a hand in the composition of the ANew Essays towards a Collection of Sermons" (Nya frsken till en Hand-Postilla), and that they might be regarded as his work, provided exception be made of the evening sermons, which were furnished by the Lector and Magister Gothenius;197 as was likewise admitted by that gentleman. Dr. Beyer also acknowledged the above-mentioned Dictata as his own, so far as their contents were concerned, provided the grammatical and orthographical mistakes, the improper punctuation, the broken connection, and other faults of rhetoric be not imputed to him.

About this time Swedenborg wrote the following letter to one of his friends in Gottenburg, Mr. Wenngren,l95 who was one of the town-councillors.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 322

N.

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO COUNCILLOR WENNGREN.*

* The Swedish original from which the above translation has been made was printed as Letter XII in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper" for 1788. The first English translation, which was subsequently introduced into the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents," appeared on p. 220 of the "New Jerusalem Magazine" for 1790.


"Esteemed Friend,

"I received your letter containing the notes respecting the boy who can cure diseases. I cannot express myself at present on this subject, because here as well as in other parts of the country, the cause of religion is agitated by the subject of my inspiration, which would enter in some small measure into this matter also.*

* Further particulars concerning this boy may be seen in Document 243.

"Within the last few days the venerable House of the Clergy has arrived at a conclusion in respect to that part of the action brought before them which concerns me alone. Whether Dr. Ekebom179 is as much pleased with the result as he has hitherto been, may be best found out at Gottenburg. Clergymen, and others also, will perhaps by letter give a definite account of this result in the course of nest week. Among his party there have been some grievous slanderers, whose utterances fell like fire-balls from the clouds and became extinguished. I remain

[Your most obedient servant,]

       "EMANUEL SWEDENBORG.
"Stockholm, January 18, 1770."

But to return to Doctors Beyer and Rosn. The author of "Nya Kyrkan" says (p. 28): "Before the Royal Resolution [No. M] arrived at Gottenburg, it was preceded by a rumour, that the public teacher who had promoted the circulation of Swedenborg's views, and who professed them, had been sentenced to be removed from office and exiled;" and this report had been favoured by Bishop Lamberg's letter of December 4, 1765 (No. I).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 323 Such, however, as we have seen, was by no means the case. But one of the results produced by the Royal Resolution was this: not only Dr. Beyer, but also Dr. Rosn, in conjunction with Dr. Ekebom, in letters addressed to the King, expressed their views respecting the theological writings of Swedenborg, while Dr. Beyer had, besides, to defend himself from the charges which had been brought against him personally.

The author of "Nya Kyrkan" continues, "With a result before their eyes such as was indicated by common rumour and in the letter of Bishop Lamberg, it was by no means surprising that both Beyer and Rosn, who held ecclesiastical offices, should obey the royal injunction with a certain feeling of apprehension, and that with a trembling hand they should sign the papers containing their defence, which possibly might become the means of their being sacrificed to their religious convictions. These papers manifest on the one hand a free and undaunted spirit, and on the other they give evidence of a humble disposition, showing that their authors in the course they had chosen had taken fully into account both their privileges as men of science, and their duties as servants of the state and of the church. Their apologies seek to determine more accurately the terms symbolism and orthodoxy, and are of an historical, as well as dogmatic interest, because they seek not only to indicate, but also to develop, the relation of the new doctrine to the prevailing faith of the church. As Rosn's defence has hitherto existed only in manuscript, and as only a part of Dr. Beyer's has appeared in all English and German translation, this seems to be the place to make the reader acquainted with the first apologetic writings of the New Church in Sweden. Besides, from these papers we are able to form an idea of the individuality of these two men, both wherein they agreed and wherein they differed. Both apologies bear the impress of the interior character of their authors, and are in a certain sense an image of their souls; for the words of both speak the language of their hearts. Rosn, however, understood better than Beyer how to impart elegance to his language, and how to awaken an interest is the views he defended by the vivacity of his style and the originality of his mode of presentation.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 324 On this account a comparison between the two will, perhaps, in the minds of most readers, be in favour of Dr. Rosn. Beyer's declaration is as follows:"

O.

DR. BEYER'S DEFENCE.*

* The Swedish original, from which the above translation has been made, is contained in the "Nya Kyrkan," &c., Part I, pp. 29 to 48. A German translation of a great portion of "Beyer's Defence," was published in Hamburg in 1750, among various other documents connected with Swedenborg's Controversy with the Consistory of Gottenburg. These documents were printed there under the auspices of Swedenborg himself, as appears from his Letter to General Tuxen (Document 245, U); and in the following year they were reprinted by Prelate tinger under the title of "Schwedische Urkunden" (Swedish Documents). An abridged English translation of the above Document was published in the "Intellectual Repository" for 1812, and was afterwards brought out by the Rev. S. Noble in the form of a tract, under the following title: "A Declaration respecting the Doctrines taught by Swedenborg, by Gabriel A. Beyer, D. D." This tract was afterwards embodied in the English and American editions of the "Swedenborg Documents."

"By Your Royal Majesty's gracious letter of January 2, addressed to this Consistory, it was enjoined upon the members of the said Consistory, to report in a humble opinion how they have found the doctrinal views of Swedenborg, and I have, besides, been most graciously ordered to defend myself separately against that of which I have been accused individually. I appreciate in all humility this royal grace, and in accordance therewith I shall in all humility do my duty as a subject with obedience, sincerity, and truthfulness.

"For a long time I have entertained a secret desire to address myself to Your Royal Majesty, the most gracious father of his country, who, in your royal care for the Lord's church and kingdom upon earth, are the holiest representative of the Highest King; and in all humility to give expression to a deeply rooted conviction, and lay before you a faithful confession in respect to those things which are of paramount importance for time and eternity.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 325 It is therefore a source of rejoicing to me that an opportunity now offers for doing so. For I must look upon your instruction in this light, that I am to express in the Consistory, or publicly, my real sentiments in respect to Swedenborgianism so-called, and I am glad of this for several reasons. One is, that the public, and, indeed, also some among the learned, from their great ignorance of the subject, do not seem to be sufficiently prepared to hear truthful testimony respecting it; secondly, that it is necessary to put an end to the unpleasant controversies which are most certainly to be expected from the intense hatred with which even were vague reports respecting Assessor Swedenborg's doctrinal views are regarded; a further reason is, that genuine truths require a calm, settled state of mind, and cannot thrive amidst turmoil, but if they are of God, they, nevertheless, cannot be overthrown (Acts v, 39); and a final reason is, that I could never expect to be treated according to law in the Consistory and in this place, as appears sufficiently from the printed Minutes of the Consistory, e.g. pp. 111 and 115.

"Your Royal Majesty's gracious order, under God's providence, does away with these objections, and in giving my humble opinion, and making my defence, this order shall be the pole star by which I shall be guided.

"Your gracious order expressly says, first, that a humble opinion should be submitted how the members of the Consistory have found Swedenborg's doctrinal views. Upon comparison with the memorial of the Chancellor of Justice, which has been most graciously communicated, it appears that the opinion should be expressed in positive terms, after presumably complete information has been acquired from Assessor Swedenborg's theological works. My own most humble opinion would certainly have influenced the general finding of the Consistory, which is obtained by a process of voting; but as this is in the closest connection with the separate defence which I am most graciously ordered to make, I entreat that I may, in all humility, be allowed to make my statement here as well.

"Having been from childhood interested and zealous in the study of the established form of doctrine, as is proved by some small treatises I have published on this subject, about four years ago I happened to read something that assessor Swedenborg had written.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 326 At first it appeared to me uninteresting, incomprehensible, and of small value to the study of theology. But when, led by curiosity, I had with awakened attention read half a volume, I soon discovered important reasons for not desisting until I had gone over all his writings of this description; and may I be allowed to observe in deep humility, that, although I uninterruptedly continued their perusal for a long time, employing for this purpose every moment I could spare from my public duties; and although I read them over several times, I, nevertheless, wish I could have studied them for several years longer, on account of their precious contents, so as to be able to submit to you a riper opinion respecting them.

"Assessor Swedenborg's works of this kind are all published in Latin, in large quarto volumes, viz. eight heavy volumes, entitled Arcana Coelestia, which contain an explanation of the spiritual sense of every chapter and verse in Genesis and Exodus; the 'Apocalyse Revealed' is written in a similar style. Further, the 'New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine,' 'The New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture,' 'The White Horse,' 'The Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem, from the precepts of the Decalogue,' 'The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem respecting Faith,' 'Angelic Wisdom respecting the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom,' 'Angelic Wisdom respecting the Divine Providence,' 'Heaven and Hell,' 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love,' 'The Last Judgment and the Destruction of Babylon,' 'Continuation concerning the Last Judgment and the Spiritual World,' 'The Earths in the Solar System and the Starry Heaven,' 'Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church,''The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body.'

"It is impossible to pass a correct judgment upon these works unless several of them have been compared together; but before I proceed to give my humble opinion I must consider what the Lord's Word and His doctrine require, and in doing so I must keep in view the statutes of Your Royal Majesty and of the Church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 327 So long as I allow myself to be directed by them, I hope to be regarded graciously, even though I be totally ignorant of what may be brought forward as a settled matter from other quarters, aid even by men of distinction.

"Your Royal Majesty graciously allows even your meaner subjects to speak according to the light which they possess.

