THE LIFE AND CHARACTER
OF
EMANUEL SWEDENBORG

COLLECTED, TRANSLATED, AND ANNOTATED
R. L. TAFEL, A. M., PH. D.

VOLUME I.

SWEDENBORG SOCIETY, BRITISH AND FOREIGN
36 BLOOMSBURY STREET, LONDON

PREFACE.

In the year 1868, the editor, while professor at the Washington University of St. Louis, Missouri, was requested by the General Convention of the New Church in America to undertake a journey to Sweden, for the purpose of securing a photo-lithographic reproduction of all the unpublished manuscripts of Swedenborg. He accordingly embarked for Europe at the end of July of the same year, and towards the end of September arrived in Stockholm, where he at once entered upon the work of his important mission.

After accomplishing the preliminary part of his task, that of making a most minute and careful examination of the Swedenborg MSS., which are preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, he, while engaged one day in the Royal Library in turning over some of its literary treasures, laid his hand upon some documents respecting Swedenborg which had never been published in the English language. It was then that the idea occurred to him of not only making an exhaustive examination of the author's unpublished writings, but also of collecting such documents respecting him as might still be in existence, scattered over the various parts of his native country.

The Royal Librarian in Stockholm, Mr. C. E. Klemming, kindly entered into the editor's plans, and, at his request, at once issued a circular which was inserted in most of the Swedish journals, soliciting all who were in possession of letters addressed to, or written by, Swedenborg, or other documents respecting him, to send them to the Royal Library in Stockholm, where certified copies would be taken. At the same time direct appeals were made by the Royal Librarian and Mr. I. A. Ahlstrand, librarian of the Royal Academy of Sciences, to all antiquarians and collectors in furtherance of this object.

The result was the accumulation, in a short time, of a vast mass of information respecting Swedenborg, the very existence of which had not previously been suspected.

The most fruitful sources of documentary information were: First, the Cathedral-Library at Linkping; whither the editor, by the advice of his faithful coadjutors, undertook a journey about the end of October, 1868, and where the Consistory, under the presidency of Bishop Bring, with the greatest readiness resolved to send to the Royal Library in Stockholm all the volumes which contained letters or other documents respecting Swedenborg; at the same time instructing the Royal Librarian to place these volumes freely at the service of the editor. From these volumes are derived seventy-one of the documents in Section III, and two of those in Section IV. Secondly, the Library of the Academy of Sciences, which supplied twenty-five of the letters in Section II, seventeen of those in Section III, four documents of Section IV, twenty-five of Section VI, and three of great importance in Section VII; it provided, besides, the journals of Swedenborg's travels, which are printed in Section VIII, with some letters contained in Section IX. Thirdly, the Royal Library in Stockholm; the present custodian of the treasures of Count Engestrm's library (see footnote to Document 137), from which have been derived two letters in Section I, four documents in Section IV, one in Section V, and several in Section XI. In the Royal Library is preserved also the interesting document entitled "Swedenborg's Dreams," of which an account is given in Section VIII.

In November 1868, the editor left Sweden in order to lay the results of his investigations respecting the Swedenborg MSS. before the friends of the New Church at large; and in June 1869 he returned to Sweden with instructions from the General Convention of the New Church in America (which was soon after joined by the General Conference in Great Britain) to commence the photo-lithographic reproduction of the unpublished writings of Swedenborg.

While engaged in the superintendence of this work he continued to seek, by all available means, to increase his stock of Documents; and permission having been granted by the authorities of the College of Commerce, he entered upon a systematic examination of the records of the College of Mines during the time Swedenborg had been officially connected with it, from 1717 to 1747. The results of this investigation are contained, partly in Section V, and partly in Section VI. He supplemented his researches in the College of Mines by investigations in the Royal Archives, free access to which had been granted him by the superintendent, Count Oxenstjerna. Besides, the Court of Appeals opened to him its hidden treasures, and an interesting law-suit was there discovered, an abstract of which is contained in Document 132, Section IV.

The funds which were required for collecting and transcribing this vast mass of documents, were supplied by the American Document Committee, which is under the direction of the Rev. W. H. Benade, secretary of the American Swedenborg MSS. Committee; L. C. Iungerich, Esq. of Philadelphia, and the editor of the present work; to this committee also belong the original documents which were thus obtained. A copy of these documents was taken by the General Conference at its own expense, and deposited by resolution with the Swedenborg Society, for safe custody.

At the end of May, 1870, the editor left Stockholm, having successfully accomplished the task of reproducing, by the photo-lithographic process, the unpublished MSS. of Emanuel Swedenborg. Soon after his arrival in London, an account of the documents he had collected was published in the "Intellectual Repository;" and the Rev. Augustus Clissold was so much impressed with the importance of having them made accessible to the English reader, that he placed L200 at the disposal of the Swedenborg Society, for the purpose of having them translated.

At the request of the Committee of the Swedenborg Society the editor undertook the work of translating and preparing these documents for the press. He soon found, however, that it would be necessary for him, not only to translate the new documents discovered by him in Sweden, but also to give a new version of almost all those that had been previously published, as, for instance, Sandel's Eulogium, Robsahm's Memoirs, and others, which had been rendered into English, not from the originals, but from French and German versions.

It was found necessary also to subject all the documents which had been discovered to a close scrutiny, and to separate the genuine from the spurious. Doubtful testimony had to be analysed, and reasons given for either accepting or rejecting it; and where contradictory evidence occurred, an attempt had to be made to arrive at the truth according to the laws of evidence. All this entailed on the editor a great amount of labour. But that labour, great as it was, rendered further exertion necessary. He found it, requisite to make laborious researches, in order to obtain information respecting the life and character of the various persons whose names occur in the documents, or who have given their testimony concerning Swedenborg. The results of these researches are embodied in notes appended to the first and second volumes. The authorities chiefly consulted in the preparation of these notes are, Anrep's "Svenska Adelns Attar-Taflor," the "Biografiskt Lexicon fver Namnkunnige Svenska Mn," "Nya Kyrkan och dess inflytande p Theologiens Studium i Sverige," and Dr. Kahl's "narratiunculae de vitis Hominum in E. Swedenborgii Diariis Commenoratorum," the German "Conversations-Lexicon," and the "Encyclopaedia Britannica." It was thought it would be interesting and instructive to those who accept Swedenborg's testimony as a seer, to learn what he has said regarding the state in the other world of the more prominent of those persons who figure in these documents, therefore his theological merits, and especially his "Spiritual Diary," have been frequently brought into requisition in the preparation of the notes.

At the request of the editor, the Committee of the Swedenborg Society appointed the Rev. William Bruce, editor of the "Intellectual Repository," to assist him with his advice and otherwise, in preparing the materials for the press. Besides his assistance, help has also been rendered by Mr. James Speirs, the publisher of the work. Notwithstanding, however, the care and labour bestowed upon it, it has been found impossible in all instances to make the meaning quite clear, the originals being in many passages very obscure. This is especially the case with the letters that passed between Swedenborg and his brother-in-law, Ericus Benzelius, in many of which allusions are made that could only have been understood, and were only intended to be understood, by each other.

Still, with these and other imperfections, the editor indulges the hope that the present collection of documents, many of which have no doubt been rescued from destruction or oblivion, will be accepted by the members of the New Church as an important contribution towards a knowledge of one, in whose personal as well as official life and character they must feel a deep interest.

London, May, 1875.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 2

CONTENTS

                                                                              PAGE


PREFACE

SECTION I.

GENERAL BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES.


DOCUMENT
1.--Rev. T. Hartley to Swedenborg                                                        1
2.--Swedenborg's Autobiography in a letter to Hartley       6
3.--Rev. T. Hartley to Swedenborg       10
4.--Sandels' Eulogium on Swedenborg       12
5.--Robsahm's Memoirs of Swedenborg       30
6.--Pernety's Account of Swedenborg       52

SECTION II.

SWEDENBORG'S ANCESTRY, AND THE GENEALOGY OF THE SWEDENBORG FAMILY.


7.--Report on Swedenborg's Paternal Ancestry                                          75
8.--P. Schnstrm's letter on Swedenborg's Maternal Ancestry                                   77
9.--Genealogy of the Swedenborg Family       82
10.--Bishop Swedberg's Biography       96
11--34.--Twenty four letters of Bishop Swedberg to Johan Rosenadler        155-193
35.--Extracts from Bishop Swedberg's autobiography        194

SECTION III.

SWEDENBORG'S CORRESPONDENCE FOR THE YEARS 1709-747.


INTRODUCTION                                                        199
36, 37.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius                            200-204
38.--Polhem to Ericus Benzelius                                   205
39, 40.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benezlius                            206-212
4.--Extracts from the Minutes of the Literary Society of Upsal                                   213
42.--Professor Elfvius to Swedenborg                            214
43-50.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius                            216-242
51.--Polhem to Swedenborg              242
52.--Polhem to Ericus Benzelius       243
53.--Polhem to Swedenborg       245
54, 55.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       247-251
56, 57.--Polhem to Ericus Benzelius       251-253
58.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       253
59.--Ericus Benzelius to Swedenborg       255
60-62.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       258-265
63.--Polhem to Ericus Benzelius       265
64.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       266
65, 66.--Polhem to Swedenborg       269-273
67-70.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       273-281
71.--Polhem to Swedenborg       281
72-83.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       283-306
84.--Polhem to Ericus Benzelius       306
85-97.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       307-332
98.--Ericus Benzelius to Swedenborg       333
99.--Swedenborg to Lars Benzelstjerna       334
100-102.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       335-340
103.--Ericus Benzelius to Swedenborg       341
104.--Jesper Swedenborg to Emanuel Swedenborg       342
105.--Ericus Benzelius to Swedenborg       343
106.--Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       344
107.--Jonas Unge to Swedenborg       345
108-110.--Swedenborg to A. D. Schnstrm       346-348
111.--Jonas Unge to Swedenborg       349
112.--Swedenborg to Brita Behm       351
113.--Bishop Swedberg to Emanuel Swedenborg       352
114.--Jonas Unge to Swedenborg       353
115.--Bishop Swedberg to Emanuel Swedenborg       354
116.--Jonas Unge to Swedenborg       355
117.--J. F. Henkel to Swedenborg       356
118.--Lector Sparschuh to C. J. Benzelius       357



119.--Jacob Forskl to Swedenborg       358
120, 121.--Jonas Unge to Swedenborg       359-360
122.--Ericus Benzelius to Christopher Wolf       361
123.--Christopher Wolf to Ericus Benzelius       362
124, 125.--Lars Benzelstjerna to Swedenborg       362-364
126.--Jesper Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius       365
l27.--Ericus Benzelius to C. J. Benzelius              367
128.--Swedenborg to an anonymous correspondent       367
129.--Swedenborg to Councillor * * *              369

SECTION IV.

DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG'S PRIVATE PROPERTY.


130.--Swedenborg as Mine-Owner in Skinskatteberg       373
131.--Bishop Swedberg to Jesper Swedenborg.       374
132.--Swedenborg's law-suits with Brita. Behm       376
133.--Ericus Benzelius to C. J. Benzelius       381
134.--Moneys received by Swedenborg in 1743 and 1744       382
135.--Extracts from Swedenborg's common-place book for the years 1747 and 1748              383
136.--Memorandum of the year 1748       386
137.--Swedenborg's account with Messrs. Jennings and Finlay from
1759 to l763       387
138.--Statement of Swedenborg's Income for the years 1765 and 1766       388
139.--List of Swedenborg's valuables from the year 1770        389
140.--Official description of Swedenborg's house and garden in Stockholm        390
141.--Letters of Chas. Lindegren respecting Swedenborg's decease and burial        393
142.--Bjrnsthl to C. J. Benzelius        395

SECTION V.

SWEDENBORG'S OFFICIAL LIFE IN THE COLLEGE OF MINES, FROM 1717 to 1747.


INTRODUCTION       399
143.--Swedenborg's appointment as extraordinary assessor in the College
of Mines       401
144.--Swedenborg's entrance upon his office       402
145.--His description of Swedish Iron Furnaces                     404
146.--His proposal respecting the exsiccation of vitriol       405
147.--His application for a salary in 1720                     406
148.--His letter to the College of Mines in 1781              407
149.--His memorial to the King on an improvement in the metallurgy of copper       408
150.--His report to the College of Mines respecting the improvement       411
151.--Reply of the mining authorities at Fahlun to this report       414
152.--Swedenborg's rejoinder       421
153.--Swedenborg's entrance upon his active duties in the college in 1723       426
154.--His life at the college in 1723       429
155.--His life at the college in 1724       431
156.--His life at the college in 1725       434
157.--His life at the college in 1726       437
158.--His life at the college from 1727 to 1732       438
159.--His first application for leave of absence in 1733       441
160.--Expiration of his leave of absence in 1734       444
161.--His life at the college in 1735       446
162.--His second application for leave of absence in 1736       447
163.--His connection with the college from 1737 to 1742       456
164.--His third application for leave of absence in 1743       457
165.--His connection with the college from 1744 to 1746       462
166.--His retirement from the college in 1747       463
167.--Royal decree accepting Swedenborg's resignation       465

SECTION VI.

SWEDENBORG'S PUBLIC LIFE AS A MEMBER OF THE HOUSE OF NOBLES.


INTRODUCTION       469
168.--A Memorial on the state of Sweden's finances in 1723       471
169.--A Memorial on legislating in favour of copper to the detriment of iron       475
170.--A Memorial showing the importance of the production of iron for Sweden       477
171.--A Memorial on the establishment of rolling-mills in Sweden       480
172.--A Memorial on the impolicy of Sweden declaring war against Russia, with

an introduction                                                                483
173.--Fragment of a memorial principally for the regulation for the liquor-traffic       493
174.--A Memorial in favour of returning to a pure metallic currency       496
175.--An appeal to the Swedish Diet in favour of restoring a metallic currency       504
176.--On the causes of the rise of exchange       505
177.--A Memorial addressed to the King against the exportation of copper       507
178.--Swedenborg declines to be a member of the private commission on
exchange       509
179.--Swedenborg's resolution with regard to the secret deputation on exchange       510
180.--A Memorial addressed to the Diet on the subject of Councillor
Nordencrantz's book       511
181.--A review of Nordencrantz's book       515
182.--First letter of Swedenborg to Nordencrantz       521
183.--Swedenborg to Baron C. F. Hpken       522
184.--Nordencrantz's reply to Swedenborg       523
185.--Swedenborg's statement in the House of Nobles       525
186.--Swedenborg's statement in reply to a memorial addressed by

Nordencrantz to the House of Nobles              526
187.--Swedenborg's answer addressed to the four houses of Diet       527
188.--Second letter to Swedenborg to Nordencrantz       528
189.--Swedenborg to Baron C. F. Hpken       529
190.--Nordencrantz's reply to Swedenborg's second letter       530
191.--Third letter of Swedenborg to Nordencrantz       531
192.--Memorandum to be appended to Swedenborg's review of Nordencrantz's
book       534
193.--Swedenborg's reply to a second memorial of Nordencrantz       535
194.--President Oelreich to Swedenborg       536
196.--His Memorial in behalf of Senators v. Hpken, Palstjerna and Scheffer       538
Spuriousness of a document imputed to Swedenborg by Dean Wieselgren       542

SECTION VII.

SWEDENBORG AS A MAN OF SCIENCE.


INTRODUCTION       553
197.--Swedenborg's mechanical feat before Fredrikshall in 1718       554
198.--Prospectus of a metallurgical work from the year 1722       555
199.--Swedenborg's letter to Dr. Nordberg about Charles XII.       558
200.--Swedenborg's Controversy with Professor Anders Celsius of Upsal,

in 1740 and 1741 Cause of Controversy       565

A. Extract from Prof. Celsius' paper questioning the correctness of Swedenborg's Principia       566

B. Swedenborg's Reply to Prof. Celsius       568

C. Celsius's Rejoinder       578

D. Magister Hiorter's computation       580

E. His strictures of Swedenborg's computation       583

F. Swedenborg's Reply to Magister Hiorter       584
201.--Prospectus of books to be published, from the year 1742       585
202.--Swedenborg's paper on inlaying marble, from the year 1763       586
203.--Swedenborg's Method of finding the Longitude reprinted in 1766       590

A. His letter to the Academy of Sciences       591

B. Swedenborg to Dr. C. J. Benzelius       592

C. Professor N. Schenmark to Swedenborg       593

D. Swedenborg's reply to Schenmark       596

NOTES TO VOLUME I.

NOTE
1.--Rev. Thomas Hartley, A. M.       599
2.--Dr. Messiter       601
3.--Charles XII.       602
4.--Queen Ulrica Eleanora and King Frederic       605
5.--Swedenborg's Sisters and their Husbands       607
6.--Ericus Benezlius the younger       607
7.--Jacobus and Henricus Benzelius       609
8.--Lars Benzelstjerna       610
9.--Bishop Filenius       611
10.--Bishop Lars Benzelstjerna       611
11.--Adolphus Frederic and Louisa Ulrica       612
12.--Gustavus III.       612
13.--Samuel Sandels, Councillor of Mines       613
14.--Christopher Polhem       613
15.--Ludwig Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick       615
16.--Linnaeus and Swedenborg       616
17.--Prof. Niles Celsius       617
18.--Christian von Wolf       617
19.--Carl Robsahm       620
20.--Carl Frederic Nordenskld       620
21.--The opening of Swedenborg's Spiritual Sight       623
22.--Dr. Beyer       623
23.--Anders Carl Rustrm       627
24.--Edward Carleson       627
25.--Carl Reinhold Berch       627
26.--Swedenborg on Toothache       627
27.--The Statement that Swedenborg had a Mistress considered       628
28.--Count Anders Johan von Hpken       630
29.--Emerentia Polhem       634
30.--Reinhold Rckerskld       634
31.--Swedenborg's marriage engagements       634
32.--Gabriel Polhem       635
33.--Swedenborg's Estrangement from Polhem       635
34.--Abb Nordenskld       636
35.--Augustus Nordenskld       639
36.--Charles Berns Wadstrm       644
37.--Swedenborg's marble table       646
38.--John Augustus Ernesti       647
39.--Count Tessin       647
40.--Jacob Bhme       649
41.--Swedenborg and Bhme       650
42.--Swedenborg and Hermetic Philosophy       650
43.--Madame de Marteville       653
44.--Bishop Halenius       654
45.--Dr. Johan Rosn       655
46.--Bengt Bergius       656
47.--Peter Schnstrm       657
48.--Anrep's "ttar-taflor"       658
49.--Olof Rudbeck       658
50.--Brita Behm       659
51.--Johan Rosenadler       660
52.--Jesper Swedenborg       662
53.--Urban Hjrne       663
54.--Professor Elvius       664
55.--Dr. Edmund Halley       665
56.--Flamsteed       665
57.--Jean Paul Bignon       666
58.--Ericus Benzelstjerna       666
59.--Philippe de Lahire       667
60.--Pierre Varignon       667
61.--Johan Palmqvist       668
62.--Leibnitz       668
63.--Gustav Chronhjelm       669
64.--Hedwig Eleonora       670
65.--Gustav Benzelstjerna       670
66.--A. Anders Swab       671

B. Anton Swab       672

C. Johannes Moraeus       672
67.--Johan Henric Werner       673
68.--Starbo       674
69.--Eric Esberg       674
70.--Dr. Roberg       675
71.--Professors Valerius       676
72.--Dr. Magnus Bromell       676
73.--Georg Stjernhjelm       677
74.--Linea Carolina       677
75.--Birger Vassenius       678
76.--Dr. Johan Hesselius       679
77.--Nils Hasselbom       680
78.--Baron Grtz       680
79.--Count Mrner       681
80.--Martin Ludwig Manderstrm       681
81.--Albrecht Schnstrm       682
82.--Baglivi       682
83.--Descartes       682
84.--Borelli       683
85.--Robert Boyle       683
86.--Count Lagerberg       683
87.--Count Carl Gyllenborg       684
88.--Baron Cederhjelm       684
89.--Professor Burman       684
90.--Olof Nordborg       685
91.--Anders Hesselius       685
92.--Raumur       685
93.--Sir Hans Sloane       686
94.--Jonas Alstrmer       687
95.--Abraham Dan. Schnstrm       688
96.--Lientenant-Colonel Horleman       689
97.--Sebastian V. Tham       689
98.--Johan Friedrich Henkel       689
99.--Dr. Carl Jesper Benzelius       690
100.--Johan Christoph Wolf       690
101.--Baron Conrad Ribbing       690
102.--Baron Gustav Rlamb       691
103.--Adam Leijel       692
104.--Count Arvid Horn       693
105.--Joachim von Ners       693
106.--Baron Feif       694
107.--Axel Cronstedt       694
108.--Harald Lybecker       695
109.--Niklas von Oelreich       695
110.--Anna Frederica Ehrenborg       695
111.--Peter Hultman       696
112.--Anton and Johan Grill       696

Claes Grill       697
113.--Carl Broman       697
114.--Jennings and Finlay       698
115.--Count Frederic Gyllenborg       698

Countess Gyllenborg       699
116.--Carl Wilhelm Seele       700
117.--Charles Lindegren       701

Johan Spieker       701
118.--Pastor Mathesius       701
119.--Pastor Ferelius       704
120.--Jacob J. Bjrnsthl       705
121.--Christopher Springer       705
122.--Jonas Cederstedt       709
123.--Anders Strmner       710
124.--David Leijel       710
125.--Johan Bergenstjerna       710
126.--Gran Vallerius       711
127.--Nils Porath       711
128.--Baron Cederstrm       712
129.--Hans Bierchenius       713
130.--Gustav Boneauschld       713
131.--Stanislaus Leczinsky       714
132.--General Lewenhaupt       715
133.--Councillor Nordencrantz       715
134.--Baron Carl Frederic von Hpken       717
135.--Baron Palmstierna       718

136.--Count Scheffer       719
137.--Count Eric Brahe       719
138.--Baron Gustav Jacob Horn       720
139.--Bidenius Renhorn       720
140.--Dean Wieselgren       720
141.--The De la Gardie family       721
142.--Professor Schenmark       722
143.--Johan Helmik Roman       722
144.--Prof. Anders Celsius       722
145.--Magister Olof Hjorter       723
146.--Dr. Andreas Lanaerus       724
147.--Joannes Vastovius       724
148.--Dr. Nordberg       724



2



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 3

SECTION I.

GENERAL BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES.



3



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 4

DOCUMENT 1.


LETTER FROM THE REV. THOMAS HARTLEY1 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG
WHICH DREW FROM HIM THE LETTER CONTAINING HIS BRIEF AUTOBIOGRAPHY.*

* The Latin originals of Documents 1 and 3 were formerly in Count Engestrm's Library, but they are now preserved in the Royal Library of Stockholm.

Most respected and beloved Sir,

I consider myself most highly favoured and I rejoice from my inmost heart in having had the honour, which you lately granted me, of conversing with you; and also in your having been so kind and friendly towards me who am quite unworthy of such a favour. But your charity towards the neighbour, the heavenly benignity shining from your countenance, and your childlike simplicity, devoid of all vain show and egotism, are so great, and the treasure of wisdom possessed by you is so sweetly tempered with gentleness, that it did not inspire in me a feeling of awe, but one of love, which refreshed me in my innermost heart. Believe me, O best of men, that by my intercourse with you I consider myself crowned with more than royal favours; for who among kings, if he is of a sane mind, would not gladly converse with an inhabitant of heaven, while here on earth? But the things which are hidden from the great men upon earth, are revealed to the humble.

In speaking with you every suspicion of flattery must be hushed. For what ground for flattery can there be, when I attribute everything in you, however great and extraordinary it may be, to the Lord, and not to yourself, and when I look upon you only as an instrument of His mercy and great kindness!

4



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 5 But may I be permitted to offer honour and glory to the instrument--for this is well-pleasing to the Lord; and may I he permitted to tell you from a heart full of gratitude, that I consider myself thrice blessed, that your writings, by the Divine Providence, have fallen into my hands? for from them, as from a living fountain, I have drawn so many things, as well from instruction and edification as fur my great delight, and I have been freed by them from so many fears, and from so many errors, doubts, and opinions, which held my mind in perplexity and bondage, that I seem to myself sometimes, as if transferred among the angels. May the Lord, the Highest and Best, forbid that I deceive myself with a vain and premature hope; and may He always keep me anxious to shun all evil, and ready to do all good, so that I may safely and happily reach the goal of our destination in the Lord Jesus Christ.

There are many things in My mind, dear Sir, that I should like to ask if time would permit; but may I be allowed to submit to you the following few. In the Wisdom of angels concerning the Divine Love, n. 221, you say that the Lord (Jehovah) in the world superinduced a humanity over the former humanity. Did not the Lord, therefore, have a two-fold humanity, while on earth, one which was Divine, and another which was natural, and not yet glorified. If it was not so, how can we answer those who urge, in favour of separate persons in God, the following words of John xvii, 5: "Father, glorify me with the glory, which I had with Thee, before the world was made?" If, then, He had a twofold humanity,--which of the two said these words to the Divine Essence or to the Father, inasmuch as the former Humanity had not lost the glory, and therefore could not ask for its restoration, and the latter had not yet attained glorification, and therefore could not say, "Glorify me with the glory, which I had with Thee," &c. Does there not seem to be a dilemma on either side? I do not ask this, because my faith about doctrine can be shaken by a thousand difficulties, but because I should like to answer those who wish to know the reason.

Secondly, If Jehovah had always a Divine Humanity--as I verily believe He had--what need was there, for the purpose in a state of humility and repentance, of His descent among men, to fill angels with His Divine Essence; and why could He not appear before the patriarchs as God-Man?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 6 It is not necessary that you should answer this by a special letter, for I do not wish to interrupt you, who are occupied with more important matters.

Pardon my troubling you so much, but allow me still to add the two following points:

First, If, perchance, after your departure from England, either Dr. Messiter,2 or I, or both of us, should be called upon publicly to defend your writings, and if likewise an occasion should arise of defending you, their author, against some malignant slanderer, who would wish to injure your reputation by a web of falsehoods--as those are in the habit of doing who hate the truth--would it not be well for you, in order to repel such slanders, and make them recoil upon their originator, to leave with us some particulars respecting yourself, your degrees in the University, the public offices which you administered, your friends and relations, the honours which, I am told, have been conferred upon you, and about anything else that might be useful in establishing your good character, so that pernicious prejudices may be removed; for it is our duty to use all lawful means, lest the cause of truth should suffer injury.

Secondly, If, perchance, after your return to Sweden, some persecution should be excited against you by the clergy, on account of your religion--which may God prevent--return, then, I beseech you, to England, where you may dwell in safety. Dr. Messiter and myself will prepare for you a convenient place and house, either in town or in the country, and we shall provide for every thing that may conduce to your well-being. This will be no trouble to us, but will give us the greatest possible pleasure.

I commend myself to your favour and affection, and I am, and shall always be, my teacher and most distinguished friend, with all due reverence,

Your most obliged servant,

THOS. HARTLEY.
East Malling,
near Maidstone, Kent.
August 2. 1769.

To the Honourable MR. SWEDENBORG.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 7

DOCUMENT 2.

LETTER FROM: EMANUEL SWEDENBORG TO THE REV. THOMAS HARTLEY, CONTAINING HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY*.

* The Latin original of this letter was printed separately by Dr. Hartley in 1769, under the title: Responsum ad Epistolam ab amico ad me scriptam, and was reprinted in the aurora, Vol. ii, p. 224, in 1800. The first English translation of this letter was published by Dr. Hartley himself, in his English translation of Swedenborg's work on the "Intercourse" &c., which he published under the following title: "A Theosophical Lucubration on the Nature of Influx, as it respects the Communication and Operations of the Soul and Body. By the Honourable and Learned Em. Swedenborg. Now first translated from the original Latin. London. 1770," 4to.

THE friendship which you manifest in your letter greatly pleases me; and I thank you sincerely for both, but especially for your friendship. The praises with which you overwhelm me, I receive simply as expressions of your love for the truths contained in my writings; and I refer them, as their source, to the Lord, our Saviour, from whom is everything true, because He is the Truth Itself, John, xiv, 6. I have considered chiefly the remarks you make at the close of your letter, where you express yourself as follows: "If, perchance, after your departure from England, your writings should be the subject of discussion, and occasion should arise for defending you, their author, against some malignant slanderer, who may wish to injure your reputation by a web of falsehoods--as those are in the habit of doing who hate the truth--would it not be well for you, in order to repel such slanders, to leave with me some particulars respecting yourself, your degrees in the University, the public offices you filled, your friends and relations, the honours which, I am told, have been conferred upon you, and anything else that might be useful in establishing your good character, so that ill-conceived prejudices may be removed; for it is our duty to use all lawful means, lest the cause of truth should suffer injury."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 8 After reflecting on this, I have been led to yield to your friendly advice, and will now communicate to you some particulars of my life, which are briefly as follows.

I was born at Stockholm, on the 29th of January in the year 1689. My father's name was Jesper Swedberg;* who was Bishop of West-Gothland, and a man of celebrity in his time. He was also elected and enrolled as a member of the English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts; for he had been appointed by King Charles XII3 Bishop over the Swedish churches in Pennsylvania, and also over the church in London. In the year 1710 I went abroad. I proceeded first to England, and afterwards to Holland, France, and Germany, and returned home in the year 1714. In the year 1716, and also afterwards, I had many conversations with Charles XII,3 King of Sweden, who greatly favoured me, and the same year offered me an assessorship tin the College of Mines, which office I filled until the year 1747, which I resigned it, retaining, however, the official salary during my life. My sole object in tendering my resignation was, that I might have more leisure to devote to the new office to which the Lord had called me. A higher post of honour was then offered me, which I positively declined, lest my heart should be inspired with pride. In the year 1719, I was ennobled by Queen Ulrica Eleanora,4 and named Swedenborg; and from that time I have taken my seat among the nobles of the rank of knighthood, in the triennial Diet of the Realm. I am a Fellow and Member, by invitation, of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm; but I have never sought admission into any literary society in any other place, because I am in an angelic society, where such things as relate to heaven and the soul are the only subjects of discourse; while in literary societies the world and the body form the only subjects of discussion.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 9 In the year 1734, I published, at Leipsic, the Regnum Minerale, in three volumes, folio; and in 1738 I took a journey to Italy, and staid a year at Venice and Rome.

* A more detailed account of Bishop Jesper Swedberg will be found in Documents 9A and 10.

With respect to my family connections, I had four sisters.5 One of them was married to Ericus Benzelius,6 who subsequently became the Archbishop of Upsal, and through him I became related to the two succeeding archbishops,7 who both belonged to the family of Benzelius, and were younger brothers of his. My second sister was married to Lars Benzelstierna8 who became a provincial governor; but these two are dead. Two bishops, however, who are related to me, are still living; one of them, whose name is Filenius,9 and who is Bishop of East-Gothland, officiates now as President of the House of the Clergy in the Diet at Stockholm, in place of the Archbishop, who is an invalid; he married my sister's daughter: the other, named Benzelstierna,10 is Bishop of Westmanland and Dalecarlia; he is the son of my second sister. Not to mention others of my relations who occupy stations of honour. Moreover, all the bishops of my native country, who are ten in number, and also the sixteen senators, and the rest of those highest in office, entertain feelings of affection for me; from their affection they honour me, and I live with them on terms of familiarity, as a friend among friends; the reason of which is, that they know I am in company with angels. Even the King and the Queen,11 and the three princes, their sons, show me great favour: I was also invited once by the King and Queen to dine with them at their own table, which honour is generally accorded only to those who are highest in office; subsequently the Crown Prince12 granted me the same favour. They all desire me to return home; wherefore, I am far from apprehending, in my own country, that persecution, which you fear, and against which in your letter you desire in so friendly a manner to provide; and if they choose to persecute me elsewhere, it can do me no harm.

But all that I have thus far related, I consider of comparatively little importance; for it is far exceeded by the circumstance, that I have been called to a holy office by the Lord Himself, who most mercifully appeared before me, His servant, in the year 1743;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 10 when He opened my sight into the spiritual world, and enabled me to converse with spirits and angels, in which state I have continued up to the present clay. From that time I began to print and publish the various arcana that were seen by me or revealed to me, concerning Heaven and Hell, the state of man after death, the true worship of God, the spiritual sense of the Word, besides many other most important matters conducive to salvation and wisdom. The only reason of my journeys abroad has been the desire of making myself useful, and of making known the arcana that were entrusted to me. Moreover, I have as much of this world's wealth as I need, and I neither seek nor wish for more.

Your letter has induced me to write all these particulars, in order that as you say "ill-conceived prejudices may be removed." Farewell; and from my heart I wish you all blessedness both in this world, and the next; which I have not the least doubt you will attain, if you look and pray to our Lord.

EMAN. SWEDENBORG.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 11


DOCUMENT 3.

LETTER FROM THE REV. THOMAS HARTLEY TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG;

IN ANSWER TO THE PRECEDING.*

* This letter, which was formerly in the library of Count Engestrm, is now preserved in connection with Document 1 in the Royal Library in Stockholm. From this answer it appears that Dr. Hartley did not publish the whole of Document 2; for Swedenborg had evidently written to him on some points which are not mentioned in the letter, as it has been published.

Most respected and beloved Sir,

YOUR late kindness towards me, as well as your letter, which I received reverently, as if it had come down to me from heaven, I acknowledge with heart-felt joy and thankfulness. Your exhortation to perseverance I shall treasure up and cherish in the depth of my heart. May I never, after having once been made the participant of the gifts of heaven, suffer myself to be drawn away from the truth; for of what profit is it to gain the whole world, and lose one's own soul?

You, who are gifted with illumination, have, in your friendly reply, most abundantly satisfied me on the questions I had proposed to you. This is, and will be, of the greatest use to me. Should I be called upon to defend the truth in public, the enemy will not find me altogether unprepared; and I am confident the Lord will provide me with the necessary strength. I neither seek nor avoid such contests. The Lord's will be done in everything.

Allow me to congratulate your noble country on your performing the office of your apostolic mission among your countrymen; and on your being thus honoured by its princes, its governors, and high councillors. O happy Swedish nation, and happy ye its chiefs, who acknowledge and receive the Lord in your apostle!

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 12 Blessed, indeed, shall ye be, if your life be the same as your faith! O England, my beloved country, how greatly I desire that the same opportunity may arise of congratulating you, on your receiving your own [apostles of the truth]! But, most distinguished Sir, permit even me, from my obscure position, to offer you, in the name of my country, our most heartfelt thanks for your love towards us, for your journeys hither and your sojourn in our midst, and for your indefittigable labours in behalf of our salvation--for who else is there to express all this to you, except my own unworthy self? Truly, those great offices of charity you have performed for us, deserve our most heartfelt acknowledgments; but with sorrow I pass over in silence the little fruit they have thus far borne amongst us.* May the Lord, the Highest and Best, grant that a rich harvest may at last flourish and become matured among us Britons, from the seed you have sown!

* This can hardly be said now, inasmuch as England has been foremost in spreading the doctrines taught by Swedenborg, while the New Church has but a feeble existence in Swedenborg's native country.