'The words of the Lord are, 'But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your leader, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And call no one your father upon the earth: for one is your Father which is in heaven. Neither be ye called lenders: for one is your leader, even Christ' (Matt. xxiii, 8-10). In agreement therewith a great apostle is unwilling that one should say that he is 'of Paul,' another that he is 'of Apollos,' a third 'of Cephas,' and a fourth 'of Christ' (1 Cor. i, 11, 12); this he calls carnal, for 'neither is he that planteth any thing, nor he that watereth, but God that giveth the increase' (Ibid. iii, 4 et seq.). The former is done, and the latter avoided when we adopt the Lord's Word in the first place as our chief rule, and have regard to it only; and when we thus 'search the Scriptures, because they are they which testify of Him,' and when we know, for instance, that 'Moses wrote concerning Him' (John v, 39, 46). This conformity is commended as praiseworthy in the case of the Bereans (Acts xvii, 11). The consequence of this is, that a person is enabled to testify truthfully concerning him; even as He Himself says, 'And ye also (disciples of the Word, taught of God) shall bear witness' (John xv, 27); 'For whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven; but whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven' (Matt. x, 32, 33). Therefore also the true disciple is described in Luke vi; which is a subject carried out a little in the 'New Attempt towards a Collection of Sermons,' which is humbly added to this memorial, and where it will be found written for the fourth Sunday after Trinity. Peter, the apostle, accordingly says, 'Be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear' (1 Peter iii, 15). How much more then when those who are in authority mildly and from zeal for the Lord's cause graciously demand from you such an answer.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 328        

"Accordingly the worthy writers of the 'Formula Concordi' say, 'We believe, acknowledge, and teach, that the only rules and guides by which all doctrines and all teachers of doctrine must be viewed and judged are, and can be no other than, the prophetic and apostolic writings, as well those of the Old as those of the New Testament' (Leipzig Edition, p. 570). 'The Holy Scripture alone is acknowledged as a judge, a measure, and a rule; by which as by a touchstone, all doctrines must be most carefully investigated and judged, whether they are godly or ungodly, whether they are true or false; but the other forms of confession and other writings, which me have touched upon above, do not possess the power of acting as judges; for this dignity belongs only to the Sacred Scripture; but they simply bear witness of our religion (Ibid. p. 572). The same is again expressly stated on p. 632.

In Your Royal Majesty's gracious Order for the Church (kyrkoordning) for the years 1686 and 1687 all are admonished 'to abide constantly by God's Holy Word' (Chapter i, paragraph 6). Clergymen above others are commanded 'to read the Sacred Scripture, and pray to God faithfully for grace and illustration, so that they may understand, teach, and explain the same correctly; whatever is spoken and taught must be founded in the Holy Scripture' (Chapter ii, '' 1, 2). The oath administered to the bishops binds them 'to abide constantly by God's Word and the right religion' (Chapter xxi, paragraph 2). He who is ordained into the ministry pledges himself 'not to entertain, spread, or preach any other doctrine than that which God the Holy Ghost has Himself dictated and taught, and which is extensively written in the Holy Bible, but briefly contained in the creeds and the symbolical writings' (Chapter xxii, 9 2). The oath sworn by members of the Consistory obliges them 'not to utter any other views than such as God's Word teaches' (Rttegngsfrordningen, paragraph 6). The regulations for judges (Domarereglorna) likewise declare that 'he is not fit to be a preacher, who does not know what is written in the Scriptures, and what is the ground and the meaning thereof (Eccl. Werket, p. 58). The oaths administered to the lectors and rectors of the gymnasia, in the Royal Regulations for the Schools (Kongl. Scholaeordningen) for the year 1727, contain similar words: and whenever the Symbolical books, on such occasions, are added in order after God's Word or the Sacred Scripture, it is in all humility and without pretence clear to me, that the meaning of the Royal Orders in respect to them is such as the first foundation and chief basis of the Symbolical books themselves, viz. that which before has been pointed out in all humility, yields without being forced.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 329

"But above all Your Royal Majesty's most gracious decree about the freedom of the press, dated December 2, 1766, proclaims for all the inhabitants of Sweden a fundamental law, viz. all freedom in matters of religion which are not opposed to our genuine confession of faith and pure evangelical doctrine.

"And now, as, in accordance with what precedes, a doctrine is pure, when it is derived from and proved by the Word, and a confession is genuine when it agrees with such a doctrine; it is fortunate, that no one is charged with a transgression of the law in this respect, who confesses and teaches what is found and most clearly proved to be God's teaching in the Sacred Scripture.

"On such incontestable grounds I venture in my weakness, with confidence, and yet humbly, to utter the sentiments of my heart in respect to the theological writings of Assessor Swedenborg, and afterwards to do my humble duty in honestly defending myself against those charges which concern me individually.

"Convinced by experience, I must in the first place observe, that no one is competent to pass a judgment about these writings, who has not read them, or has not been willing to read them; nor is he who has read them only superficially, or who with a determination at heart to condemn them, has read a passage here and there without making a critical examination of them; nor again is he who rejects them as soon as he meets with some things which conflict with principles that he has long entertained and acknowledged as correct, and of which he is blindly enamoured. Again, all those are incompetent to pass a judgment in respect to these writings who are zealous dogmatists and but slightly acquainted with the Scriptures; or who cleave to the letter, like the Jews, in their interpretation of the sense of Scripture;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 330 or who are timid and afraid of finding a ghost in every line; further, those who hate the very name of Swedenborg, or who are altogether unlearned, and not grounded in philology and the sciences; or those who have not patience to read and study a thing in its whole connection; or who are either unable or unwilling to use the faculties with which they have been endowed to follow the author by an orderly course of reasoning into the region of abstract ideas; and, finally, those who are entirely absorbed by lusts and by the world.

"But, on the other hand, the lover of the truth, who is free from all these things, and who is willing in a spirit of impartiality to try the spirits whether they are of God (1 John iv, 1), and especially he who prays to God for illustration and is willing to do the will of Him who sent Jesus (John vii, 16, 17), upon considering the writings of the above author will at once notice a circumstance which is rendered remarkable by the long time during which it has lasted, viz. that although more than twenty years have now elapsed since these particular writings began to be published, and distributed among the academies and libraries, and the most learned men in most European countries, not a single refutation of them has thus far, to the best of our knowledge, come to light; if we except a few one-sided reviews, filled with crude and derogatory assertions lacking all rational demonstration. Again, he will see that all Swedenborg's works give evidence of an unexpected insight into all the so-called learned languages, as the Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, without mentioning the Latin, which knowledge with him is fully commensurate with the importance of the matters on which he treats; further, that he possesses in a remarkable degree a knowledge of various commendable and useful sciences, as, of philosophy in its most abstruse depths, of mathematics, architecture, natural history, chemistry, experimental philosophy, astronomy, history, and especially of anatomy, and others; that a consistency prevails throughout all his works, and that not a single real contradiction can be discovered there; that there is everywhere in his treatises an unbroken order, and wherever possible a chain of argumentation which coheres no less perfectly than a series of mathematical demonstrations for him who is able to follow it, and which cannot be denied by any one who is accustomed to such demonstrations;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 331 that the first fundamental principles are always retained and observed in everything that follows, where they always fit in properly; nowhere occur things impossible in themselves, but, on the contrary, all pure, universally acknowledged truths may be traced there again, and none of them is contradicted and weakened; that in this respect not a single instance in the history of literature can be brought forward which can at all be compared with the works of this author; that all his theoretical propositions have a practical tendency, and are for the sake of practice; that the amendment of the life is therefore everywhere insisted as to make us fit and to dispose us for heaven; that it is impossible to form better subjects than by following out the precepts of this doctrine; and that in studying most things in these books diligently and impartially, experience teaches that the result of it is enlightenment in the understanding, and an inclination to assent to what is written. Let no one, therefore, in future apply to the author the words with which Festus addressed Paul (Acts xxvi, 24).

"If now, we approach our subject more closely, and compare these books with the Holy Bible and with the books that have been adopted by the church, we find that the difficult passages of the former are satisfactorily explained according to assessor Swedenborg's principles, and also that the things 'hard to be understood' in the writings of the apostle Paul [see 2 Peter iii, 16] are comprehended without difficulty.

"With regard to the confessional writings of the church, the author adheres to the Apostles' and the Nicene Creeds, in which only One God and Lord is mentioned; and in regard to the Athanasian Creed, that he acknowledges it as a whole and in part, with the exception of the particular, that we are to believe in God the Father, in God the Son, and in God the Holy Spirit, and at the same time to think that the Father is one, the Son another, and the Holy Spirit still another, whence, in spite of all precautions, the idea of three Gods becomes inevitably implanted in the minds of people generally.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 332 He takes great pains in the examination of the dogmatic books, and nowhere does he express contempt for them; but in various points he desires to approximate them more closely to the real meaning of the Word, as in respect to the law, the gospel, faith, charity, justification, imputation, &c. He even approves and adopts a good deal of what is contained therein. Besides, nowhere in his writings does he ridicule or condemn any system of religion which teaches faith in One God, and a life of charity towards the neighbour, according to the light which is possessed.

"But let us take a closer view. These theological writings may be divided into three general classes; according to the nature of their contents. In the first may be included every thing that belongs to the interpretation of Scripture; is the second what has reference to the doctrines of religion; and in the third all experiences concerning the other or spiritual world.

"In order to give a definite, humble opinion in regard to the first class, it is absolutely necessary to have read, not merely to have glanced at, the Arcana Coelestia, and the 'Apocalypse Revealed.' In respect to the second class, to have well considered and examined first of all and briefly the 'New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine,' and in addition 'The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem respecting the Lord, the Sacred Scripture, a Life according to the ten commandments, and respecting Faith,' and finally, the climax of all theology, the Angelic Wisdom respecting the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom,' and respecting the 'Divine Providence,' together with the dogmatic part, scattered throughout the Arcana Coelestia and the 'Apocalypse Revealed,' as well as in the treatise respecting 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love.' In regard to the third class it is necessary to have seriously considered the memorable relations contained in the Arcana Coelestia, the 'Apocalypse,' and in 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love,' as well as in other works.

"With regard to the interpretation of Scripture; we are soon able to discover, that what with Origen were mere obscure traces, what Coccejus attempted to guess at, and what several God-fearing and learned theologians saw through a veil, has been manifested in clear daylight in the Arcana Coelestia and especially the 'Apocalypse Revealed,' which have been published by Assessor Swedenborg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 333 What immediately strikes ones attention is this, that when, according to the principles of the system, the signification of the words has been acquired, you can read in order, one after another, the contents prefixed to leach chapter, and obtain a continuous, general idea of the whole Biblical book which is being explained; and this is even more the case when you approach each chapter separately, where the significations given to the particular words may be connected together into a whole chain-like explanation. The signification of each word remains ever the same; and after a knowledge of them has once been acquired, in accordance with sound rules of explanation, it may be applied to the explanation of other passages almost in the same may as the various meanings of a word recorded in the dictionaries are made use of, when you desire to become acquainted with an author in his own language. How surprised you are to discover by this means that, in a book which to all appearance is purely historical, there are contained only spiritual and heavenly things, that is, things in the highest degree worthy of the wisdom of God respecting Himself, and respecting heaven and the church; for instance, in the history of Lot and his daughters (Genesis xix, 31). And lest any one, with an appearance of right, should think that such explanations and interpretations are mere products of the author's brain, he observes with all possible care the recognized rule of interpretation, that Scripture must be interpreted by Scripture, and, indeed, according to a fixed mode of demonstration determined by the nature of the subject itself.

"When thus the glory and splendour of the Divine sense began to shine in the clouds of heaven or in the literal meaning of the Word, then also could be discovered to him what its genuine meaning must be in the doctrine of the church. For the church is spiritual, and must derive everything belonging to it from the spirituality of the Word, so that nothing can be true in the church without its being at the same time true in heaven; and the church cannot communicate with the Lord and heaven, except so far as the men of the church think in agreement with heaven, and all their thoughts are from the Word and in accordance with the Word, for the Lord is the Word (John i, 1, 14).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 334 What other exalted ideas we ought to entertain respecting the incomparable Sacred Scriptures he shows and proves in his work respecting the 'Sacred Scripture,' and in that respecting the 'White Horse.' And in case the question should be raised, why such an understanding of the Sacred Scripture is now brought forward for the first time, a full and satisfactory answer will be found in many parts of his writings; as for instance in the book entitled 'The Angelic Wisdom respecting the Divine Providence,' no. 264.

"If now, after what has been said, we come to judge of the doctrines which are found everywhere in his writings, but especially in those books which with respect to their contents belong to the second class of his works, it can scarcely be expected otherwise, than that we shall find them everywhere resplendent with light, and confirmed by the distinct utterances of the Word itself, even by its very letter, and, indeed, in a manner which cannot be contradicted (my unpretending, humble meaning here is, that cannot be contradicted by impartial, diligent searchers for the truth). A fundamental rule with him in regard to every doctrine of the church is, that it must be drawn and collected from, and at the same time confirmed by, the literal meaning of the Word, but by one who has been duly illustrated for this purpose in the Word ('Sacred Scripture,' no. 50 et seq.). This rule he has observed with every one of his doctrines, and in agreement therewith he has clearly proved them by unanswerable passages of Scripture in more than a hundred places in his writings. For instance, with respect to the doctrine that there is only One God, and that Jesus Christ is that God, and that in His essence and person there is a real Trinity, called Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, see the 'Arcana Coelestia,' nos. 3061, 3704, 9030; 'Apocalypse Revealed,' nos. 613, 962; 'Doctrine of the Lord,' no. 60. This doctrine, as taught there, agrees almost altogether with what a Lutheran teacher of the church, the very celebrated Chancellor Mosheim, has stated in his Theologia Dogmatica, pp. 310, 311, 312 (Edition of l764), where he quotes what Luther and Hunnius have said on the subject of three persons in the Godhead.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 335 It would be easy for me, in all humility, to quote passages where the remaining articles and doctrines are proved by a similar mode of demonstration, but this would be too prolix here; they can be gathered copiously from the passages selected from the 'Arcana Coelestia,' which are contained in the book entitled 'The New Jerusalem,' and which ought to be consulted by every accurate reader. Nothing can be concluded rationally and accurately from the published Excerpta;* for, without taking into consideration the manifestly uncharitable. utterances of the compiler, none of the principal views professed by the author are introduced there; besides, there is an unmistakable indication of a desire on his part to uncover the weak side of these views, by an utter absence of all intermediate truths, by which their connection and their consequences might appear, and likewise by the omission of every kind of argument, by which one might be enabled to institute a rational investigation. An answer to this procedure seems to be furnished by Dr. Rosn's 'Unpretending Thoughts upon Swedenborgianism'** Meanwhile, after due consideration, we are led to acknowledge that there is an undeniable conforming between these doctrines and the real meaning of God's Word, whereby they acquire a strength in demonstration which it is impossible to impair, when we accept it as a principle, that the doctrine of a church must be that 'wisdom which cometh from above' (James iii, 17); and from which it follows that we must first believe, and afterwards employ confirmations from various sources, even from good natural sciences; again, that there is an agreement throughout with the inspired doctrines contained in the writings of the apostles, which are enlightened and developed beautifully by the above-mentioned doctrines, and are thereby considerably increased, provided we take into due consideration what is stated about the primitive Christian Church in the treatise concerning 'The Lord' (no. 55); and, finally, we recognize as the sum and substance of all these doctrines, that we must believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as the only God of heaven and earth, the Creator, Redeemer, Saviour, Renovator, Regenerator, and Justifier, who blesses us to eternity, who is the All in all of heaven and the church; and that we must act according to His commandment or injunction, which is, 'to love Him above all things, and our neighbour as ourselves,' because He is Love itself.

* Concerning these published Excerpta, see footnote to the letter which Bishop Filenius wrote to Assessor Aurell (Document 245, K, p. 313).

** See Document 245, D, p. 293.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 336

"It is usually objected to the author's doctrines that they do away with Christ's satisfaction, turn people away from faith in Christ, set up self-righteousness and self-merit, and that they clearly teach Socinianism, Mahomedanism, &c. If we duly examine his teachings in this respect, we find that on grounds derived from the Word he develops and proves, that the Lord in the Humanity which He assumed fulfilled everything contained in the highest Divine sense of the Word, down to its lowest natural or literal sense; further, that in this same Humanity He combated the powers of hell, and overcome and subdued them; that He glorified this Humanity or made it Divine, and so is a perfect Saviour to eternity, and the Omnipotent God even in respect to His Humanity. Higher end more complete ideas respecting the satisfaction made by the Lord for the human race, cannot certainly be demanded.

"No one probably has urged more strongly the necessity of faith in Christ than he, who in a thousand places has quoted among other passages John iii, 16; xv, 4; and besides he inculcates everywhere, that it is impossible for a Christian, or for any one else, to enter heaven and be in the Lord, without the idea and the acknowledgment that He alone is God, the Redeemer and Justifier. Self-righteousness is not preached by the author, who uniformly keeps close to the above passage, John xv, 4; and insists that man must conform to Divine order by doing good as from himself, yet knowing and believing at the same time that it is in reality from the Lord; nay, he proves that all of man's own is nothing but evil and falsity, as it consists in the love of self and of the world. Wherefore no merit can be attributed to man, but all merit belongs to the Lord.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 337

"No one teaches a doctrine more opposed to that of Socinus and his followers, whose principles he quotes and refutes in many places; and no one has given a fuller description of the certain doom, which will overtake confirmed Socinians, (e. g. in 'Heaven and Hell,' no. 3.)

"So far as Mahomedanism is the result of Mahomded's own invention, he has a perfect horror of it; as can be sufficiently proved from what he says in the work on 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love' in the chapter on Polygamy.

"Another objection against his works is, that they do not keep within the established doctrines, and that with respect to the profundity of their truths they are altogether novel and unusual. Here it may be proper to observe in a general way, that no bounds can be set to the infinity of Divine Wisdom in the Word; and that with respect to the future of the Church, no one can draw a line which must not be overpassed in the revelation of Divine Wisdom. Ecclesiastical History teaches us that the Christian Church among various peoples and at various times had different limits assigned to it; and in making an application to the science of theology itself, it could not well maintain its high rank in the field of learning, if, by right and in an infallible manner, bounds could be assigned to it more than to all the other sciences, which, as is well-known, can never reach their greatest summit. The theologians have sufficiently proved this in their own persons by changing and improving the creeds in various ways, since the time of those who made them. What is spiritual transcends immeasurably what is natural in every respect; and who dares to prohibit Divine light from shining as much as it pleases? Or who does what is right and good, by closing the eye of his understanding against it, or by hiding the light under a bushel (Matt. v, 16)? When unknown and new truths, which yet in themselves are the ancient truths, are put forward, they require new terms and new expressions, so that they cannot but seem strange in the form in which they are communicated.