About myself and my affairs I willingly keep silence; for I regard myself as of no consequence, and as a mere nothing; yet I am prepared to answer truly and fully all your questions; and if, after your return to Sweden, you should at any time do me the honour, to address a letter to me, and to make use of my services in any way whatsoever, you will find me a willing and delighted servant. Instruct me, exhort me, dispose of me in any way whatever; for if I know myself sufficiently, it will be the greatest pleasure to me to obey your admonitions and commands, and you will find me faithful to all my promises. But if you will not do me this honour, it will be enough for me to remember you always above all others, to love you always; and to have had you for my teacher in Divine things.

Most honoured Sir,

       I am, with all due reverence,

              Your most obedient servant

                     THOS. HARTLEY.

                            August 14, 1769.
East Malling       
near Maidstone, Kent.

To The Honourable MR. SWEDENBORG.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 13

DOCUMENT 4.

EULOGIUM ON EMANUEL SWEDENBORG,

PRONOUNCED IN THE GREAT HALL OF THE HOUSE OF NOBLES, IN THE NAME OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOLM, OCT. 7, 1772, BY SAMUEL SANDELS,13 COUNSELOR OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF MINES, AND MEMBER OF THE SAID ACADEMY.*

* The Swedish original of this Eulogium was printed by the Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, in the year 1772, with the following title: Aoration to the Memory (minnelse-Tal) of the late member of the Academy of Sciences, Herr Emanuel Swedenborg, Assessor in His Royal Majesty's and the country's College of Mines, delivered on account of the Royal Academy of Sciences in the great hall of the House of Nobles, October 7, 1772, by Samuel Sandels, 13 Counselor of Mines, Knight of the Polar Star, and member of said Academy. Stockholm, printed by Lars Salvius, 1772."--A French translation of this oration was published soon afterwards, and this was made use of by the Academician Pernety, in his account of Swedenborg, contained in his French translation of "Heaven and Hell," 1782. An English version of this French translation was issued by the Aurora press, in 1799, or 1800; followed by a collection of "Anecdotes and Observations on Emanuel Swedenborg." In 1802, a new French translation of this oration was printed in the Introduction to a French version of the "True Christian Religion," in which the editor stated that his version of this oration was more faithful to the original Swedish, than that printed by Pernety. Of this second French translation the Rev. S. Noble prepared an English translation, and furnished it with "Introductory Observations, exhibiting the claims of the writings of Swedenborg to the attention of the public." Mr. Noble's translation, and also his "Introductory Observations," were transferred by the Rev. J. H. Smithson to his English edition of the "Documents concerning Emanuel Swedenborg collected by Dr. Im. Tafel," who had made his German translation from the Swedish original. The present is the first English version prepared immediately from the Swedish original.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 14

GENTLEMEN, allow me, on the present occasion, to direct your thoughts, not to a distant or wearisome subject, but to one which it is both a duty and a pleasure for us to consider, namely, the memory of a noble man, celebrated alike for his virtues and the depth of his knowledge, who was one of the oldest members of this Academy, and whom we all knew and loved.

The feeling of affection and high esteem which we all entertained for the late Assessor of the Royal College of Mines, EMANUEL SWEDENBORG, assures me, that you will love to hear me speak of him; and happy shall I be, if I can fulfil your desire, and pronounce his eulogy as he deserves. But if, as artists declare, there are some countenances, of which it is difficult to give an exact likeness; how much more difficult will it be to do justice to a vast and sublime genius, who never knew either repose or fatigue; who, occupied with sciences the most profound, was long engaged with researches into the secrets of nature, but in later years applied all his efforts to unveil still greater mysteries; who, in respect to certain principles of knowledge, went his own separate way, but never lost sight of the principles of morality and the fear of God; who was possessed of remarkable power, even in the decline of his age, and boldly tried to find how far the power of thought could be stretched; and who, during the whole of this time, has furnished materials for a great variety of thoughts and judgments upon himself, differing from one another as much as do the faculties of the men who think and judge.

The more brilliant the faculties and other properties which are the gifts of nature, the more clearly appear the shadows by which they are attended. It is only those influenced by mere curiosity who, on the appearance of some new light, see on all sides nothing but marvels and wonders, even in mere shadows. The shallow, on the other hand, see trifles in every thing; quickness of apprehension in their eyes is superficiality; deep thought dreaminess; learning appears to them whimsical; experiments they regard as mistakes; and the fathoming of hidden things they consider as a proof of insanity, and so forth. The wise man, however, loves to hold fast to the good, and does not reject a rich ore because it contains some heterogeneous substance, indicating its origin. He explores the deviations of the needle, not for the purpose of doing away with it, but in order, with proper care, to make the best use of this incomparable guide.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 15 He values a penetrating eye, even though upon some occasion it should unguardedly look into the sun, or rivet itself upon an object which is too distant, and should, in consequence, become for a while disturbed; he never judges any one; and least of all can he judge uncharitably a man like SWEDENBORG, who worked so unremittingly and so zealously in the cause of knowledge and enlightenment, that, with the single exception, perhaps, of his desire to penetrate too deeply, there is nothing whatever in his whole character with which we can find fault.

The beautiful picture of his life, although it contain some involved parts, deserves therefore to be carefully examined.

The excellent Bishop of Skara, Dr. Jesper Swedberg,* a man full of zeal but without bigotry, was still chaplain of the Royal Horse-guards, when his first wife, Sarah Behm, daughter of Albert Behm, Assessor in the College of Mines, brought him his second son, EMANUEL SWEDENBORG; who was born at Stockholm, the 29th of January, 1688.** He was called SWEDENBORG from the time, when he, together with his brothers and sisters, was elevated to the rank of nobility, in 1719.

* For a detailed account of Dr. Jesper Swedberg, see Document 10.

** According to a letter written by Assessor Swedenborg in Latin, and printed in London in 1769, the year of his birth is said to be 1689; but this is an error of the printer: for according to his own statement made to the House of Nobles, and according to the Register of the Nobility, compiled by the Councillor of Chancery, von Stiernman, together with other certain proofs, he was born in 1658.

There is, however, an error in the said Register in regard to Swedenborg's birth-place; for Upsal is mentioned there instead of Stockholm.--Note by S. Sandels.

Nature and art both contribute in beautifying the earth, but birth and education in adorning the human race. Allowance, however, must also be made for malformations. For a choice fruit-tree does not always preserve its qualities in propagations from its fruit-seeds. This is due mostly to the modifications which are effected in a fruit-tree by art, by which the nature of its fruit is changed; but which are unable to prevent the nature of the root from affecting the nature of the fruit.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 16 Experience teaches us that there are many similar influences operating in our own species. But it would be hazardous, on the strength of what has here been stated, to attempt to declare how much certain virtues in a family owe to the root, and how much to art.

Still it cannot be denied, that, so long as any one has not rendered himself unworthy, this fact alone inspires confidence, and operates in his favour, if it is known that he descends from what is justly called a good family; a family, whose home, whether large or small, has always been the dwelling-place of virtue and honour; and which has been a good and excellent nursery of useful citizens in all kinds of trades and professions; a family, in fact, like that from which our SWEDENBORG derived his origin, and which was an old, honest, and intelligent family of miners in the neighbourhood of the "Stora Kopparberget" [the "great copper-mountain" near Fahlun]. In this family, a miner, of the name of Daniel Isacsson,* and his wife Anna Bullernsia,** are held in honourable remembrance as the parents of the ancestors of the noble families of the Schnstrms and of the Swedenborgs, and of the honourable family of the Swedbergs.*** I remember to have seen a family-register, in the form of a genealogical tree, which showed how this family spread and extended in every branch, and became incorporated with many other illustrious and celebrated families of these times. But as our Swedenborg, on his part, did not trouble himself with enlarging this genealogical tree, I too shall pass it by, and follow him.

* For some particulars respecting Swedenborg's paternal grandfather Daniel Isacsson, see Documents 7 and 9A, and the beginning of Document 10.

** Concerning Bullernsius, the father-in-law of Daniel Isacsson, see Document 7 and also the beginning of Document 10.

*** Concerning the members of the family Swedberg, see Document 7.

But, with him as a lender, I shall not dwell long on the years of his childhood, nor shall I lose time in discussing the exercises of his youth; for he himself pressed rapidly onward to reach the age of manhood.

A son of Bishop Swedberg could not fail to receive a good education, according to the tastes of his times, by which he would be led to acquire habits of steadiness, reflection, and industry, and would become thoroughly acquainted with those branches of knowledge, which he was to cultivate.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 17 Times and customs change. I am speaking of the youth of a Swedenborg; and what need is there for me to expatiate further on the thoughtful care which was bestowed on his education; on his own thoughtfulness in making the best use of advantages which are enjoyed, comparatively, by but few, and which are neglected by many of those who do enjoy them; on his extraordinary talents, which supported the native bent of his genius; on his perseverance; on his early maturity? What more striking proof of all this can be given, than that a King, of a most penetrating mind, graciously cheered him on, and at the proper time made use of his capacities; that a King, like Charles XII,3 in 1716, at a time when Swedenborg was still a student, appointed him, at the age of twenty eight, Extraordinary Assessor in the Royal College of Mines, without his seeking for the place, and without any one else recommending him for it; and what is more, that at the same time he was free to choose between this assessorship and a professorship at the Royal University in Upsal?

An enlightened and wise ruler does not in this manner promote an uncultivated and inexperienced youth to an important office in the state.

Mr. Swedberg was even then well-known, both in his own country and abroad, by his acquisitions in general literature and in science, and by his worthy demeanour. Still, at that time the learned had not included his name in the lists of celebrated authors. An academical disputation, which he published at Upsal in 1709,* may, indeed, be regarded as a clever work for a youth, but as in some parts not altogether a proof of sound learning. Likewise, a printed collection of Latin verses,** which he wrote about 1710, and in the following years, for different occasions, manifested, indeed, a remarkable readiness of wit, and showed that he had made a good use of his time in youth--it is such a work, indeed, as many could have wished to have written at such an age--but still, poetry was not his forte, nor was it his business.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 18 His mathematical and physical experiments and remarks, which he published under the title of Daedalus Hyperboreus***, in six separate numbers, he did not begin until 1716. Did this Daedalus, Presented by a new and young author, signify that perhaps a portion of his remaining works would partake of the character of a labyrinth? But we must not measure his youthful power simply by those products of his mind which saw the light up to this time; for the press is not the only witness of learning. Moreover, its testimony is not always reliable; for an insignificant treatise often bears a pretentious title. The most trustworthy authors are those who take the proper time at first in laying a foundation. And this was done by young Swedberg, not only in the university at Upsal, but afterwards in the universities of England, Holland, France, and Germany.

* The subject of this disputation was: L. Annaei Senecae et Pub. Syri Mimi, forsan et Aliroum Selectae Sententiae, cum annotationibus Erasmi et graeca versione Scaligeri, notis illustratae.BS. SANDELS.

** This collection of Latin verses is printed in Skara, under the title: Ludus Heliconius sive carmina miscellanea, quae variis in locis cecinit Em. Swedberg.BS. SANDELS.

*** All the numbers were published in 4to at Stockholm in the Swedish language; but the fifth number was also translated into, and printed in, Latin.--S. SANDELS.

We shall have now to follow him in many long journeys, undertaken for various purposes and pursuits, and at times in ways where it is easy to go astray; and in order that in his society no doubt or uncertainty may arise in your minds, which often happens when one has not fully examined the character and disposition of another, picture to yourselves an harmonious development of memory, understanding, and judgment; imagine these qualities united with an intense desire of the heart, which can only be satisfied by the ceaseless endeavour to become profoundly learned in philosophy, in almost all parts of mathematics, in natural history, physics, chemistry, in anatomy, and even in theology, and to acquire proficiency in the Oriental and European languages; keep in mind, also, the power of habit, which in a certain manner acts in accordance with reason, certainly in respect to the order of thought; and remember that our thoughts when too much engaged with, and centred upon, abstract subjects, are wont to carry us away in the same direction, and sometimes too fast,--especially when accompanied with an ardent imagination--so that we are unable properly to discriminate the objects that come before us.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 19 Add to all this a genuinely good disposition, proved by the Rules of Life which I found among Mr. Swedenborg's manuscripts in more than one place, and which he wrote down for his own use: First, diligently to read and meditate upon the word of God; secondly, to be content under the dispensations of God's Providence; thirdly to observe a propriety of behaviour, and preserve the conscience pure; fourthly, to obey what is commanded; to attend faithfully to one's office and other duties? and in addition to make oneself useful to society in general.

Any one who says that I have here presented any other than the manifest and truthful features of Swedenborg's inner being, must be prejudiced either on the one side or on the other. Let such a one consider more closely what I have already said, and what I have still further to say.

Let us hasten to receive him on his return home from his first journey abroad, which we have already mentioned; when we shall find his thoughts principally taken up with mathematics and physics.

These studies soon procured him an acquaintance, and an intimate connection during several Sears, with our Swedish Archimedes, Christopher Polhammar, then Assessor, and afterwards Counselor of Commerce and Commander of the Royal Order of the North Star, under the name of Polhem.14

By means of this connection he not only obtained access to the greater light which he sought, especially in mechanics, but he shared the special confidence with which King Charles XII had already honoured Polhammar, and which he thereafter extended to both. For this reason, also, it is stated in the diploma, by which he received his appointment as Assessor, and which was issued at Lund, December 18, 1716, that the King had particular regard to the excellent knowledge of Swedberg in mechanics, and that he was to accompany Assessor Polhammar, and be of assistance to him in his structures, and his various mechanical works.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 20 This diploma, together with the record in Dr. Norberg's history of Charles XII of the conversations between the King and these two profound and learned men, on mechanics and mathematics, on the analytic and algebraical calculus, on our Swedish method of reckoning, and on several other subjects, prove that the King looked upon these two men of genius as if intended for one another, and adapted to work together with their united strength. The King also made use of their knowledge and penetration which, in respect to mechanics, was, in each of them, combined with a happy faculty of invention.

This is not the place to speak of the great structures of Polhem, of the well-known dyke at Lyckeby, the locks of Trolhtta, the dry-docks of Carlscrona, and other works.

Swedberg, however, executed, on his part, a work of considerable importance, when during the siege of Frederickshall, in 1718, he transported by a system of rollers, over mountains and valleys, two galleys, five large boats, and one sloop, from Strmstadt to the Iddefjord, which separates Sweden from Norway on the south; a distance of 2-2 Swedish [about 14 English] miles. By this feat the King was enabled to carry out his plans, and, under cover of the galleys and large boats, convey on pontoons a heavier artillery under the walls of Frederickshall, than he could have done by land*. It is thus that the sciences and their proper application always become useful, and frequently accomplish what without them no mortal power could effect.

* For further particulars respecting this undertaking, see Document 195.

Mechanics did not, however, occupy the whole of his time. He not only published, in 1717 and 1718, a continuation of the Daedalus Hyperboreus; but in 1718 he printed an Introduction to Algebra, under the title of Regelkonsten; in 1719, "A Proposal so to arrange our coins and measures, as to facilitate computation and abolish fractions"; and in the same year a dissertation "On the orbit and position of the earth and of the planets"; and another, "On the height of the water, and the greater flux and reflux of the sea in former ages; with proofs furnished from Sweden".

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 21 At the same time he wrote, or at least began to write, treatises on various other subjects, as me shall presently see by information from foreign countries.

Up to this time he had not entered upon his duties as Assessor in the Royal College of Mines. He did not desire to do so before he had thoroughly mastered the science of mining in its whole extent. We must not place him in the same category with those, who work themselves into offices of whose duties they know nothing; or, what is worse, of which they are able to learn nothing, on the principle that "out of nothing, nothing can come". He obtained an office which he had never solicited. At that time, indeed, he was thoroughly versed in certain sciences, with which alone he could have been of great use in his office in some particular branches of mining; and it would have been easy for him to acquire all the remaining knowledge which he still wanted; for those sciences to which he had hitherto mostly devoted himself,--mathematics and physics, are the pillars of the science of mining; but he could not content himself with theory without practice. Neither could he satisfy himself with experimenting in a Swedish mines and their structure, and studying their methods of working. For this reason he undertook a second journey abroad, in 1721, and examined various foreign mines and smelting-works, particularly those of Saxony and the Hartz. But he did not examine mines only; for nothing ever escaped him that merited the attention of a traveller.

During his stay in the Duchy of Brunswick, he enjoyed the particular favour of Duke Ludwig Rudolph's, and the Duke, in consequence, bore the expenses of his journey in his dominions, and upon taking leave presented him with his medallion in gold, and with a piece of plate.

During this journey he acquired new stores of knowledge, and enriched science with the following new works:

1. Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium, sive novorum tentaminum chemiam et physicam experimentalem geometrice explicandi.

2. Nova observata et inventa circa ferrum et ignem, praecipue naturam ignis elementarem, una cum nova camini inventione.

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3. Methodus nova inveniendi longitudines locorum, terra marique, ope Lunae.

4. Modus construendi receptacula navalia, vulgo "Dockebyggnader."

5. Nova constructio aggeris aquatici.

All these works were printed at Amsterdam, in 1721; and second editions of them were published in 1727.

7. Miscellanea observata circa res naturales et praesertim mineralia, ignem et montium strata, three parts printed at Leipsic, and the fourth at Hamburg, in 1722.

Who else, except perhaps Linnaeus,16 has given such an account of a journey abroad, and of one of so short duration? For after an absence of a year and a half, he, in 1722, gladdened his country by his return.

During the following years be divided his time between the College of Mines, the milling districts, and his study, until, in the year 1733, he had finished his great work, entitled: Opera Philosophica et Mineralia. He then went abroad for one year, to see this work, which was published at Dresden and Leipsic, through the press; meanwhile he undertook a separate journey, in order to visit the Austrian mines.

This last work consists of three volumes, folio; the first volume contains: Principia rerum naturalium, sive novorum tentaminum, phaenomena mundi elementaris philosophice explicandi; the second: Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de ferro; the third: Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de cupro et orichalco. These volumes, being all solid, scientific compositions, illustrated with copper-plates, could not fail to raise among the learned abroad the favourable ideas which they already entertained of the Swede, SWEDENBORG.

The Consistory of the University, and the Society of Sciences at Upsal felt proud at having previously recognized the merits of our countryman, and at having publicly testified the high esteem in which they held him; for the consistory had, in 1724, invited him, "for the advantage of youth, and as an ornament of the university," to apply for the professorship of the higher mathematics, which had become vacant by the death of Professor Nils Celsius,17 but which invitation he thankfully declined; and the Society of Sciences had admitted him into the number of its members in 1729.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 23 The learned abroad, also, hastened to send him marks of their esteem.

The Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, by a letter of invitation, dated December 17, 1734, desired to admit him among its corresponding members.

Christian Wolff,18 and other foreign men of learning addressed him by letter, in order to obtain his ideas on subjects which they found it difficult to fathom.

The editors of the Acta Eruditorum in Leipsic, in which the contents of the works of the learned are discussed and impartial opinions pronounced upon them, found in his work a rich store with which to adorn their pages.

Nor has time deprived this work of any of its value. The authors of the magnificent Descriptions des arts et mtiers, which is now in course of publication in France, thought so highly of that part of the Opera Philosophica et Mineralia, which covers the same ground as their own publication, that they translated the second part, which treats of iron and steel, and inserted it entire in their collection.

Our Royal Academy, also, when it was founded, hastened to enroll among its first members a man, who already held so distinguished a rank in other learned societies.

I have hitherto spoken only of one part of SWEDENBORG'S works; but the others take a different direction. Let us therefore dwell a little longer on the former.

These works are unmistakable proofs, that his desire for learning extended in all directions, and that he by preference occupied himself with studies which cannot be mastered without mature judgment and profound thought. No one can charge him with having wished to shine in borrowed plumes, or with re-arranging and giving a different colouring to the work of others, and then publishing it under his own name; for everywhere we perceive, that he did not depend upon others, but followed his own thoughts, and often made observations and applications which cannot be found in any other author of his times: nor can he, like the majority of those who make it a point to acquire encyclopaedic knowledge, be charged with having remained on the surface only;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 24 for he applied his whole strength in attempting to fathom the inmost recesses of things, and to connect together the various links into one universal chain, and show their derivation in a certain order from their first origin: neither can he be accused by any one of having, like other mathematicians and physicists, made use of the light he discovered during his researches, to hide from himself and others, and, if possible, to extinguish, the greatest light of all; for in his constant meditations on the work of creation, he continually found reasons for acknowledging and adoring the Lord of nature.

But let us suppose ourselves engaged in analyzing a great mechanical work. We were not present at its construction; nor have me penetrated to all its moving springs, and therefore from the effects only, with which even we are not perfectly acquainted, we are obliged to judge of the whole structure. What are we to do? Each one assumes certain principles of his own, which appear to him most probable, and under their guidance endeavours to advance step by step. This is the course which our greatest thinkers have pursued in speculative philosophy. Happy they who, in unfolding sublime subjects, have been least unintelligible! For although, even with the greatest perspicuity and the profoundest insight, they have not always succeeded in penetrating the depths of knowledge, or in keeping clear of error, still they have been often instrumental in opening new avenues for the exercise of our reason; or at least, one thought has led to another, and, finally, been productive of more reliable information.

Alchemists,--but not those that were merely ignorant empirics--by their unceasing experiments led the way to invaluable discoveries in chemistry, although they did not discover the art of making gold.

I am perhaps not mistaken in believing, that, from the time when our Swedenborg began to build his thoughts upon his own ground, he cherished a hidden fire to fathom the most secret things, and that, even then, he was seeking for ways, by which to reach his object; at least, a comparison of his earlier with his later works, although they treat on different subjects, leads us to think so.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 25

He looked upon the universe at large, in the same light as he looked upon its parts, which can be examined with greater certainty. He saw that all is ruled simultaneously in a certain order, and according to fixed laws. He paid particular attention to those parts of this great system which can be examined mathematically.

He, therefore, imagined that the all-wise Creator had brought every thing, even in its hidden parts, into a certain mutual agreement; and this agreement he sought to bring out in his capacity of mathematician and physicist, by progressing from the less to the greater, and from that which may be distinguished by the naked eye to that which requires the aid of the magnifying glass. And, finally, he developed for himself a complete system, based upon a certain mechanism, and supported by logic; a system which is so carefully constructed, that there is much in it, in many respects, for the learned to reflect upon. As to the unlettered, they had better not meddle with it.

According to this system he explained everything which, either by experience or by sound reasoning, could become an object of thought.

If we do not accept the whole, there is at least much that is good to be gleaned from it. But he went still further. He desired to combine this system with the doctrine of salvation.

With this we find him occupied during most of the time, after he had published his Opera Philosophica et Mineralia.

He spent a great part of his later years abroad; for after the year 1736 he made eight different journeys into foreign countries, mostly to England and Holland; but during the journey he commenced in the year 1736, and which continued to 1740, he visited also France and Italy. His principal object in these journeys was the printing of new works.

I cannot help being filled with astonishment, in reflecting upon his extraordinary industry; for besides numerous treatises, and among them the great work I have already mentioned, he was the author of the following different works:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 26

1. Prodromus philosophiae ratiocinantis de Infinito, de causa creationis, et de Mechanismo operationis animae et corporis. Printed in Dresden, 1733.

2. Ceonomia regni animalis. 2 parts, published at Amsterdam; the first in 1740, and the second in 1741.

3. Regnum animale. 3 parts; two printed at the Hague, 1744, and the third in London, 1745.

4. De cultu et amore Dei. London, 1745.

5. Arcana coelestia. 8 parts, published at different periods from 1749 to 1756.

6. De ultimo judicio.

7. E coelo et inferno.

8. De equo albo.

9. De telluribus in mundo solari, seu planetis, et de telluribus in coelo astrifero et illorum incolis.

10. De nova Hierosolyma. Printed in London, 1759.

11. De amore conjgiali et scortatorio. Amsterdam, 1765.

12. Sapientia angelica de Divino amore et de Divina sapientia.

13. Doctrina novae Hierosolymae de Domino. Printed in Amsterdam, 1763.

14. Sapientia angelica de Divina providentia. Amsterdam, 1764.

15. Apocalypsis revelata. Amsterdam 1766.

16. Summaria expositio doctrinae novae ecclesiae.

17. De commercio animae et corporis. London, 1769.

18. Vera Christiana religio. Printed in Amsterdam, 1771.

The titles of all these works point out lofty themes; and although they treat of different subjects, and follow different lines of argument, being based upon anatomy, physics, and philosophy, upon explanations of the Sacred Scriptures, and, according to his own statement, upon revelations, still, owing to his way of treating them, they all lead to meditations on the Supreme Being, the human soul, with other invisible and spiritual things, and the life after death.

We thus find, high above in the clouds, him whom a little while ago we followed into mines, smelting-furnaces, and workshops; and we find him alike industrious and zealous, and alike given to allegorical illustrations.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 27

His latter works being of such a nature, he was unable to discharge his duties at the Royal College of Mines beyond the year 1747. In this year, at his own request, he obtained his Majesty's permission to retire from his office of Assessor. This request was accompanied by two others, which were also granted; the first was, that he might enjoy, during the rest of his life, half his salary as Assessor; the other, that he should not be promoted to a higher rank or title. Such distinctions are commonly much sought after, as implying that paper should go as far, and be worth as much, as the real coin--but fabula docet.



Although I have not extensively examined the Swedenborgian works I have just enumerated, I have, nevertheless, been confirmed by them in the ideas I have already expressed, with regard to the system which he followed, viz., that he explained both the visible and the invisible agreeably to the system he had adopted; that he drew conclusions from the risible respecting the invisible, and that he represented to himself another, spiritual world, in entire conformity with the world in which we live. He therefore attributed to the other life degrees similar to those in this life, by which every thing ascends into a higher state of purity and perfection; nay, he laid down a sort of harmony in inclinations and occupations, conveniences and difficulties, enjoyments and sufferings. Fully occupied by these vivid ideas which presented themselves to him, when he came to examine the Scriptures he connected them with his philosophical principles. Nay, while describing the spiritual after his own manner, he was unable to get rid of the ideas which are derived from our material being; but he insisted that they must be taken in a spiritual sense. Well. But there is danger, that a person may thus be led to trust too much to the imagination, and be too easily carried away by an illusion of the senses.

I am not quite sure whether Bishop Swedberg, although he was a great and celebrated teacher, had not a certain leaning in this direction. Some of his writings seem to manifest something of this kind. At least, he seemed inclined to look upon certain occurrences, as if they contained a special significance.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 28

It is a better characteristic in a priest to believe too much than too little. But how very easily might not something of this sort of over-belief have place with his learned son, if an hereditary inclination supported and strengthened an effect, which is naturally produced, when any one resolves to examine, at the same time, that which is presented to his senses and that which is beyond the sphere of their knowledge, nay, beyond the limits assigned to the light of reason.

I have perhaps dwelt too long already upon what SWEDENBORG wrote on spiritual subjects, inasmuch as these are not topics for an academy of Sciences. It suffices that his good qualities and merits are conspicuous even on that side, where we look for those weaknesses in him which are inseparable from human nature.

I have not risen in this place to define errors or dogmas that are difficult to be understood; but I venture to say, and I am sure you will agree with me, that where others generally exhibit a lack of intelligence and confusion of thought, our SWEDENBORG displays an uncommon wealth of knowledge, which, in accordance with his system, he reduced into such order, that not even the elements were able to turn him out of his course.

If his desire of knowledge went too far, it still bears witness to his great zeal for enlightening himself and others; for we cannot discover in him any sign of arrogance, rashness, or intention to deceive.

If he cannot be numbered among the doctors of the Church, he still deserves to be counted among ingenious moralists; and to be set up as a pattern of virtue and of reverence for his Maker; for in him there was no sort of double dealing.

If I were called upon frankly to state his faults, I should imagine to myself some one who devoted his whole time to the preparation of a universal solvent--a menstruum which would solve everything that either nature or art had produced, without remembering that no vessel could preserve it. Our Swedenborg was not satisfied with knowing much; he desired to know more than can be comprehended by any man here below, in that state of imperfection which belongs to him while the soul dwells in a frail material body.

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Any one who condemns this fault, cannot be regarded as impartial, so long as he does not first inveigh against those who ought to know much, and yet who know nothing.

But it is not so easy to be displeased with a man who was endowed with so many fine qualities.

He had a sincere love for mankind; and in examining the disposition of others, he always endeavoured first to find this virtue, as a sure indication of many Good qualities besides.

He was cheerful and pleasant in company, and as a recreation from his severe labours, he enjoyed intercourse with intelligent persons, by whom he was always well received and much respected. He could also properly meet, and playfully direct into a different channel, that kind of curiosity which frequently desires to obtrude itself into the consideration of serious things.

He was an honest servant of the state, who paid strict attention to the performance of his duties; the only thing he neglected in his public capacity, was to apply for any office when it was vacant. Having been called, unexpectedly, to an honourable post, he remained satisfied with it during the rest of his official career; and when his other occupations no longer permitted him to devote sufficient time to his official duties, he preferred to resign, being to the end of his life satisfied with the title of the office he had filled during thirty-one years.

He was a worthy member of this Royal Academy; and although in course of time he entered upon the study of other than academic subjects, still not wishing to remain a useless member, he enriched its Transactions with a description of inlaid work in marble, for tables, and other ornamental articles.*

* The paper referred to here is Document 200 of the present work.

As a member of the House of Nobles, he attended several Diets of the Realm, without incurring the reproaches either of himself or of others.

During his life there were several occupants of our throne, and during all these changes he enjoyed the favour of every reigning sovereign. Good sense, learning, and virtue secure this favour under enlightened governments.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 30 And what people, at the present time, has in this respect more cause for rejoicing than we?

Our SWEDENBORG (and this I mention not as one of his merits) remained during the whole of his life unmarried. But this was not owing to any indifference to the sex; for he esteemed the company of a fine and intelligent woman as one of the purest sources of delight; but his profound studies required that in his house there should be perfect stillness both day and night. He, therefore, preferred being alone.

He enjoyed a most excellent state of bodily health, having scarcely ever been indisposed; and, as he was always content within himself and with his circumstances, he spent a life which was, in every respect, happy, nay, which was happy in the very highest degree. At last nature demanded her rights. During his last sojourn abroad, while residing in London, he had on December 24, of last year, an attack of apoplexy, and on the 29th of last March departed this life, in his eighty-fifth year, rich in the honourable monuments which he left behind him, satisfied with his life upon earth, and joyful at the prospect of his final change.

May the Royal academy continue of retain many of its eminent and useful members to so advanced an age!

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 31

DOCUMENT 5.

ROBSHAM'S19 MEMOIRS OF SWEDENBORG.

THE Swedish original of these memoirs in Robsahm's own handwriting, which had been in the possession of Dean Kahl in Lund, was presented by him to the editor of these Documents in 1568, during his stay in Sweden for the purpose of photolithographing the unpublished MSS: of Swedenborg. These memoirs have never been printed in Swedish. Dean Kahl translated them into German, and sent his translation to Dr. Im. Tafel of Tbingen, who published this translation in the third part of his Swedenborg documents. It is remarkable that these memoirs have never before been translated into English. The English editor of the "Documents collected by Dr. Im. Tafel" has in his volume an article entitled: "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm;" yet this article is by no means a translation of the Robsahm Memoirs which were published by Dr. Im. Tafel--in fact it could not have been a translation of them, because Dr. Tafel published these Memoirs in the third part of his "Documents", which appeared in 1842, while the first English edition of the documents, containing the "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm", appeared in 1841. The Documents contained in Parts III and IV of Dr. Im. Tafel's work, with the exception of the real Robsahm Memoirs, appeared subsequently in the "Intellectual Repository," and were afterwards added as an appendix to the former volume. On analyzing the article entitled "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm," which figures in the English and American editions of the "Documents collected by Dr. J. P. I. Tafel," it proves to be made up of two separate accounts of Swedenborg, which are mixed up arbitrarily; the first of these is "the Life of Emanuel Swedenborg", which appeared in the "New Jerusalem Magazine" of 1790; the second is Pernety's account of Swedenborg, which appeared as an introduction to his French translation of "Heaven and Hell", and which was included by Dr. Tafel in his collection.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 32 Neither of these accounts is fully embodied in the "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm", but the editor alternately takes some paragraphs from the "New Jerusalem Magazine", and from "Pernety's account", leaving out arbitrarily large portions of both. It is true Mr. Robsahm's collection was drawn upon by the writers of both these accounts, yet a considerable number of statements are made in the composition called "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm", which Robsahm never made, and which the English editor wrongly ascribes to him, withholding at the same time the real "Robsahm's Memoirs" from his readers. For a further account of the history of Robsahm's "Memoirs", see Notes 19 and 20. The English translation of these memoirs given below is prepared immediately from the Swedish original; the numbers of the paragraphs have been inserted by the editor, for the sake of convenient reference.

1. The late Assessor Emanuel Swedenborg, who by his works became so celebrated throughout Europe, died in London, on March 29, 1772, in his eighty-fifth year. A well merited eulogium was pronounced upon him in the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, on October 7, 1772. But posterity may perhaps be interested in knowing that which characterized this noble man at home, and in his intercourse with his friends; and as, since the death of his two old servants, a gardener and his wife, there are only a few of those still living, who were on terms of intimacy with him, who were acquainted with his habits of life, and who could relate their conversations with him on the subject of his visions and revelations, I was called upon by a worthy man20 to state what I had seen end heard in Swedenborg's company; especially, as I had the advantage of being frequently at his house, in the character of a friend, and of meeting him in company, at my own house, and at the houses of my relations.

2. Swedenborg's property was about a stone's cast in length and in breadth. The rooms of his dwelling-house were small and plain; but were comfortable for him, though scarcely for any one else.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 33 Although he was a learned man, no books were ever seen in his room, except his Hebrew and Greek Bible, and his manuscript indexes to his own works, by which, in making quotations, he was saved the trouble of examining all that he had previously written or printed.

3. Swedenborg worked without much regard to the distinction of day and night, having no fixed time for labour or rest. "When I am sleepy", he said, "I go to bed." All the attendance he required from his servant, his gardener's wife, consisted in her making his bed, and placing a large jug of water in his anteroom, his house-keeping being so arranged that he could make his own coffee in his study; and this coffee he drank in great abundance, both day and night, and with a great deal of sugar. When not invited out, his dinner consisted of nothing but a roll soaked in boiled milk; and this was his meal always when he dined at home. He never at that time used wine or strong drink, nor did he eat anything in the evening; but in company he would eat freely, and indulge moderately in a social glass.

4. For the sake of the public that came to see the old gentleman, generally from curiosity, he had a pretty summer-house built in his garden in 1767; on one side of this was his handsome library, and in the wing that stretched out on the other side were garden-tools. He had also another summer-house put up in the middle of his garden, according to the plan of one he had seen in England on a gentleman's estate; and still another, which was square and had four doors, and which could, by opening the doors across the corners of the room, be changed, into an octagon. In one corner of his garden he had also constructed a maze of boards, entirely for the amusement of the good people that would come and visit him in his garden, and especially for their children; and there he would receive them with a cheerful countenance, and enjoy their delight at his contrivances.