"In order to give in all humility a definite expression respecting the author's experience, I may state that a trust and confidence in it follow as a natural consequence from the ability to comprehend and to make yourself at home in the principles which underlie the doctrinal system; e. g. in respect to the Sun of heaven, that in its essence it is the love and wisdom proceeding from the Lord, that thence is all good and all truth, and that from it originates every thing that is truly human;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 338 in respect to the will and understanding, that they constitute man, and that they are receptacles of good and truth; again, that without interior and exterior senses there is no consciousness of life, and that there is neither life nor sensation except in forms; further, that the Lord's kingdom in general is a kingdom of an infinite variety of uses, functions, and purposes, and, indeed, in every object from the greatest to the least; besides many other general principles, a complete knowledge of which maybe obtained by studying the work on 'Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom.' And how little has mankind been hitherto enabled to form, in the least degree, a precise idea respecting the eternal world! With what delight then should me now strive to know what has hitherto remained unknown, and which it was impossible to know before; and which the more it is studied, is found the more to harmonise with what we read in Scripture, where these subjects are presented in a general form in the literal sense, and are treated of as to their particulars in the spiritual sense! I therefore purposely, with all due submission, pass by those epithets which are inconsiderately heaped upon the author, such as fanatic, visionary, enthusiast, &c., words in current use at the present time, but the meaning of which is not known: 'they speak evil of the things that they understand not' (2 Peter ii, 12).

"In conclusion, whatever may be said, in all humility, in respect to the three classes of books mentioned above, there is only one mode by which a satisfactory knowledge can be obtained respecting them, and that is, that whoever is anxious to arrive at certainty in his investigation of the truth, must undertake a study of these books for himself, or at least be willing to be instructed respecting them by others. For the most part their contents are too sublime to be read and comprehended by all; but it is the business of the learned and of the clergy to study them, so that they may obtain a knowledge of the principles taught therein, and may thus be able to communicate them to others according to their requirements, and their capacity of comprehending them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 339

"In obedience to Your Royal Majesty's most gracious command, that I should deliver a full and positive declaration, I acknowledge it to be my duty to declare, in all humble confidence, that as far as I have proceeded, and agreeably to the gift bestowed upon me for investigation and judgment, I have found in the above-named writings of Swedenborg nothing but what closely coincides with the words of the Lord's mouth, and shines with a light truly Divine. A man who by nature is timid and reserved like myself, would not dare to give expression to these sentiments, unless the Lord had armed me with confidence in His cause, and His Divine Mercy, under the kind protection of a most gracious and just sovereign against grievous persecutions, had permitted me to give expression to these sentiments. One source of comfort for myself is the conviction, that however man of Your Royal Majesty's faithful subjects, who are thoroughly acquainted with these books, may be graciously questioned on this subject, their answers will undoubtedly be found to agree with the declaration which I herewith make in all humility.

"Entertaining at heart the thoughts which I here humbly express, I have from the very first, and repeatedly afterwards, in the Minutes of the Consistory, declared it as my opinion, that the question about Swedenborgianism, to which Assessor Aurell, through Deans Aurelius and Collinius, gave a public character, as well as all judgment in this question, ought, in accordance with the law to be submitted in all humility for Your Royal Majesty's gracious examination and disposition; which opinion may be graciously found in the Printed Minutes of the Consistory, pp. 7, 14, 19, 110, 115. And acting in accordance with this opinion, after the representations of Dr. Ekebom (see Minutes of the Consistory, pp. 10, 11) I have never taken any part in the common measures adopted by the Consistory, except so far as, in conformity with the law, I have signed the resolutions of the majority.*

* Dr. Beyer, on account of being Dean (Decanus) of the Consistory, had to sign all the resolutions passed by that body.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 340

"A matter in itself so innocent and peaceful as the genuine so-called Swedenborgianism, according to all appearance would never have caused the least trouble, if Assessor Aurell had not been so very anxious to make it publicly hateful, and if Dr. Ekebom, who in this matter is leagued with the above-named assessor, had not been so zealous in calumniating and condemning the same publicly in the printed Minutes, and also several times on other occasions. Nevertheless no other disturbance has been noticed is the church, either in town or in the diocese at large; and, so far as is known or can be proved, no one who is favourably disposed to these doctrines has had any controversy or quarrel with any one on this subject; nor has any one been engaged in making proselytes, or talking derogatorily of the established religion. The author has not sought to be avenged on his opponents by involving them in law-suits; nor has he displayed arrogance in word or gesture, or provoked them by stinging expressions; because these and similar acts are in direct opposition to the Lord's Divine, gentle, peaceful, charitable, and humble doctrine. I must also in all humility add here that ever since the last meeting of the clergy, from September 1768 to November l769, everything has remained perfectly calm, as well here as in other places, although the very disputation read before the meeting (Prestmts-disputationen) bore a close relationship to the writings of Assessor Swedenborg, and the 'New Sermon-Essays' were then delivered to the clergymen present who had previously paid for them. This calm was not even disturbed, when Dr. Ekebom's dreadful declaration of March 22, 1769, about Swedenborg's writings* appeared in print, together with the extract from the work on 'Conjugial and Scortatory Love' containing a kind of synopsis of the doctrinal system of Assessor Swedenborg (see 'Minutes of the Consistory,' pp. 12, 13)** without mentioning Assessor Swedenborg's memorable letters*** ('Minutes of the Consistory,' pp. 25, 26). Although in the limited space of this humble opinion and declaration I have endeavoured to be as concise and brief as possible, yet, on account of the many particulars that had to be included in it, I am afraid I have been unpleasantly prolix, without, however, having made my statement as complete as I could wish.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 341 The lofty judgment of Your Royal Majesty is able to discover in a few brief hints much more than a man of the greatest genius is able to express. I, therefore, ask your most gracious permission, that, in consequence of all that has been stated above, I may use the briefest and most direct language in making a humble declaration with respect to that with which I have been personally charged.

* See Document 245, B.

** See Document 245, C.

*** See Document 245, F and G.

"I have had a hand in the composition of the 'New Sermon-Essays,' a copy of which is presented herewith, while suffering from much feebleness of body, and a chronic disease of the chest with fever, but with the faculties of the mind unimpaired, and the gift of writing undiminished, or rather increased. An exception, however, must be made of the so-called 'nyttorne' (Evening-sermons), which in the first part, and also in the second, as far as Easter-Sunday and the first Sunday after Easter, were composed by Lector Gothenius:197 for all the rest I am responsible. All that is good and true therein is mostly due to the reading of Assessor Swedenborg's books, while the Divine text in each particular case: has been my guide, without which I was not willing to undertake the consideration of any doctrinal subject. All the defects that may be discovered therein must be put down to the account of my great imperfection, as well as to want of time, which prevented me devoting the proper attention to the proof-reading. It has been my constant endeavour to admit only such things as could not be objected to by the powers of the land, and as would not disturb the peace of the church, as may appear especially from the new essay for the twenty-third Sunday after Trinity, pages 308 and 309. That these small essays have anywhere caused disturbance has not been noticed, nor has any public criticism of them appeared, although it is now three years since they first began to be issued in sheets. In respect to the permission to print them, a sufficiently minute account will be found in the printed 'Minutes of the Consistory,' p. 79. From private conversations only have I learned that this collection of essays is objected to for not containing discussions on certain doctrinal subjects, which are usually insisted upon in public as being foremost in importance.

341



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 342 As, however, I could not find these doctrines immediately in my tests, and as I had resolved to write nothing but what the sense of my texts required, and what was contained therein, it was not by my own choice that these subjects were left untouched.

"In the interleaved copy of the Excerpta Svedenborgianismi* it is stated that the new essay for the twenty-sixth Sunday after Trinity contradicts the doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh; yet that doctrine is not discussed there, and still less denied, but the subject of the resurrection is there so treated, that it does not interfere with the doctrine of the particular last judgment which awaits every man; and each and every one is left at liberty to think of his gross body of clay as he pleases; he may thus, if he choose, believe that that body will again be united to the spirit, although this certainly does not want it, and will never ask for it again.

* Aurell's Compilation, see Document 245, K.

"With respect to the contents of the interleaved copy of the so-called dicta, I acknowledge that in a private introductory course of lectures on the study of theology, which I delivered before the students of the gymnasium, I permitted the students to write down, that they might remember, certain passages in Latin, which I read and sought to make intelligible to them.

"These passages were from Assessor Swedenborg's writings, and especially from his work on the 'White Horse.' In selecting these I was most careful not to bring anything before the students which might invalidate the dogmatic books; being convinced that these passages are in strict accordance with the meaning of the Lord's Word, and firmly believing that it is always commendable to contribute to the increase of theological knowledge.

"When I delivered these lectures either in private or in public, the doors of the lecture-room in the gymnasium were never closed, so that visitors were occasionally present, and never have I mentioned the name of Assessor Swedenborg before the students, or recommended his writings to them.

342



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 343 Wherefore, up to the present time, no cause has been discovered, for which any action should be taken against me, in agreement with Your Royal Majesty's gracious orders for the government of the schools (Scholae-ordning), Chapter 10, paragraph 2, viz. that a reprimand should be administered to me for teaching contrary to God's written Word; which reprimand, when duly carried out, would have to be pronounced by the Bishop and the Consistory; and in case of non-compliance on my part, the matter would have to be reported, in all humility, to Your Majesty. In order to assure the public generally of the harmlessness of the principles taught in my lectures, I considered myself bound to publish the short Latin oration, which herewith follows, and which was pronounced in the presence of most of the members of the Consistory, and afterwards communicated to the Bishop of the diocese, and generally distributed and against which no points of accusation were raised. How I have been treated by the Consistory, on account of these so-called dictata, may be seen from the printed 'Minutes of the Consistory,' p. 40, and in many other places afterwards.

"Next in order I have to defend myself, in all humility, on account of having given leave to print an extract from one of Swedenborg's letters, dated October 30, 1769, a point which the Chancellor of Justice has noticed. As I was at the time Dean of the Consistory, I considered myself not only justified, but even in duty bound to grant this permission. Our practice has been to acknowledge the office of the dean in printing matters in this wise, that small papers were not submitted to the whole Consistory, but were simply furnished with the dean's signature; an instance of which is furnished by the 'Gottenburg Magazine' (Gtheborgska Magasinet) of 1766 and 1767, and the 'Clerical News' (Prest Tidningarne) of 1768, which even contained theological matters; this took place after Your Royal Majesty's most gracious order with respect to the freedom of printing was published. When the question of the printing of that letter came up before the Consistory, some of its members endeavoured to establish the position, that the printing of this letter ought legally to have been submitted to the action of the whole Consistory.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 344 Yet if this matter be fully examined, during the whole time the present members of the Consistory have been in office only the following writings have been submitted to the action of the full board: Dr. Ekebom's discourse, delivered at Ljunby during the visitation of the late Bishop Wallin; the Swedish translation of Newton's remarks on the prophecies of Daniel and the Revelation of John, and the disputation delivered before the meeting of clergymen by the late Lector Arwidson. All the other books which have been printed, and of which there is a great number, e. g. the translation of Tillotson's Sermons, in four volumes, &c., have not been formally submitted to the whole board, but the dean only has usually taken them in charge. My reasons, therefore, for not seeing any objection to granting leave for the printing of the letter, are these: that it was simply a letter, and not a theological treatise, in which case it would certainly have been brought under the notice of the whole board; that it did not seem to contain any of those matters which are forbidden in paragraph 1 of the Regal Order mentioned above; but on the contrary, such as seem to be admissible according to paragraph 5, and, as paragraph 13 expressly declares, must not be rejected and excluded from printing on the plea of containing vituperation, slander, or criticism. For with respect to the theological matter which, according to the printed 'Minutes of the Consistory,' is said to be discussed in the letter, it may be mentioned by way of defence that there are great philologists and theologians in the Lutheran church at the present day, for instance Michalis, the aulic councillor in Gttingen, who have clearly proved that the meaning of Paul in his epistle to the Romans and Galatians, on account of their having been first addressed to the Jews, cannot justly be interpreted as having reference to the moral law, but must mean the law in that sense in which it was looked upon by the Jews themselves (J. D. Michalis, Introduction to the Divine Writings of the New Testament, edition of 1766, p. 1424, 1430); from which it seems to follow that the question of justification and imputation, as indicated in these passages (Rom. iii, 28, and Gal. ii, 16), may be classed among those points on which teachers are not agreed among themselves, and which according to the Common Law (Missgerningar, B., Chap. i, paragraph 4) cannot be visited with punishment.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 345        

"If the author has been too personal in his remarks, so that a just accusation may be brought against him, the aggrieved party has full opportunity furnished him for doing so in a lawful manner, since the well-known author of the letter is himself responsible for it. But that Dr. Ekebom, in his unfounded guesses and one-sided examination, has been entirely wrong, in asserting that I have been instrumental in getting the letter printed, is made plain and comprehensible to all by the free confession of the printer Smitt, made on p. 100 of the printed Minutes, that 'he had printed the letter on his own account and at his own expense.'

"The last point which in all humility I find has been brought against me, is assessor Aurell's letter to Bishop Filenius, the speaker of the last honourable House of the Clergy.* If that assessor had been better informed in regard to the statements which he makes, I am sure he would not have written as he has; and if he did not entertain an undeserved grudge against me, which he proves by not mentioning Lector Roempke's disputation before the meeting of the clergy at the same time with my essay for Whit-Monday, which he declares in the 'Minutes," he intends to publish in Swedish with notes--I say it in all humility, if he had not been filled with a feeling of enmity towards me, he might well have saved all his calumnies and detractions. The real state of the case I have already endeavoured to explain, and with the rest I in all humility need not trouble myself.

* An extract from this letter is contained in Document 245, J.

"Most gracious King, enemies, haters, and detractors shall now see their desires upon me gratified, if my most humble declaration and defence, which I herewith lay before the throne, is regarded with disfavour, in which case my misfortune would be evident. But I trust in the word of the Lord Jesus, the Almighty God, 'Behold I make all things new: I come quickly' i. e. surely, Rev. xxi, 5; xxii, 20: and from Your Royal Majesty's most gracious sympathy for the welfare of the Lord's kingdom upon earth, and your justice combined with mercy towards your faithful subjects, I, who have been for twenty-two years a diligent servant in the Consistory, and for eighteen years in the gymnasium, and who am the father of five children unprovided for, hope that I shall receive from you protection, and a livelihood in connection with the office I have filled, and in which I have prospered during the course of my life.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 346 Your Royal Majesty's gracious order, with respect to what I shall publicly teach, or not, shall always be observed by me in humble obedience, and with the respect due from a subject. Hoping in all humility that I shall be most graciously permitted to explain further anything that may be found unsatisfactory in my humble declaration, or that may be advanced by my adversaries in their attempts to refute or weaken the same, I commend myself in my temporal affairs to Your Royal Majesty's good pleasure, and I remain with all due submission, most mighty and most gracious King,

"Your Royal Majesty's, &;c.

       "G. A. BEYER.
"Gr. L. L. ord. Pr. et Th. Doct.:'

Dr. Beyer's declaration was submitted to the Consistory on February 14, 1770. Dr. Ekebom's declaration, which is as follows, was received at the same time.

P.

DR. EKEBOM'S DECLARATION.*

* The German translation of this document, from which our version has been made, is contained in a work printed by Prelate tinger in 1771, under the following title: Swedish Documents respecting assessor Swedenborg, which will be decided by the Swedish Diet, June 13, 1751 (Schwedische Urkunden von dem Assessor Swedenborg, welche auf dem Schwedischen Reichstag den 13 ten Juni, 1771, werden zur Entscheidung kommen), pp. 24 to 27. These documents had been previously published in Hamburg according to a statement made on p. 86: AThe documents have already been published in Hamburg, and we desire to publish them here, so that every one may be able to decide patiently, how he must try them so that he may retain what is good."

A humble declaration:

With respect to the Swedenborgian doctrines in general.

ABeing called upon by His Royal Majesty's most gracious order, contained in His gracious letter to the Consistory of this place, dated January 2, 1770, to express a humble opinion in general upon the doctrines of the Well-born assessor Emanuel Swedenborg, in a like humble manner I refer to the written declaration on the same subject which I submitted to the Consistory on March 22, 1769, and which at my request was entered on its Minutes.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 347

"I there made an honest confession, that I was then unacquainted with the religious system of Assessor Swedenborg, knowledge of which I believed then, and I believe still, I may the more readily dispense with, as this would beef no use to me in the chief object of my public office of teacher, nor would it contribute in the least to the education of my own poor heart. Besides, the Swedenborgian system of doctrine-if it deserves the name of a system-appears to me much more extensive than the numerous duties of my office, more useful studies, and the few leisure hours I have, permit me to examine.

"I commenced reading some of the theological writings of Assessor Swedenborg with a little more attention, when, after the time of his stay in this town, some unfortunate seed were scattered, and when especially during this last rear the Swedenborgian weeds began to spread here. But I did not require to read very long, nor to weigh very seriously what I had read, before I became aware that the author, by his horrible deviations from our pure doctrine, had arrived at some intolerable conclusions, and at last at such doctrines, as undoubtedly bear witness to a troubled fantasy, and are unsupported by any other arguments than such as are derived from 'things heard and seen.' In my written declaration, which I submitted to the Consistory on March 22, 1769, I used these words: that the doctrines of Mr. Swedenborg are 'corrupting, heretical, injurious, and in the highest degree objectionable,' and further that 'they are diametrically opposed to God's revealed Word, and the dogmatic writings of the Lutheran church.' Such were my expressions then, and I cannot retract them now.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 348

II. With respect to the book called 'New Essays.'

"The author (Doctor Gabriel A. Beyer, lector in the Royal Gymnasium of this town) promises on the title-page an edifying explanation of the tests for Sundays and feast days. This explanation, however, is arranged entirely according to the Swedenborgian method of explaining the Sacred Scripture.

"In the explanation of most texts, I can see how the Lector has deviated entirely from the literal sense, and consequently from that explanation of the Gospel history which is founded on the pure Word of God and which harmonizes with the analogy of faith and of the Sacred Scripture, and which from the time of Luther has been approved by the whole Evangelical church; and that in its stead he has so zealously pursued a mystical, spiritual, and angelic sense, that a simple reader must necessarily be involved in obscurities and unintelligible things, not knowing whether everything perhaps which the Scripture says, and what he himself from childhood has read and heard in sermons, concerning the three persons in the godhead, concerning the doctrine of the atonement and redemption which have been effected in Jesus Christ, concerning justification by faith alone, concerning the sacraments and the last judgment, and concerning the person, offices, benefits, miracles, &c. of the Saviour--is not all an idle tale and fiction; since these doctrines, which are the very constellations of religion, that ought to be kept constantly before the eyes, are in these dry, motley, insipid, and unworthy essays, put on artificial and refined screws, and are placed in great jeopardy, especially when a simple-minded man sees that every thing must be taken in a figurative, mystical, and abstruse sense.