5. Among these things I must also mention a blind door which he had made; and when this was opened, another one appeared with s window in it; and as both these doors were directly opposite a green hedge where a beautiful bird-cage was placed, and as the window in the inner door was made of looking-glass, the effect was most charming and surprising to those who opened it with a view of entering Swedenborg's other garden, which, according to his statement, was much more beautiful than his first one.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 34 Swedenborg derived much sport from this arrangement, especially when inquisitive and curious young ladies came into his garden.

6. Before his house there was an ornamental flower bed, upon which he expended considerable sums of money; he had there even some of those singular Dutch figures of animals, and other objects shaped out of box-trees; but this bed he did not keep up in his later years. The cultivation of the garden, however, and its produce he left to the gardener.

7. The fire in the stove of his study was never allowed to go out, from autumn, throughout the whole of winter, until spring; for as he always needed coffee, and as he made it himself, without milk or cream, and as he had never any definite time for sleeping, he always required to have a fire.

8. His sleeping-room was always without fire; and when he lay down, according to the severity of the winter, he covered himself either with three or four woollen blankets; but I remember one winter, which was so cold; that he was obliged to move his bed into his study.

9. As soon as he awoke, he went into his study,--where he always found glowing embers--put wood upon the burning coals, and a few pieces of birch-rind, which for convenience he used to purchase in bundles, so as to be able to make a fire speedily; and then he sat down to write.

10. In his drawing-room there was the marble-table which he afterwards presented to the Royal College of Mines; this room was neat and genteel, but plain.

11. His dress in winter consisted of a fur-coat of reindeer skin, and in summer of a dressing-gown; both well-worn, as became a philosopher's wardrobe. His wearing apparel was simple, but neat. Still, it happened sometimes, that, when he prepared to go out, and his people did not call his attention to it, something would be forgotten or neglected in his dress: so that, for instance, he would put one buckle of gems and another of silver in his shoes; an instance of which absence of mind I myself saw at my father's house, where he was invited to dine; and which occurrence greatly amused several young girls, who took occasion to laugh at the old gentleman.

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12. It was difficult for him to talk quickly; for he then stuttered, especially when he was obliged to talk in a foreign tongue. Of foreign languages, in addition to the learned languages, he understood well French, English, Dutch, German, and Italian; for he had journeyed several times in these countries. He spoke slowly; and it was always a pleasure to be with him at table, for whenever Swedenborg spoke, all other talk was hushed; and the slowness with which he spoke had the effect of restraining the frivolous remarks of the curious in the assembly. At first he used to talk freely about his visions, and his explanations of Scripture, but when this displeased the clergy, and they pronounced him a heretic or a downright madman, he resolved to be more sparing of his communications in company, or at all events to be more on his guard, so as not to offer an opportunity to scoffers of inveighing against what they could not understand as well as himself.

13. I once addressed the pastor of our parish, an old and esteemed clergyman, and asked him what I ought to think of Swedenborg's visions and of his explanations of the Bible. This honourable man answered me with the spirit of true tolerance: "Let God be the judge, how these things are in reality! But I cannot pass the same judgment upon him that many others do; I have spoken with him myself, and I have found in company where he was with me, that he is a pious and good man."

14. It was also remarkable, that Swedenborg, unlike sectarian persons, never tried to make proselytes, or to force his explanations upon any one. This I know from a conversation I had with him, as to whether it is possible for any other man to come into the same degree of spirituality in which he was. He said, "Take good care; this is the direct road to insanity: for when a man pores over spiritual and hidden things, he cannot protect himself against the delusions of hell, which then come over him and trouble him, when from his natural man and by his own speculations he tries to fathom heavenly things, which transcend his comprehension."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 36 He then explained to me, that the Lord in His prayer taught us to pray against such speculations, in the words Lead us not into temptation; by which is meant that we must not, from our own power and by our own intelligence, begin to doubt the heavenly truths which are revealed to us: "For," he added, "you are well aware how often it has happened, that students, and especially theologians, who unnecessarily indulged too much in speculations, have lost their understanding. I, for my own part," he concluded, "had never expected to come into that spiritual state, in which I am now; but the Lord selected me for this state, and for revealing the spiritual meaning of the Sacred Scriptures, which He had promised in the prophets and in the book of Revelation. My purpose previously had been to explore nature, chemistry, and the sciences of mining and anatomy."

15. This conversation gave me an opportunity of asking him, where and how it was granted him to see and to hear what takes place in the world of spirits, in heaven, and in hell. Thereupon Swedenborg answered as follows: "I was in London and dined rather late art the inn where I was in the habit of dining, and where I had my own room. My thoughts were engaged on the subjects we have been discussing. I was hungry, and ate with a good appetite. Towards the close of the meal I noticed a sort of dimness before my eyes: this became denser, and I then saw the floor covered with the most horrid crawling reptiles, such as snakes, frogs, and similar creatures.21 I was amazed; for I was perfectly conscious, and my thoughts were clear. At last the darkness increased still more; but it disappeared all at once, and I then saw a man sitting in a corner of the room; as I was then alone, I was very much frightened at his words, for he said: 'Eat not so much'. All became black again before my eyes, but immediately it cleared away, and I found myself alone in the room.

"Such an unexpected terror hastened my return home; I did not let the landlord notice anything; but I considered well what had happened, and could not look upon it as a mere matter of chance, or as if it had been produced by a physical cause.

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"I went home; and during the night the same man revealed himself to me again, but I was not frightened now. He then said that He was the Lord God, the Creator of the world, and the Redeemer, and that He had chosen me to explain to men the spiritual sense of the Scripture, and that He Himself would explain to me what I should write on this subject; that same night also were opened to me, so that I became thoroughly convinced of their reality, the worlds of spirits, heaven, and hell, and I recognized there many acquaintances of every condition in life. From that day I gave up the study of all worldly science, and laboured in spiritual things, according as the Lord had commanded me to write. Afterwards the Lord opened, daily very often, my bodily (lekamlig) eyes, so that, in the middle of the day I could see into the other world, and in a state of perfect wakefulness converse with angels and spirits."

16. Swedenborg rarely went to Church; partly, because he could not be edified by preaching which was so different from his own revelations; and partly because he suffered from the stone. Neither did he partake of the Holy Communion; and as he was closely related to two bishops, one of them, during the diet of 1760, remonstrated with him upon it in a friendly manner. Swedenborg answered, that inasmuch as he was conjoined with the Lord God, and had been called by Him, and as he was, moreover, in company with angels and saints, this religious act, in his case, could not be looked upon in the same light, as in the case of the other inhabitants of this earth. But when he was reminded that by observing the sacrament he would set a good example, he yielded and he took the communion before the sitar of the Church which had been fitted up for the Maria parish after the conflagration of 1759.

17. A few days previously he asked his old serving people, which clergyman he might ask for this service, for he did not know them particularly. When the elder chaplain was proposed, Swedenborg said at once: "No; for he is a passionate man, and a violent priest; I was much displeased in hearing him thunder from the pulpit." His assistant was then proposed, the second chaplain, who was less liked in the parish.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 38 "This one," Swedenborg said, "I desire; for I have heard that he speaks as he thinks, and that for this reason he has lost credit among the people, as is usually the case in the world."

18. Swedenborg once told me the reason why no others among the clergy, except Doctor Beyer22 in Gottenburg, had embraced his explanations of the Scripture. The reason of this is, that daily, from the time when they attend school in the gymnasium [academy], and in the university, they confirm themselves in the doctrine, and in favour of the doctrine, of faith alone; and whenever any one has confirmed himself in anything evil, he no longer looks upon the evil as evil, but becomes daily more delighted with it. "Nay," he added, "though they should actually see and find out that I speak the truth, their love of places of honour and of consideration, and their self-interest, will not permit them to profess publicly what, in accordance with their own conviction, they find to be incontestable truths." This conversation I had with Swedenborg, a short time after he had a visit from the celebrated clergyman, Doctor Rustrm,23 who died in prison, in the castle of Stockholm, some time after the revolution of 1772. Swedenborg said, "This Rutstrm saw every thing, but his life and deeds showed that his Moravian sect was dearest to him, in which he had long ago confirmed himself, even to persuasion;" and he added, that such was the case with the clergy of every religion, who, after they have confirmed themselves in the doctrines which they profess, can never more be induced to give up the most preposterous propositions.

19. The chaplain of the Imperial Russian Legation, Oronoskom, who was in Stockholm during the time of the ambassador, Count Ostermann, was a monk of the Alexander-Newsky order, and led an orderly and pious life; quite differently from the other Russian priests who had been here before him. He became acquainted with me, and I lent him Swedenborg's books, which, he said, he read with the greatest delight. Be desired to see Swedenborg, and to talk with this remarkable man. I complied with his desire, and invited Swedenborg and him to dinner, in company with the late president of the Royal College of commerce, Mr. van Carleson,24 and the Councillor of Chancery, Mr. Berch,25 together with several of my relations.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 39 During dinner the chaplain asked Swedenborg among other things, whether he had seen the Empress Elizabeth. Swedenborg then asked some one to tell him (for he always spoke in Swedish, and the conversation was carried on in French, which was well understood and pretty well spoken by the chaplain), "I have seen her often, and know that she is in a very happy state." This answer brought tears of joy into the chaplain's eyes, who said that she had been good and just. "Yes," said Swedenborg, "her kind feeling for her people was made known, after her death, in the other life; for there it was shown, that she never went into the council without praying to God, and asking for his advice and assistance, in order that she might govern well her country and her people." This gladdened the chaplain so much, that he expressed his joyful surprise by silence and tears.

20. I have two proofs, that Swedenborg was firmly convinced that the works in manuscript which he took abroad, would be printed there. At his departure, the last but one, before he died in London, I met him in his travelling-carriage, when he was just starting from his house, here in Stockholm. I asked him how he, who would be soon eighty years old, could dare to undertake so long a journey, and whether we should meet again in this world. "Do not trouble yourself about that," said he, "if you live, we shall certainly meet again; for I shall have to undertake another journey like this."

21. When he left Sweden for the last time, he came of his own accord to me at the bank on the day he was to leave, and gave me a protest against any condemnation of his writings during his absence; which protest was based upon the law of Sweden, and, in which he stated, that the House of Priests was not the only judge in matters of religion, inasmuch as theology belonged also to the other Houses." On this occasion I asked him the same question as before, viz., whether I should ever see him again. His answer was quite tender and touching; "whether I shall come again, that," said he, "I do not yet know; but of this I can assure you, for the Lord has promised to me, that I shell not die, until I shall have received from the press this work, (the Vera Christiana Religio), which is now ready to be printed and for the sake of which I now undertake this journey;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 40 but if we do not meet again in the body we shall meet in the presence of the Lord, provided me live in this world according to His will and not according to our own." He then took leave of me in as blithe and cheerful a frame of mind, as if he had been a man in his best years; and the same day he departed for the last time from Sweden.

22. I asked Swedenborg once whether his explanations would be received in Christendom. "About that," said he, "I can say nothing; but I suppose that in their proper time they will be received; for otherwise the Lord would not have disclosed what has heretofore lain concealed."

23. He was never ill except when temptations came over him; but he was frequently troubled with tooth-ache. I came to him once on such an occasion, when he complained of a severe tooth-ache, which had continued for several days. I recommended to him a common remedy for soothing the pain; but he answered at once, that his tooth-ache was not caused by a diseased nerve, but by the influx of hell from hypocrites, who tempted him, and who by correspondence caused this pain, which he said, he knew would soon stop and leave him.26

24. Respecting his temptations I collected information from his modest servants, the old gardener and his wife, who told me with sympathizing and compassionate words that Swedenborg often spoke aloud in his room, and was indignant when evil spirits were with him; this they could hear the more distinctly, because their room was near his when he was asked, why he had been so restless during the night, he answered that permission had been given to evil spirits to revile him, and that he spoke to and was indignant with them. It often happened that he wept bitterly, and called out with a loud voice, and prayed to the Lord, that He would not leave him in the temptation which had come upon him. The words which he cried out were these: "Oh Lord, help me! Oh Lord, my God, do not forsake me!"

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 41 When it was all over, and his people asked him about the cause of this lamentation, he said: "God be praised! it is over now. You must not trouble yourselves about me; for whatever happens to me is permitted by the Lord, and He does not allow me to be tempted more than He sees that I can bear."

25. Once it was very remarkable, that after such a lamentation he lay down, and did not rise from his bed for several days and nights. This caused his people much uneasiness; they talked with one another, and supposed that he had died from some great fright. They thought of having the door forced open, or of calling in his intimate friends. At last the man went to the window, and, to his great joy, saw that his master was still alive, for he turned himself in bed. The next day he rang the bell, and then the housekeeper went in, and told him of her own and her husband's uneasiness at his condition; whereupon he said with a cheerful countenance, that he was doing well, and that he did not need anything. She was satisfied with this answer, for neither of his servants dared to interrogate him, as they had the same opinion of him as the old clergyman in my parish; and they added that such a wise and learned man would never distress himself with work and temptations, if he did not know whence they came.

26. I asked the old housekeeper whether she had ever noticed anything unusual in Swedenborg's eyes after such a state. I asked this question, because I wanted to know whether his countenance was at all changed while he was in the spirit. She answered, that one afternoon, for some reason or other, she had to go into his room; and when she opened the door, the pupils of his eyes had the appearance of the brightest fire; whereupon she was frightened, stepped back, and cried out: "What, in the Lord's name, is the matter with you, my master? You look so terrible." "How," said Swedenborg, "do I look?" And when she told him what she saw, he said: "Well! well! don't be frightened. The Lord has opened my bodily eyes, and I have been in the spirit; but in a little while, I shall be all right again; and this does me no harm." She added, that half an hour afterwards, his eyes were entirely free from this appearance of fire.

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27. I have just mentioned that Swedenborg was in the habit of saying: "Well! well!" This was a phrase which he often used, when he spoke with tiny one familiarly; another, which he frequently used, was, "Good! good!"

28. When Swedenborg went abroad, he never studied his comfort, but always travelled in an open carriage, without a servant, to Gottenburg; and thence he went by sea either to England or Holland, in order to get his manuscripts printed.

29. I am acquainted with two Englishmen, who are sea-captains and Swedish naturalized citizens the name of the one is Harrison, on board whose ship Swedenborg was once a passenger. During almost the whole voyage he lay in bed, and nearly the whole time he spoke as if he were in company. The cabin-boy and the mate said to the captain that Swedenborg must be mad; he answered, "he may be what he pleases, but as long as he remains quiet, I have no authority over him; he is always prudent and discreet in speaking to me, and in answering me; you see yourselves that we have the most favourable wind; and if this weather continues as it is, I shall make the quickest passage I have ever made." Harrison, added laughing, "If Swedenborg chooses, he can always have a free passage with me; for during the whole of my experience at sea, I have never sailed better."

30. The other sea-captain is Brovell, with whom Swedenborg sailed from London to Dalar, a passage which was made in eight days. During this voyage, as in that with Harrison, Swedenborg generally lay in bed and talked; but when he went on board at London, he said to the captain that he hoped they would have a favourable wind. This came soon, and it continued until their arrival at Dalar, whence Swedenborg pursued his journey by land. There is no doubt also that previously to this favourable change the captain had a contrary wind, which lasted several days; nevertheless, he regarded Swedenborg neither as a conjurer nor as a madman, but he looked upon the whole occurrence as a mere coincidence. I asked Swedenborg about these voyages of his, and he said, that he himself wondered at the remarkably good fortune which he always had when he travelled by sea; but he observed at the same time, that any intelligent man could see, that he was not able to do miracles.

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31. During the session of the Diet he was interested in hearing news from the House of Nobles, of which he was a member by virtue of his being the head of the Swedenborg family. He wrote several memorials; but when he saw that party-spirit and self-interest struggled for mastery, he went rarely up to the House of Nobles. In his conversations with his friends, he inveighed against the spirit of dissension among the members of the Diet; and in acting with a party he was never a party-man, but loved truth and honesty in all he did.

32. I asked Swedenborg whether in our times it was worth while to pay attention to dreams; upon which he answered, that the Lord no longer, at the present day, makes revelations by dreams; but that, nevertheless, it may happen that one who understands correspondences may derive advantage from his dreams; just as a person that is awake, may examine his own state by comparing his own will with God's commandments.

33. Swedenborg did not appear in the character of an alms-giver; and when he was asked the reason, he said: "Those who are poorest are either lazy or good for nothing; and, moreover, alms are often injurious to those that receive them, when any one from mere goodness of heart takes pity on the indigent." He did not lend money; "for," said he, "this is the direct way to lose it;" moreover, he added, that he had need of all his money for his travels, and for the printing of his works.

34. Many, during Swedenborg's life-time, wondered where he obtained money enough to make such long journeys, and to incur such heavy expenses. But when we take into consideration his economical mode of living, and the little money he needed while travelling, a moderate capital only was required for this purpose; especially, also, as his philosophical and mineralogical works had a large sale. Nor did his spiritual writings remain on the booksellers' shelves, but always yielded him some resources. From his father, Bishop Swedberg, too, be had obtained a considerable inheritance [See Note 19], so that it was not at all surprising, that he could carry out, his purposes.

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35. Swedenborg never allowed any female visitors to come into his room, without calling in one of his servants; and whenever, as happened very often, any ladies came to see him especially disconsolate widows, who desired to know the state of their husbands; or others who thought that he was a fortune-teller, and could reveal wonderful secrets, thefts, &c.--he always required some one to be present. "For," said he, "women are cunning, and they might pretend, that I desired to become too intimate with them; moreover, it is well known, that such people misrepresent, because they do not properly understand, what they hear." Wherefore, whenever such persons called upon him avowedly for such a purpose, he with great firmness refused to have any thing to do with them.

36. It is known, however, that in his youth he had a lady-love (en maitress), whom he gave up when she became faithless to him; but, otherwise, there is not the least trace in him of any disorderly love. [See on this subject, Note 27.]

37. Whatever Swedenborg wrote was printed from his own manuscript, and he never needed the help of an amanuensis. His handwriting was difficult to read when he became older; but he said to me: "the Dutch printers read my handwriting as easily as the English." There is one thing to be observed with regard to most of his spiritual writings, that the proof-sheets were corrected very badly, so that errata occur very often; the cause of this, he said, was that the printer had undertaken the proof-reading, as well as the printing.

38. As Swedenborg, in his younger days, did not think of the work which was to occupy him in his more advanced years, it can easily be imagined that in his time he was not only a learned man, but also a polished gentleman; for a man of such extensive learning, who, by his books, his travels, and his knowledge of languages, had acquired distinction both at home and abroad, could not fail to possess the manners and everything else which, in those so-called serious or sober times, caused a man to be honoured, and made him agreeable in society.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 45 He was accordingly, even in his old age, cheerful, sprightly, and agreeable in company; yet, at the same time, his countenance presented those uncommon features, which are only seen in men of great genius.

39. I know not how he was regarded abroad; but I hope it may not be uninteresting to know how he was regarded in Stockholm, especially by those who could not read his writings, and who met him only by chance in society, or heard others speak of him.

40. Those who were able to read his books judged of him then, as they do now, quite differently from those who were unable to read them; and what is remarkable, most of those who do read his books become in a greater or less degree his adherents; although "for fear of the Jews", and on account of many and perhaps just causes, they do not openly profess their sentiments. Their judgment generally is, that, with the exception of his memorable relations, and the conversations and visions which he quotes, there is much that is good in his writings; because he insists upon leading a life in conformity with the will of God and His commandments; which manifests itself by the shunning of sin, and a new life from the heart, and also by love to the Lord and the neighbour.

41. One day a prisoner was led out to be beheaded at the place of execution. I was with Swedenborg in the evening, and I asked him, how a person, who leaves the world in this manner, feels at the moment he is executed. He replied, "When such a one lies down upon the block he is already so much out of himself, that after decapitation, when the spirit enters into the world of spirits, and the prisoner finds himself alive, he tries to make his escape, is in expectation of death, and is very much terrified; for at the last moment no one thinks of anything but the happiness of heaven, and the misery of hell. Afterwards such a one is associated with good spirits who reveal to men that they are really dead; and then he is left to follow his own inclinations, by which he is led to that place where he is to remain to eternity." In Swedenborg's work on "Heaven and Hell" this change is treated of more at large.

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42. Swedenborg added that when a person who has become matured in wickedness, is removed from the earth by the law and the axe, although to all appearance penitent, he still remains wicked to eternity; because his conversion is compulsory, and not brought about by his own free will, as required by God. For unless his crimes cast him into prison, where he sees death impending, he will never direct his thoughts towards God, and still less his heart, hardened by habit; and such a one, when he finds that he lives as before, rushes headlong into the practice of all those evil works which he did in the world; and he, consequently, quickly leads himself to hell, with the spirits of which he had been conjoined during his life-time upon the earth.

43. It is quite different, however, with those who are executed on account of some crime which they had committed while in a state of intoxication, anger, or indignation, or from rashness, without any real intention of doing it; such repent bitterly of what they have done, and if they do not confirm themselves against the Lord's commandments during the remainder of their life, they become after their death happy and blessed spirits.

44. When a certain clergyman died in Stockholm, who by his eloquence and his pathetic mode of preaching had always his church filled with hearers, I asked Swedenborg whether he was not in a blessed state. "This man," answered he, "went straightway to hell among the societies of hypocrites; for he was only spiritually minded while in the pulpit; at other times he was proud of his talents, and of the success he had in the world; he was an inflated man." "No, no," he added, "there, no dissimulation and no deceitful arts are of any avail; for all these disappear with death, and man involuntarily shows himself either to be good or evil."

45. The Dutch ambassador Marteville43 died in Stockholm. His widow, some time afterwards, was asked to pay a large sum of money, which she knew had been paid. At last she discovered the document among his papers; and there was a general talk in town, that Swedenborg had contributed towards it by his conversation with the deceased ambassador.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 47 I asked Swedenborg about it, and he said that the lady had been to see him, end had told him the circumstance, and that he promised her that if he should meet Marteville he would mention it to him. This was done; and "the ambassador answered me," said Swedenborg, "that he would go home that same evening, and look after it, but I did not receive any other answer for his widow. I have heard since, that she discovered the important document; but I have had no other share in bringing this matter to light, than what I have stated." The general rumour was, that the widow dreamt that she was speaking with her husband, who told her where the paper would be found in the place where he used to put things away (uti dess fordne gmman).

46. Swedenborg was once in the presence of a certain high personage (Queen Louisa Ulrica11), who asked him whether he could meet her late brother (Prince of Prussia), and whether he could find out what these high personages had said to one another on a certain matter. Swedenborg promised; and he came back a few days afterwards to give the answer, which he did in the presence of a high gentleman. The high personage then took Swedenborg aside to one part of the room, where he told her in private what she desired to know from the deceased gentleman. The high personage thereupon became amazed, and said that this was altogether incomprehensible; inasmuch as no one in the whole world knew anything about this, except herself and her deceased brother. [See on this subject paragraph 53.]

47. Swedenborg had ordered for the Diet in Norrkping (1769) a small box* of his works from England, which in accordance with the regulations of customs was detained in the customhouse, on account of their containing foreign or heterodox thoughts on religion. Swedenborg, therefore, asked a clergyman [Bishop Filenius, see Note 9], one of his influential relatives, to get this box released for him, because he desired to distribute the books among the members of the various Houses of the Diet. This man assured Swedenborg he would, and on leaving embraced and kissed him; but when he went up to the House, it was he who insisted most strongly that the books should not be released.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 48 For this man Swedenborg entertained afterwards great contempt, and always called him Judas Iscariot, who betrayed his friend with a kiss. Swedenborg said that he would have been much better pleased with a downright refusal, than with a false promise inspiring confidence. He could not do otherwise than reprove such conduct; for in his whole life and in all his writings, in agreement with the tenor of God's Word he insisted upon truth and honesty among men, and indeed for the reason, that God has so commanded for the sake of men's own happiness among themselves. He said also, "He who speaks lies, acts them in his life, and this is an abomination in the sight of God."

* It contained copies of his work on "Conjugial Love," which had been printed at Amsterdam, in 1768.

48. During the Diet of 1769 a cunning stratagem was planned by some members of the House of the Clergy, by which Swedenborg was to be summoned before a court of justice, and after the first examination to be declared a man who had lost his senses by his speculations in religion, whom it was most dangerous to leave in freedom, and who therefore ought to be confined in a lunatic asylum. As soon as a certain senator, a friend of Swedenborg's, heard about this, he wrote him a letter, in which he disclosed the scheme, and advised him to leave the country.

Swedenborg upon this became very sorrowful, and going straightway into his garden, fell upon his knees, and in tears prayed to the Lord, and asked Him what he should do; when he received the comforting assurance, that nothing evil should befall him--as was the case; for his enemies did not dare to carry out their persecution, when they considered that he was the head of a family, and related to other influential families, both in the House of Nobles and in the House of the Clergy.

49. This information I received from Mr. Seele, an agent here in Stockholm; to whose house Swedenborg very frequently went, and to whom he had told this.

50. I can assure the reader in all truth that these miscellaneous statements, which I remember of my intercourse with this venerable man, are true in every particular, and that I should not have written them down, if I had not been requested to do so by the honourable man who is mentioned at the beginning of these anecdotes, and if he had not intimated that they would be made use of in enlightening posterity about Swedenborg's personal character, and indeed by a society, whose purpose it is to translate several of his writings into French. [See Note 20].

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51. I know from experience that there is not a single word in all his writings which leads man away from the doing of God's will, and consequently from a sincere love of the neighbour; there is contained, however, therein an entirely new system, which is opposed to the principal religions professed by men, and to all their sects, but which agrees with all of them in this particular, that blessedness and misery depend upon man's life in time.

52. All this Swedenborg has proved abundantly in his writings, and especially has he written against the dangerous doctrine of faith alone; and if we in the History of the Church follow those who have been instrumental in establishing religions, we find that all religions, from the earliest to the latest times, have been instituted by well-meaning prelates, and that afterwards they have been subverted partly by ignorant, and partly by cunning and crafty prelates. In conclusion, however, I earnestly desire that every one who reads Swedenborg's writings should do so with caution, and that he should rather remain in the faith he received in childhood, and which was often impressed upon him with severity, and which very few among the professors of faith examine, than that he should from frivolity or from blind zeal revile what he cannot understand For such persons read all the prophets and the book of revelation, where they understand nothing, with the same feeling of contempt with which they read Swedenborg's system, where, however, every thing may be easily understood by him who does not amuse himself at the expense of truth, and who does not reject every thing that does not agree with his own pre-conceived notions.

CARL ROBSAHM

Treasurer of the Bank, Stockholm.
Stockholm, March 29, 1752.

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SUPPLEMENT TO ROBSAHM'S MEMOIRS.

53. Statement explanatory of paragraph 46, from the Minutes of the Exegetic-Philanthropic Society in Stockholm:*

* Extracts from these Minutes are preserved in the Library of the New Church Society in Stockholm, the leader of which is Mr. Oscar Tyboni; copies of paragraphs 53 and 54 were made by the editor of these Documents during his stay in Stockholm, in 1868.

"Truthful Account made by the late Queen Dowager11 in Haga,* in the year 1774."

* Haga is a royal castle in the neighbourhood of Stockholm; it was the favourite resort of Gustavus III.

Swedenborg was one day at a court reception. Her Majesty asked him about different things in the other life, and lastly whether he had seen, or had talked with, her brother, the Prince Royal of Prussia. He answered, No. Her Majesty then requested him to ask after him, and to give him her greeting, which Swedenborg promised to do. I doubt whether the queen meant anything serious by it. At the next reception Swedenborg again appeared at court and while the queen was in the so-called white room, surrounded by her ladies of honour, he came boldly in, and approached her Majesty, who no longer remembered the commission she had given him a week before. Swedenborg not only greeted her from her brother, but also gave her his apologies for not having answered her last letter; he also wished to do so now through Swedenborg; which he accordingly did. The Queen was greatly overcome, and said, 'No one, except God, knows this secret.' The reason why she never adverted to this before, was, that she did not wish any one in Sweden to believe that during a war with Prussia she had carried on a correspondence in the enemy's country. The same caution Her majesty exercised during her last visit to Berlin. When she was asked about this transaction, which had been printed in a German paper, she did not answer. This circumstance was narrated in the French translation of Heaven and Hell.*

* Pernety's translation of Heaven and Hell, published in two vols. in Berlin, in 1782.

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The above was written with his own hand by His Excellency, Count Hpken,28 Feb. 9, 1784, after he had read Robsahm's Live of Swedenborg, and he desired this to be appended to it.

54. Statement explanatory of paragraph 36, taken likewise from the Minutes of the Exegetic-Philanthropic Society in Stockholm.*

* This statement, in the Extracts from the Minutes of the Exegetic-Philanthropic Society, follows immediately after our n. 53.

"Read before the Society, March 28, 1789.

By request; this furnishes reliable information on an occurrence which took place in Mr. Assessor Swedenborg's younger years.

"While Polhem,14 the Councillor of Commerce, by a gracious order from the late King Charles XII, was engaged in building the Trollhtta lock near Carlsgraf, there lived with him as a pupil in mathematics,* Assessor Swedenborg. The Assessor conceived a violent passion for Polhem's second daughter, Emerentia,29 who was afterwards married to Rckerskld,30 the Councillor in the Court of appeals. But as she was only thirteen or fourteen years of age,31 she could not be persuaded to enter into an engagement; whereupon her father, who loved Swedenborg very much, gave him a written claim upon her in the future, in the hope that when older she would become more yielding, and this contract her father obliged her to sign. She fretted, however, about it so much every day that her brother, Chamberlain Gabriel Polhem,32 was moved with compassion, and purloined the contract from Swedenborg, whose only comfort consisted in daily perusing it, and who therefore quickly missed his treasure. His sorrow at his loss was so evident, that her father insisted on knowing the cause; when by an exercise of his authority he was willing to have his lost document restored to him.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 52 But when Swedenborg himself saw her grief, he voluntarily relinquished his right; and he left the house with a solemn oath, never again to let his thoughts settle upon any woman, and still less to enter into any other engagement; whereupon he commenced his travels abroad.** This is in brief all that can be reported with certainty on this matter.

* This is a mistake; for Swedenborg was not with Polhem in the capacity of a pupil in mathematics, but as an assistant-engineer. Moreover, it was Swedenborg who furnished the necessary mathematics, in order to bring Polhem's mechanical and physical experiments before the public; which was done by Swedenborg in his "Daedalus Hyperboreus," which was published in the years 1716 to 1718.

** After the death of Charles XII on the 30th of November, 1718, Swedenborg left Polhem, and went to the ironworks in Westmanland, where he was part-owner of the ironwork Shillon in Skinskatteberg, and it was not until June 30, 1721, that he started on his second journey aboard.

It may be worth recording that assessor Swedenborg assured the daughters and sons-in-law of Emerentia Polhem, when they visited him in his garden,* that he conversed with their departed mother as often as he pleased."

* Emerentia Polhem died in 1759.

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DOCUMENT 6.

PERNETY'S34 ACCOUNT OF SWEDENBORG.

THIS account was printed by Pernety in the Preface to his translation of Swedenborg's Heaven and Hell which was published by him in two volumes with the following title: Swedenborg, "Les Merveilles du Ciel et de l'Enfer." Berlin 1782. On p. 36 he says, "Not being able to procure the life of Swedenborg written in the Swedish language by Mr. Robsahm,19 I have supplied the same by an abridgment of the eulogium of our author, which was composed and read before the Academy of Sciences and Belies Lettres[?] of Stockholm by M. de Sundel,13 and by anecdotes and notices of his life which persons worthy of faith and of well-known probity have communicated to me, both from that town and from London, in which city Swedenborg made a comparatively long stay." The persons "worthy of faith and of well-known probity" who sent Pernety almost the whole of the following account, were the brothers, Charles Frederic,20 and Augustus Nordenskld,35 as appears from the following extract from a letter addressed by Pernety to the former of these, dated Oct. 30, 1781,--"Please assure your brother of those sentiments which his reverence for Swedenborg awakens in my breast, and try to persuade him, to send me a French biography of this phoenix among authors, as well as interesting notices and anecdotes about him, in order that I may embody them in the preface to my translation." In a postscript he adds, "I am at present engaged in seeing through the press Swedenborg's work on Heaven and Hell." It seems as if C. P. Nordenskld collected the materials for the above account, and as if Augustus Nordenskld, who was the elder and more experienced brother, worked them up into a connected whole, while Pernety put the finishing touches to it and added paragraph 26.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 54 The brothers Nordenskld, in drawing up their account of Swedenborg, had access to the following sources:

1. Robsahm's Memoirs, which, as we have proved in Note 20, were written at the request of C. F. Nordenskld. Upon these memoirs the Nordensklds drew in the preparation of the following paragraphs: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 19, 30, 21, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36. In these paragraphs Robsahm's language is not, however, translated verbally, and sometimes considerable liberty has been taken with his text either by Mr. A. Nordenskld, or else by M. Pernety himself. It is quite possible also that the whole of Robsahm's account was not ready in time for the Nordenskiilds to make full use of it, inasmuch as it was not finished until March 29, 1782.

2. Information collected from the wife of Swedenborg's gardener, by C. F. Nordenskld: paragraphs 12(?), 22, 24, 30, and a portion of 34. In a letter to Dr. Im. Tafel in Tbingen, dated May 1, 1822. C. F. Nordenskld makes the following additional statement: "During my stay in Stockholm I visited one day the wife of Swedenborg's gardener, who, together with her husband, waited upon him. She had free board in a charitable institution. She told me that Swedenborg often lay for several days in his bed without eating. He gave orders that they were not to awake him, or to touch him in such a state, but to place a basin of water before his bed. When he awoke, he did not feel the least weakness, but was strong and hale, as if he had partaken of hearty meals during the whole of that time." See Tafel's "Documents", &c. Vol. IV. p. 205. The same statement C. F. Nordenskld made in his "Considerations Gnrales", &c. p. 174.

3. From Dr. Beyer: part of paragraph 32.

4. From Count Hpken: paragraphs 25, 27, 28.

5. From Sandels, the Councillor of Mines, paragraph 15.

6. From Swedenborg's Writings: paragraphs 8, 23.

7. Facts generally known in Sweden: paragraphs 13, 18.

8. Authorities unknown: paragraphs 7, 37.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 55

Paragraphs 16 and 17 we consider as false and erroneous; our reasons for rejecting them are given in notes 41 and 42.

A complete translation of "Pernety's account of Swedenborg" was published by Dr. Im. Tafel in his German edition of the "Swedenborg Documents;" but this account as written by Pernety was not introduced into the English edition of these Documents, the editor substituting in its place an article entitled by him, "Anecdotes collected by Mr. Robsahm," which we have discussed in our introduction to the genuine "Robsahm Memoirs;" and which we have there stated was composed partly of "Pernety's account," and partly of a "Life of Swedenborg," which appeared in the New Jerusalem Magazine of 1790.