III. With respect to the so-called 'Dictata.'

"These public lectures to which Dr. Beyer has directed the attention of the students of the gymnasium, which he dictated to them, are of two kinds:

"1. Those belonging to the so-called Dollegium Theologicum introductorium, from which it is made very evident, that his intention has been no other than to initiate the students of the gymnasium into an entire theological system according to the doctrine of Assessor Swedenborg and his new church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 349

"2. Those which are intended as an explanation of the history of the Lord's passion.

"It does not require a long examination before you recognize in these dictata the style and terminology of Assessor Swedenborg.

"It is well known that Sacred Scripture is the source of religion and of faith, or the fountain whence we must deduce all our knowledge of religion, and our doctrine of salvation. If this principle or this source is badly explained, there must necessarily arise thence a perverted religion and false doctrine. This also as is well-known, is the principal source of all heresies. Besides, it is also known that Assessor Swedenborg has adopted an entirely different foundation for the explanation of the Sacred Scripture, from the one accepted by the Evangelical church; and which by the Lord's command must be accepted without contradiction. The Assessor bases his whole explanation of the Scripture on a spiritual sense, and upon his so-called correspondences. These, again, are said to rest on his immediate revelations, or on his oft repeated and quoted 'Audita et Visa e Clo' (things heard and seen from heaven).

"Dr. Beyer declares that Divine inspiration is an influx of Divine Truth through the heavens into the world, wherefore this also has a triple sense, a celestial, a spiritual and a natural. These senses of the Word, he says, are above the human rational, because man's spirit is an organized substance, just as the body is; which human rational is made up of the appearances and fallacies of the external senses, &c.

"These significations in the Word, he says, no man is able to understand who does not know the science of correspondences, because the Word is written by mere correspondences. Because the Lord spoke from His Divine nature or (N. B.) the Father, He spoke by correspondences.

       "O. EKEBOM,

Th. Doct. and Dean of Gottenburg.
"Gottenburg, February 12, 1770."

A week before Drs. Beyer and Ekebom delivered their statements, Dr. Rosn submitted to the Consistory the following declaration:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 350

Q.

DR. ROSN'S DECLARATION.*

* The Swedish original of this Document is printed in the "Nya Kyrkan," &c., Part I. pp. 48 to 51.


"A humble declaration:

"I see the arena before me, and I step forth to bear witness. Respectful silence is out of place. The King has said: 'Thou art permitted to speak for thyself' (Acts xxvi, 1). What dost thou believe and teach? Testify freely, and thou shalt fare well. Were Balsam's 'eyes open' (Num. xxiv, 3)? Is 'the spirit of the holy gods' in Emanuel (Dan. v, 11), or does he, 'deluded by soft dreams,' 'intrude into those things which he hath not seen' (Col. ii, 18)? Is there no more 'to be any prophet' (Ps. lxxiv, 9; 1 Sam. iii, 1); and shall we 'find no vision from the Lord' (Lam. ii, 9)? If so, abandon Swedenborg and reject visions.

"Sire and King! whether I speak or keep silence, I shall equally be regarded as a transgressor; for 'the adversary walketh about' (1 Peter v, 8). And yet I have done nothing that mercy and grace may not forgive. How then shall I answer Your Majesty, and how shall I bring my suit before your throne?

"Even 'though I were righteous, yet would I not answer, but would make supplication to my Judge' (Job ix, 15).

"May I say with David, 'Search me, O God' (Ps. cxxxix, 23)? Though I should hear the words ring in my ears, Thou must 'bind up the testimony, and seal the Law' (Isa. viii, 16); thou must retract thy faith, and reject, yea, reject it!--I shall yet do my duty, and 'give God the praise' (John ix, 24), glad 'for conscience sake to endure grief, because this is acceptable with God' (1 Peter ii, 19, 20). Let another 'confer with flesh and blood' (Gal. i, 16). Shall I keep back my confession or speak enigmatically?

"Well then, Consistory, tell me what I shall reject? I receive no answer, for the judge is angry.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 351 He has 'scourged without law and without judgment a Roman' (Acts xvi, 37). What shall I reject? Swedenborgian ideas, or statements which are not approved, and which must not be inquired into? What shall I reject? None of God's declarations, and no part of our most holy faith' (Jude 20); but Swedenborgian ideas, Swedenborg's whims, the creations of his brain and his perverted teachings.

"Be merciful, O King, and listen to the language of my heart! I never judge of doctrines by visions, but the reverse. I have dreamt no dreams, and abhor all idle talk. One thing, however, seems astonishing to me, and difficult to understand, how in ancient times persons believed that spirits could speak with men (Acts xii, 15; xxiii, 9).

"Being a subject I lay my hand on my mouth, and yet I know that Paul was 'caught up' (2 Cor. xii, 2), and that 'heaven was opened' for many (John i, 51; acts vii, 56).

"Why then should visions and spirits be 'foolishness' to us, as the 'crucified Christ was unto the Greeks' (1 Cor. i. 23), and as the letter is to freethinkers? An extraordinary sign appears; it is our duty 'to discern' it (Matt. xvi, 3); and if it is really a fact, that spirits or angels have spoken with Swedenborg, I am not disposed 'to fight against God' (Acts xxiii, 9); nor am I willing 'to curse him whom God hath not cursed' (Num. xxiii, 8).

"And withal none is infallible, 'none good and wise but one, that is, God' (Matt. xix, 17; Rom. xvi, 27).

"Away with a false spirit of compromise! away with idolatry! The Teacher who 'taught with authority' (Mark i, 27), 'who received honour from no man' (John v, 41), the 'ruler of my faith' (2 Cor. i, 21), He shall decide.

"'How can ye believe, which receive doctrine (mening) one of another, and seek not the doctrine that cometh from God only' (John v, 44)?--'Christ is my Master' (Matt. xxiii, 8), 'Scripture is my test' (Symbolical Books, p. 372), 'doctrine is my lamp' (Ps. cxix, 105); this also is my 'palladium,' the only 'image which has ever come down from heaven' (Acts xix, 35). Ought we not to think of human writings in a human fashion, and to worship God as Paul has done?

"Behold, then, 'I believe all things which are written in the Law; and in the prophets' (Acts xxiv, 14).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 352 If, therefore, 'the Sudducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit,' I 'confess both' (Acts xxiii, 8). And 'for this I stand and am judged' (Act xxvi. 6).

"And this is the doctrine with respect to spirits which is condemned by the Consistory, a doctrine which comes accredited by Scripture.

"The prophet, however, discovered vanity in what is written by 'the scribes' (Jer. viii, 8). If the King grant me to confirm my declaration before a legal tribunal by clear references and lawful arguments, I will make it manifest that it is one thing 'to break the tradition of the elders' (Matt. xv, 2, 6), and quite another 'to walk aside from the rule' (Phil. iii. 16).

"If 'Abraham,' according to Paul, 'was justified by faith' (Romans iv, 3), and according to James 'by works' (James ii, 24), Emanuel gets ready his harrow, and, 'far from teaching for doctrines the commandments of men' (Matt. xv, 9), preaches that 'the Lord is our Righteousness or our Justification' (Jer. 6), and is full of zeal against a wrong understanding, but never against faith.

"Let Scripture be interpreted by Scripture, and no empty word will be discovered therein! Let 'unity and purity' be respected, which are demanded by Paul (Eph. iv, 3, 6); let us worship 'one God' (Isa. xlv, 21), and a 'Trinity' in Him (Coloss. n, 9); one God 'who dwelleth on high' (Isa. lvii, 15); one Lord, the Saviour, who has gained the victory (Ps. cx); one Lord, 'who is the Spirit' (1 Cor. iii, 17). John exclaims, 'He is Love' (1 John iv, 8, 16); and Paul, that 'He was in Christ' (2 Cor. v, 19). Our cause speaks for itself, and 'we see light in the light of Him who is true' (Ps. xxxvi, 9; 1 John v, 20), who is known every where and praised without end; whose 'second appearance' is expected (1 Tim. vi, 14), with 'peace upon Israel' (Ps. cxxv, 5). "JOHN ROSN."

The author of "Nya Kyrkan," in publishing for the first time this intrepid utterance of Dr. Rosn, says: "When Paul in former times defended Christianity before Agrippa, and Festus, the last King of Israel is reported to have said to the apostle of the Gentiles, 'Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.'

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 353 We do not know* what Adolphus Frederic said after hearing Rosn's declaration. But from the King's remark to Swedenborg, which we shall quote hereafter,** it would seem that Rosn's frank, as well as laconic and pithy, Bible language did not displease that monarch."

* The King's official reply to the declarations of Drs. Beyer and Rosn is contained in Document 245, T.

** See Document 6, no, 37.

While the Documents O, P and Q were pending before the King and the Council of State, Swedenborg wrote the following letter to Dr. Beyer:

R.

FIFTEENTH LETTER EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO DR. BEYER.22*

* The Swedish original of this Document, from which the present translation has been made, is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. It was printed as Letter XIII in the "Samlingar fr Philantroper," and an English translation of it is contained in the Supplement to the enlarged English edition of the "Swedenborg Documents;" published in 1856, pp. 6 to 9.


"Reverend Doctor and Lector,

"Only two days ago I received your favour of the 21st of last March, and on reading it through I was surprised at the reports which are said to have reached Gottenburg from Stockholm to the effect that you and Dr. Rosn are to be deposed, deprived of office, and banished from the country, a report to which certainly I can give no credence; for it contradicts my reason in the highest degree to believe that a person may be deprived of office and banished from the country, on the mere allegation of his being heretical, without the principal point of accusation against him being investigated. In the printed Minutes I cannot find that they have taken a single step in regard to the question itself, but that they have simply busied themselves in making attacks in abusive and unseemly language, when yet the real point at issue is this, whether it is allowable to approach immediately our Redeemer and Saviour Jesus Christ, or whether we must go a circuitous way, namely, to God the Father, that He may impute to us the merit and righteousness of His Son, and send the Holy Spirit.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 354 But that we may go the other, which is the direct way, namely, to our Saviour, Jesus Christ, is in accordance both with the 'Augsburg Confession,' and the 'Formula Concordiae,' and also with our own prayers and hymns; and it entirely agrees with God's Word.

"In the 'Augsburg Confession' are the following words: 'For [the Scripture] sets before us Christ alone as the Mediator, the Propitiator, the High Priest, and the Intercessor; He is to be invoked, or addressed; and He has promised that He will hear our prayers; and the Sacred Scripture very greatly approves of this worship, viz. that He should be invoked in all afflictions' (1 John ii, 1).

"In the 'Formula Concordi' are these words: 'We have a command that we should call upon Christ according to this saying, 'Come unto me all ye that labour,' &c., which is certainly addressed to us; and Isaiah says,' chap. xi, 'In that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people. On Him shall the nations call." And in Psalm xlv, 'The rich among the people shall entreat Thy countenance.' And in Psalm lxxii, 'And all kings of the earth shall fall down before Him.' And in another verse, 'They shall pray before Him continually.' And in John v, 23, Christ says, 'All shall honour the Son, even as they honour the Father.' See also Paul in 1 Thess. ii. These are the identical words quoted from the work.

"In our Hymn-book are prayers and hymns addressed to Jesus Christ alone; as Hymn 266, of which I will quote only what follows:

'Lo! Jesus is my might;

Be is my heart's delight.

O Jesus, hear my voice.

If I of Christ make sure,

I'll ever feel secure,

And freed from all my sins.

As Jesus is my shield,

I'll ne'er to Satan yield

Tho' he against me rage.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 355

My cares and all my woe

On Him alone I'll throw,

Who is my strength and guard.

By day and night I rest

Safely on Jesus' breast,

In whom alone I trust' (Verses 1, 3, 8).

"Besides all this, two of my letters, which have been inserted and printed in the Gottenburg 'Minutes,'* contain numerous proofs, adduced from the whole of the 'Formula Concordi,' that our Saviour, even as to His Humanity, is God, which Luther and the 'Formula Concordi' corroborate with all their power, and which is also in agreement with the entire Word of God. In proof of this I refer you only to Col. ii, 9; 1 John v, 20, 21. More to the same purport has been adduced from one of my works, an extract from which may be found in the printed 'Minutes' of the Gottenburg Consistory (Document 245, C, P. 291 et seq.). This doctrine they there call Swedenborgianism; but for my part I call it Genuine Christianity.

* Document 245, F and G.

"This is the question now at issue, which the members of the Consistory have, on their part, not touched upon at all, but respecting which they have simply burst forth into abusive language, which affects not simply my person and honour, but our Redeemer and His holiness. How they will answer for this after death, I will not here consider.

"As to the Son of God from eternity, which is likewise a controverted point, I have proved, that in the Apostles' Creed, which is received throughout the whole of Christendom, and which contains the doctrine of the apostles themselves, no other Son of God is mentioned than the Son of God born in time, who is our Redeemer Himself to whom every man can address himself, and to whom, by virtue of what is stated in the 'Augsburg Confession' and the 'Formula Concordi,' he must address himself, that he may obtain salvation. And if our freedom be interfered with in this respect, I would rather live in Tartary than among Christians.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 356 If any other be willing to go further--to a Son of God from eternity, he is at liberty to do so.

"Your letter, and your fear of harsh treatment, have induced me to develop and explain the point at issue in this manner, since theological subjects are of such a nature, that a person may easily wander about in darkness in respect to them, particularly if accusers, with a pretence of learning, try to blacken them by such coarse expressions, and seek to kill the 'man-child' with murderous words. However, I presume, and I believe it as a certainty, that His Royal Majesty with the enlightened members of the Council will judge of this matter in its true light, and not according to the glosses of the Dean and others. For if you should be removed from office and exiled, what could the present as well as future generations say, but that this had happened to you for no other reason than that you had approached immediately our Lord and Saviour, and that you had, notwithstanding, not denied the Trinity. What astonishment and indignation must not this cause in every one!

"This subject, in its whole extent, will soon be placed before the whole of Christendom,* and the judgment passed upon it I will hereafter submit to the King, and to the Honourable Houses of the Realm in general: for during a session of the Diet, the House of the Clergy is not at liberty to submit to His Royal Majesty its own separate or independent opinion, which shall afterwards have the force of law. Theological matters belong to the other Houses also.**

* The above letter was written on April 12, 1770, and in the ATrue Christian Religion," no. 791 Swedenborg states that that work was finished on June 19, 1770; so that the publication of that work was evidently before his mind when he penned these expressions.

** The Swedish Diet at the time of Swedenborg was divided into four Houses: the House of Nobles, the House of the Clergy, the House of Burghers, and the House of Peasants. Any measure to have legal power had to pass three out of the four Houses. This lumbersome legislative machinery was abolished in 1866, and the two chambers-system introduced.

"With respect to your journey here, I do not think that your presence in Stockholm would greatly benefit your cause. I will only ask you to be kind enough to copy this letter, and send a copy to His Excellency Senator Stockenstrm,198 and another to His Excellency Senator R. Hermanson,199 informing them that it is done at my request.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 357 I intend to send a copy myself to the Chancellor of Justice,196 and one to his Excellency Count Ekeblad.200 I remain with all friendship and affection,

"Your obedient servant,

       "EM. SWEDENBORG.
"Stockholm, April 12, 1770."

Two days after Swedenborg had addressed the preceding letter to Dr. Beyer, Dr. Rosn wrote the following letter to "one of the Senators," who had, as the author of "Nya Kyrkan" says, "desired a detailed account of the case." The following Document therefore may be regarded as a supplement to the declaration which Dr. Rosn submitted to the King (Document 245, Q.):

S.

DR. ROSN TO A SENATOR.*

* The Swedish original of his Document is printed in "Nya Kyrkan." &c., Part I, pp. 51 to 58.


"High well-born Baron, Councillor of His Royal Majesty and the Kingdom of Sweden, Knight and Commander of your Order.

"Gracious Sir,

       "As Swedenborgianism and I have fallen into the hands of your Excellency, I will not distress myself about a fortunate issue of our cause, and my acquittal. The exigency of the case, nevertheless, requires that, with your gracious leave, I should explain myself at greater length.

"The severest reproach against the doctrine to which I bear witness, is its difference from, and in some respects conflict with, the Confession of Faith, on which we have taken an oath; my crime also consists in nothing else than refusing, on that ground, to reject the doctrines of Swedenborg.

"Gracious Sir, the essence of the purity of our doctrine is its accordance with Scripture; and the laws of Sweden, especially a law dating from the year 1766, indicate this.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 358 If all Christians who are related to us by faith appeal to God's Word, though some do violence to it and strain it, nevertheless if me examine this matter justly and, as it were, standing in God's presence, the question resolves itself into this, Who has really the law and the Word on his side? He who has is orthodox, and he alone. A great advance in linguistics and an accumulation of inestimable philological and philosophical** discoveries, made in recent times, give me a just hope that an amendment in our faith and life, which is as possible as it is necessary, will eventually take place. And now it happens that a wonderful man, who gives evidence of a most unusual learning in natural and spiritual things. declares that he has been seat by the Lord for such a purposer and on being asked for his credentials, he solves all involved theological problems,*** strikes down naturalism and superstition, with the same weapons exposes the nakedness of the learned, and subjects himself to the good and evil report of the Lord's apostles; he manifests the greatest possible veneration for Scripture, he worships God, and urges man to sanctification: in short, he seeks to promote the honour of the Most High. It is excusable, if for such a man, whose 'eyes are open' (Num. xxiv, 4), and 'in whom is undoubtedly the spirit of the holy gods' (Dan. v. ii), I should conceive some veneration.

*"The statutes concerning the freedom of writing and printing do not mention the dogmatic books, ' 1, and admit of no other than a literal explanation."

** "The symbols are sacred among us, so far as they are the Word of God propounded as to its meaning and as to its words. If a different meaning should be laid upon them, by an advance in the study of theology, they are no longer the Word of God. The same would be the case, if a creed should originate in the notions of men.' See Schubert's Consideration of the Articles of Faith.

*** "Paul, for instance, says (Romans iv, 3) that 'Abraham was justified by faith, and James (ii, 21) declares that he was justified by works. The apostle likewise states, that 'justification or righteousness is imputed to man without works' (Romans iv, 6; xi, 17); when yet 'God will render to every man according to his deeds' (Romans ii, 6). Of this subject Swedenborg gives a natural and unforced explanation."

"Mere curiosity, however, has not led me to his doctrines, but I have been drawn to them by their consistency with God's Word.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 359 If, for instance, Doctor Luther has taken the law in a sense that greatly astonishes Paul, it is the friend of angels, our celebrated countryman alone, who is acquainted with this circumstance. Still Grotius and Michalis interpret Romans iii, 28 in the same sense as Swedenborg; all of whom are giants in learning.