The "Life of Swedenborg" which appeared in that Journal seems to have been compiled by C. B. Wadstrm,36 who was one of the editors of the New Jerusalem Magazine, and a friend of the Nordensklds. The sources from which he drew in its preparation are Sandels' Eulogium, Pernety's Account, Robsahm's Memoirs, and Hartley's preface to Heaven and Hell. Yet much of Pernety's Account and also of Robsahm's Memoirs was left out in that "Life;" so that our translation of "Pernety's Account" is really the first complete one that has been published in the English language. A portion of the account from paragraph 1 to paragraph 29 was also published by the Aurora press, about 1800, in a little work entitled, "Anecdotes and Observations, with some account of the Life of Emanuel Swedenborg, to which is prefixed an Eulogrium composed by Monsieur Sandel, &c."

The above "Life of Swedenborg" was also translated into Swedish, and formed a part of a New Church periodical, which, under the name of "Frsamlings-Tidning," circulated in manuscript among the members of the "Society pro Fide et Charitate," from June 1796 to August 1797. This Society was a secret Society, which was established after the dissolution of the Exegetic and Philanthropic Society in 1790, and which continued to exist in Sweden until about 1835. The. Swedish "Life of Swedenborg" was enriched with extracts from the published proceedings at the trial of Drs. Beyer22 and Rosn142 in Gottenburg. A manuscript copy of the "Frsamlings-Tidning" was presented by the editor of the present Documents to the Swedenborg Society, in 1872.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 56

After calling attention to the changes in the names of persons in the Sacred Scripture, Pernety begins his account of Swedenborg thus:

1. Emanuel Swedenborg was originally called Swedberg, after his father, Jesper Swedberg, Bishop of Skara in Wester Gothland, a learned man, who was respected on account of his virtues, and beloved by all good Christians. After Emanuel had (in agreement with a custom prevalent in Sweden, according to which the sons of bishops are raised into the rank of nobility with a seat in the Diet of the country) been ennobled, his name was changed to Swedenborg; which, in the German, as well as in the Swedish language, signifies protection or defence, according to the interpretation of the person by whom these notices or anecdotes have been communicated to me, and who adds: "He will certainly be a protector to all those who are disposed for regeneration, by a knowledge and reception of the truths which the Lord was pleased to reveal to him, in order that he might communicate them to men; and as he has been an instrument in the hands of the Lord of the universe, he may be looked upon as a tutelary angel, not only of the Swedes, but even of the whole of Europe."

2. Swedenborg was an Assessor in the College of Mines, and a member of the academy of Sciences. The little value which he placed upon titles, and honours, and greatness among men, induced him to resign his office of Assessor, as may be seen below from the letter which Springer,121* the Councillor of Commerce, wrote to me.

* Springer's letter to Pernety will be found in Section X among the Testimonies collected concerning Swedenborg in England.

3. He owned a house in the southern suburb [of Stockholm], which was built and arranged according to his own taste; its rooms, which were limited in number, were convenient only for him. Immediately adjoining the house was a garden of considerable size, in the centre of which he had erected a pavilion.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 57 Four doors with which he had provided it formed a, square; but by means of other four doors, he could in an instant change it into an octagon. One of these doors had a secret lock, and when it was opened, another door appeared with a window of looking-glass, which was opposite an arbour, where a birdcage was suspended. When any one opened this door, this contrivance produced upon him the pleasant surprise of a second garden, which, according to Swedenborg's statement, was more beautiful than the first. At the entrance of his garden there was a bed richly covered with flowers, which he liked very much. One corner of his garden was occupied by a kind of maze, planted expressly for the amusement of the persons by whom he was visited. He derived, however, no other advantage from the garden; for he left the whole produce of it to the gardener who had charge of it, as well as of a pretty conservatory, in which he took much pleasure.*

* Cfr. Robsham's Memoirs, paragraphs 4-6, and also the "Official Account of Swedenborg's property in Hornsgartan," published after his death, which is contained in Section IV., in which more particulars are given, and where also several of Pernety's statements are rectified; e. g. the pavilion described by Pernety; was not in the centre of Swedenborg's garden, but on one side of it; the arbour or hedge with a volire or bird-cage being on the opposite side; while in the middle of the garden there was another summer-house built "according to the plan of one which Swedenborg had seen in a nobleman's garden in England." Moreover, the maze of which Pernety speaks, was not "planted," i. e. did not consist of a living hedge, but was constructed of boards.

4. This gardener and his wife were his only domestics, and he kept them till the time of his death.* The wife made his bed, brought him water, and placed it in his ante-room. He made his own coffee, and drank it very freely, using a good deal of sugar. When at home he scarcely lived on anything but milk, in which he soaked some biscuits; then also he drank no wine, nor any spirituous liquor. When invited out he was very temperate in eating and drinking; but he was always of an even disposition, and inclined to sprightliness.**

*See an account respecting them, written by "Uncle Adam," Dr. Wetterberg, in Section XI: "Swedenborg end his Gardener-folks."

**Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 3.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 58

5. His wardrobe was very simple, but becoming. In winter he wore a fur-coat of reindeer-skin, and in summer, when at home, a dressing gown.* The only remarkable piece of furniture which he had in his drawing-room, was a table of black marble, upon which, at a first glance, it seemed as if a pack of cards had been thrown; so well were they imitated. He made a present of it to the College of Mines, which preserves it with great care.37

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 11.

6. Ordinarily Swedenborg pronounced very distinctly; but he stuttered a little when he tried to speak quickly. As soon as he commenced speaking in company, all kept silence, partly on account of the pleasure which they experienced from his conversation, and partly on account of his well-known erudition, which, however, he did not display, except when he was obliged to furnish proofs of his assertions or to show the insufficiency of the arguments of those with whom he conversed.* Moreover, he was unwilling to enter into any disputes on matters of religion; and if obliged to defend himself, he did it with gentleness, and in few words. If he was urged beyond this, he drew back, saying: "Read attentively and without prejudice my writings, they will answer for me, and you will then change your ideas and your opinions."

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 12.

7. A clergyman, a follower of Zinzendorf,* and a doctor of theology in Gottenburg, undertook to controvert the writings of Swedenborg, and after stating that he had not read them, continued his preliminary discourse by the coarsest invectives, and the most malignant and stinging expressions against the person of Swedenborg. The latter spoke with so much modesty and gentleness, without referring to the person of his antagonist, that all applauded what he said, both in regard to its substance and its form.

* The founder of the sect of the Moravians.

8. A certain critic [Dr. Ernesti38], who was well-known for being very unsparing in his their writers, wrote a bitter review of Swedenborg's writings.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 59 The latter replied to it in a very short article, which he comments upon books and had printed only to communicate to his friends; it is drawn up in the following terms: "I have read what Dr. Ernesti has written about me in his Theological Library, p. 784, and I have seen that it consists merely of personal slanders. I have not noticed therein a grain of reason against any statement in my writings, and yet it is against the laws of politeness to attack any one with envenomed daggers in such a manner; wherefore, I deem it unworthy of myself to fight with this celebrated man with the same weapons, i. e. to repel and to refute slanders by slanders: for this would be like women of the lowest order, who in quarreling cast dirt into each other's faces. Read, if you please, what has been written concerning the arcana that have been revealed by the Lord through me in my latest work, entitled "True Christian Religion," in Nos. 846 to 851, pages 492 to 502, and then judge concerning my revelations, yet from reason. There has been written, besides, against this same Doctor Ernesti, a memorable relation, which has been inserted in the above-mentioned work, "True Christian Religion," No. 137, pages 105 to 108, which, if you please, you may also read."

9. It is singular, or at least very remarkable, that almost all those who have read the writings of Swedenborg for the purpose of refuting them, have finished by adopting his views.*

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 40.

10. At the beginning of his revelations he used to talk freely about what he had seen and heard, end his explanations of the Sacred Scripture, but when he found that his discourses were not liked by the clergy, he followed the policy of being more reserved and circumspect, in order to deprive calumniators of every opportunity and pretext for finding fault with what they did not, or were unwilling, to understand.*

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 12.

11. He was not governed by that species of egotism usually noticed in those who start new ideas on matters of doctrine; neither did he desire to make proselytes, nor to communicate his views to any, except such as he considered single-minded, disposed to listen peaceably, capable of understanding him, and lovers of the truth.*

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 14.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 60

12. Notwithstanding his caution in this respect, and although he had never preached a morality which was opposed either to the decalogue or good manners; although his conduct was exemplary, and he spoke neither against the government nor particular persons, he was not exempted from persecution. He found enemies so bent upon doing him injury, that he was obliged to leave the capital so as not to fall into their hands.* A young man had even entered his house with a view of assassinating him, and the gardener's wife, to save Swedenborg's life, told him that he was not at home. The young man, however, would not believe her, and ran into the garden, thinking he was there. God, however, provided means to protect him. As the young man was rushing into the garden, his cloak caught in a nail of the lock, so that he could not disengage himself; and his naked sword fell to the ground. Whilst in this embarrassment the fear of being discovered took possession of him, and he withdrew with all possible speed.** This young man was afterwards killed in a duel.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 61 Swedenborg's life was again in danger during an assembly of the Diet, when he was obliged to give orders to his servants not to admit any One into his house until further notice; orders which were obeyed by them.

* This does not seem to be quite correct. Up to the year 1769, according to Swedenborg's own statement to Dr. Hartley, he had not met with any persecutions at all in his own country. But upon his return to Stockholm, in the latter part of 1769, an attempt was made by some of the clergy to have him confined in a lunatic asylum (cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs paragraph 48), and it was then that a certain Senator, a friend of Swedenborg's, counselled him to leave the country, advice which, however, he did not follow.

** Another more detailed version of this occurrence is given by "Samtidens Mrkvrdigaste Personer," Upsal 1820, in which a short biographical sketch of Swedenborg is given, which is in part based on oral communications. There is, however, an error in this account, inasmuch as it is reported to have taken place in the year 1756, when yet before the winter of 1759 it was not generally known in Sweden that Swedenborg's spiritual eyes were opened, (cfr. the letter of Baron D. Tilas to Count Cronstedt, dated March 16, 1760, which will be found in Section X). Moreover, it attributes to Swedenborg a feeling of revenge and a love of sarcasm, which were entirely foreign to his nature. The account on p. 141 is as follows. "During the Diet of 1756(?), Swedenborg was walking one day with several friends in his garden, when there entered a young man unknown to all the parties present. He walked up to Swedenborg with a self-sufficient smile playing around his lips: and informed him that he had recently lost his father, and that he therefore desired, by Swedenborg's intercourse with spirits, to know what was his lot in the other world. Swedenborg, who probably wanted to punish the youth's impertinence, said to him, "It is pitiable, if your father belonged to that order of which very few are saved. Your father was a clergyman, was he not?" As Swedenborg's supposition was really correct, the stranger blushed with astonishment and shame, and went away; but not in order to let this remark serve him as a warning. On the contrary, filled with a feeling of revenge against the satirical spirit-seer, he again desired to make his way into the garden, for the purpose of murdering him. But when he rushed in by the door, his cloak caught in the lock, and uncovered his sword, which fell to the ground. His design was thus betrayed, and he was prevented from executing it. The consequence ass that during that Diet, his door was closed against all unknown persons."

13. His writings raised him many enemies among the clergy, who found in them causes for persecuting him beyond endurance. His writings were denounced before the Consistory, and during a whole month meetings of the bishops and professors of theology were held for the purpose of examining them. At the end of this period they reported the result of their examination, which was nevertheless favourable; and there the matter rested for the moment. But his enemies filled with rage at their small success, tried other means, and they profited by Swedenborg's absence, who was abroad, and did not know what was taking place, nor the machinations that were resorted to, with the view of destroying him. Here me may well exclaim: Tantaene animis coelestibus iroe! Can so much gall enter into the hearts of the pious! of the ministers of the Lord, who preach a religion, the only basis of which is love to God, and charity! And whom did they persecute? An author whose writings breathe nothing but these two kinds of love, as the only means by which heaven may be opened to man, and show that the opposite of these, the love of self and of the world, lead to eternal perdition.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 62 Swedenborg always practised that morality which he taught; and when on his return he was informed of the wicked machinations of his persecutors, having been taught by experience to what extent they were capable of going, he addressed a petition to the King in the form of a letter, which is as follows:

[Here Pernety inserts the whole of that letter which Swedenborg addressed to the King, dated the 10th of May or June, 1770, and which will be found in Section IX in Swedenborg's Correspondence from 1747 to 1772.]

Pernety continues: It is known that essential Truth has been hated and rejected; that its children by whom it was preached, have been despised and persecuted: ought we then to be astonished at the persecution of a disciple of the truth at a time when false wisdom, under the illustrious name of Philosophy, while seeking to destroy the truth and to establish itself upon its ruins, has gained by its tinsel and glitter the respect and admiration of men.

14. In London also a Moravian brother or Hernhuter,* and a clergyman, the curate of the Swedish Church,** were bent upon calumniating Swedenborg: the former, probably, in order to avenge himself for what Swedenborg had written concerning his sect; the latter because he was an enemy of the Swedish Councillor of Commerce, Mr. Springer121, who resided in London, and declared himself a friend of our author. In spite of the efforts made by his enemies to injure his reputation, and to deny his merit and his virtues, he was nevertheless well received at the Court of Sweden, during his sojourn in Stockholm. He was invited there to dine with the whole Royal family; and the Senator Count Hiipken,28 as well as the Senator Count Tessin,39 two very estimable men, declared themselves openly to be his friends, and frequently visited him.

* Mr. Brockmer, at whose house Swedenborg resided at one time: the whole of this charge is investigated in Section X.

** The Rev. Mr. Mathesius: the charge made by him is investigated in the same place.

15. The Councillor von Sandelsl3 made a visit at one time to Swedenborg, and seeing a quantity of manuscripts, written by his own hand, without any corrections or erasures, lying upon the table where he was writing, asked him whether he took the trouble himself to write out a clean copy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 63 "I make a clean copy in writing it out the first time," replied Swedenborg; "for I am only a secretary, and I write at the dictation of my spirit."*

* David Paulus ab Indagine (Job. Christ. Cuno) in a collection of anecdotes concerning Swedenborg, published at Hamburg 1771, under the title "Sammlung einiger Nachrichten Herm Emanuel Swedenborg betreffend" (Collection of some statements concerning Emanuel Swedenborg), says concerning him, "He said his angel dictated to him, and he could write fast enough for him." Cuno at the same time states that Swedenborg did not make a first draught of his works, but wrote out a clean copy at once. These statements are not borne out by the facts, inasmuch as among the Swedenborg MSS. in the library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm there are two copies of Swedenborg's treatise on the Apocalypse Explained, both in his own handwriting, one of these being the first draught of the work, and the other a clean copy written out for the printer. Moreover, in the same library, there is also a first draught copy of almost the whole of his largest work, entitled the Arcana Coelestia. This plan of making is first draught copy of at least a portion of what he intended to publish, Swedenborg followed to the end or his natural life, inasmuch as the first draught copies of a large number of the memorable relations contained in his last work, The True Christian Religion, are preserved in the Royal Library in Stockholm; these sheets having been left by Swedenborg on board the ship in which he sailed to Amsterdam in 1769, and afterwards having been presented by the captain of the ship to Magister Lanaerus,146 of Carlscrona.

16. A certain man, a great admirer of Bhme,40 asked him in London, what he thought of that author. "He was a good man," answered Swedenborg, "it is a pity that some errors crept into his writings, especially with regard to the Trinity." [See Note 41.]

17. He was asked whether there was any truth in Hermetic philosophy? "Yes," he replied, "I consider it to be true, and one of the greatest wonders of God, but I advise no one to work in this subject.42 [See Note 42.]

18. On arriving from London at Gottenburg, Swedenborg was told that his house had been consumed by a great conflagration, in which almost the whole of the southern suburb of Stockholm was destroyed in 1759.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 64 "No," replied he, "my house was not burnt; the fire did not extend so far." He spoke truly, and the occurrence had been so recent, that he could not have received the particulars by letter, or from any other person. (Consult upon this subject the following letter of Mr. Springer, from which it may be seen, that he had predicted this conflagration.)*

* Mr. Springer's version of this occurrence is confirmed by the philosopher Kant (see Section X), who says that the friend who sent him the whole of his account about Swedenborg, had investigated this matter, not only in Stockholm, but also two months before in Gottenburg, where he was acquainted with the leading firms, and had every opportunity of collecting information on this subject.

19. He was asked why so few among the clergy of Gottenburg* had embraced his explanation of the Scripture. "The reason of this is," he said, "that during their studies at the academy and the schools, they have confirmed themselves in their prejudices in favour of faith alone; and whenever any one has confirmed himself in anything wrong, he no longer looks upon error as an evil; and although they perceive that I speak the truth, their ambition, their egotism, and their love of distinction or self-interest, seem to exact from them not to declare themselves openly in favour of it.

* Robsahm, from whom this statement is taken (see paragraph 18), introduces this sentence thus: Swedenborg once told me the reason why no others among the clergy, except Dr. Beyer in Gottenburg, had embraced his explanations of the Scripture....

20. He suffered severe and cruel temptations; at such times he prayed much. Those who saw him in a state of temptation considered him very ill; but when he was relieved from them, he thanked God, and said to those that pitied him: "God be praised forever! Comfort yourselves, my friends! all has disappeared; and rest assured that nothing ever happens to me, except what the Lord permits; and Be never imposes upon us a burden heavier than we can bear."*

* Compare Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 24.

21. During the sessions of the Diet he took a great interest in what was discussed there, when he was absent: for as the head of his family he had the right of attending, and of taking his seat in the Houses of the Realm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 65 But when he saw that the hatred and envy in the two parties were on the increase he attended but rarely; for he always decided by his love of truth and justice.

* Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs, paragraph 31.

22. Swedenborg gave every year a sum of money to the poor of the parish in which his house was situated. But he said that good ought to be done with discretion, because otherwise there was danger of harm being done by ill-placed alms.*

* Compare Robsahm's statement on this subject, paragraph 33.

23. In his almanac for the year 1767, there s a note in his handwriting, stating that he had spoken with the great musician, Roman143, on the day when he was buried, and even at the very moment of his funeral.

24. Senator Count Hpken and the wife of Swedenborg's gardener both informed me with regard to the two following facts. After the death of Mr. de Marteville,43 a considerable sum of money was demanded from his widow, which it was stated her husband owed. She knew very well that this pretended debt had been paid, but she did not know where he had placed the receipt in her trouble she applied to Swedenborg. He informed her next morning, that he had spoken with her deceased husband, and that he had declared to him where he had placed the receipt, and that it would be found in the place described. The deceased person appeared also to his widow, in the same dressing gown which he wore before his death, and having given her the same indications, departed. She was so much frightened by this, that she wakened the lady attending her who was sleeping in the same room, and related this occurrence to her. The receipt was found in the place Swedenborg had named. This occurrence made a great deal of noise at the court and in town, and every one related it in his own fashion.*

* Compare Robsahm's account of this occurrence, as he obtained it from Swedenborg himself, paragraph 45; compare also the account of the Countess of Schwerin, sister of Madame de Marteville, and of the second husband of Madame de Marteville, in Section XI.

25. Second fact: The Queen Dowsger, widow of Adolphus Frederic, and sister of the King of Prussia12, having heard a report of the preceding story and of several others which were related of Swedenborg, said to the Senator Count Hpken, that she would like to speak with Swedenborg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 66 The Count, as bearer of the Queen's orders, met Swedenborg, who was going to the palace for the purpose of speaking with Her Majesty. After conversing for some time on various subjects, the Queen asked him whether he could ascertain the contents of a certain letter which she had written to her brother, the late Prince of Prussia; which she said no one in the world except her brother could know. Swedenborg replied that he would tell her in a few days. He kept his word: for having taken Her Majesty aside, he repeated to her word for word the contents of the letter. The Queen, who was not the least superstitious, and possessed great strength of mind, was filled with the greatest astonishment. She related the fact, which was much talked of in Stockholm and abroad, and which every one dressed up to suit himself*.

* In his work "Considrations Gnrales," &c. p. 182, C. F. Nordenskld gives some further particulars which he had collected from the gardener's wife; he says, "The wife of Swedenborg's gardener related to us that on the following days carriages stopped before the door of her master, from which the first gentlemen of the kingdom alighted, who desired to know the secret of which the Queen was so much frightened, but her master, faithful to his promise, refused to tell it."

26. The Queen having come to spend a few months in Berlin after the death of her husband, some academicians, to whom she did the honour of inviting them to her table, took the liberty of asking her whether that report was true. She avoided a reply, saying, "Oh, with regard to the history of the Countess de Marteville, that is certain;" but she said nothing respecting the matter that concerned herself. I was told this by M. M * * *, one of these academicians, to whom this princess afterwards sent some works of Swedenborg as a present, and who most kindly lent them to me. I subsequently procured them for myself, and the satisfaction I experienced in reading them again, induced me to translate some of them into French. The present translation is one of the number*.

* Compare paragraph 53, which is appended to Robsahm's Memoirs, where Count Hpken states the Queen's reasons for not answering that question at the time. To another academician, M. D. Thiebault, she gave a minute account of the whole occurrence, which was embodied by him in a work entitled: "Souvenir de vingt ans de sjour Berlin;" a translation of which will be found in Section XI, where all the various accounts of this occurrence are examined and sifted.

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27. His Excellency Count Hpken28, who is still living, and is highly esteemed and honoured by the Swedish nation for his profound knowledge, and for having, in the capacity of prime-minister, conducted the affairs of the kingdom with great prudence during a most stormy and critical period, asked Swedenborg one day, why he had published in his writings*, what so many regarded as mere visions and fictions, and which led them to despise the admirable doctrines contained in them. "I was commanded by the Lord to write and publish them," replied Swedenborg; "do not suppose that, without such a positive order, I should have thought of publishing things which I well knew many would regard as falsehoods, and which would bring ridicule upon myself. If I assure them that I have received this command, and they are unwilling to believe me, the satisfaction will remain to me of having obeyed the orders of my God, and I shall answer them with Paul in the Corinthians: "We are fools for Christ's sake, but ye are wise in Christ," and, "If we are mad, mad from God."

* Pernety mistook the meaning of Count Hpken's statement; for the latter did not ask Swedenborg, why he had published his "writings," but the "memorable relations" contained in his writings. The whole passage which is contained in a letter of Count Hpken to a friend (see Section X), is as follows: "I asked him once why he wrote and published those visions and memorable relations, which seemed to throw so much ridicule on his doctrines, otherwise so rational; and whether it would not be best for him to keep them to himself, and not publish them to the world? But he answered, that 'he had orders from the Lord to publish them,' and that 'those who might ridicule him on that account would do him injustice;' for, says he, 'why should I, who am a man in years, render myself ridiculous for phantasies and falsehoods.'"

28. The same Senator told His Majesty King Gustavus12, that if it ever happened that the Swedes should found a doctrine of the New Church of Jesus Christ, ought to be taught there; inasmuch as, according to his principles, the colonists would look upon the love of God and charity as the only motives of their conduct, and would be active, industrious, and intrepid in danger, convinced that what is called death, is but a passage from this into a happier life; and finally, as, according to the internal or spiritual sense which is hidden under the letter of the Sacred Scripture, nothing could be found there by which evil actions might be excused.

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29. Although he had a large number of visitors of all ranks, he never would receive any one, especially of the other sex, alone, but always required one of his servants to be present, and the Swedish language to be used; "because," said he, "I wish to have witnesses of my conversation and conduct, so as to prevent all cause of slander and calumny."*

* Compare Robsahm, paragraph 38, who declares that he limited this precaution to female visitors.

30. The following fact, which I have heard immediately from the wife of Swedenborg's gardener, is a proof of my assertion. Bishop Halenius44, the successor* of Swedenborg's father, having paid him a visit, the conversation turned upon the ordinary sermons, Swedenborg said to the Bishop: "You spread falsities in yours." Upon this charge, the Bishop ordered the servant to withdraw, but Swedenborg told her to stay. The conversation continued. They each turned over the leaves of a Hebrew and Greek Bible, to find suitable texts, by which to defend their views. The conversation ended in Swedenborg's reproving the Bishop for his avarice and injustice, and saying to him, "there is already prepared for you a place in hell; but," added he, "I predict to you that in a few months you will be attacked by a severe illness, during which the Lord will seek to convert you. If you will then open your heart to His holy influences, your conversion will be accomplished. Write me then, and ask me for my theological writings, and 1 will send them to you." After a few months an officer of the province and bishopric of Skara called upon Swedenborg. "How is Bishop Halenius?" he was asked. "He has been very ill", replied the officer, "but he has now recovered, and is quite a different man.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 69 He is kind, benevolent, full of righteousness, and returns three-fold and sometimes four-fold what he had previously acquired by unrighteous means. This Bishop was from that time to the hour of his death one of the warmest friends of the doctrines of the Lord's New Church, and he openly declared that the theological writings of Swedenborg were the most precious treasures of humanity."

* This ought to read, "one of the successors;" for Bishop Swedberg died in 1731, and Halenius was not appointed Bishop of Skara until 1783.

31. Swedenborg was of a very gentle disposition; but he was straight-forward, and would not betray the truth from respect to men, or for any other reason. Mr. Robsahm, the author of his biography, asked him, whether a certain clergy-man, who was highly esteemed in the capital on account of his flowery sermons, and who had died a little while before, had gone to heaven. "No;" said Swedenborg, "he went straightway to the abyss; for that clergyman left his piety in the pulpit; he was not pious, but hypocritical and proud, and was vain of the gifts he had received from nature, and of those which he sought and obtained from fortune. No, no, there is no use in deceiving by false appearances. With him, they disappeared after death; the mask was dropped; for there it appears whether a man is interiorly evil or good*."

* Compare Robsahm's account, paragraph 44

32. Mr. Robsahm asked him also how he began to have his revelations. "I was in London," answered Swedenborg, "and dined late at my usual inn, where I had a private room that I might be at liberty to reflect at pleasure upon spiritual subjects. I felt very hungry, and ate with eagerness. Towards the close of the meal I noticed a sort of dimness spreading before my eyes, and saw the floor covered with snakes, toads, caterpillars, and other hideous reptiles; and I became more and more astonished, as the darkness increased. However, it soon disappeared, (and with it the swarm of repulsive reptiles). Then I saw clearly a man, surrounded with vivid and shining light*, sitting in a corner of the room. I was alone; and judge of my alarm, when I heard him pronounce distinctly (but with a voice capable of inspiring terror**): Eat not so much.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 70 After these words my eyes again became darkened, but gradually the darkness passed away, and I then found myself alone in the room. Still somewhat frightened at all I had seen, I hastened back to my lodgings, without telling any one what had happened. There I gave myself up to reflection, but could not comprehend how this could have been the effect of chance, or of any physical cause. The following night the same man (refulgent with light**) presented himself again before me, and said: I am God the Lord, the Creator and Redeemer; I have chosen thee to explain to men the interior sense of the Sacred Scripture; I will dictate*** to thee what thou shalt write. [This time I was not at all alarmed, and the light by which he was surrounded, although it was exceedingly vivid and dazzling, did not make even the least painful impression upon my eyes. He was clothed in imperial purple, and the vision lasted a full quarter of an hour]****. The same night the eyes of my interior man were opened, and perfectly fitted to see into heaven, the world of spirits, and hell; and I found everywhere many persons of my acquaintance, some of whom had died a long time, and others only a short time, before. From that day I renounced all worldly occupations, in order to devote myself exclusively to spiritual things, as I had been commanded. Afterwards it happened to me frequently to have the eyes of my spirit opened, so as to see as in the plain light of day what takes place in the other world, and so as to converse with angels and spirits, even as I converse with men*****.

* The passages in parentheses ( ) are found neither in Robsahm's account, nor in that which was communicated by Dr. Beyer22 to C. F. Nordenskld20 in a letter dated Gottenburg March 25, 1776, which is contained in Section X.

** See foot note above.

*** Robsahm, instead of the Lord's dictating to Swedenborg what he whould write, said, that the Lord would explain it to him.

**** The passage here placed in brackets does not occur in Robsahm's account, but it is quoted from Dr. Beger's letter. The Doctor's own words in that letter are as follows: "The information about the Lord's personal appearance before the assessor who saw Him in royal purple and in majestic light sitting near his bed, while he gave Assessor Swedenborg his commission, I had from his own lips at a dinner party in the house of Doctor Rosn,45 where I saw the old gentleman for the first time. I remember to have asked him, how long this lasted; whereupon he answered, about a quarter of an hour; also whether the strong light did not affect his eyes; when he said, no."

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***** Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs paragraph 15, and also Note 25.

33. Swedenborg related the same circumstances to Doctors Beyer22 and Rosn45, while dining at the house of the latter in Gottenburg. Some may perhaps object that the man clothed in purple was an angel of darkness transformed into an angel of light, so as to seduce and deceive Swedenborg; but the Lord has taught us to know false prophets end hypocrites by their fruits. He said to the Pharisees: "If any man will do my father's will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or not." Did they not say to the Lord that he was a deceiver and a blasphemer; that He was inspired by the devil; that He did His miracles in the name and by the power of Beelzebub? It is the duty of good Christians to judge Swedenborg by his conduct and writings. Let them study his writings without prejudice, and they will soon see, that the angel of darkness must either have been instructed by God to teach the truth, or that he could not have been the author of the revelations which Swedenborg makes.

34. Mr. Robsahm having asked the wife of Swedenborg's gardener, if she had ever noticed any change in her master's countenance after he had conversed with spirits, she answered "One afternoon on entering his room his eyes had the appearance of the brightest fire; I stepped back, crying out: 'In God's name, sir, what has happened to you, for you have a most singular appearance?' 'How do I look,' he inquired. I told him what I had noticed; when he added: 'Well! well! (this was his favourite expression) do not be frightened, (the Lord has so disposed my eyes, that through them spirits may see into our world')*. In a short time this appearance will have passed away. This also happened as he said. I can see when he has spoken with heavenly spirits; for his face has then an expression of gentleness, cheerfulness, and contentment, which is charming; but after he has conversed with evil spirits, he looks sad."**

* This passage does not occur in Robsahm. The words which he uses are these: "The Lord has opened my bodily eyes, and I have been in the spirit."

** This last passage does not occur in Robsahm at all; yet it is possible that Mr. C. F. Nordenskld had heard this himself from the gardener's wife. Compare Robsahm's account paragraph 26.

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35. Swedenborg did not study comfort in his journeys; he travelled without a servant, in an open carriage from Stockholm to Gottenburg, and thence by sea. Robsahm says, "I know two sea-captains who have conveyed him to England, and back. The name of one is Harrison, and of the other, Brovell. The former told me that Swedenborg lay in bed during almost the whole of the voyage; soliloquized much, and always answered very prudently. 'When he is in my ship,' Harrison added, 'I always have the most favourable wind.' 'I should like to have him on board always, and would gladly carry him as a passenger without any charge.' Brovell said the same; and he had taken him from London to Stockholm in a very few days. When I spoke to Swedenborg about it, he said, 'I am always very fortunate in my passages by sea.'"*

* Cfr. Robsahm's account paragraphs 29, 30.



36. "I met him in his travelling-carriage, when he left for London the last time but one, and I asked him, how he who would soon be eighty years old, could venture to undertake so long a journey; and I added, 'Do you think I shall see you back here again?' 'Do not trouble yourself about that,' he said, 'if you live we shall certainly see one another again; for I have another journey to undertake like this.' He returned indeed. When he left Sweden for the last time, he came to see me the day before his departure. I asked him, whether we should meet again. He answered with a tender and touching look: 'I do not know whether I shall return; but this I know, that I shall not die before I have finished the printing of my work entitled: Vera Religio Christiana (True Christian Religion); which is the object of my present journey. But if we do not meet again in this world, we shall meet again with the Lord, our good Father, provided we keep his commandments.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 73 Be then took leave cheerfully with the bodily vigour of a man of thirty*."

*Cfr. Robsahm's Memoirs paragraphs 20, 21.

37. Some time before his last journey, he addressed a petition to His Majesty King Adolphus Fredcric11, in which he asked him to have letters of instruction addressed to the Consistories of the kingdom, ordering them to examine his writings, and give their opinion with regard to their contents; but the Consistories did not make any report. When the King met Swedenborg, he said to him: "The Consistories have kept silence on the subject of my letters and of your writings and laying his hand upon his shoulder he added: "We may conclude then that they have not found anything reprehensible in them, and that you have written in conformity with the truth."

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SECTION II.

SWEDENBORG'S ANCESTRY AND THE GENEALOGY OF THE SWEDENBORG FAMILY.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 76

DOCUMENT 7.

EXTRACT FROM A REPORT,*

* This and the following Document are contained in Vol. XIV of the Bergius46 Collection of Letters, which is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Document 7 was copied by Bergius from a certified copy of the original.

MADE BY THE LATE COUNCILMAN AND SENIOR JACOB INGLESSON TO THE COURT OF MINES AT "STORA KOPPARBERGET,"* MAY 17, 1716, RESPECTING SOME OLD FAMILIES AND HOUSES AROUND "KOPPARBERGET."

* "Stora gopparberget" (the great copper-mountain) is the name of the copper mining district around Fahlun in Dalecarlia.

The following have been school-masters at "Kopparberget:"

1. Magister Petrus Bullernesius*; he was the first school-master here at "Kopparberget," and afterwards became pastor of the church at Swrdsi; he was the maternal grandfather of Bishop Swedberg.

* Additional information respecting Magister Bullerncsius will be found at the beginning of Document 10.

A rich and opulent miner of the name of Mrten Larsson in Gruf Ryset; he was a sort of authority here in the mines, before there was any regular master of mines. He was many times in Stockholm, on account of some mining laws, with the late Ring Gustavus. He had only two daughters; the elder was married to a miner in Gruf Ryset of the name of Pder Erichson; after his death she married a man from Gefle of the name of Lars Behm,* who at one period of his life was a member of the Court of Mines. The second daughter was married to Johan Barckman, a councilman in Fahlun, when it first became a town; he lived near the new church, where the well now is.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 77 This Mrten Larsson died in 1648, and the bells were tolled for him three days.

* Lars Behm, was the brother of Swedenborg's maternal grandfather; see Document 8, p. 81.

An opulent miner lived in Sundborn parish, whose name was Otto of Sundborn; his son's name was Nils Ottesson of Helsingborn; he also had a son named Isaac Nilsson in Frmsbacka, and his son was Daniel Isaachson,* in Sweden, who was the father of Bishop Jesper Swedberg,** Daniel Swedberg, mine-master, assessor Peter Schnstrm,*** the late Johan Swedberg, and book-keeper Isaac Swedberg.

* Additional information respecting Daniel Isaachson, Swedenborg's paternal grand-father, will be found at the beginning of Document 10.

** An extended account of Bishop Jesper Swedberg, the father of Emanuel Swedenborg, is contained in Document 10.

*** Further particulars concerning assessor Peter Schnstrm and his family are given in Document 9, A.

That the preceding extract of Jacob Ingelsson's Report is an exact copy of the original, is certified by

PETER SWEDBERG [of] JOH.

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DOCUMENT 8.

LETTER FROM PETER SCHNSTRM47 TO EMANUEL SWEDENBORG,*

* This Document is contained in Vol. XIV of the Bergius46 Collection of letters in the Library of the academy of Sciences at Stockholm, on Page 271, &c.

My honoured friend and brother,

I thank you for your kind letter, and also for the genealogical register of our ancestors. You may obtain one still more perfect, if you go into the Privy Archives (Cammar-archivo), and find out the homestead upon which our ancestors lived; for in the old registers of the transfer of landed property the proprietors are always mentioned. It would be an advantage to our family if you could establish from the old register, that their homestead was exempt from taxes; for at that time owners of untaxed property were considered as noblemen, and at that time not every one, as is the case now, but only certain families or houses, could become the owners of such property. For this reason Engelbrecht Engelbrechtson is called a nobleman in our histories, viz. because he was an owner of untaxed property; and in Messenius also Mns Nilson of Asboda, and Anders Person in Rankhyttan, who were beheaded by order of King Gustavus I, are called Nobiles Montani, i. e. mountain nobles. The Silfwerstrms* are said to have had the same origin with us on the fathers' side.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 79 The father-in-law of Secretary Norn had a genealogical register of his family, in which our name occurred. It would be well if you could get a copy of that document. When I was young I heard that the Swinhufwuds, with a white boar's head as their crest, had the same origin as our family. Of it I know there is no survivor but Colonel Swijnhufwud of the Jemtlanders. His father had been the colonel of that regiment. The Swinhufwuds with a black boar's-head, are a different family altogether, and came from Bohemia. Bishop Otto in Westers, who died in the year 1520, had several brothers, and I believe our family descends from one of them. The Swinhufwuds, with the white boar's-head, also descend from one of these brothers. I think that with proper diligence we would find ourselves in the same family with Engelbrecht,** since he also was from Sundborn.

* This seems to be a mistake. Acording to Anrep,48 Vol. LII, p. 769, the Silfverstrms trace their origin to a certain Ludvig or Lydert Otto, who had emigrated from Germany, and who in 1643 was a councillor in Eahlun. As Daniel Isaakson, Swedenborg's paternal grandfather, married about 1640, this Ludvig Otto could not have been the Otto near Sundborn, who, according to Document 7, was the great-grandfather of Daniel Isaakson, and who must have been born between 1530 and 1550. And if, according to Peter Schnstrm, that Otto was a brother of Bishop Otto of Westerbs, who died in 1520, he must have been born before the year 1500.

** Engelbrecht was a noble mountaineer, under whose leadership the greater part of Sweden was delivered from the Danish yoke, in 1434. In 1436 he was assassinated, after having secured the independence of his country.

With regard to our mother's family I cannot name any one before Isac Behm, who was employed by Charles IX* as admiral, and in other capacities; for this reason mentioned in King Charles' "slaughter-bench" (slktare bnk). Messenius mentions him twice in his Scondia illustrata, but describes him as having been very cruel. This historian relates that after the battle of Stngbro,** when he commanded by sea, he ill-treated some Jesuits, whom he had made prisoners; and afterwards, he says, he was the commander opposed to the fleet which Flemming sent from Finland, in which was the young de Wijk, the handsomest man in Sweden, whom Isac Behm ordered to be put to death in a very cruel manner.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 80 This Isac Behm married a Wernstedt, whose father was a colonel, who had married Lucretia, the natural daughter of duke Magnus.*** From her and Colonel von Wernstedt descended, by one of their daughters,*** the Ribbings of Walstad. She and her husband, with many of the Ribbings, have their vault in Upsal, a vault older even than that of the Counts Dona. Blixencrona**** was married to one of these Ribbings, and lies buried in the same vault. His daughter, who is still living, was married to Secretary Palmschld; this Palmschld is also related to us on our mother's side, not through the Behms, but through Mrten Hanson, whom the people in Helsingland called the father of the land. The wife or mother-in-law of this Mrten Hanson was a Rlamb. Our late maternal grandmother also was third cousin to the old Councillor of State Clas. Rlamb. Johan Eschilson, our grandmother's father, who, in the Russian war, at the time of Count Jacob de la Gardie, was lieutenant in the cavalry, in Evert Horn's regiment (the same who was field-marshal, and fell before Pleschow in 1617), was married to the daughter of Mrten Hanson. Subsequently he was burgomaster and factor in Sderhamn. His second wife was an admiral's widow, whose name I have forgotten. He lies buried in Strala church, and has his coat-of-arms upon his tomb.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 81 The genealogical register of Mrten Hanson, which was traced by Secretary Palmschld from Fale Bure, the avenger of Saint Ericus' death, you can probably get from Chamberlain von Walcker; for he, with the Cronstedts, also descends from Mrten Hanson.*****

* Charles IX, the youngest son of Oustavus Wasa, after deposing his nephew Sigismund, ascended the throne of Sweden in 1600. He punished severely the Catholic adherents of Sigismund, and executed many of the nobles at Linkping. He has the reputation of having been the ablest of the sons of Gustavus Wasa. He was the father of Gustavus Adolphus.

** This battle took place near Linkping in 1698; in which king Sigismund was defeated by his uncle Charles X.

*** Peter Schnstrm, the writer of this letter, confounds here two Wernstedts. The elder Wernstedt, Christoffer von Warenstedt, married Lucretia, daughter of Duke Magnus, one of the sons of Gustavus Wasa. The younger Wefnstedt, Johan von marenstedt, the son of Christoffer, who was a, colonel, had a daughter Lucretia, who was married to her step-brother Seveil Ribbing--see "Anrep's ttartaflor"48 Vol. IV, p. 589. Moreover, the younger Warenstedt was a colonel, while his father was governor of the northern part of Sweden.

**** Gustav Blixencrona, who died in 1701, was married to Metta, daughter of Seved Ribbing. Their daughter Catharina Magdalena, who died in 1745, was married to Secretary Elias Palmskld, who died in 1719--see "Anrep"48 Vol. I, p. 223.

***** According to Anrep48 the relation between the Behm family, and the Palmskld, Cronstedt, and von Walcker families, was not through Mrten Hanson, but through his wife Ingrid Pedersdotter. In Vol. I, p. 422, this author makes the following statement respecting Peder Hansson, the ancestor of the family "Cederskld;" "Peder Hansson," citizen and member of the council in Gefle, died in 1612. He was married to Ingrid Pedersdotter (born 1574), daughter of Peder Pedersson from Helsingland, citizen and merchant in Gefle. Ingrid Pedersdotber was afterwards married to Mrten Hansson Rdbeck, councillor in the same town."

By her marriage with Peder Hansson, Ingid Pedersdotter had two sons: 1. Elias Pedersson Gavelius, burgomaster of Gefle: one of whose sons-in-law was Sigfrid Wolker, the father of Chamberlain von Walcker, and another was Eric Larsson Palmskld, the father of Secretary Palmskld; his son Petrus Elias Gavelius was ennobled, and assumed the name "Cederskld;" 2. Dr. Peder Pedersson Gavelius, who was the ancestor of the noble family of "Cronstedt."

By her marriage with Mrten Hansson Rdbeck, Ingrid Pedersdotter had one daughter, Anna Mrtensdotter Rdbck, who was married to the burgomaster Johan Eskilsson in Sderhamn; their daughter Catharina Johansdotter was married to Assessor Albrecht Behm, the maternal grandfather of Emanuel Swedenborg and of Peter Schanstrm (see "Anrep"48 Vol. I, p. 134, and also our Document 9, B); while another daughter Ingrid Johansdotter was married to Abraham Momma, ennobled under the name of Reenstierna, a Patriotic merchant and banker in Stockholm, who instituted many manufactures and iron-works in Sweden, and advanced money to the government. Their daughter Anna Maria Reenstierna was the second wife of Peter Schnstrm, brother of Bishop Swedberg, see "Anrep," Vol. III, p. 318.

But to return to the Behms. Isac Behm lies buried in Rrstel church in Roslagen, where he was possessed of an estate in fee; upon his tomb there is almost the same coat-of-arms which is upon the tomb of our maternal grand-father in Salberget. He had two sons. The name of the eldest I do not remember: he had a son in that war who was captain of horse in the East-Gothland regiment. This was the same who in the time of Charles XI looked after so much hidden treasure (rsen). The name of the other was Michael Behm; he was an officer at the court of Queen Christina, the mother of Gustavus Adolphus, who had Gefle for her jointure.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 82 His son's name was Jonas Behm; who was burgomaster in Gefle, and was married to a Schrder*; from the same Schrders descended also Superintendent Schrder, and the wife of Dean Gdda. This Jonas Behm had twelve sons and a daughter. From the daughter are the Tehls, and the wives of Palmrot, Diurberg, and Wallin. One of these twelve sons was our maternal grandfather, and another Daniel Behm, who was Councillor of Court, and left two sons, Daniel Behm, Lieutenant-colonel of the Sdermanlanders for war, and Axel Behm, assessor in the Court of appeals in Jnkping. One of the descendants of this Daniel Behm was the wife of Lieutenant-colonel Falkenhjelm, of the artillery. One of these twelve Behms was admiral or schoutbyvacht(?); another was factor in Sderhamn, and was father of Fru Brita Behm** (who is married to the Councillor of Commerce Alderstedt), and grandfather of Captain Ridderhf; he was likewise father of a certain Captain Behm now living. These Behms, who are the posterity of Factor Behm, are on their mother's side related to the Countess Piper. One of the twelve was Lars Behm in Grufriset, about whom you wrote to me. My paper does not allow me to write more, neither have I any more to write except that by acting upon my proposal you may find out much, and gratify me by so doing.       I remain your most obedient servant P. SCHNSTRM.47

* Anrep's ttartaflor,48 Vol. I, p. 134, states that Jonas Behm was not married to a Schrder, but to a Krger, see Document 9, B.

** This is not the Brita Behm, with whom Swedenborg had several lawsuits; she was his maternal aunt and the daughter of Assessor Albrecht Behm; while the former Brita was the daughter of burgomaster Hans Behm; (see Anrep's ttartaflor,48 Vol. I, p. 31, Adlerstedt, Table I).

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DOCUMENT 9.

GENEALOGICAL REGISTER OF THE SWEDENBORG FAMILY, FROM ANREP'S "TTARTAFLOR,"48

A.

SWEDBERG AND SCHNSTRM FAMILIES.*

* From Anrep's "ttartaflor,"48 Vol. III, pp. 699 and 700.

[Otto of Sundborg, an opulent miner. His son Nils Ottesson of Helsingbor; he had a son Isaac Nilson of Frmsbacka, and his son was Daniel Isaachson of Sweden.]*

* The portion in brackets has been supplied from Document 7.

Table I.

Daniel Isaacsson; Bergsman, i. e. miner, in Fahlun. Married about 1640, Anna Bullernsesia, daughter of the pastor in Svrdsj, Magister Petrus Bullernaesius. Their sons called themselves Swedberg after their homestead Sweden, near Fahlun.

SONS:

Peter Swedberg, after being ennobled, Schnstrm, born 1644, died in 1692. See Table 3.

Dr. Jesper Swedberg, born 1653; Bishop of Skara; died in 1735. See Table 2.

[Daniel Swedberg, master of mines (bergmster).

Johan Swedberg, father of the Peter Swedberg who communicated to Emanuel Swedenborg our Document 7.

Isaac Swedberg accountant.]*

* This portion has also been supplied from Document 7.

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Table II.

Dr. Jesper Swedberg (son of Daniel Isaacson. Table 1) born August 25, 1653, in Sweden; was ordained into the ministry and appointed chaplain of the horse-guards in 1682; became master of philosophy in the same year; chaplain of the court in 1688; dean and pastor of Wingker in Sdermanland in 1690; professor in the university of Upsal in 1692; dean of the cathedral in Upsal, 1694 superintendent of the Swedish churches in America, London, and Portugal, 1696; Bishop of Skara, 1702; doctor of theology, 1705; died July 7, 1735, at Brunsbo, his bishop's seat near Skara. His children were ennobled on May 23, 1719, under the name Swedenborg (his sons were introduced in 1720 under the number 1598). He was married 1. on Dec. 12, 1683, to his brother's sister-in-law, Sarah Behm, who was born Jan. 4, 1666, and died June 17, 1696; daughter of Albrecht Behm, assessor In the College of Mines, (owner of the iron-works at Tallfors), and of Catharina Johansdotter; she was also sister of Captain-lieutenant Albrecht Behm, who was ennobled under the name De Behm, No. 1256: 2. on Nov. 30, 1697, to Sara, Bergia,* widow of Justice (hradshfding) Norling: 3. on Dec. 25, 1720, to Christina Arrhusia,** daughter of Johan Arrhusius, Dean of Fshlun.

* According to the Swed. Biog. Lex. Vol. XVI, p. 288, Bishop Swedberg was the third husband of Sarah Bergia. Her first husband was Michel Hising, a merchant in Kping; her second husband J. Nordlind, justice of the peace.

** Christina Arrhusia was born Dec. 6, 1661; she was the daughter of Dean Johannes Arrhusius in Fahlun and Sara Hising. In 1699 she was married to Anton Swab, clerk in the copper-office in Fahlun, whose second wife she was. Anton Swab died in 1718. His first wife had been Helena Bergia, a sister of Bishop Swedberg's second wife, Sarah Bergia. See Anrep, Vol. IV, p. 288.

CHILDREN:

1. [Albrecht, who died in childhood.]*

* Nos. 1, 5, and 6, of Bishop Swedberg's children are supplied from the Swed. Biogr. Lex., Vol. XVI, p. 285.

2. Anna Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1686, died 1766. (See Document 9, C. Table 1).

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3. Emanuel Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1688; assessor; died 1772. (See Document 9, C. Table 2).

4. Hedwig Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1690, died 1728. (See Document 9, C. Table 3).

5. [Daniel, died in childhood.]

6. [Eliezer, died in his 25th year*, was married to Elisabeth Brink, who after his death in 1717 married the Councillor of Mines, Anders Swab.]**

* This statement is made by Bishop Swedberg in his Autobiography, see Document 11.

** See Anrep's "ttartaflor," Vol. IV, p. 288, Table 2.

7. Catharina Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1693, died 1770. (See Document 9, C. Table 4).

8. Jesper Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1694; lieutenant. (See Document 9, C. Table 5).

9. Margaretha Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, born 1695. (See Document 9, C. Table 15).

Table III.

Peter Swedberg, when ennobled, Schnstrm, (son of Daniel Isaancson, Table 1), born 1644; attendant on the Swedish ambassadors, Fleming and Coijet, in London and Breda; clerk in the College of Mines, 1670; treasurer in the same, 1671; master of mines in Eastern and mestern Dalecarlia, 1675; was ennobled on Nov. 1, 1683, and introduced in 1686 under No. 1056. Assessor in the above-named college, 1691; died May 22, 1692, and was buried in Wed's church in Westmanland. We was married: 1. in 1680 to Anna Margaretha Behm, who was born in 1660 and died in 1688; she was daughter of Albrecht Behm, assessor in the College of Mines (owner of the iron-works at Tallfors) and Catharina Johansdotter, who was the sister of Captain-Lieutenant dlbrecht Behm, when ennobled, De Behm, No. 1256: 2. on May 14, 1689, to a cousin of his first wife, Anna Maria Reenstierna, this being her first marriage; daughter of the manufacturer Abraham Momma, when ennobled Reenstierna, No. 818, and Ingrrid Johansdotter;* in 1694 she was married a second time to Colonel Nils Djurlilo, when ennobled, Djurklow, No. 968; died 1714.

* Ingrid Johansdotter was a daughter of burgomaster Johan Eskilsson in Sderhamn and his first wife, Anna Mrtensdotter Rdbeck, see Anrep, Vol, III, p. 318. She was the sister of Catharina Johansdotter, who was married to Assessor Albrecht Behm.

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CHILDREN OF HIS FIRST WIFE:

1. Peter, 47 born. 1682; lieutenant-colonel; died 1746.

2. Anna Catharina, born 1683. Married, June 11, 1697, to the Royal physician (archiater) Olof Rudbeck,49 the younger, when ennobled, Rudbeck, No. 1637, lord of the manor in Brunna, Kydingeholm and Bro-Lfsta, who was born in 1660. She was his second wife, and died in 1740.

3. Albrecht, born October 10, 1654; lieutenant-colonel of the horse-guards; he died in 1740, and was buried in the family vault in Hed's Church. Was married on Nov. 22, 1715 to the Baroness Ulrica Adlersten, born in 1694, and daughter of the provincial governor, Baron Gran Adlersten. One of their daughters, Elisabeth Maria, born in 1725, was married in 1748 to the Bishop of Westers, Dr. Lars Benzelstierna;10 and died in 1800.

4. Magdalena, born in 1680; married the Quartermaster General, Lars Spole, when ennobled, Rosenborg; she died in 1760.

CHILDREN OF HIS SECOND WIFE:

5. Margaretha Elisabeth, born 1690, died 1751; was married to Col. Henric Julius Voltemat, when ennobled, Voltemat, who was born 1689, and died 1764.

6. Sara Helena, born 1691, died 1779, at Karmanshbo iron-works in Westmanland; was married to Major Johan Lth, when ennobled, Lth-rnskld, born 1690, died in 1728.

7. Abraham Daniel, born 1692; chamberlain; died in 1759, without issue. He was married in 1750 to Hedwig Sophia Arosell, when ennobled, Adlerheim, daughter of Superior Judge (Lagman) Carl Arosell and Sophist Christine Hjrne; born 1713, died in 1780.*

* The last male descendant of the Schnstrm family, Captain Pehr Albrecht Georg, died in 1848.

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B.

BEHM FAMILY.*

[Admiral Isaac Behm, married to a daughter of Christopher von Warenstedt and Lucretia Magnusdotter, a natural daughter of Duke Magnus, son of Gustavus Wasa.

* See Anrep's "ttartaflor," Vol. I, pp. 134, 135, and 535.

SON:

Michael Behm, an officer of Queen Christina, mother of King Gustavus Adolphus, who had Gefle for her jointure.]*

* The bracketed portions are supplied from Document 8.

Table I.

Jonas Michalson Behm; burgonmaster in Gefle about the year 1611. In 1610, he married Anna Krger, daughter of Daniel Krger and Anna, Margaretha Pehrsdotter of Gefle.

[They had twelve sons and one daughter. From the daughter are the Tehls, and the wives of Palmrot, Diurberg, and Wallin.]*

* The bracketed portions are supplied from Document 8.

SONS:

Daniel Behm, when ennobled, Behmer, owner of Ytterbyns and Tuppenhorn, born in Gefle 1611, died in 1669. He was tutor to one of the sons of Chancellor Buel Oxenstierna, to which circumstance he owed his rapid promotion. In 1649, he became assessor of the Court of Appeals; in 1650, he was ennobled; and in 1664, he was made councillor of the Court. He was married in 1643 to Brita Schytte, daughter of Henning Schytte, a merchant in Nykping, and sister of Joachim Schyttehielm, the councillor or finance (kammer-rd), and also of Bishop Henning Schytte; and in 1669, to Magdalena Lindegren, daughter of Assessor Nils Lindegren, and Anna Sjlad. They had four sons and seven daughters, but the last male descendant of this family, Daniel Behmer, Knight, died in 1710.

Albrecht Behm; Assessor, died in 1679. (See Table 2.)

[Hans Behm, burgomaster, who was married to Catharina Hanuson. See "Anrep," Vol. I. p. 31.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 88

Lars Behm, a member of the Court of Mines in Fahlun, was married to the eldest daughter of Mrten Larsson in Gruf Rijset. See Document 7.]

Table II.

Albrecht Behm (son of Jonas Michalsson Behm, Table 1), owner of Tallfors iron-works; master of mines in Wester-Bergslagen; assessor in the College of Mines, 1675; died in Stockholm, in 1679. Married Catharina Johansdotter, who, in consequence of a long and severe illness, became diseased in her mind, and committed suicide in 1672; she, nevertheless, received an honourable burial, and lies interred in Sala church. She was the daughter of Johan Eskilsson, burgomaster in Sderhamn, and Anna Mrtensdotter Rdbck.

CHILDREN:

Albrecht Behm, when ennobled, De Behm; lieutenant in the Surbeck regiment in France; he was ennobled Jan. 24, 1693, on his return to Sweden, and introduced, the same year, under No. 1256; in 1695 he was made captain-lieutenant in the Helsinge regiment; he died unmarried, and in him his noble family ended. While in the service of France he was in several battles, and proved a bold and conscientious officer; he quitted the Swedish service on account of the state of his health and his melancholy. (See "Anrep" Vol. I, p. 535).

[Anna Margaretha Behm, born in 1660; the first wife of Assessor Peter Schnstrm. She died in 1688.

Sarah Behm, who was born April 1, 1666, and died June 17, 1696. She was married to Bishop Jesper Swedberg, and was the mother of Emanuel Swedenborg. (See Document 9, A, Table 2).

Brita Albrechtsdotter Behm,50 who was married to Prof. Johan Schwede in Upsal. Her daughter Eva Schwede was married in 1714 to Prof. Johan Upmark, when ennobled, Rosenadler,51 who became afterwards the censor of the press, and in 1728 Councillor of Chancery. Eva Schwede died in childbirth, 1717. (See "Anrep" Vol. III, p. 457).

Catharina, who died in 1686, second wife of Magister Laurentius Petri Aroselius, Dean of Sala. Their son Peter Arosell was ennobled under the name of Acllerheim. (See "Anrep," Vol. IV, p. 188).

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A fifth daughter Erlena (?) was married to Major Erland Erling; they had a daughter Maja.] The names of Fru Erlena, Erling and of Maja Erlingr occur in the "Acts" preserved in the Hofrtten (Court of Appeals) of a law-suit which was pending in 1722, between the heirs of Albrecht De Behm, and Brita Behm.*

* The portion in brackets is supplied partly from other parts of Anrep's "ttartaflor," partly from the "Acts" mentioned above.

C.

SWEDENBORG FAMILY.*

* See Anrep's "ttartaflor," Vol. IV, 292-294, "Swedenborg," Table 1.

Anna Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg (daughter of Bishop Swedberg, see Document 9, 8. Table 2), born Sept. 19, 16S6, died May 20, 1766, in Linkping. Was married June 16, 1703, to the celebrated archbishop, Dr. Eric Benzelius6 the younger, who was born in 1675, and died in 1743. Their children, with those of all the other Benzelii, were ennobled under the name Benzelstjerna.

CHILDREN:*

* See "Anrep" Vol. I, p. 149. "Benzelstjerna," Table 2.

1. Eric Benzelius, when ennobled, Benzelstjerna, owner of Bksholm in Dref's parish and Kronobergs ln, was born April 29, 1705, in Upsal; he entered the College of Mines in 1726; became inspector in "Stora Kopparberget," 1731; member of the Mining Court, 1738; master of mines in Schonen, Halland, and Blekinge, etc., 1742; assessor in the College of Mines, 1760; retired as councillor of mines in 1763; and died 1767, at Bksholm. He was married in 1732 to Christina Ehrenholm, who was born in 1705, and died in 1770. One of his three sons was called Hans Emanuel.

2. Margaretha Benzelia, when ennobled, Benzelstjerna, born March 17, 1708, died Dec. 27, 1772, in Copenhagen. She was married in 1726 to Prof. Andreas Norrelius in Upsal, but was divorced from him.*

* See "Biographiskt Lexicon," Vol. X, p. 118. "Norrellius."

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3. Dr. Carl Jesper Benzelius, was born Jan. 16, 1714, in Upsal; received holy orders, 1737; was appointed curate of the Swedish Church in Zondon, 1738; royal court-chaplain, 1741; doctor of theology in Helmstdt, 1748; professor of theology in Lund, 1750; Bishop of Strengns, 1776; received the order of the north-star, 1786; and died in Strengis, 1793. In 1748, he was appointed teacher of the Swedish language to Princess Louisa Ulrica [who subsequently became Queen of Sweden]. In 1751, he was ennobled together with his brothers and sisters, but he retained his former name on account of his being in holy orders. He had one son and four daughters; one of the daughters was married in 1783 to Jonas Cederstedt, the councillor of mines.

4. Albrecht Benzelius, when ennobled, Benzelstjerna, born Feb. 11, 1715. He was manufacturer of all sorts of woollen goods, with the title of director, and died in 1763 at Dingelvik Dahl. He was married in 1743 to Johanna, daughter of Timan, the administrator of crown-lands, in Linkping. One of their sons, Lars Benzelstjerna, who was an ensign in the Swedish navy, went to Copenhagen in 1789, for the purpose of setting fire to the Russian fleet; his plot was discovered, and he was condemned by the Danish government to pass the remainder of his life in a fortress in Norway. He was, however, subsequently released.

5. Adolph Benzelius, when ennobled, Benzelstjerna, born July 19, 1718; entered the service of engineers in Sweden; ensign in the Hessian army; lieutenant in the French army; lieutenant in the English army in 1755; engineer of fortifications in America, 1761; superintendent of forests in the district of Crown-Point; died at Crown-Point in 1775. He was married to Rebecca Trauberg, daughter of the Swedish pastor, in Racoon, New Jersey, and Elisabeth Andersdotter Rudman. His daughter Anna Ulrica was married to Thomas Sparham, M. D. of Kingston, in the province of Quebec.

6. Ulrica Benzelia, when ennobled, Benzelstjerna, born May 14, 1725, died May 5, 1766. She was married in 1740 to the Bishop of Linkping, Dr. Petrus Filenius,9 who died in 1780. She was his first wife.

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Table II.

Emanuel Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg (son of Jesper Swedberg, See Document 9, A. Table 2), born Jan. 29, 1688; assessor in the College of Mines; retired in 1747. Died unmarried, March 29, 1772, in London, at Great-Bath Street, Coldbath Fields, and was buried in the Swedish Church in the same city. He is the Emanuel Swedenborg who became world-renowned on account of his visions and his religious doctrines.

Table III.

Hedwig Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg (daughter of Jesper Swedberg, see Document 9, A. Table 2), born Nov. 30, 1690, died Dec. 19, 1728; was married, July 18, 1714, to her sister's brother-in-law, Lars Benzelius, when ennobled, Benzelstierna,8 who was born in 1680, and died in 1755. His second wife, whom he married in 1732, was Catharina Insenstjerna, daughter of Commissary Henric Insen, when ennobled, Insenstjerna; but all his children are by his first marriage.

CHILDREN:*

* See "Anrep" Vol. I, p. 151. "Benzelstjerna," Tables 14, 15.

1. Eric, born June 18, 1715; auscultant in the College of Mines; 1735; notary, 1744; died March 15, 1745, at the Lindfors ironrvorlis in Wermland, and was buried in Spnga Church.

2. Jesper Albrecht, born May 13, 1716; volunteer of engineers, 1736; adjutant in the same corps, 1741; lieutenant; was drowned during the Finnish war, March 30, 1743.

3. Lars,10 born at Starbo in Dalecarlia, April 4, 1719; student in Upsal, 1728, in Lund 1735; master of arts, 1738; theological tutor, and received holy orders, 1741; professor of Greek in Upsal, 1746; professor of theology, and pastor of the Danmark Church, 1747; doctor of theology, 1752; Bishop of Westers, 1759, and also bishop of the order of seraphims member of the order of the north-star, 1784, etc.; died Feb. 18, 1800, in Westers. Was married to Elisabeth Maria Schnstrm (see Document 9, A. Table 3) born Oct. 24, 1725, died April 8, 1801, in Westers.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 92 Their daughter Catharina Eleonora, born in 1751, was married to Bishop Baron Carl Eduard Taube of Odenkat, pastor primarius in Stockholm, who died in 1785.

4. Hedwig, born in 1721, died the same year.

5. Carl, born Oct. 18, 1723; auscultant in the College of Commerce, 1741; vice-actuary in the same college, 1744; auscultant in the College of Mines, 1745; member of the Court of Mines in Fahlun, 1748, and in Sala, 1752; fiscal advocate, 1756; retired, 1759; died in Stockholm, April 3, 1808. Married in 1758 Louisa Sophia Brath, born in 1739, died in 1780, at Albo in lands parish and Upland, daughter of the Olof Larsson Brath, mine-owner at Fsked in Wermland, and Elsa Johanna Geijer.

Fredric, born March 10, 1726; corporal in the horseguards; lieutenant in the French army, 1745; captain in Stralsund, 1749; died, 1750, unmarried,

Table IV.

Catharina Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, (daughter of Jesper Swedberg) (see Document 9, 8. Table 2), born April 18, 1693, died March 8, 1770. Married the Dean of Lidkping, Magister Jonas Unge.5

[CHILDREN:]*

* These are all the children of Dean Unge whose names we could find in our researches.

1. Helena, married, first, the Vicar of Gthened, in the bishopric of Skara, Dr. Laurentius Svenonis Noring, who afterwards became the court chaplain in chief, and died in 1757, on his estate Rankra; and secondly, Baron Carl Adam Silverhjelm, at Flisholt, who was born in 1719, retired in 1764 as colonel, and died in 1771 (see "Anrep," p. 731).

2. Theophila, born in 1728, died in 1791; was married to Baron Fredric Silverhjelm (brother of Baron Carl Adam Silverhjelm), at rsbyholm, who was born in 1726, became colonel of infantry, and died in 1783.

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3. Jesper Unge.*

* These two names are signed among others to a document, by which Swedenborg's heirs hoped to regain possession of his MSS., which had been committed to the custody of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

4. Stina Louisa, Unge.*

* These two names are signed among others to a document, by which Swedenborg's heirs hoped to regain possession of his MSS., which had been committed to the custody of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Table V.

Jesper Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg52 (son of Jesper Swedberg, see Document 9, 8. Table 2) at Brandstop, in Westergothland, born Aug. 16, 1694; lieutenant. Married in 1727, Christine Silfversvrd, born in 1708, daughter of Major Gustav Silfversvrd and Mrta Reutersvrd.

CHILDREN:

1. Sara Christina, born Dec, 11, 1727, married in 1752 to Sergeant J. Leijer.

2. Eleonora, born June 25, 1729, died, in 1791, unmarried.

3. Emanuel, born Dec. 2, 1731; ensign in Elfsborg's regiment; captain; died in 1794. Married in 1771, Christina Brita Hellenstjerna, daughter of Captain Johan Hellenstjerna and Brigitha Wetteyman.

4. Anna Mrta, born June 30, 1733, died in 1773; married in 1763, Lieutenant Johan Georg Ridderbjelke, who was born in 1726, and died in 1803.

5. Jesper Gustav, born in 1736; major; died in 1821. (See Table 6).

6. Maria Elisabeth, born Dec. 29, 1737, died in 1822. Married in 1770, her cousin, David Frlich, clerk of the justice, who was born in 1737, and died in 1818.

7. Hedwig Catharina, born Sept. 2, 1740, died in 1782; married in 1760 the master of ammunition, Carl Fredric Holt.

8. Johanna Gustava, born March 16, 1744, died in 1816 Married about 1780, Lieutenant Carl Jernfeltz, as his second wife; he was born in 1732, died in 1809.

9. Ulrica, born May 29, 1745, died in 1802, unmarried.

10. Magdalena, born June 30, 1748, died in 1796, unmarried.

Table VI.

Jesper Gustav (son of Jesper Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg, Table 5) born Oct. 23, 1736; major in the army, 1785; knight of the order of the sword; died in 1821 at Entorp, near Skara.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 94 Married in 1764, his cousin Catharina Maria Frlich, born in 1739, died in 1810, who was the daughter of Lieutenant David Frlich, of Strmsholm, by his first wife, Annika Gyllenhaal.

SONS:

1. Jesper, born in 1765, captain, (see Table 7).

2. Gustav, born in 1776, assessor, (see Table 11).

Table VII.

Jesper (son of Jesper Gustav, Table 6), born March 26, 1765; ensign in Skaraborg's regiment, 1781; lieutenant, 1756; captain 1796; retired in 1802. Married in 1788, Catharina Elisabeth Edman, daughter of Captain Gustav Magnus Edman; after her death he married in 1801, a widow, Edla Henrica, Lind, daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Bengt Lind of Hageby, and Gustaviana Charlotta Hammarhjelm.

CHILDREN:

1. Carl Gustaf, born 1795; chamberlain, see Table 8.

2. Jesper Emanuel, born 1796; captain, see Table 9.

3. Christina Louisa, born 1800; married in 1820, Captain Pehr Niclas Palmcrantz, whose second wife she was; she died in 1842.

Table VIII.

Carl Gustaf (son of Jesper, Table 7), born Jan. 25, 1795, notary in the Court of Appeals for Schonen and Blekinge; justice in Oxie, &c. in Schonen, 1830; chamberlain in His Majesty's Court. Married in 1825, at Carlshamn, Ulrica Maria E. Nolleroth, born in 1806, daughter of Eric Gustaf Nolleroth, burgomaster of Carlscrona, and Ulrica Msriana Ridderstsm.

SONS:

1. Carl August Emanuel, born Feb. 2, 1826.

2. Gustav Eric Oscar, born in 1828; cadet in Carlberg; second lieutenant in the Crown-prince's regiment of hussars, now (1849) the regiment of King Charles XV; lieutenant, 1854.

Table IX.

Jesper Emanuel (son of Jesper, Table 7) born Feb. 17, 1796; ensign in Elfsborg's regiment; lieutenant, 1818; captain, 1816; knight of the order of the sword, 1849; retired from the regiment, 1551, and from the army in 1855.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 95 Married Anna Charlotta Frgersten in 1824, at Entorp.

CHILDREN:

1. Pehr Gustaf, born 1895, lieutenant, see Table 10.

2. Edla Catharina Sophia, born in 1829. Married in 1856 Asel Ferdinand Leijer, lieutenant in Elfsborg's regiment.

3. Axel Emanuel, born 1833; proprietor of Sjgard, Grofvared, in Westergttland. Married in 1861, Elizabeth Ahlgren.

Table X.

Pehr Gustaf, (son of Jesper Emanuel, Table 9), born Nov. 3, 1825; second lieutenant in Elfsborg's regiment, 1844; lieutenant, 1848. Married in 1858, Catharina Dorothea Sophia Rosenberg.

CHILDREN:

1. Sigrid Anna Catharina, born 1858.

2. Jesper Gustaf, born 1860.

Table XI.

Gustaf (son of Jesper Gustaf, Table 6), born Aug. 14, 1776; surveyor, 1803; assessor; died in 1820. Married in 1809, Beata Sophia Sommelius, daughter of Professor J. Sommelius and D. Held; she was born in 1779, died in 1837.

SONS:

1. Jesper Gustaf, born 1810; doctor of medicine. See Table 12.

2. Sven Herman, born 1811, assessor. See Table 13.

Table XII.

Jesper Gustaf (son of Gustaf, Table 11), born Aug. 7, 1810; doctor of medicine and master of surgery; provincial physician in Calmar ln, 1848; in the district of Maristad, 1860. Married in 1841, Carolina Predrika Zickerman, born 1812.

CHILDREN:

1. Carolina Ebba Beata, born 1842.

2. Hedwig Louisa, born 1844; married in 1862, in Maristad, Herr Johann Eduard Rosenlind.

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3. Jesper Gustaf Henric Herman, born 1846.

4. Carl Sigurd Wilhelm Emanuel, born 1849.

5. Signe Fredric Amalia, born 1853.

6. Agnes Clara Elisabeth, born 1857.

Table XIII.