"What Mosheim, a man of like celebrity, thought about the doctrine of the Divine Trinity, he gives us sufficiently to understand, when he, who worships three persons, is unable to connect any thought with these expressions, and is unable to give a definition of a person and of an essence. In a similar manner Michalis, the aulic councillor, acknowledges the eternal birth of the Son, but is unable to find any passage from Scripture by which to confirm it.*

* "He corroborated the Divinity of Jesus, and contents himself with not controverting the rest."

"Our last synodal disputation took exception both to the sentence of condemnation under which we are (frkastelsedom), and to vindictive justice (hmd-rttfardighet).

"To these views Swedenborgianism and the more enlightened doctrine of Christ's satisfaction are most closely related. This doctrine Grotius saw before Swedenborg.* The Dutch theologian also on the subject of justification entertains similar ideas with the Swedish theologian. How was it possible for the North to be enlightened two hundred and fifty years ago, when a canonized blindness was of more value than the light of the morning star?

* Grotius ad Corinthios v, 19, 20, 21.

"No visionary or dreamer has the honour to think alike with those harbingers of light, Grotius, Mosheim, Michalis, and others. Swedenborg is the man who utters 'unspeakable words' ([scanner unable to insert symbols], 2 Cor. xii, 4) in agreement with reason.

"No contradiction can be discovered in those dreams which he has had during twenty-six years, if, in accommodation to the notions of the world, it is just to call them so. Paul's sermons in olden times were considered foolishness. If an apostle has been caught up into the third heaven, the possibility of strange things ought at least not to be disputed.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 360 What happened to an Ezekiel and a Daniel, may certainly happen also to an Emanuel. Visions and revelations are certainly most unexpected things; but deliberate falsehoods and a fanciful confusion call certainly not be reconciled with so great and profound an insight. 'Standhafte Erfahrungen sind kein Einbildungen' [a constant series of experiences is not a matter of the imagination], says Superintendent tinger182 in relation to Emanuel Swedenborg, in his preface to 'The Earthly and Heavenly Philosophy of Swedenborg and others' (Swedenborg's und Anderer Irdische und Himmlische Philosophie). And who has ever dreamt about the world of spirits and the lower earth, about the heavens and the mansions that are there prepared? These subjects of superlative importance are now first understood by us on reading the Word. Read among others Isa. xiv, 9, 15; Ezek. xxxi, 14, 16; John xiv, 2.

"Our association with spirits, and by their means with heaven and hell, remains a psychological arcanum, which the world is unable to perceive; and yet Scripture treats of this subject (Matt. xvii, 15, 18; see also Grotius on Ephes. ii, 2; vi, 12). So long as this bond of connection between human souls and spirits escapes our notice, Swedenborgianism is madness in our eyes; not, however, when it is known in what mode and by what means spiritual blessings are communicated to us, and remain with us.

"Gracious Sir, permit me to insert here a brief summary of the, I hope, unpresuming ideas on the subject of Swedenborgianism which I submitted to the Consistory.

"I have declared, that there is a Trinity in God; but we must have a different idea of the three persons* from that which is commonly entertained. The doctrine, on examination in its extreme form, proves this sufficiently. For the Church, or to speak more correctly, the people, call upon the Father, as one God, to be conciliated for the sake of the second, and do such and such things by the operation of the third, as our Prayer-books tell us.

360



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 361 Are we not told that one God was angry and implacable, until the death of the second? How does this strike the more enlightened theologians? Since these views are not met with in God's Word, and are opposed to reason, I cannot see why in a determined and free nation, they should be maintained to be infallible and pure doctrine. A religion which is not derived exclusively from the Word, but in a great measure from the human brain, may be examined throughout the whole world in a humble unpresuming manner; especially if it has been established by men like ourselves. I am far from declaring that the doctrine, considered as a whole, is of such a nature. Such is far from being the case. But with all due deference for the basis on which they rest, I do think that some of our dogmatic expressions confound the simple-minded and lead them into error.

* "The offence given by a person who prefers to speak the language of Scripture rather than that of our Fathers of the Church, can certainly be only a light one; since the mere fear of committing a great error, by straying outside of Scripture on so important a question, must be esteemed much higher than deference to the conclusions of men."

"Further, I believe I have declared, or at least thought, that worship without understanding is no worship, and likewise that human fictions in matters of faith are bad materials for constructing the Church; nay, that they are an abomination, when they conflict both with reason and revelation.

"I believe I have declared, or at least thought, that reconciliation consists in this, that salvation from sin and the devil has been rendered possible; that man's state of captivity is spiritual,* and the ransom of a similar nature; that our deliverance has been represented in the Sacred Scripture by the most exact corresponding images of our own wicked nature; in short, that God does not change His disposition towards mankind, but that we through His grace change our disposition towards Him.

* "'Spiritual captivity consists in being led away from truths and goods, and introduced into falsities and evils' (Apocalypse Revealed, no. 591). And deliverance out of this state of captivity, or redemption by the blood of Christ, has been effected by the same, understood in a spiritual manner, i. e. by Divine Truth. Faith is due to that blood."

"I believe I have declared, or thought, that justification and faith are imputed to us, or are looked upon as ours, although they come from above; that salvation actually takes place by a removal of evil and falsity from the heart, through the implantation of truth and charity by the Lord, and so forth.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 362 I know that much may be added here, and also many objections brought forward; but I hasten to that matter which concerns me more particularly.

"Gracious Sir, it is by no means unusual for a philologist to agree with Grotius, Mosheim, and Michalis, and to understand certain passages in Scripture differently from the old Reformers.

"It is perhaps not appropriate to declare what genuine Lutherans think. I, nevertheless, ventured to do so in support of Section I, chap. i, Misdemeanorus B.' [of the Swedish Code of laws]; where most undoubtedly a distinction is made between errors and the views respecting which Lutheran teachers are found to differ.

"As regards myself, I have not discovered a new religion, nor have I propagated any other than the evangelical religion, so far as it harmonizes with our symbolical [dogmatic] books. I have admitted that Swedenborgianism diminishes our veneration for these books; and when I observed this I became much troubled in my mind about it, and the result of my investigations was that I halted in my resolution. Yet the teachers of our dogmas, far from putting their own declarations on a par with Scripture (how strange, if the Lutheran colony in Sweden should attribute to the Augsburg principles a greater weight than is done both in the fatherland of protestantism and by the originators of the law! To do so would be a sign of a fanatical and almost frantic zeal, and not of veneration for the Word, and gratitude towards its Giver), ascribe the power of judging to the Word alone; and as all human statutes in the Swedish laws are framed in accordance with Scripture, and are not placed above it; nay, as the free Houses of the Swedish Diet in 1766,* in describing the limits of the freedom of writing and printing, have not mentioned, but have purposely, as it seems, disregarded every ecclesiastical standard which is generally more talked about than the Divine Word--I mean here everything concerning the symbolical [dogmatic] writings;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 363 I have, therefore, ventured, not to reject the Swedenborgian system on account of some differences between it and the usual forms of doctrine, being convinced that His Royal Majesty would not regard unfavourably, an unreserved veneration for Scripture, provided human zeal and praiseworthy well-intentioned measures are not blamed and abused.

* "The force of this argument is derived from the intention of the statute. The preamble states, that the freedom of writing is intended to benefit the cultivation of the sciences without any exception. The freedom of writing and printing is unlimited in many things. In Divine matters God's and not mens definitions must establish just bounds; if in theology anything is to be gained by the statute. Besides, the symbolical [dogmatic] books are not mentioned in Section I, but only our genuine Confession of Faith. Now, as I have neither spoken nor written against that, I do not find myself guilty of any breach of the law; unless it consists in this, that I think in a human way about human writings, that I despise all theological subterfuges; that I disregard forced interpretations of Scripture, and by the evangelical doctrine understand no other than that which is correctly drawn from the Word of God, whether in olden or recent times."

"I call strict attention to the literal meaning of Section I in our most recent fundamental law, and maintain that a real distinction is there made between that which is usually called 'norma professionis' (the rule of our profession) and our 'genuine Confession of Faith.' For 1. The Apologia aug. Confessionis recognizes three or four sacraments, if I understand properly pp. 200, 201, while in Sweden we are satisfied with Baptism and the Holy Supper; 2. Assessor Swedenborg has discovered a gross contradiction, which has escaped the confessors, and of which he speaks on p. 3 of 'Summaria Expositio;' while our true Confession of Faith is exempt from mistakes and errors; 3. Our dogmatic books admit of a rigorous investigation, but not so our true confession or creed; 4. our dogmatic books are controversial writings, composed for the purpose of exhibiting the distinction between us and other partakers of the Christian faith, but they do not contain the kernel of God's Word, and the whole doctrine of theology which is comprised in the Confession of Faith.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 2 p. 364

"Besides, I have neither confirmed another doctrine, nor have I spoken against our accepted doctrine, so far as Biblical religion, as it flows from the interpretation of the greatest Master, is identical with that of Sweden. Should there be any difference in the form of expression, this admits of a humble and unpresuming revision, and if it be so wished by those in authority, it can be more carefully compared with the Word. Our whole doctrine also admits of examination according to the example of the Bereans, and as long as God's Word is the standard, that doctrine is not discredited, if all the dark bonds and chains of hell, wherewith Satan holds men captive, are riven asunder in it.

"Finally, in the Consistory I declared my opinion on what constitutes a subject for a disputation, wherein, I believe, I was fully justified. In accordance with a resolution made at the meeting at