Sven Herman, born Nov. 13, 1811; assessor in the Court of Appeals of Schonen and Blekinge, died 1849. Married in 1844, in Stockholm, Maria Louisa von Seth, born 1815, daughter of Chamberlain Johan Boman, when ennobled and adopted, von Seth, and of Louisa Sophia Cronacker.

CHILDREN:

Sophia Louisa, born 1845.

Johan Gustaf Emanuel, born 1847.



Table XIV.

Margaretha Swedberg, when ennobled, Swedenborg (daughter of Jesper Swedberg, see Document 9, A, Table 2) born Oct. 21, 1695. Married Anders Lundstedt, captain of cavalry.

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DOCUMENT 10.

BISHOP JESPER SWEDBERG.

A BIOGRAPHY.*

* Taken from the "Biographiskt Lexicon," Vol. XVI, pp. 224-290, an account written by C. W. S.

Bishop Swedberg is one of the few churchmen of Sweden who have acquired a notable position in Church history; and few have exercised a more extensive influence upon Swedish society in general. Such an eventful and influential life as that of Swedberg deserves therefore to be treated in detail, and in extenso.

Jesper Swedberg was born Aug. 28, 1653, on the estate of Sweden, about a quarter of a Swedish mile from Fahlun, where his father Daniel Isaksson ("Daniel upon Sveden") was a miner and mine-owner. According to a custom of the times which is still prevalent, and to which many names, more or less peculiar, of clergymen owe their origin, his son Jesper was called Swedberg, after the estate, while another of his sons assumed the name Schnstrm. His mother's name, Anna Bullernsia, is even a more remarkable instance of this custom, being the Latinized form of the parish of Bollns in Helsingland. His mother's father was the minister of Svrdsj, Magister Peter Bullernesius, on account of whose supposed papistic tendencies a great noise was made by another clergyman of "Stora Kopparberget" [the Great Copper-mountain]. The memory of his maternal grandfather was held in great esteem by Swedberg, and he had great respect for his faith, although it had been stigmatized as heretical, and for the witness which he bore to the truth, even by his writings (e. g. by his "colloquium christianum de mendacio).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 98 Swedberg's parents were pious and god-fearing, but poor, and, according to his own testimony, "honest, far from worldly pride and luxury, and bent upon speaking the truth." According to Swedberg's grateful acknowledgment, his mother had been to him what Monica had been to Augustinus. He had many brothers and sisters, and his parents looked upon their numerous progeny as riches in the true sense of the word. For their sake, they thought, an unexpected improvement took place in their circumstances. In the Stora Kopparberg a mine had long remained deserted and full of water. Twenty-four industrious miners, among whom was Swedberg's father, undertook to bring it into use again. To enable them to undertake this work, they received from the College of Mines a grant of extensive privileges. Their enterprize was finally crowned with such success, and "God blessed them so wonderfully, that they became the most opulent miners of those times." What the others assigned as the cause of their unexpected fortune, we do not know, but Swedberg's parents regarded as the cause that which we have mentioned. When the father partook of a meal, he often said, "Thank you, my children, for this meal; for I have dined with you, and not you with me; God gave me food for your sakes." Jesper shared his father's conviction. "It is really the case," he added, "that you must never grudge expenses, if you desire your children to grow up well. Moreover, we often notice with surprize how orphans and the children of widows get on in the world better and more rapidly, than those who have their parents' care for a longer time. When a child of rich parents makes his way in the world, people say: 'Here you see what wealthy parents can do--and the real Father in heaven receives no honour or thanks. But when the children of poor widows prosper in the world, people say justly: 'See what God can do.'"

It has been remarked, as something significant in the case of not a few of the most eminent men of the Church, that they had in their childhood been in danger of losing their lives. Not unfrequently those who were called upon to arouse the Church to life, had themselves been taken up for dead. Something similar Swedberg noted down respecting himself.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 99 Once, during the spring-floods, a mill-stream near the estate overflowed its banks, when the mill was in rapid motion, and it was then that Swedberg was in danger of losing his life. He and one of his brothers were standing near the mill. The brother climbed upon one of the beams which went across the stream, and defied Jesper to follow him. Not to be out-done by his brother, he made the attempt, but fell into the stream, and his feet went under the wheel so that the mill was stopped. After great exertions he was extricated, but he was then without signs of life. Animation was, however, at length restored; and his strong belief in the guardianship of angels, which, as far as we know, he, more than any other Swedish author, upheld and exalted, no doubt dated from this period, when he resolved "never to forget either morning or evening, to commend himself to God's keeping, and the protection of the holy angels."

From what we have stated, it may readily be concluded, that Swedberg had the benefit of early and excellent instruction in the home of his parents. Afterwards he was sent to the school at Fahlun. Here he was in danger of being frightened away from his books and studies, the teacher, as then too frequently happened, being a drunkard, who ruled by terror, rather than by wise guidance and kind words. But the desire for learning and the love of books were too strong in the young scholar to be beaten down by the rod of Ale-Peter, as the boys called their teacher.

For sons brought up under the care of parents of this class no vocation or office has usually such great attractions as that of the minister. Even in the sports of his childhood, Swedberg used to imitate the functions of that which he was destined one day so worthily to fill, and the duties of which he was to discharge with such deep earnestness. He read the Bible devoutly himself, and zealously to the people that used to come together "for hop picking," as well as on other occasions. "It used to be my greatest delight," he writes of himself, "to preach to these people." In the autumn of 1666, when he was thirteen, he was sent to Upsal. The three years he spent there under the care of the incompetent Preceptor S. Elfving he regretfully regarded as having been entirely lost.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 100 In 1669, his father allowed him to remove to the new High School of Lund, where he had a relative, Magister P. Holm, Professor of Oriental Languages. The professor was a just and conscientious man, and from his instruction and the daily enjoyment of his company, Swedberg made much greater progress.

Holm, who was, if se may trust Swedberg's judgment, an accomplished logician and metaphysician, encouraged his pupil to train himself in dialectic exercises. Scheibler's "opus logjcum et metaphysicum," together with Beckmann's "Logic," he had fairly to grind into his bend; but he insisted that they were not of as much use to him as a "paper of pins." On one occasion, when there was to be a disputation for degrees, Prof. Papke in the chair, Swedberg compiled from the disputation, what he called, "a merry paper," filled with empty metaphysical terms, read it aloud, and with the words "Risum teneatis sodales" (Restrain your laughter, my friends), he broke up the disputation, and moved towards the door. Samuel Puffendorf, who was present, is said to have praised him for this youthful exploit. Possibly, he ventured upon it, because he was sure of approval from this quarter; for Swedberg was intimate with Puffendorf, and, as is well-known, this learned man was opposed to anything that would lead to mere pedantry. This much is certain, that Puffendorf exercised an important influence not only on Swedberg's scientific education, but also on the whole of his after life.

Swedberg describes in the following words the freer views of life, which he acquired on his removal to Lund: "When I went to Upsal I was dressed in blue stockings, Swedish leather shoes, and a simple blue mantle. I never ventured to go forward in Church, but always remained near the benches of the common people. But in Lund I became as worldly-minded as the rest. I procured for myself a long, black wig (I too was dark and tall), to this I added a large, long over-coat, and above all a scarf over my shoulders, such as worldly-minded people wore. In my own opinion, there was no one equal to me: I thought all should make room for me, and take off their hats very humbly in my presence."       

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 101 There is both jest and seriousness contained in this self-description; Swedberg ridicules the pettiness of the one and the arrogance of the other, and is grieved at the part he himself took in it; at least he did not "follow his times" in these things long.

In the year 1674, he returned to Upsal, after having first visited Copenhagen and several towns of Zealand. On his arrival in Upsal, the student from Lund created quite a sensation. His plan in life had been determined in his early years. He applied for a theological scholarship to the professor of theology, Magister Brunner, who was dean of the faculty that year. Brunner, astonished at the student dress of Lund, which Swedberg had not yet laid aside, looked at him sharply, crossed himself, and asked whether he, who was dressed in such a worldly manner and in court costume, desired to become a minister of the gospel. Swedberg did not wait to be asked this question a second time. He went home, took off the offensive garb, and purchased a simple greyish-black cloak; and this, he added, was done just at the right time. Brunner, who probably did not limit his examination to his outer man, discovered the talents which lay concealed within. In short, after two years, he took Swedberg into his own house, as private tutor to his son Sebastian. "In Brunner's house," he said, "I learned much that was good, both in respect to manners and Literary acquirements, but especially I learned how to lead a pious, honourable, and serious life: for he himself was spiritually minded both in his conversation and in his intercourse with others, in his dress and in his whole being. In the same year (1676) he took part in a disputation upon the third pert of the treatise De usu et valore consensus Patrum in dogmatibus ecclesiasticis (On the use and value of an agreement of the Fathers in the dogmas of the church), by P. Rudbeck, who was then a professor, but soon became a, bishop; he also pronounced the funeral oration on the occasion of the death of A. Thermanius, the lector of the Greek language in Westers. He had likewise an opportunity of exercising himself in preaching in Brunner's prebend, Danmark; and after he had to mourn, in 1679, the departure from this life of his fatherly friend, he preached for three years in the church of the prebend, during the years of grace [i. e. during the time when the widow of the late prebendary was allowed to occupy the parsonage and enjoy the emoluments of the office].

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 102 In 1651 he defended the first disputation which he had written himself, Professor A. Norcopensis in the chair; next year he passed his examination as candidate, defended his disputation for obtaining a degree, and received the degree of Magister. On Feb. 12, 1655, he was ordained by Bishop Carlsson of Westers. The same year he became pastor to the regiment of the guards; at all events he then entered upon its duties. On this subject he says, "About the same time I received from the Honourable Colonel Ramsvrd, without any application on my part, the appointment of pastor of his Majesty's regiment of the guards, after Magister Isogseus."

In the years 1684-55, he undertook a journey abroad, after having obtained the royal permission. About the middle of the summer of 1654, he went to England. The severe church life, and especially the sanctity with which the Sundays are kept, made a deep impression upon him. In London and Oxford he spent three months, and enjoyed there the learned intercourse of Bishop Fells and the great philologist Bernhardi. In discussing the subject of church union, for which Bishop Fells laboured, he expressed himself to Bernhardi in the following language: "For this purpose the Lord's hand, an impulse from the Highest, prayer, and a peace-loving disposition are required." In France he learned to respect the excellent care which the Roman Catholic Church takes of the poor and needy, in noticing "how the wealthier members of the community went out in the evening into the streets and lanes, to look after the poor, the sick, and those without shelter; how distinguished ladies and countesses, dressed in common garments, sought the sick and the helpless, and exhibited towards them as much mercy as they would towards their own blood relations." Afterwards he went through Lorraine and Alsace to Strasburg. Here he enjoyed lodging, board, and hospitality in the house of Bebel, the professor of theology and church history, and formed also an invaluable intimacy with the learned and pious theologian. S. Schmidius.* These two men he revered in his after life as his "two spiritual fathers."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 103 As the whole direction of Swedberg's mind was pietistic, in the true sense of the word, he desired very much to visit Spener in Frankfort; but as this founder of the Pietists was ill at the time, he had to give up the hope of having this desire fulfilled. In the year 1685, he left Strasburg, and visited Heidelberg, Mannheim, and other places. In Mannheim he became acquainted with a Lutheran clergyman, who with great zeal defended in a disputation his thesis, that we must say, "Vater unser" [in the Lord's prayer], and not "Unser Vater", as his opponent maintained. With such petty disputes the theologians at that time frequently busied themselves, for lack of something better. This was not the only dispute of the kind that Swedberg was obliged to listen to during his journey, In Giessen he fell in with the theologians Clodius, Hannekenius, and Arcularius; but more valuable to him seems to have been his acquaintance with Ludolphus, in Frankfort on the Main. Among other things he related of this man, that he "was very well dispose towards the Swedes, thinking so great deal of them," that he had himself been in Sweden, travelling about every where, and that he was the only one whom Swedberg met in his journey with whom he could converse in Swedish. "The correctness of Ludolphus's remark that there had never been published in Sweden a Swedish grammar, Swedberg was obliged to admit with a blush of shame." From Frankfort he continued his journey down the Rhine to Holland, taking a look at the towns of Mayence, Cologne, and others, where he had an opportunity of becoming more closely acquainted with the superstition of the Catholics, and he could do this so much the better, because at Easter this superstition exhibits itself in its greatest nakedness. On May 19, he came to Leyden, where he spent several days, enjoying the society of Professors Jacob Gronovius and Stephen Le Moine; the former of whom is well known from his treatise respecting Judas Iscariot, in which he proves that the traitor was not torn in two, but was strangled to death. From Holland he went by sea to Hamburg, where he stayed two months and a half, during which he became very intimate with the learned Oriental scholar Edzardus, with whom he lodged and bearded.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 104 In this learned man Swedberg saw the priesthood in its noblest aspect. He took part with great satisfaction in the doctrinal classes which Edzardus held every Sunday afternoon with his young people; he praised his zeal in the conversion of the Jews, and saw with delight how he laid his hands upon the heads of his grown up children, and blessed them, "just as the patriarch Jacob blessed his sons Ephraim and Manasseh, and just as Christ blessed the little children;" and Swedberg added, "I am unable to describe in what a godly and earnest manner this man lived; may God bless his soul in His eternal kingdom!" We must be pardoned for dwelling so long on the persons on whom Swedberg himself loved to dwell so much; for from these he received impressions which exercised a great influence on his own sphere of activity. The time now drew near when Swedberg had, in accordance with the terms of the royal permission, to hasten home to his own country. On July 30, he travelled from Hamburg to Lbeck, which he left on the 2nd of August for Stockholm, where he arrived on the 7th.

* Sebastian Schmidius, whose translation of the Bible, published at Strasburg in 1696, was used by Swedberg's son Emanuel Swedenborg in the preparation of his theological writings.

The regiment to which Swedberg was attached as chaplain, was ordered to Upland; so that he had not much to do with it. Immediately after his return home he therefore removed to Stockholm, "to preach by higher orders to the court, and perform the same kind of service as the other royal chaplains;" he supplied the pulpit also for the royal chaplain, Schfer, for a whole year, without any recompense. His ministerial disinterestedness was severely tried about this time; for his predecessor, Isogus, claimed one half of the income of his regimental chaplaincy for the year he was abroad; and Swedberg stood this trial so well, that he yielded to the claim, without wasting another word upon it. He even rejoiced, almost like a child, at his having been able to bear it, as may be judged from his own words, "How good and excellent it is, not only to read, teach, and preach God's Word, but also to live in agreement with it, and to practise it accordingly; especially for us, ministers of the gospel! I, therefore, always pray King David's beautiful prayer: 'Incline my heart, O Lord, unto Thy testimonies, and not to covetousness.' So little was I ever troubled shout receiving my stipend, that I never sent a reminder to a farmer who owed me his tithe, but was satisfied with what he gave of his own free will.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 105 I had so much to read, write, and preach about, that I never had either the time or the desire for such things; neither have I become poorer thereby, nor been defrauded."

Although Swedberg looked on his appointment to the chaplaincy of the regiment, as allowing him much time for his studies and ministerial work, still it must not be thought that on that account he neglected his duties as chaplain. On the contrary, he fulfilled them with the same zeal which he displayed in everything he undertook. He did not content himself with preaching, but also gave his regiment regular instruction in the catechism. We will allow him to give his own account of this. "In my duties with the regiment of guards," he says, "with God's grace I gave satisfaction to high and low, although I was not indulgent with them, either in preaching or calling them to account. I examined them diligently in the catechism, in accordance with the royal orders, at every muster, and at all their meetings--yet in the mildest and most moderate manner. They had not before been accustomed to this. Wherefore, whenever they saw me coming, they trembled, as they afterwards told me, much more than when they went into battle with the enemy. But after I commenced talking with them in an affable and mild manner, telling them stories from the Bible, and strengthening them in their faith and in their Christian course of life, the company which I had examined first would not go away, when another came in to be examined, but they all pressed around me, and almost bore me down. The officers also voluntarily sat around the table, and engaged with me in good, useful, and edifying discourse. Once I made a promise to the whole regiment, which consisted of upwards of 1,200 men, that on the next muster, which took place once every year, I would present every man who could read with a copy of Archbishop Dr. Swebilius' catechism. I also wrote in these books the names, about 300, of all those who could read. A year afterwards, when the whole regiment was mustered near Upsal, nearly 600 could read. This amounted to 600 dalers in copper; for each catechism cost a daler.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 106 My promise I had to keep, and to honour. I went to his Majesty (Charles XI) at the castle, and in all humility made him acquainted with this; he immediately pulled out his purse filled with ducats, took a handful, and gave them to me without counting them."

Fresenius says, that a proper fulfilment of the duties of a royal chaplain is the most difficult thing in the world.

Few have done justice to this office, as Swedberg did. It is true he had a court to preach to, where there were ears open to hear the truth, as we know of the pious Queen Ulrica Eleonora, and even Charles XI used to listen to the testimony of the truth; and this was also uttered by Swedberg with a frankness which proved that he filled his office without respect of persons. To the schools, which were in a lamentable condition, his care was especially directed. Here, however, he had to break through thick ice. He knew no better method than to present his wishes, both in private and public, to the King. Accordingly, on Friday, May 4, 1686, he delivered a sermon in the castle at Ulriksdal, where the King, the Queen, the Queen-dowager, the Crown-prince, and many courtiers were present. His text was, "The children of Israel did as their fathers before them had done." This text gave him an opportunity of making some sharp observations, in which he showed the necessity for the Christian instruction of children, and for the institution of schools. Towards the close of the sermon he said, "I will tell you, your Majesties, what God has spoken about you, in the Old Testament, viz. that kings ought to be the labourers of the Church, and princesses, its nurses. This word is certainly not obeyed, by appointing certain persons to act as godfathers and godmothers in your stead. No, you must take better hold, you must actually promote the education of the young, must see that the schools end their teachers are doing well, and that every thing is put in proper order." He expressly mentioned the country of Sweden, and the city of Stockholm, as places where the gravest abuses prevailed. A week after, he delivered a sermon on the same subject. Being very fond of illustrations and parables, he introduced school-children as dramatis person; he let them state their own necessities, and showed with powerful words how little all the polish of culture and refinement could do to replace the want of spiritual training both in schools and in the Church.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 107 The King showed the words of the severe preacher their fall force, by immediately afterwards collecting information about the actual condition of the schools. One of the clergymen of Stockholm, Magister Iser, was summoned. The King asked, "How is it with the schools in the capital? They are talked about in sermons." "By whom?" asked Iser. "It does not matter", answered the King. "What is said about them in sermons?" "That the teachers are good for nothing, and that we must get better ones," replied the King. Iser said, that so long as the pay was so small, we could not expect to get better teachers. The King expressed his displeasure that he had never been informed of this before; he wished to raise the pay of all the teachers in the land; and hesent the same day to Swedberg, whom he overjoyed by declaring to him his determination to do so. "I thanked him most humbly," he writes, "but I added, I have a better proposition to make, by which the same result will be obtained, without burdening your Majesty's exchequer. Issue an order for the government of schools; that henceforth schoolmasters shall have an honorable rank among the better classes; and that after having served industriously and well in the schools for three years, they shall be presented with a good curacy. In this case Johnn Lohe, Hildebrand, and other rich and distinguished men would send their sons into the schools, and we should get good teachers." On the same day, the King sent Virnius to Swedberg commanding him to serve as ordinary royal chaplain. How he looked upon this call, appears from his own words, where he points to Amos vii. 12. 13. "Thou seer, go, flee thee into another land, and there eat bread, and prophesy not again at Bethel: for it is the King's chapel, and the King's house." On the other hand, he was afraid of incurring the royal displeasure, if he should not accept the offer, because, with Presenius, he looked upon this office as the most difficult in the whole world. This new dignity produced little change otherwise in the work he hitherto had been doing, for with the exception of "a considerable rise" in rank, he was obliged to perform this duty without remuneration, and to continue to do so for four years (1656-1689).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 108 When the question was of salary and not of service, others were preferred, who understood how to press themselves forward; and "this," added Swedberg, "was also much better for me." It was satisfaction enough for him to know that he had a sincere friend in the King, "who was not displeased, but rather liked, when an earnest, zealous servant of the Lord preached severe truth, and did not keep anything in the background, but stood forward boldly, proving everything clearly from God's Word, without doing it violence." So did Swedberg; he kept nothing back, but preached the naked truth, even if the refined sensibilities of the higher classes should thereby be wounded. This indeed frequently happened. For instance, it was a difficult duty for him to denounce the hardness with which his royal friend carried out the policy of reduction;* but as he looked upon this as his duty, truth carried the day, and put into his mouth the words of Micah, Chap. iii, from which he undauntedly deduced such an application as could not fail to be understood: "Ye hate the good, and love the evil; ye pluck off their skin from them, and their flesh from off their bones, and eat the flesh of my people; and when ye have flayed their skin from off them, ye break their bones also in pieces," &c. An officer of the reduction, who was among the hearers, went to the King, and asked him: "Shall the parson speak in this style?" The King asked him significantly: "Did the parson confirm his sermon by God's Word?" When the complainant was obliged to give an affirmative answer, the King put an end to it with this reply: "If the parson has God's Word, the King has nothing to say against it." The King also never withdrew his favour from Swedberg, in spite of efforts made to bring this about. Swedberg could therefore write as follows: "The King's favour towards me became every day more overflowing; the King also said to me, once when me stood alone in the castle, and spoke together: 'You have many enemies.' I then said, 'A servant of the Lord is not good for much, if he has no enemies. Look upon the prophets, the apostles, and Christ himself.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 109 What enemies and antagonists did not Christ have?' Of the King's favour, he received many new proofs. In the year 1790, the King made him pastor in Vingker without any request on his part. Within a year afterwards he received a new decree, appointing him dean of the cathedral of Westers through the influence of Count Lars Wallenstedt, who was governor there at the time. Between this governor, however, and Bishop Carlsson already mentioned, there was a continual feud, and this was the reason why the peaceable Swedberg would not accept the office, although one of the King's inducements for endeavourmg to make him accept it was, that he would have a good opportunity of making peace between them. Meanwhile Swedberg mentioned, as one of the reasons why he desired to remain in Vingker, "the good order which existed there in the church." In the same year the pastorate of Hedemora was offered to him, after Morus, but he refused also this royal favour. Trials, however, went hand in hand with these distinctions. And according to his own testimony, he became thereby more zealous and more energetic in the pulpit; yea, the more he had to suffer from the hate and ill-will of his enemies, the more he endeavoured to receive, and to overflow with, God's grace and love me adduce the following proof.

* That is, the policy of sequestration exercised against the manorial rights of the nobility.

On the 17th Sunday after Trinity, 1690, he preached in the Cathedral near the castle. Their Majesties were present. The rubric prescribes a sermon on the holiness of the Sabbath. Swedberg followed this command faithfully. To preach about hallowing the Sabbath, without at the same time preaching about not hallowing it, would be difficult for any one to do, but this was still more difficult on the present occasion. That the holiness of the Sabbath was violated, he dared to ascribe, in the first place, to those whose business it was to exercise some care and watchfulness in enforcing the royal orders, but who did not perform their duty. He could scarcely have made his sermon more trenchant, if he had had to preach it at this day, when the marching of soldiers and going to theatres are the order, or rather the disorder, of the Sabbath-day. Who will dare entirely to exculpate him from the weakness of having in his zeal thought of a certain person,--a sin which not unfrequently mars the purest zeal?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 110 But enough, there was one present who considered himself thus reflected on--it was the chief-governor, His Escellency, Count Chr. Gyllenstjerna. He took up the matter very warmly, and the vindictive looks which during the sermon he fastened upon Swedberg, were the harbingers of what was soon to follow. Before the sun could go down upon his wrath, he went to the first royal chaplain Wallin, and took out a summons against the scolding preacher,--that on the following day he should appear and justify himself before the Chapter. Through the Count's secretary Collin he was accordingly accused before the Chapter of the Cathedral. In agreement with chapter 6. of the Royal Statutes, he was to lose his possessions, life, and honour--enough, indeed, for one condemnatory sermon. Swedberg was called in, and he requested permission to answer the points of accusation in writing. His Excellency drew up a charge containing the following points, which were presented to Swedberg: 1. That his Majesty during the sermon Bad his royal eyes constantly fixed upon him, likewise the other lords; 2. That the King during dinner made some remarks upon the sermon. His Excellency also desired Swedberg to state a single fact, known to His Excellency, which he did not at once take in hand. This was accompanied by a communication from the Consistory of the town, in which His Excellency was warmly thanked for the great assistance and help he had given, whenever an application was made to him. Swedberg insisted that "His Excellency should appear in person," and declared himself ready to answer for what he had preached. He insisted on this principally because His Excellency had accused him in a matter which concerned the whole clergy. On Oct. 29, Swedberg appeared with his defence, but His Excellency did not make his appearance. The president of the ecclesiastical court was prejudiced against Swedberg; and when he uttered hard words and threats against him, Swedberg told him to remember the dignity of his position, and not to indulge in invectives against either of the parties. "I protest," he said, "once for all against everything that has thus far been brought forward in this matter, for the following two reasons.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 111 First, because the law of the Church requires that every one who has any case to bring before the Chapter, should appear in person; and Secondly, because the pretended proofs of the governor-in-chief were accepted by the chapter without being deposed upon oath, which is never omitted even in the smallest matter of justice. Besides, all priests have by a, solemn oath pledged themselves to keep the law of the Church in all particulars, which yet they forego, e. g, in the order that baptisms should take place publicly in Church, which the authorities pass over in silence." He said further, "Although faith, and law, and sacred pledges may be forgotten by others, and set aside, Set we priests ought to keep them inviolate. We priests, I say it sobbing, who with our hands upon the Lord's glorious Bible, with bent knees, at the Lord's alter, and in the presence of the holy angels, have by a solemn oath pledged ourselves to keep the law of the Church. With that hand, I say it sobbing, which we should lift up to God in prayer, with that hand with which we should bless God's people, the little children in baptism. It mere better, indeed, never to take an oath at all, than to become such scandalous perjurers. For me priests must live in accordance with our oath, and not according to the manners and customs of the people, according to law, and not according to our likes and dislikes." Gyllenstjerna's answer came in on Nov. 5, but his not appearing personally he escused by alleging indisposition. In his answer he asks for some further information. The same he did again, in a paper of the 26th of the same month. He could not help considering his honour and reputation attacked by Swedberg, when he spoke of some one taking pay, and not doing his duty, and when he added injury to his unbecoming behaviour, in publicly attacking a person, without first, according to the law of the Church, going, and speaking to him of his faults in private. For this reason also Gyllenstjerna insisted, that Swedberg on account of this sermon, "should recant in public, and retract his words in the same place in which he had spoken them; and as to the rest, that he should receive an appropriate reproof and well-deserved correction from the Consistory." Swedberg retorted, 1. That he had never meant His Excellency personally; 2. and with regard to the other points, it was not the duty of priests, to report cases of disorder to His Excellency, &c.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 112 The Consistory insisted that the matter should be closed, and counselled a reconciliation. On Jan. 21, 1691, the president of the consistory and Isogus went to His Excellency, and on behalf of the Consistory endeavoured to move him to a reconciliation. He showed himself inclined, and "inasmuch as Swedberg did not mean nor single him out in particular, but as a just and zealous priest exposed sons and shortcomings in general in his castigation," therefore His Excellency was willing to forget "what had happened, leaving it in the option of the Consistory to give an official correction to Swedberg, so that in future, in exposing sin, he should select his words more carefully."

Another picture of the times ought to be added to this serious affair, which we shall relate here. The Church law of Charles XI was not five years old, and yet had been transgressed to such a degree, that, as we heard Swedberg observe in his defence, it had become the general custom in towns--although it was a breach of the law--for the baptism of children to take place in private houses, and not in the Church. It happened about this time that a daughter was born to Swedberg. He accordingly went up to the King and asked him humbly, whether he should have his child baptized according to the fashion of Stockholm, or according to the law of the Church. The King could not, without contradicting himself, answer otherwise than, "according to the law of the Church." "Yes, but I cannot do so, because in that case I shall get neither a priest nor godparents." The King was pleased with Swedberg's boldness, and so interpreted it, as if he invited the King himself to be godfather. The royal marshal was appointed to represent the King. The Queen was invited also, and consented. Nevertheless, Isogus refused to baptize the child. Swedberg was, therefore, obliged to lodge a complaint on the subject before Count Johan Stenbock, the royal marshal, who with the following sharp and severe words reproved the conduct of the rebellious priest: "Are you too good to baptize a child, when I in the King's place am godfather? What kind of priest are you who are unwilling to observe the law of the Church? How can you claim to judge other trespassers of the law?" The baptism consequently took place.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 113 But in the door of the vestry stood Schlifer, another priest, "one of the right kind" who asked jeeringly: "What sort of comedy are you playing there?" Swedberg who had heard the latter part of his speech, answered: "God shall one of these days play comedy with you, if you call this holy work and this godly act a comedy!"

What encouragement, but at the same time also what temptation to self-exaltation, does there not lie in such marks of favour, as the above, which were shown to Swedberg! There is still more reason for such an exclamation in the promise His Majesty made him one day: "Ask of me what you will, and you shall have it." This was an instance of royal favour, such as few besides him have ever experienced; it also was a fiery trial through which he had to pass, and which few have endured as wellas he. "From that day," so he confesses, "I became more serious and more earnest in everything I spoke and in everything I represented, so that I never asked for anything, either for myself or for my family; not even a half farthing's worth;" but he asked for other deserving men, as well as for the needy, whose cause he advocated in his most approved style, and his petitions were always granted; he also spoke in favour of schools, academies, churches, and for the purchase of godly books. "When I found that I had ever freer access to His Majesty, I prayed to God fervently, that I might not exalt myself in consequence, nor abuse this favour; but that I might make use of it for the honour of God's name, for the service of His Church, and for the sake of the common welfare, performing faithfully the duties of my office, knowing the inconstancy of royal favour, especially when enemies and envious persons find something to insinuate and to gossip about. On this account I observed the following two rules at court: first, never to meddle in anything that did not belong to my office, and least of all in political or worldly matters; secondly, never to speak ill of any person, not even of my worst enemy or persecutor." There is not a shadow of doubt that Swedberg kept his word; and it was no small matter he had proposed to himself. When he was asked for his advice, in appointing any one to an office or occupation, it might well happen that he did not always propose the fittest person, but certainly always the one of whose fitness and merit he was himself convinced.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 114 His own words are: AWhen his Majesty asked me for a suitable clergyman for some pastorate, and I mentioned one whom I knew well, saying, he was of the olden times and neither frivolous nor trifling, then he was quickly called, and appointed by a royal order: Thus many a one, not knowing how it happened, received a rich and fine living."

Let us now follow Swedberg to the place where he remained the shortest time, but where he spent his happiest hours. This was at Vinger, whither he removed before the summer of 1692. We have already seen how soon his affections entwined around the members of this country church. As for the rest me may let Swedberg himself describe his relations with these people, and the satisfaction he experienced there. "The affection and love which existed between the congregation and myself can scarcely be described. They sufficiently manifested their good-will towards me by pulling down the old dilapidated parsonage, and building in its stead a new one with many comfortable rooms, without any expense to myself. I received there so many marks of kindness and affection, that scarcely a day passed without their providing me richly with everything necessary for housekeeping. At first this pleased me very much, but it afterwards fairly oppressed and scared me." It went so far that he could with good conscience say to them, "You have entertained me as an angel." And we may safely add, they had good cause for doing so. In their affection for him he had a rich compensation among other things for the benefits he bestowed on the widow and children of his predecessor. He not only allowed them the use of the parsonage-house, fields, and meadows, with everything belonging thereto for a year, but he surrendered to them a half of the income, and paid all their taxes. "Nor did I lose anything by doing so," said he; "for I am firmly convinced, that more blessings and riches accrue from the prayers and petitions of widows, and of the fatherless and afflicted, than from the largest pastorate."

Before accompanying Swedberg to the new and more extended sphere of action to which he was soon called by the King's favour, we wish to give his account of one of his predecessors at Vingker, J. Baazius, who died in 1651 Archbishop of Upsal. "Dr. Baazius came to Vingker to let the people hear him, so that they might say whether they wished him for their minister.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 115 He was a pious and dignified preacher, and had formerly been Queen Christina's royal chaplain. After the service, he asked the people how they liked him. They all kept silence. He asked them again, but received no answer. He asked them a third time, but still they remained silent. He then said, 'I see you do not like me, I will not therefore remain. I was sent hither by the government and my bishop, or I should not have come.' An old grey-haired man their rose, and said, 'Thank God, you have a heard, you shall be welcome.' Baazius said 'What do you mean by my having a beard?' The peasant answered,' They said that you were a child; this is no congregation of children. God be praised you have a beard; you shall be welcome. Our respects to the Queen, and say we are obliged to her.'" This Swedberg heard from Baazius himself.

Swedberg was in Stockholm, where he had gone to remove his furniture to Vingker, when he was surprized by receiving from the King an appointment to the third theological professorship in Upsal. The appointment was followed by a letter, in which the King expressed his "gracious hope that Swedberg would accept this charge, as a token of God's dispensation and the King's favour; that he would consequently lay aside private considerations, and consent to accept this office, and with his customary industry and zeal propagate pure evangelical doctrine," &c. The King knew his man, even as to his custom of "praying to be excused." He was faithful to this habit even in the present case; but "notwithstanding my entreaties to be excused," he says, "I had to give way." He, nevertheless, thought that on the present occasion there were more reasons why his desire to remain where he was should be granted, than when he begged to be released from his appointment to Westers. He represented to himself that for ten years he had been unaccustomed to all academical duties; as in the case of Westers, he also took into account the differences and controversies which then prevailed "among the theologians" in Upsal, among whom was one (Bilberg), who did not even follow God's Word to the extent of attributing to it authority in natural things, defending the opinion that the Sacred Scripture is only addressed to the "vulgar."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 116 He presented these reasons to the King; but when he found that neither was of any avail, he said to him, "Well then, in the Lord's name, as it is useless to refuse, it shall be so. I will, with God's help, do my best; only I must ask your Majesty to stand by me, and protect me from intriguing enemies." "That we will do," said the King. Swedberg then stretched out his hand saying, "Your Majesty will give me your hand upon this," and the King did so. On the 10th of November Swedberg entered on his new function at the University. He did so with his heart beating between fear and hope. He was afraid of the odium theologicum, a "not unfrequent guest" in universities, especially with the members of that faculty, whose principal duty it should be to repress it. His fear was not ungrounded. A report had been circulated that, "if this pietist came, no student would be allowed any longer to wear either a sword or a wig." But the hope, that by gentleness he might be able to overcome his enemies, was not altogether disappointed. He had other things to do than busy himself with the migs of the students, and if he did interfere, this did not prevent him from securing the affection of the young men, who generally have a warm feeling in favour of everything noble and honest. Swedberg relates several instances of the young men giving him proofs of their gratitude. It was easy enough, therefore, for the King to keep his promise, of protecting him from intriguing enemies. The proofs of the royal favour still increased. About a month after his arrival in Upsal he was appointed Rector of the University. He accordingly filled that office dnring the year of jubilee, which was celebrated on Feb. 27, 1693, and following days, in remembrance of the Council of Upsal.* In this capacity he prepared one of the programmes for the festival. Respecting his share in this feast we shall say more elsewhere.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 117 Here we wish to mention only 331 instance of his zeal as Rector of the University, as gathered from his own account. It was in the matter of the printer Curio, who for many years "claimed a considerable sum of money from the university." Curio gained his suit in the Supreme Court, and the University mill was seized and kept in pledge "until the last penny should be paid. Through the machinations of a certain individual (O. Rudbeck) the time for making an appeal had gone by." The professors prevailed on Swedberg to undertake a journey to the King. He had an audience of His Majesty at six o'clock in the morning, and gave him an account of the matter, including Rudbeck's machinations. At nine o'clock he appeared before the Privy Council. At twelve o'clock he received a favourable answer to his petition. And thus by Swedberg's assistance the University was in a few hours relieved of its debt, and of the costly process of litigation, which it had carried on for nearly twenty years. It did not however pay either him or any one else a penny. "Thus," he adds, "one ought to work for the generalgood, and ought not to respect his own comfort or advantage."

* At the Council of Upsal in 1593, the principles of the Reformation were formally adopted as the religion of the country.

Before Swedberg had entered upon his pastorate at Vingker, he was appointed a member of the Committee, which the King had established in 1686, for the purpose of revising and improving the translation of the Bible. The work of revision progressed with great rapidity, indeed too rapidly to inspire confidence in the result. It was commenced in August 1692, and finished by the 22nd of June of the next year. Swedberg's zeal was indefatigable, and showed itself both in hurrying forward the work and in furnishing the necessary means. A German printer, George Burchardi, probably from Lbeck, who had settled in Stockholm, was sent abroad for paper, printing apparatus, workmen, &c. Swedberg advanced him 50,000 dalers in copper belonging to his wife and children, the King guaranteeing him against loss. Burchardi came back with twelve journeymen and one foreman; and a large quantity of excellent paper from Holland, Germany, and Basle was sent after him. The preparations were certainly great, yet the whole undertaking miscarried. Burchardi with his machinery waited in vain.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 118 The whole of this as well as a later work was shipwrecked, partly from scruples with regard to its utility, and partly from jealousy. Objections were brought forward by the chairman of the committee, E. Benzelius [the elder], who opposed the changes that were suggested, on the ground of their being too sweeping, declaring that in the Swedish Bible "nothing whatever required to be changed." The jealousy of other members of the committee no doubt came to the support of their chairman's opinion. Other revisions, and the King's representations to bring the matter to a close, were alike fruitless, and the King died leaving the work unaccomplished. When the Carolinian Bible appeared under his successor, its emendations were almost entirely limited to orthographicnl changes. Swedberg was very much pained that the work, on which he had laboured with so much industry and self-sacrifice, did not lead to any better result.

Swedberg was little more successful in his attempt to improve the Swedish hymn and psalm book, which constitutes one of the brightest pages in his life. In respect to this work, a different result might have been expected, from the co-operation of two such men as Swedberg and Spegel. Spegel had previously, on his own account, made some improvements in the old psalm book. Hjrne, a learned man, and, according to Swedberg's judgment, skilled in Swedish poetry, thought of making some contributions, to supply some of the defects with which the psalm book was charged. Swedberg and Hjrne, who was a friend of his, drew up a plan for its improvement. They elaborated their plan in a private dwelling, unobserved by others; "for if it had become known what they were engaged upon, envy and jealousy would at once have opposed the work." They selected for their co-labourer, a common friend, Boethius, Dean of More, a judicious and pious man, who had to suffer evil for good. Every week he sent them his remarks on the psalms on which they were engaged. They also asked J. Kolmodin, the acting Bishop of Gothland, to associate himself with them, and towards the close he contributed to the work. The most important contributions, however, they expected from Spegel.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 119 He joined in their work, and lent to his brethren his own hymns, each of which was provided with its own tune, several of which were introduced into the work. At last Swedberg persuaded even Prof. P. Lagerlf, "who possessed the greatest technical skill in everything belonging to poetry," to assist them. The principles by which Swedberg thought they ought to be governed in this important matter were these: "The old hymns and psalms I consider it most useful not to meddle much with. They appear to me like old ducats and rix-dalers, which are, it is true, rudely coined, uneven, and unseemly, but yet are of good metal and value. I take more freedom with the new hymns."

As long as the work was carried on privately by these devoted and vigorpus men, nothing occurred to interfere with its progress; but it was different when it passed into the hands of committees. To a committee Swedberg himself submitted his work. All this was done between 1691 and 1693. When it was nearly finished, he requested of the King that the committee, to whom the revision of the Bible had been referred, should report on the psalm book. He cannot therefore be charged with self-interest, or a desire to avenge himself on the committee that rejected his revision of the Bible. His request was granted. But not satisfied with this, he requested also from the King that the whole work should be submitted to the Chapter of the Cathedral at Upsal. He mentioned all the points which he desired to see fulfilled in the printing of the hymn book, and stated all the particulars. All of which were approved by the Chapter of Upsal, who suggested only a few alterations. The King was delighted, and at once ordered that the psalm book should be printed. But Swedberg was not yet satisfied. The Diet was to meet soon, and he proposed that the work should be submitted to the House of the Clergy. The matter was referred to a committee consisting of Bishops Rudbeck of Skara, Skytte of Calmer, Gezelius of bo, acting Bishop Kolmodin, and Deans Duan of Kping and Forselius of Alingss. Even they made only a few alterations; and all the Houses approved of the work. There was, therefore, no longer any objection to its being printed, and accordingly in 1694-95 four different editions of it were printed, one in quarto, one in octave, and two others in smaller sizes.

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But scarcely had the psalm-book left the press, when it was severely attacked, and suppressed. Bishop Carlsson, by whom Swedberg had been ordained into the ministry, considered himself slighted in not having been placed on the committee, by which the psalm book was to be approved. This was really the heresy, to which he took objection. The psalm book was charged with being heretical. Professor Crispin Jernfelt of Dorpat wrote some derogatory remarks upon it. Bishop Carlsson was Jernfelt's friend and brother-in-law, and on account of this relationship made common cause with him. They were joined by Lang, acting Bishop of Oesel, who afterwards became Bishop of Linkping, and he began a hot and dangerous warfare, where there was no enemy to contend with. They said that the King, together with Swedberg, intended to introduce a new religion into the country. These charges were examined by Archbishop Svebilius, Bishop Carlsson's father-in-law, by Bishop E. Benzelius of Strengns, and several other theologians; and after a lengthened discussion on the Committee's report, in the presence of the King, by which Swedberg's innocence was clearly established, His Majesty, nevertheless, ordered the whole edition of the "unfortunate Swedberg psalm book"--as this was ever after called--to be seized and detained, until the bishops of the realm should meet, and either adopt or condemn it. By this new turn of affairs Swedberg lost upwards of 30,000 dalers in copper. Some of these books were made use of in the Swedish Church in America; but the greater part became mouldy and mildewed in Skeppsholm.

The meeting of the bishops took place in 1695, and after examining all the hymns one by one, they raised the following points of accusation: that the book had been printed before a proper notice of it had been given to the clergy generally; that several psalms which the clergy had approved were excluded; that, on the other hand, many were introduced which had not been previously submitted; that there were too many hymns (483), in addition to the Latin psalms approved in the year 1695, which had been retained in the larger editions; and lastly, that some prayers were added, which had the appearance of containing erroneous doctrine.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 121 Such were the points upon which they rested the condemnation of a work which had been prepared with so much care and judgment. The prayer to which they took erception had been printed before in the appendix to the psalm-book. There the Saviour, our Mediator, is called upon, as being not only the Son of God, but also the Son of man. The orthodox bishops thought this savoured of Arianism.

Judgment had been passed, and was irrevocable. Who can wonder that this affair deeply grieved Swedberg's noble soul, especially when he reflected upon the spirit by which his opponents were animated? They tried to find some cause of accusation against himself, but were not able; it would not have been very difficult for him to bring charges against them; for most of them furnished grounds for such in abundance.

The King consented to the resolution of the Committee against Swedberg, but did not agree with them in his heart, and "there was many an honest councillor who did not approve of their judgment." Swedberg knew this, and hoped to obtain indemnification for the material losses he had suffered by the failure of a work which at first had such fair prospects. He therefore went to His Majesty, and represented to him hem, without any fault of his own, he had come into this position, which was rendered more painful from the circumstance that the money he had advanced belonged to miners. At his request a court of investigation was appointed by the King, by which he was declared innocent. The King then ordered that 20,000 dalers in copper should be paid to him, which was the value of the copies that had been seized at Burchardi's. The secretary of state wanted to pay him with an order on Lapland--perhaps that he might clear, something for himself by this arrangement. But the King would not listen to his proposal. On the contrary, on hearing Swedberg's remonstrance, he ordered the whole sum to be paid to him at once. The remaining 30,000 dalers, which he had invested in this work, he lost through Burchardi, "who was ruined himself, and was ever afterwards somewhat disturbed in mind." Amid all the opposition which Swedberg encountered from men, he comforted himself with the rich grace of the Lord, "who also restored to him with full interest all he had lost."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 122 "Yes, thank God," he exclaims, "so sure is it, that no one remains needy in the end, who bravely devotes himself to the Lord's honour, to the spread of His Word, and the salvation of souls in His Church!"

Was it from pure forgetfulness, or from being scrupulously observant of the returning season, that the Bishops of Sweden celebrated the jubilee at Upsal, so soon after the defeat of the eloquent Upsal professor, in the work he had done for the improvement of the most important church books of Sweden? To answer this question, it may be useful to glance at the part he took in the jubilee in 1693. He was ordered to preach the jubilee sermon. It was delivered on the 3rd of March, in the presence of the King, the Princes, and the royal council. His text was taken from Psalm xxxiv. 7, in reference to the fifteen theological doctors appointed on this occasion. In the course of the sermon, he directed attention especially to the symbol of the ring with which the doctors were invested. "Had I been at the goldsmith's," he said, "when these rings were ordered, I should have given instructions to mark three L's upon them, so that the doctors might ever have them before their eyes. I do not mean hereby, that doctors ought to be Lazy, Laggard, and Lustful, taking a delight in the pomps and vanities of this world. But these three L's should signify Learning,* Life, and long-suffering; and hereby is meant that doctors should be apt to teach and call sinners to repentance; that they should live uprightly, leading a blameless, watchful, and sober life; not drunken, nor bitter, nor covetous; and that they should be willing to suffer, for they can only be faithful doctors by being faithful disciples of Jesus Christ, and enduring many things for His sake." This, as it came from Swedberg's lips, was no mere play upon words; for upon the whole circle of his life, these three L's, which he here extolled, were deeply imprinted.

* In Swedish, as in some other languages, the same word means both to learn and to teach.

Swedberg's colleagues endeavoured to brand him as a heretic. The King's favour had sped him on in his career of preferment.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 123 He received the pastorate of Danmark, where he had officiated as a student, for a prebend, and as a means of increasing the salary of the third professorship. In the year 1694 he was appointed first professor of theology, and dean of the cathedral of Upsal. Into this office he was installed by Svebilius, on the 2nd of May, 1695, and consequently about the time the hymn book was under consideration, when Svebilius helped to throw suspicion on his doctrine. On the 15th of the following June, Swedberg defended his theological disputation. This took place in the presence of the King, some of the royal councillors, and others high in authority. Swedberg rejoiced at his preferment with a gladness which not all experience who are advanced to high places. "It is incredible and indescribable," he says, "what courage, consolation, and freedom are derived from a pure and lawful vocation; and, on the other hand, how much those are disheartened who have not this comfort." As professor he lectured on Hosea and Joel, on Paul's epistles to the Romans and the Ephesians, to Timothy and Titus, on the Hebrews, and also on the epistles of Peter, John, and James; privately he lectured in St. Eric's chapel, which existed at that time, on Durius' moral theology. Theology, both when delivered from the professor's chair and from the pulpit of the Church, was with him a matter of conscience. At the close of every lecture he exhorted the students to the exercise of a sober Christianity. He often presided in theological disputations, and not unfrequently he had professors of the Gymnasium as replicants. As pastor and preacher he was indefatigable. He preached every Friday, as well as morning and evening on Sundays, and, with scarcely any exception, on church festivals, when he was in town. Between the early prayers and the morning service he held an examination on the catechism. These examinations were attended, not only by the youth of the town, but also by the students, both nobles and commoners. They were very well attended, especially during Lent. "All came," he writes, "gladly and of their own accord; and even the parents attended without being asked, and encouraged their children by their presence." He never took the contribution made at the confession.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 124 Whatever was received on these occasions he left to the chaplains. He looked upon it as a shameless abuse, when anything was demanded from the communicants before going to the Lord's table. "If Peter," he said, "should rise again, he would say, Be ye consumed with all your money." During Swedberg's term of office at the University, perfect concord and unity prevailed among the academical teachers. There can be no doubt that his presence and activity greatly contributed to bring about this happy result. "During my abode in Upsal," he writes, "which was over ten years, I experienced this grace from God, that there was such unity and trust among the teachers, that there never was any dissension. I lived in the large square, and I can affirm that, during these ten years, I did not hear ten brawls or disturbances in the streets. When both my dwellings were burnt down, in the great conflagration on the night after ascension day, the students manifested towards me so much kindness, carrying out and saving everything except the fixtures, that, thank God, I suffered little harm; and such pure affection they constantly exhibited towards me during the whole of my stay amongst them. I can also assert that, during the whole of this time, His Majesty never received an unfavourable report from the university, although previously these reports had been very unfavourable indeed."

With regard to the two dwellings mentioned here, one of them was "a large, new stone house with a costly establishment, in the large square, which he several years before (1690-1695) had built for himself. It is interesting to hear him speak about the building of this new house. "I know, and I can testify--for I was always present--that not the least work was done, that not a single stone was raised, with sighs or a troubled mind, but all was done cheerfully and gladly. No complaint, no hard or disagreeable word was heard, no scoldings and no oaths were uttered." When the house was finished in the autumn of 1698, he inaugurated it by inviting and entertaining all the poor of the town. He and his wife and children waited upon them. Everything was done in an orderly manner, and this feast of charity was concluded with singing, prayer, thanbsgivingrg, and mutual blessing.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 125 When he saw this consumed by the flames, he did not fail to display that calm submission with which he bore all his misfortunes. Two days afterwards he wrote a detailed account of the fire to Princess Ulrica Eleonora; and in His letter he entreats the royal assistance, not so much for himself as for the other sufferers. In his usual pious manner he describes the cause and the effects of the conflagration. The cause he considers to have been "the many and grievous sins" of the people; he thinks also that in this conflagration it could be "seen and heard plainly that the fire of God's wrath was kindled. God's Word, and the preachings from it, are no longer of any avail among us; therefore God must preach to us in such a fearful and terrible manner." His own losses on this occasion he mentions only in passing. But he adds, "If only the Lord's own beautiful house (the cathedral) had been preserved! Our losses, although they are very great, can be repaired." In consideration of all this, he hopes that her Royal Highness, "from her well-known kindness and charity, will represent to His Majesty their necessities and misery, supporting her own prayers by the earnest entreaties of a shepherd for his unhappy flock, and by his groans and tears for the destruction of the beautiful temple, which had been an ornament to the whole country, and where many of the kings and noble families of Sweden had found a final resting place." He acknowledged the difficulty of providing means during the present warlike times, but "if no other means can be found but those enjoyed in Stockholm by the actors and actresses," he thinks they ought to be employed to help the distressed town. All the rest he leaves to the Princess to care for. This letter was signed: "Jesper Swediserg, an afflicted pastor and servant of the Church." Four days after this he received his appointment as Bishop.

Swedberg did not share the apprehensions which most of his order entertained, when they saw "the young lion" beginning his pranks, after the death of the old King. His own open and frank nature did not miscalculate, when he hoped to obtain a hearing from the famous hero-son, who himself possessed these qualities in so eminent a degree. This appeared even in the year 1699, in a matter which concerned the clergy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 126 A proposition had been made in the Diet of 1698, that in addition to the extraordinary tax of one-tenth of their income, which had been imposed upon the clergy, another tenth of that which had already been reduced, should be paid to the crown. The clergy of the archbishopric sent in their complaints to the Chapter in Upsal. Old Svebilius thought it was very unseasonable to inconvenience His Majesty at present, while he was so much occupied with his warlike preparations. The clergy ought to forbear, and wait until error ought to be pointed out; but if they were right, it the duty of the Chapter, as the natural advocate of the clergy, to lay their complaint before the King, while he was still at home. "If you are so bold," answered the other members of the Chapter, "then go yourself." The archbishop was a pious but timid man. "Bold I am," answered Swedberg, "whenever I can do anything belonging to my office, which it is desirable should be done. Give me my commission, and I shall go, trusting in God." The offer was no sooner made than accepted. This was in the beginning of 1699. The King was then in Kungsr. Spiedberg journeyed thither, and was referred to the Exchequer-College in Stockholm. There everything went on well, and the matter was referred to His Majesty for settlement. Swedberg then drew up a short petition to the King, and wrote after his name, "Genesis xlvii. 22." When the King noticed it, he asked, "What can be the meaning of this?" Piper answered: "This is probably his symbol." The passage was then looked up, and read. "Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion assigned them by Pharaoh, that they should eat (i. e. live upon) it." "Let the clergy alone," said His Majesty, "and let them have what they have been accustomed to have." This royal decree was confirmed in 1701. When Swedberg, as already observed, came to Kungsr (it was on Friday), "they were all fully occupied in getting up the necessary dresses and mummery for a masquerade, which was to be held the next day." He asked Strmner, the clergyman of the place: "Cannot your honour preach the masquerade out of the bends of the King and his lords?"

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 127 Strmner answered, that he could not. "Well then," said Swedberg "let me preach." This was accordingly done; and with his customary zeal he represented that the present was not the time to engage in such sport, and that the holiness of the Sabbath did not allow Christians to take part therein. "I am afraid" he said, "the end will be, that Sweden will never more forget the many bloody shirts in which she is clad." There was no masquerade on that day, nor on any day afterwards. Swedberg adds, "a zealous Samuel or Nathan is a sign of the country's welfare, but a flattering Urijah causes much misery."

We know that the clergy bore their full share of the extraordinary levies which the long Northern war required. An order had been issued, which was executed with great severity, by which every pastor was obliged to equip a dragoon, and every curate a foot soldier. It was natural that not only the clergy, but also the clerical office, should suffer from this infliction. But this order was given by a King who had an iron will; and to bring about a change in his resolution, a more than royal power was required. Such power, in a certain sense, was possessed by Swedberg. He accordingly summoned his courage, end, calling God to his aid, he wrote a "very serious and impressive" letter to Charles XII, who at the time was in Poland, in which he represented to him in strong terms the oppression under which the clergy laboured. This letter was dated Dec. 21, 1705. At first the members of the Chapter refused to attach their names to it, but at length they all signed it, when it was sent to the King. It was referred by His Majesty from Ravicz in 1706, to the Defence-commission, who were instructed to take the complaints of the Consistory into due consideration, and make it as easy for the clergy as possible. This relief however, was not gained, because the other Chapters had neglected to apply to the King at the same time as the Consistory of Skara, Swedberg himself had to suffer for his zeal; for the Defence-commission insisted on his equipping every year two dragoons, although, according to a royal order, all who had suffered from the conflagration in Upsal were to be exempt. Swedberg bore this without complaint, for "charity does not seek one's own good, but the good of others."

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"On the 21st of May, 1702, the royal decree came, by which my unworthy self was to become the Bishop of Skara. I had never expected this. It was the fourth royal decree I had received. And with a clear conscience I can declare before my God, who knows everything, that I never coveted this, never opened my mouth, and never stirred a step, still less gave a farthing, to obtain it. For I had always been an enemy of all importuning and bribery." It is thus, that Swedberg speaks of the last important turning-point in his life. This decree was dated from Prague, near Warsaw. On May 2, 1703, he presided at his disputation for obtaining the degree of doctor of theology, and on June 1st, he obtained his diploma during his absence. The day after he had occupied the chair at his disputation, which was a fast-day, he delivered his farewell sermon in Upsal. At the close of the service he was installed into the office of bishop by Benzelius, at the same time as Lars Norrman, who had at first been appointed his successor as dean of the cathedral of Upsal, but who was afterwards appointed Bishop of Gottenburg. On the 6th of July, Swedberg arrived in Brunsbo, which he called his Tusculanum. Here he hoped "to be able to do much good." And if many, not to say all, bishops had done half the good which he did, the outcry against the uselessness of the episcopal office, which is now so frequently raised, would never have been heard. Immediately after his accession to office he undertook journeys of visitation, in order to obtain a knowledge of the condition of the Church, such as every bishop ought to possess. This knowledge he increased by instituting a visitation every year. His duties as ephorus, or head of the gymnasium, he discharged with the same zeal and care. In this connection also we must mention that he was instrumental in establishing a printing-press in the cathedral town. There was no apprehension of its not being fully occupied as long as Swedberg lived; for few have committed more to the press than he, certainly few have printed a greater number of useful and able works. The report of his activity spread far and wide, and even reached the churches on the other side of the ocean.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 129 This requires a separate paragraph, which is the more necessary, as it will make us acquainted with a work, which only in later years has been appreciated to its full extent in our own country-namely, missionary work.

Swedberg's attention had been early directed to this object. From Edzardi, who was deeply interested in the conversion of the Jews, he had received the information, that in Stade there was a very ancient endowment, for the purpose of converting the heathen. The income from Stade, which was under the Swedish sovereignty, accrued then to the Swedish crown, and was applied for the purpose of assisting the nobility in making journeys. As the benefit of this endowment was at the time enjoyed by a worthless person, Edzardi was fully justified in asserting, that "very little use was then made of it for the purpose of converting the heathen." A letter from the distressed Swedes in America, asking for clergymen and good books, arrived in 1690, addressed to the post-master in Gottenburg. He forwarded the letter to the King. His Majesty summoned Swedberg (in 1695?) in order to obtain his advice. Swedberg reported his conversation with Edzardi, representing to the King the testamentary application of the endowment in Stade, and how it was abused. Edzardi proposed that this fund should be applied to the Jews; Swedberg now proposed that it should be applied to the conversion of the heathen among whom the Swedes were living. "Otherwise it will not be easy for you to give a good account of the administration of this trust." The King answered: "The means shall be provided, and they shall have clergymen, God's Word, and the necessary books--only select for me useful clergymen." Matters stood thus, when Swedberg came to Upsal, where he took up the matter with more zeal. A letter was now sent by the King to the Archbishop, requesting him to supply the desired clergymen, and stating that the King "would take care of their journey, and would supply their traveling-expenses." The Chapter of the cathedral was summoned, and Swedberg was instructed to select suitable clergymen from among the students.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 130 In the homiletic exercises, which Swedberg had among the students, he became acquainted with a candidate, Anders Rudman, whom he found suitable for the purpose. Rudman himself looked around for colleagues. Erik Bjrk, a student, was proposed and accepted, and by the royal order a third, Jones Aurn, was appointed. These were ordained into the ministry at Upsal, and were supplied by the King himself with the necessary funds for travelling. Bjrk laboured indefatigably for sixteen years in America. De promovenda fide christiana apud gentiles et Judos (for the promotion of the Christian faith among gentiles and Jews), ordered His Majesty their thanks for his Christian care, and in 1712, received Swedberg as one of their members. This trust he administered for the future with all possible zeal and self-sacrifice, so that he kept up an extensive correspondence with the American Church, whose Bishop he became; nor did he withhold from them severe words when they required it. It may be said that the Swedish-Lutheran missionary stations were in a flourishing condition, as long as he was at their head. This mission was continued until 1785, when the Swedish government withdrew their aid.


The attention which the above-named society in England paid to Swedberg, was due also to his episcopal care over the Swedish churches in Lisbon and London. The Swedish consul in the latter place, Joach de Besche, had made an application to him similar to that of the Church in America. The consul's request was complied with, and a very worthy clergyman, Magister Silvius, was sent there. The Swedish Church in London elected Swedberg as its Bishop in 1725.

Reverses and oppression alternated uninterruptedly in Swedberg's life with successes and distinctions. He had often to endure, with the clergy, persecutions and sufferings. At one time he had to defend them against the arrogance of the governor of the providence, who complied of the manner in which they discharged their duties. In the year 1712, the Bishop's seat in Brunsbo was burnt down; "in the course of two hours the barns and out-houses with all their contents were reduced to ashes," and all Swedberg's books and manuscripts were destroyed.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 131 In this affliction also he poured out his sorrow in a letter to Queen Ulrica Eleonora. Herein he said, "I acknowledge sorrowfully my sins, which have provoked the wrath of God; I am thankful, however, that I am able to bear it with such good courage." Quite characteristic are the following remarks: "The fire had reached my study, which was in one blaze when we came up; all my books and manuscripts were consumed. But what was wonderful, Johannes Arndt's "Garden of Paradise," and my own "Exercises in the Catechism," were found lying in the ashes, with their binding only partially burnt; from which I conclude, that God did not altogether reject my insignificant work, and I am therefore cheered to labour on as before, according to the measure of grace with which I am endowed. I also saved my little pocket Bible, which I had had constantly with me for forty-four years, and which to me was worth as much as a hundred volumes." He found "his heart much relieved", by the permission he received to write about his affairs to her Majesty. No less characteristic is the close of the letter, from which me quote the following: "I had also ready a tract about the Northern Lion, on the basis of a dream, which a councillor in Schmalkalden had on this subject in 1526. In his vision he saw everything that has hitherto occurred to our gracious King, and he promised a good and blessed result for all Christendom, a result, in fact, by which not only the Turks, but also the heathen and the Jews, would be converted to Jesus. If God grant me life and grace I shall work up this vision a second time." The letter was written on the estate of Ranacker, whither Swedberg removed after the conflagration. Brunsbo was re-built the same year more splendidly than before. Over the gateway he placed the following words: Therefore now let it please thee to bless the house of thy servant. 2 Samuel vii. 29.

Swedberg was singularly unfortunate in being visited by fires. He did not, so far as we can learn, experience any private losses from the great fire which raged at Skara in 1710; but it caused him great sorrow and anxiety, because the new building of the gymnasium was totally destroyed, and it interfered very materially with the restoration of the cathedral. That this was accomplished within five years, was, according to Gezelius, entirely due to Swedberg's "industry and zeal."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 132 In 1730 he was again visited by fire, by which, as in 1712, he lost everything he possessed. This time the effect upon him was unmistakable, inasmuch as it affected his health. But we have now to record some reverses of a different kind, by which his patience, and at the same time his energy, were severely tried.

When Swedberg at the beginning of 1718 sought an audience of the King, who at the time was residing in Lund, the report was circulated that he not only was denied admittance to the royal presence, but also received an answer from one of the King's servants, which he took so much to heart, that he died in consequence. This report was spread orally and by writing. But Swedberg had not only gained admittance, but the King had also enjoyed his conversation so much, that he had invited him to dine at the royal table. His principal business was to have the salaries of the schoolmasters raised and the heavy burdens of the clergy reduced. There was also with him a teacher from Skara, Magister Wahlberg. Moreover, he desired to have a clergyman appointed for America, in the place of Prost Sandel, who on his representation received the pastorate of Hedemora, which he himself in his younger days had refused; and besides, he had to report the "miserable conduct" of an obstinate clergyman, who was unwilling to be ruled by the Consistory. Altogether, he remarked, his journey was by no means "a pleasure-trip." He arrived in Lund on Saturday, and was joyfully welcomed by Bishop Linnerius and his devoted wife, the daughter of Svebilius, at whose house he received "board and lodging." Next day, immediately after the morning service, he paid his respects to the King. His Majesty came out at once, and held out his hand, saying, "You are not at all changed since I saw you last, only your hair has turned very grey." Swedberg added, "the address which I had prepared for the occasion was consequently cut short, and no compliments were exchanged." He described afterwards, how not a word was spoken at the King's table, how the King ate quickly, and "how he drank water very freely, no matter how rich the various dishes;" further, how upon the King's command "he had to drink his own welcome in a goblet of Spanish wine," at which he observed "that such being the case, it was difficult for him to become ill or to die with chagrin and disappointment, everything being so very delightful."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 133 After dinner he was called in, and "talked with the King respecting faith," when Swedberg remarked that many contented themselves with the first and second paragraphs of the "great faith" (stor-tron), but that they would have nothing to do with the third paragraph, with "sanctification and a holy life." In such a strain Swedberg "discoursed for a long time, and very frankly." On the following Sunday he preached. "On the same day after the afternoon-service, I was admitted again into the King's private room. There the Crown-prince entreated the King, that I might be allowed to keep my coach; for about this time the King had summoned all the men-servants in the kingdom to be dragoons and soldiers, and among them my servants also. The King did not answer, and it was vain to beg and entreat for it." Swedberg thereupon began to speak frankly and openly on some serious matters, especially about the burdens which were laid upon the clergy, who suffered most about this time.

It is wonderful in how many things Swedberg was in advance of his age, and even partly of ours. For instance, he regarded the pillory as a scandal; he thought that it promoted rather than checked sin; and yet this scandal was continued among us for more than a century and a half afterwards. Who enforced the observance of the Sabbath more than he? Moreover, he expressed his ideas on this subject with a freedom and frankness which, under any other government than that of the two Charleses, might have had serious consequences. The doctrine of expediency seemed to have in him its greatest opponent, and yet he expressed some thoughts with regard to marriage, from which it appears as if he favoured such a doctrine. In his efforts for the purity of the Swedish language he was such a radical, that even in this matter he was opposed by the champions of the aristocracy. All these subjects came up during his stay in Lund, and he expressed himself concerning them in such a peculiar and characteristic manner, that we cannot refrain from quoting his own words.

"Another Sunday," he said, "I again dined at the royal table. Even then I did not notice anything unfavourable, but on the contrary everything was gentle, gracious, and pleasant.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 134 I then asked leave to go to Malm, and talk to Esther Jnsdotter, and the daughter of the clergyman in Bara parish, who was possessed." His Majesty then said: "Esther Jnsdotter allowed a cavalry soldier to act badly towards her, who, while she nursed him, caused her to be with child; this was not acting properly. I answered: "Marriage is a holy ordinance of God. If two persons who have arrived at the age of discretion [som rda sig sjelfva], agree to marry one another, then this is a marriage in the sight of God, and results in pregnancy. But the bans and the consecration by the priest are for the sake of decency, and these are ordinances of men. On this account I shall go to Malm.

"Afterwards I came back to Lund, when I humbly waited upon the King again, end reported the result of my journey, and how I had spoken with the two women, remarking that in the parsonage of Bara there were sad and fearful sins." "What kind of sins?" asked the King. "To reveal them," I answered, "would cost this," pointing to my head. A short time afterwards I again presented myself before the King, on account of my chief errand concerning the compensation of the clergy, and the permission that they might retain their servants. The King then commenced speaking with me about our Swedish language, a subject which was introduced by my "Shibboleth," which the King had daily upon his table. His Majesty evinced great interest in this subject, and insisted that all foreign words ought to be eschewed, and that the Swedish language ought to be spoken and written in its purity. He asked, "Do they talk Swedish in France? Why then should we talk French in Sweden?" I said that my "Shibboleth" had been opposed by the Vice-president, Dr. Urban Hjrne, and that I had heard he had written and published a book against it, in which he was very personal, but that I had not yet seen it. The King then went into his private room, and showed me Hjrne's book, stitched and printed to page 152. I then said: "I shall go before the University here in Lund with my "Shibboleth," prepared to controvert any one who chooses to come and oppose anything written therein, and we shall then see whether anything contained in it can be disproved."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 135 "Yes, yes, do that," said the King, who seemed pleased with the idea. The King finally lent me his copy of Hjrne's book with a good deal of ceremony. A few days afterwards, in the morning, I returned into His Majesty's hands the book of Hjrne, observing that no one had such an unsteady and confused style as he exhibited in this treatise. If it depended upon him, our noble language would be completely spoiled; this I shall prove in the proper place. His book too is filled with personal and scurrilous remarks, which are altogether forbidden in the royal orders and laws; I expressed my astonishment, that the Censor should have allowed such a, book to pass. All this I had written on half a sheet, and fastened it in the beginning of the book. A distinguished gentleman who was present observed, that the book would have been more scandalous if the Censor had not remonstrated; moreover it was not quite finished. I then took my humble leave, His Majesty being very gracious, shaking my hand, and wishing me a safe journey."

The favour with which Swedberg was regarded by the two Kings, was, if possible, greater with Queen Ulrica Eleonora. He had corresponded with her while she was Princess, and the correspondence was continued after she was raised to the throne. But the great confidence on the one hand engendered suspicion on the other. Notwithstanding his liberal views in general, Swedberg was royalist in a sense that no one need to blush for; but if this constituted a virtue while such Kings as Charles XI and Charles XII sat upon the throne, it became a great fault in the eyes of many, after the sceptre had passed into the hands of Ulrica Eleonora. He was suspected of attempting to sow discord between her and the Diet which assembled for the memorable session of 1719. These suspicions became more and more audible. That they troubled very much the heart of the aged such honourable man, appears from a defence which he wrote to the members of the Diet, and from a letter to the Queen, which were dated respectively the 4th and 26th of April, of the same year. In his defence he declared that "as long as Psalms xvii and xxvii stood in the Psalm book, no one, however great and powerful he imagined himself to be, would dare to touch a hair of his head."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 136 This treatment of him, he said, was not begun yesterday, or the day before yesterday, but long since, at least thirty years ago. He then alluded to several persecutions he had had to suffer, but which could not prevent his preferment, and at the close he burst out in these sublime words: "At least I know that my angel has received a command from God to have in readiness a crown, which he will place upon my head, when I depart hence, and enter into God's kingdom. Meanwhile I shall sit down in my honourable place with greater courage, joy, and renown, if possible, than before."

In his letter to the Queen he recalled to her mind what he had told her orally, when she succeeded to the throne, about some remarks which her father, Charles XI, had made to him, not long before his death: "I have now reigned in Sweden twenty-three years," he said; "when I first became King, I had faith in all men, now I have faith in none;" whereupon Swedberg answered, "To have faith in all men is not well, for there are many wicked persons among them." The King said, "They are far too many." Swedberg resumed, "But to have faith in none, is not well either; for there are still honest and well-disposed men left;" Upon which the King observed, "Now it is too late." This incident, which Swedberg had mentioned to Charles XII, he communicated also to the Queen with an admonition, to test those to whose counsel she entrusted herself; and this remark it was, which had been explained to Swedberg's injury.

The opposition to Swedberg had, however, still deeper root. The powerful order of the nobility could not forget the severity with which he chastised their pride and their desire for orders and distinctions, and their shameful abuse of the rights of patronage which were in their hands. "This it was," says Swedberg, "which made me unpleasant in their eyes, and which made them hate me in their hearts." If he had not been protected by those highest in power, they would long before this have endeavoured "to remove and kill" him. But certainly it was not with the view of assuaging the wrath of his enemies, that he at the Diet publicly upbraided them with their love of rule; and that with more courage and fervour than Archbishop Steuchius, who was put down by them, he declared in the name of the clergy, that they could not on any account consider themselves justified in depriving royalty of that power with which God in His Word had invested Kings; for no King in the whole Sacred Scripture had ever such a limited power as they proposed to assign to the Queen.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 137 "If the royal power is so reduced, I shall be turned from one college to another, from one hole to another, and shall have to wait a whole year before I receive an answer. In Skara, in the Consistory, I have much more power among its members. We ought to be very careful not to tie the hands of royalty so tightly, that it will one day break these bonds, and restore a despotism." The truth of this expression of Swedberg was proved by the revolution in 1772; but the men of 1719 were unwilling to see it. "This language did not sound well in the ears of those who desired to become Kings themselves, and to over-ride the King." Swedberg was excluded from the private committee, of which he had been a member, and compelled to return home two months before the close of the Diet. It is not to be wondered at that he was unwilling to appear at the Diet next year. He was too much of a genuine priest to care for the debates in the Diet. He would, too, have been very much pleased, if he had been allowed to stay away from the Diet in 1723; for then he had even more to fear from party hatred. But the King and Queen persuaded him to come, promising to protect him. He came, and saw, but conquered as little as he had done the time before. But if he was unable to contribute as much as in former times towards the welfare of the country, still he did all that he could. His views and his words found an echo in the House of the Peasants.

When the constitution of 1720 was to be established, as the "pillar upon which Sweden's welfare should rest," a peasant of Dalecarlia, and another of Swedberg's former parishioners at Vingker, rose, and said with much zeal: "God preserve us from such a pillar as this, for it is a frail one. No, God's Word and the ancient laws of Sweden are our safest pillar, upon which Sweden's welfare rests; with these we have fared well for many years.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 138 Away, away with such a pillar as they wish to introduce now; upon this we can build nothing that will not fall down again." Swedberg defended them.

He well knew what apprehension there was of a rising of the Dalecarlians, in which case "they would have had a different kind of Diet." But this apprehension he endeavoured as much as possible to allay. Both the representatives from the people, as a reward for their frank speech, were imprisoned, and fed on bread and water. If the Diet could have dared to carry out their wishes, Swedberg would have been obliged to keep them company. This was the last Diet he attended.

Whatever judgment may be formed of Swedberg's greatest weakness, that of opposing the limitation of the royal power; it must be admitted that he acted in perfect agreement with his convictions; although he must have known what a hypocrite Ulrica Elenora was, and how weak a prince she had for her husband. It was consequently the regal office itself, regarded from a theocratic point of view, which he considered as holy, however unworthy the royal persons themselves might be. It certainly was not "despotism" which he contended for; for he openly acknowledged this to be injurious, and maintained that "he who should attempt to introduce it again ought to be punished." It was only the extreme limitation of the royal power which he considered dangerous.

The period of the absolute monarchy in Sweden had been brought to an end, whilst in the Church there was a transition from one epoch to another; the former of which was called by a well known author the epoch or period of symbolics, and the latter that of pietism. Swedberg was one of those who contributed most powerfully to the change, which was hastened by the despotism exercised by symbolics, a despotism worse than that inherent in an absolute monarchy. Even when he removed, as an academical teacher, to Upsal, he was known as, or rather was supposed to be, a friend of pietism, and this suspicion caused the defeat of the psalm book. But if he is to be looked upon as a representative of pietism in Sweden, it must be admitted that this schism was much better than its reputation. Suspicion fell upon the pietists chiefly from their holding their meetings in private.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 139 Public attention was especially drawn to their practices, because even distinguished people, as for instance Lieutenant-colonel Cedersparre and others, became so much infected with pietism, as to read and sing psalms in company with their servants and students. Such a state of things had to be opposed publicly. In the Diet of 1723, already spoken of, severe measures were taken, especially on account of the private meetings in Sikla, to prevent the spread of "pietistic practices." Swedberg now considered it his duty to make himself more particularly acquainted with the occurrences which had been the cause of these complaints. One day he accordingly visited a so-called "pietistic prayer-meeting," which was held at the house of Chamberlain von Wolcker. Several came there who had attended the afternoon service, and they were asked what they had learned from the sermon. Towards the close Swedberg rose, and said, "As I am the only clergyman here, it is my turn now to speak. Much has been said about such meetings, and generally the worst. For this reason I am glad that I have heard and seen for myself how they are managed. Moreover I can fully approve of them, and declare that it would be very desirable for every father of a family to hold similar meetings in his house." He afterwards directed their attention to what it seemed to him might give rise to abuses. Especially he combated the opinion, which some of their friends began to entertain, that an unconverted teacher could not administer his office with any profit. This he pointed out as a "dangerous opinion"; inasmuch as it might very easily happen that "a timid person would call in a priest in order to be absolved of his sins, and that afterwards doubts might arise in his mind whether this absolution had been efficient, because the clergyman had not been converted; for a ducat does not lose any of its value, even though an unclean hand should present it, nor does a medicine lose its power, even though the physician should not have experienced conversion." The experience which Swedberg gathered here with his own eyes and ears, he took with him, and he used it in witnessing concerning it in the Consistory of the land. Pietism also was dealt with much more leniently at that meeting of the Diet, than at subsequent ones.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 140 With regard to his further relations to pietism, Swedberg had already expressed himself respecting it in these words: "I have never indulged in reading pietistic writings, as I have never felt called upon to do so. I had nothing to do with the pietists, but very much with the unpietists, and indeed with a great number of them. I therefore can neither condemn nor defend them. But this I shall affirm, 'May God grant us all to be true priests, such as Paul and Peter describe them.' Argumenta ad homines were not wanting, by which pietism profited. Swedberg related concerning Dr. Edzberg, a member of the Diet, who was sitting with certain others at a table, on which lay several sheets of Scriver's "Treasure of the Soul" (Seelenschatz), which had recently been translated into Swedish. Edzberg declaimed with much violence against this book, as being poisoned with the principles of pietism. But this same Doctor proved very clearly the purity of his own orthodoxy, by intoxicating himself nearly every day with spirits of wine, and being usually found upon a curb-stone in some by-street, where he slept off the effects of his intemperance. He excused himself on the plea that his severe tooth-ache had to be cured by aqua vite.

What we have hitherto stated concerning Swedberg does not militate against the opinion which we now express, that his life was a "Pastoral-theologie in Beispielen," i. e. a pastoral theologie examples. At Brunner's death-bed he had expressed a wish, that a double portion of that pious man's spirit might rest upon him. This wish seemed to be fulfilled in much more than a double measure. He remembered especially the importance Brunner attached to a pure and lawful office or calling, outside of which nothing ought to be undertaken, but in which everything ought to be done with the utmost care and exactness. Swedberg could bear witness respecting himself, that during twenty-six years he had never neglected to attend public worship, but had indefatigably preached from the gospels and epistles, had held confessions, "read with his curates," &c. He followed and recommended the simple analytical mode of preaching, where the sermons flowed without any straining or forcing from the text; for, said he, "then God recognizes again His own Word."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 141 For an estimate of Swedberg's style of preaching we direct the reader to "Sweden's Literature" (Sveriges Skna Litteratur) 2nd edit., Vol. I, p. 265. The examinations in the catechism he always held himself. "A bishop, dean, or rector," he says, "ought not to consider himself too good for these exercises, and ought not to leave them to the curates, as is done in so many places." Such examinations on Sunday afternoons, he sometimes held for three hours, being assured "that more good is done by them, than by artistic preaching." He does not seem to have had profound philosophic views in theology, but with those he did possess, he operated more deeply and profoundly than a mere philosophic or doctrinal theology is able to do. "Theologia realis" was of more importance for him than "theologia verbalis;" inasmuch as the latter without the former was in his eyes almost equivalent to nothing. "Faith of the head" (hjrne tron, i. e. brain faith) and "devil's faith" with him were synonymous expressions, while he called the usual faith in his own terminology the "great faith" (Stortron). That the episcopal office is a good office he understood negatively in the following manner: "This office is not administered by sitting in the Cathedral-chapter, and letting others bow before one; by ordaining and installing clergy-men, by delivering funeral sermons for good pay, by going round and visiting, from which benefit is derived again, and by which sons and sons-in-law are advanced in the world." A very characteristic occurrence illustrating this, Swedberg relates in the following manner. While at the Diet (1723?) the Queen asked after his wife and children. He answered, "One daughter I have with me, and her husband, Magister, Unge, a member of the House of Nobles. Will you grant them the favour of humbly waiting upon you?"--"Very willingly." They went with me to the castle. The Queen asked, whether he was a vicar or pastor? I answered, "He is my curate." "A curate." "Yes, it is his misfortune to be my son-in-law. Otherwise he would have long ago obtained a good living. Bishops generally advance their own. And yet he is a learned and able man, and has travelled much." The Queen asked whether there was not a good living vacant, I answered, "Wnga." This was at once promised to Unge. "Better hear him preach first, so that Your Majesty may be able to judge of his talents," said Swedberg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 142 This was accordingly done. The decree of appointment followed at once, with the promise of a better pastorate as soon as there should be a vacancy. The least savour of simony or nepotism was an abomination to Swedberg. On this subject he said, "My greatest difficulty consisted in filling the pastorates with able and considerations men. For, first, the injurious practice has crept in here, as sell as in other places, of thinking that if any one has finished his course in the university, though even with mediocrity, he is at once fit to fill some ministerial office; and the bishop dare not refuse it to him, especially if he be asked by some priest who has a marriageable daughter. So also I have suffered greatly for not promoting clergy-men at the command of some high lord, or at the wish and desire of their ladies; so that I scarcely ever make an appointment without creating some hostility. As soon as there is a vacancy, at once his lordship or her ladyship, the count or countess, the general, colonel, councillor of war, or governor, and I know not who else, desire to have their pets promoted." From such a cause he incurred the displeasure of Governor Sparfelt. Where there were two or more able and worthy applicants, Swedberg proposed the plan of casting lots according to the usage of the Apostolic Church. He himself was so far from being possessed with the desire of acquisition and avarice, that even after he was made bishop, he had not yet read the regulations about tithes and other emoluments. Whatever people gave voluntarily he accepted thankfully, but he never demanded anything. And much less did he appeal to the help of the magistrate to levy his dues; nor did he report delinquents. He did not break his bishop's crook over those who refused to give what he did not seek after; yet he took occasion to remind himself and others of the proverb in general currency, "There is no end to the mercy of God, and the covetousness of priests." In the other relations of his office he observed the greatest exactness me quote his own words, "I have never refused or denied any one his right. I have willingly undertaken and helped forward, and carried out, the cause of the poor and the oppressed. I have loved, honoured and assisted the pious, honest, and simple.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 143 No one, however humble his station in life, however poor and simple he may have been, have I ever suffered to stand out of doors and wait for me, but I have asked him to come in at once, and receive his answer and explanation. At the very next meeting of the Chapter at the cathedral the case of each was taken up. For we have not been endowed by the Most High with such an office, to parade it, and let other people bow before us, and to procrastinate their business without a willing and friendly hearing and help." Swedberg published also many excellent regulations for the care of the poor, and the stopping of mendicity. During the famine of 1695-98, his love of the neighbour was unceasingly active in providing for the wants of the needy.

It would not be easy to point out any public official who displayed greater practical usefulness than Swedberg. And yet he studied and wrote so much, that even in this respect it would be difficult to find any one who equalled him. He understood in a high degree the art of husbanding time. "I do not believe," says he, "that any one has ever been so economical with his money as I have been with my time." Among his Writings those that exhibit his merits regarding the Swedish language, especially his Schibboleth, have excited the greatest interest. According to the Swedish Mercury, his "Schibboleth," or "The Culture and Correctness of the Swedish Language" (published with a Royal privilege in Skara, 1716, in 4to)"--a work which cost him many years" hard study," would have contributed much to the purity and regularity of the Swedish language, if he had not spoiled his good purpose in two ways. The first of these, by which, according to the Mercury, he made his work "unpalatable and unpopular," was his orthography, and his introducing into it much "simply for effect and for causing ridicule, and secondly, by his insisting that the language ought to be instituted according to the orthography which prevailed "during Gustavus I's rule," and also that the Swedish language ought to be written "with its correct cases, genders, persons, &c.; in one word that it ought to be like the Swedish of the Bible.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 144 Yet, nevertheless, and in spite of the complaints Swedberg had to hear from Hjrne and others on account of his orthography, his merits in promoting the "culture and correctness" of our mother-tongue cannot be denied, and his writings scarcely bear a trace of the passion prevailing at his time, of introducing words from foreign languages. In the titles of his books he liked to play upon words and to use alliteration, e. g. "Ungdomsregel och lderdomspegel" (the rule of youth, and the mirror of old age). "Casa pauperum et Gaza divitum" (the house of the poor and the treasure of the rich). He even composed school-books. When he wrote to Bishop Spegel in 1707, to whose criticism he subjected his learned works, he had in the press at Skara a "Sententiarum liber" (a book of sentences) in six divisions, prepared for schools and the gymnasia, in such a manner that by means of it Latin, Greek, and also some Hebrew could be learned pleasantly and almost playfully; he also encouraged the scholars by prizes." Greek seems to have been his favourite language, after leaving the university. He wrote so uninterruptedly, that sometimes the printing was only delayed for lack of paper; sometimes also because the higher authorities were "exceedingly slow in examining his works, and granting permission to print them." For his "Biblia parva," his small Bible, consisting of the Psalms, Proverbs, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Judith and Sirach, which he undertook "during the time of the late King", he had a ARoyal privilege for nine years, and also freedom from custom dues for 1000 bales of paper." Among his writings, which are not recorded by Westn, there are also Rechenberg's "Elements of Ethics and Politics," compiled from Grotius and Puffendorf, a useful little schoolbook for youth, in order to give them a taste for those matters which are now studied with great industry in the universities. This work was ready to leave the press in 1707. He had also commenced a work "A Swedish Commentary on the Bible, after the original Texts," which was destroyed by the fire in 1712. He afterwards re-commenced this practical commentary on the Bible, which we understand is preserved in the Royal Library in Stockholm.

The cheerful and frequently playful style which Swedberg employed both in his writings and conversation, was an expression of his vivacious temperament. Sometimes, however, he injured thereby both himself and the good cause which he advocated.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 145 Let us quote two instances in his later years. In the year 1720 he received from Queen Ulrica Eleonora a sharp warning, in which she threatened him with her disgrace, if he should again molest her with such "unseemly and discourteous" writings, in which the respect due from a subject was not at all observed. In the beginning of 1728 he sent to King Frederic one of his many petitions for the benefit of the schools. He first told of his journeys abroad, and what he had seen and learned there for promoting the welfare of the schools; how prizes ought to be given freely to the pupils, &c. He himself had followed this example, and from his own means had presented the young with "handsome sums of money." But in order that this work might continue after his death, "a higher hand was required for this purpose"--"not such a one," he adds, "as I made acquaintance with in my younger days, when everything that I had to learn was driven in salva venia, per posteriora." This free expression was probably the cause, why His Majesty did not grant the petition, in which an application was made for an endowment which might yield from forty to fifty dalers in silver.

Swedberg's style furnishes also a clue to his every-day life. His fundamental character was serious, yet it was not that kind of seriousness which considers all manifestation of joy inadmissible. Like many of the most serious men of the Church, he delighted in music. By the whispering of the leaves in the forests and the noise of mill-wheels in the brook, was he reminded of the "heavenly music," the fundamental tone of which he found struck in the Book of Revelation. Every evening usually his good friend Dr. J. Hesselius came, and played hymns to him upon his violoncello. In this case it was not the violence of Saul that required to be calmed. Nevertheless, he, like other mortals, was not perfectly free from an inclination to vehemence and anger. A proof of this is his oft-mentioned judgment about Grtz. Yet this never lasted so long as to disturb the harmony in his soul, or let the setting sun find him brooding over schemes of revenge against his adversaries.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 146 Gentleness was one of the principal features of his character, even while he was engaged in announcing most zealously the judgment of sins, and prophesying to the people and the King the punishment which will surely overtake ungodliness; it was [Greek],-- thundering love, which lent wings to his speech. According to his own confession, he willingly followed good advice, and loved those who corrected him. He did not disdain occasionally a social glass with his friends, and then always drank to the health of his adversaries. When he yielded to the entreaties of his wife and his friends, and tore himself away from his writing-table, he always returned to it more fatigued, "than if he had driven oxen before the plough."



In speaking of Swedberg's theological views and activity, we cannot refrain from noticing, that his strong faith was frequently uttered by him in such a manner, that by some it seemed to border upon superstition. In his first year as a student at the university, he had such a wonderful dream, that he did not know whether he ought not to call it a revelation. "No human tongue," he says concerning it, "can pronounce, and no angel can describe, what I then saw and heard." He relates how in 1673, on the day he preached in Hoby Church near Lund, the third Sunday after Trinity, there were heard towards evening in the church, which yet had no organ, loud voices singing hymns. Everybody in the village heard them. From that time, Swedberg says, he felt for the worship of God and the priestly office that profound veneration which never left him, being sure that "God's angels are especially present in this sacred office." Every year after he had entered that office, he celebrated this day as a jubilee, and called it "the great sinner's great festive day;" even so late as 1727(?) he celebrated it by the publication of a book under that title. He was profoundly convinced that he had an angelus tutelaris--a guardian angel. The following occurrence related by him, may interest even those who feel no interest in the subject of guardian angels. "God preserved me during the whole of my student life from bad company. My company and my greatest delight were God's holy men who wrote the Bible, and the many other men who he made themselves well-esteemed in God's Church, and whose names are far spread in the learned world.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 147 God's angel stood by me and said: What do you read? I answered: I read the Bible, Scriver whose "Treasure of the soul" he esteemed above all the gold and silver in the whole world), Ltkeman, John Arndt, Rortholt, Grossgebaur, J. Schnaidt, and others. The angel said further: Do you understand what you read in the Bible? I answered: How can I understand, when there is no one to explain it to me? The angel then said: Procure for yourself Geier, J. and S. Schmidt, Dieterich, Tarnow, Gerhardi, and Crell's Biblical Concordance. I said: A part of these books I have; the rest I will provide myself with. The angel further said: Blessed is he that readeth and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep these things which are written therein (Rev. i, 3). If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them (John xiii, 17). I sobbed:

O, grant us, God, by thine not known,

To live and act thus every hour;

Thy spirit help us, prone to sin,

To do as God Himself desires!

And thus he departed from me after he had blessed me, and I had thanlied him most humbly." The following conversation which he had with Dr. Edzardi at Hamburg is also characteristic of him. Swedberg asked him, in what language we should speak upon meeting in God's kingdom. Edzardi did not answer. Swedberg continued: "I think it will be in the angels' language. As angels talk Swedish in conversing with Swedes, as they speak German with the Germans, English with the English, and so forth, I shall some day talk with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in Swedish, and they will answer me in the same tongue; or else they will talk with me in Hebrew, and I shall understand them in that language." By these examples, which might easily be increased, it is easy to see how the presentiments of Swedberg's faith contributed to Swedenborg's experience; but it is very easy also to see how far the apple fell from the original tree.*

* It appears from this expression that Swedberg's biographer was not an admirer of the bishop's son, Emanuel Swedenborg.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 148

Swedberg's thoughts in these matters were not allowed to pass altogether unnoticed by those gentlemen, who had already scented heretical and unorthodox notions in his pietistic sympathies. Infantile faith and faith in angels usually slumber together in the same cradle. The eldest son of Swedberg by his first wife, soon followed his mother to the grave in 1696. When, on his deathbed, he was asked by his father what he should do in heaven, he answered, among other things: "I shall pray for my father and mother." Swedberg stored up this answer in his heart, and he was confirmed thereby in his faith, that love and the bond of union between the dead and those who live after them, is not broken by death, without his in the least encouraging faith in the efficacy of the mediating prayers of the saints. Meanwhile he composed, in the name of his children, an inscription for the tomb of his wife, and let the above-mentioned doctrine flow into it. As soon as this appeared, one of his adversaries went to the King with the leaf, and said that the professors in Upsal were becoming Catholics, and prayed to the saints. But immediately afterwards Swedberg came himself, and refuted the accusation. His refutation had a double meaning. He asked the King whether His Majesty did not believe that the late Queen (the King's mother), now in God's kingdom, was praying for him and his children. The matter was hushed. But Swedberg had a great desire to prove publicly, in a rational manner, his agreement with the doctrine of our church on this point. He intended also to make this the subject of his disputation for obtaining his theological degree, but upon the King's remonstrance this was not carried out.



We do not wish, however, to occupy our pages by quoting the instances of credulity mentioned concerning him in collections of anecdotes; as for instance this, that one day, when Swedberg was saying his evening prayer in the church, one of the sextons went up into the tower and called out: "Swedberg, to-morrow then shalt die;" when he is said to have taken this as a warning from a good spirit, and to have gone home to set his house in order. What Swedberg relates himself, concerning his wonderful ministerial administrations in the case of melancholy persons, is more worthy of credit.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 149 There was brought to him one day, on his wife's estate of Starbo, in the parish of Norrberke, a servant-girl named Kerstin, who was very "strangely affected," and who begged of him, by virtue of his office, to deliver her from her tribulations and afflictions. Swedberg prayed with her upon bended knees, and read with her, when she became "sound and cheerful, and was altogether freed." Three years afterwards this same servant-girl came to him to Brunsbo, and desired to serve in his house. She was accepted. Another girl one day quarrelled with her; when she became so embittered, that she threatened to go end destroy herself. She went into the drying kiln, for the purpose of suffocating herself. "Towards two o'clock," Swedberg says, "a feeling of anxiety came over me while I was sitting in my study, and writing. My feeling of anxiety for this Kerstin increased more and more, when yet there was no cause for such an apprehension, inasmuch as I did not know what had happened to her. I became suddenly troubled about her, as if a fire had been kindled in me. I asked where lierstin was? They answered, that no one had seen her, and that she must be in the drying kiln. The door was locked, and the smoke was issuing from every hole and chink. After the door had been forced, Kerstin was found lying on the drying bench, with her face downwards, and in the thickest smoke, so that we were almost suffocated. Her arms and legs were stretched out. I called, I shrieked. No motion, no sound. We laid her upon the bed like a stock. Then I sobbed, and called out with a loud voice, Kerstin; wake up and arise, in the name of Jesus Christ! Immediately she became conscious, received life, raised herself up, and began to talk. Afterwards I strengthened her with God's mord, and gave her a good draught of Rhenish wine; whereupon she went, and followed her occupation." In another place he continues, "It must have been owing to this, that a report spread throughout the whole country, yea, abroad to Holland, England, end other places, in the years 1712 and 1713, that through a little hole in a window-pane I had driven out the devil, who had come to me at Brunsbo in the form of a cavalier, and spoken with me about the condition of Sweden, and what course the war would take.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 150 Or it might have arisen from the following occurrence, which is true. There was here in Skara, in the parish of Henda, a woman who had done a great deal of evil, and who was to expiate her wicked deeds on the gallows. She would not confess any of her wicked acts, and refused to be led to death. At last, after a long and weary work which the clergy had with her, she was sent to me to Brunsbo with a guard. I took her with me into my study, and talked with her about God's Word in the best and most stirring way I could, and I succeeded at last, so that she confessed more and more, and repented heartily. By virtue of my office I assured her of forgiveness, &c. The following day she went cheerfully to meet death. To God alone be the glory!"

"Sometime afterwards one who was possessed was led about the country. When, one day in summer, we came out of saka church, I saw a great multitude of people standing all round the church-yard, but I did not ask why it was. But after me had returned home, I inquired of my servant what it had all been about; when he answered, that it was one possessed, who was led by ten men, and that when he saw me, he said: 'You grey-headed old man with short hair, you have served me a trick; you have taken a roast from me, for which I will pay you back.' The possessed said further, that he had been among those who had followed the woman that was a sinner, when she was led to Brunsbo, but that he could not get any further than the door, where he had to remain (so spoke the unclean spirit, and it was in winter when this had happened); and 'when she came out again, I had no longer any power over her, but I will make you pay for it.' The payment was probably this, that he received permission from God, as he did with Job, to destroy by a vehement fire, in the month of February in 1712, the mansion at Brunsbo with all my property. The fire began about midnight in the same room where the sinning woman was converted. But thereby he did not gain much. AGod has since restored me everything double, as he did to Job of yore, and has given me a much more comfortable house and dwelling."

"As I am showing by these things, how wonderfully God's grace has manifested itself through me, I must also relate what follows.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 151 In the year 1699, whilst I was at Starbo, one of my servant-girls injured herself very much in the elbow. The arm swelled, and she had excruciating pain. Nothing that was done to her had any effect. For many days and nights she had been without rest and without sleep; in this condition she came to me about midnight, while I and my dear wife were lying asleep, and begged me for Christ's sake to relieve her of this torture, or she would go and destroy herself. She believed that I could do so, if I was willing to take her pains in hand here in this room, as soon as possible." Swedberg did in this case almost the same as he had done in that of the first distressed servant-girl. "Dictum, factum, i.e., it was said, and done;" he added "in a moment the paroxysms of pain were stilled, and she soon became sound and healthy again. To God alone be the glory!"

Swedberg was married three times. His statements about his marriages are by no means the least characteristic portions of his autobiography. We shall quote some of them.

His first wife was Sara, daughter of Assessor Albrecht Behm, of the Royal College of Mines. They celebrated their wedding on Dec. 16, 1683, and she brought him considerable means, by which he was enabled to undertake his journey abroad. Of her he relates, "Although she was the daughter of an Assessor, and had been the wife of the Dean of Upsal, and possessed great riches, she did not at any time dress in accordance with her wealth. When all in those times more that sinful and scandalous headgear called a fontange, she and her children followed the multitude. But when she heard that in Gothland a cow had with much pain and torture, and amid pitiful wailings, borne a calf with a fontange, she took her own and her daughters' fontanges, and cast them into the fire, making a vow that neither she nor her children, as long as they were under her power, should ever wear them again." By her Swedberg had eight children. She died June 17, 1696.

His second wife was Sara, daughter of Anders Bergiusus, the Dean (prosten) of Norrberke. She had been married before to a merchant in Kping called Michel Hising, and afterwards to J. Nordlind, the magistrate (hradshfding).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 152 She died March 3, 1720. Respecting his union with her Swedberg writes: "On St. Andrews' day, 1697, I celebrated in a blessed hour my wedding with my second dearest wife, Sara Bergia. I had not been acquainted with her before, and to my knowledge had never before seen or been near her, an at once I heard of her devotion, her piety, and her liberality towards the poor; I also heard that she was well off in a worldly point of view, that she was good-looking, a good housekeeper, and had no children, In short, such a one as would suit me very well. I wrote to her, and made her acquainted with my intentions. She agreed to my wishes. Two days before the wedding I came to Stockholm, whither she had also come, according to our agreement, three days before. I was led into a room, where she was sitting alone; but I did not know, nor could I have known, that it was she, for no one had informed me of it. I sat down near her. We talked together a long time; I conversed with her on a great many subjects, as with a totally different person, or with some one of her acquaintance. At last she asked me: Professor, what do you think of our bargain? I answered: What bargain do you mean? That about which you wrote to me. What did I write to you about? I do not know anything about it. She said, Shall we not be bride and bridegroom to-morrow? Is it you? I asked. And thus me confirmed our friendship by shaking hands, and with a loving embrace." By her Swedberg had no children. She died at Skara, March 3, 1720. At the close of the year he was married, for the third time, to Christina Arhusia, daughter of Job. Arhusius, the Dean (prost) of Fahlun.

His children were: 1. Albrecht, who died in childhood; 2. Anna, married in 1703 to Archbishop E. Benzelius; 3. Emanuel, of whom more below; 4. Catharina, married to Dean Unge, to whom she bore nine children; 5. Daniel, and 6. Eliezer, who died as young men; 7. Hedwig, married in 1714 to Lars Benzelstjerna, who was then Assessor; 8. Jesper52, born 1694. He travelled to England in order "to learn navigation;" afterwards to America and to New Sweden, where he was a teacher for five years in the parish school of Rathkungs-Kihl. He returned to Sweden in 1724, and married Christina Silfversvrd.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 153 The events of his life he relates in the dedication, to Count Dcker, Councillor of State, &c., which precedes the book, Den sista basun fver Tyskland, i. e. "The last trombone about Germany," Skara 1724; 9. Margaretha, married to Lundstedt, captain of cavalry.

In the year 1719, Bishop Swedberg's wife and children were ennobled under the name of Swedenborg. The Bishop, returning thanks to the queen, says in his letter of June 4, of the same year, that he was "surprized and pleased," although he "would willingly have continued in a lower rank." We cannot therefore say properly with Rhyzelius, that at the Diet "he procured for himself and his children the rank of nobility," and that "it is wrong to talk about a noble bishop, Doctor Swedenborg."

Swedberg's extended and manifold labours not only presuppose on his part extraordinary industry and vigour, but also a good old age. He reached his eighty-second year. Of all the bishops of Skara, after Benedictus the Good, he filled this once longest. His health and his mental faculties remained unimpaired until 1730. After the conflagration of that year he began to tremble very much, so that he could only write with difficulty. His memory also was very much impaired during the last year. But up to the time of his death his sight was so good, that he never used spectacles. As early as 1718, he wrote a minute description of the manner in which he was to be buried. "There shall no ceremony be made with my body; the nearest magisters and clergymen shall bear it out of the house for some distance, afterwards the peasants of the parish; it shall all be done in the day-time, without any torches or lights. The funeral sermon shall be preached on the text [from the creed]: 'I believe in the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and eternal life. Amen;' the choir and the organ shall be silent, and only the prescribed hymns shall be sung (at the close 'I know, I shall arise'); at the dinner for those who are invited everything shall take place in an honourable manner, and what is left shall be given to the poor in saka and Skaraka; the funeral oration, (composed by himself,) shall be read before the sermon."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 154 The Latin oration, with all minuti, was composed by Magister Petrus Hesselius, who nevertheless departed this life before Swedberg.

Swedberg died July 26, 1735. The funeral sermon was delivered by Jacob Benzelius, Bishop of Gottenburg. He was buried in the tomb prepared for him in the abbey church of Varnhem. Over the entrance to the tomb is the following inscription upon an oval stone:

The resting-place of

Bishop

Doctor Jesper Swedberg

and his dear wife

Fru Sara Swedenborg.

Anno 1720.

Of his portrait, engraved on copper, there have been several editions; 1. in 8vo, engraved in Upsal, 1700, by Olof Thelott; 2. in folio by the same, 1699, with this superscription: "M:r Jesper Schwedeberg. Denominatus Prpositus Wynicokrensis et Professor Theologi Ordinarius Upsaliensis" (i. e. Rector of Wingker, and ordinary professor of Theology in Upsal); with verses in Swedish and German; 3. in folio engraved at Leipzig by Johan Ch. Boeclilin. It has the same Swedish and German verses with this inscription: "Jesper Swedberg S. Theol. Doctor et Episcopus Scarensis antehac Theol. Professor primarius et Pastor Upsaliensis."

(Below is written:)

"Hc erat in mediis facies illsa, favillis

Cum deflagravit, nocte fluente, domus,

Sic quoque post ignes, Genitor, Tu fam, supremos

Postque rogos, vivet nomen amorque Tui."

(This portrait lay in the midst of the burning ashes unhurt,

When at night the paternal mansion was consumed:

So also thy name and loving remembrance, O father,

Shall survive the funeral pile and the raging flames.)

This last mentioned inscription is by Emanuel Swedenborg, and commemorates the wonderful preservation of the copper-plate with the bishop's portrait, in the fire which destroyed Brunsbo in 1712.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 155 Swedberg himself speaks of this (in his preface to his Catechism): "There was also found in the ashes my portrait upon a copper-plate, which was uninjured, being only blackened a little by the smoke. When yet in the ante-room a copper kettle which had been full of water was melted."

Among the testimonies in favour of Swedberg we may mention that given by a "trustworthy author," who says, that he was "a man, who if he had lived a few hundred years earlier, might have increased the number of Swedish saints, and whose learning, industry, exemplary life, good intentions, and zeal for God's glory deserve to be venerated even by a more enlightened century." And if any one should maintain, that, in episcopal worth, Swedberg stands foremost among the prelates of Sweden, this judgment could not be regarded as too venturous.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 156

DOCUMENT 11.

FIRST LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER,61

*Bergrius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 1-5.

[The following twenty-four letters, which are now published for the first time, are contained in the "Bergius Collection of Letters," &c. (Vol. IV, pp. l-51), which is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. According to the statement of B. Bergius, these letters were copied by him from the originals in the possession of J. Rosenadler.]

Noble and most learned Censor,

Dear brother, and good, old friend,

       Your favour was duly received, for which accept my best thanks. I am glad to see that you are constant in your friendship for me, and that you will be kind enough to let me know the criticisms which we made in Stockholm upon my "Shibboleth," and my sermon before His Royal Majesty in Lund; also the criticisms which are made in other places, and likewise in Lund. I can write to you with much greeter freedom, as we have known each other for such a long time, and are acquainted with each other's modes of viewing things, and every day habits.

With respect to the "Shibboleth," I had foreseen all, especially about Vice President Hjrne,53 with whom I agreed in almost every thing, and who had been my good friend and brother.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 157 The only points on which we could not agree were the letter h in jagh, migh and slicht, and using a double letter to express a single articulate sound; still there was not the least ill-will between us. Yet I know his disposition very well, and how, with his immoderate language and judgment, he spares no one who differs from him, no matter who he be. I was therefore prepared to hear such things from him; and for the same reason had defended myself on these two points in my preface, paragraphs 15 and 24; where also in paragraph 20. I had deprecated any disputes on this subject. His having in his late publication heaped abuses upon other honest men, and especially upon myself, moves me a little, but not much. For this is due to his arrogance, in claiming to know everything about everything, which has always been, and still is, one of his peculiarities. When I was graciously ordered by His Majesty to appear with my "Shibboleth" before the learned, and to submit it publicly to their criticisms, every thing went on well; but a certain Professor of theology made a violent attack upon the passage at p. 455, "Shame upon you, (west hut) I christen you Andrew," saying, that if he had been the Censor, he would never have allowed it to be printed. I let him finish his railing, and then replied to him mildly, and among other things told him: When John baptized, he said to the Pharisees and Sadducees, and to the people that came to him to be baptized, "Ye generation of vipers" &c. (Matt. iii, 7, Luke iii 7). Therefore Stigelius might well say to Rudbeck's wife, who was then a young maid and had given birth to a child, "Shame upon you (wet hut), I baptize you Andrew." And if the Professor had then been the Censor we should not have had "the gospels of the evangelists Matthew and Luke." Exception, however, was not so much taken to this, as to that which was said in the letter respecting the priests, and the gentlemen and ladies of the nobility. It was also a little too strong for the priests and nobility of the present day. There were in Lund many distinguished persons of both these orders, who wished that my public disputation should be forbidden, and who endeavoured to prevail upon the King for that purpose, but in vain. The other professors were much milder. The disputation lasted from nine till two o'clock; and every thing went off pleasantly and decorously.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 158 No one, moreover, objected to what I had written about the unnecessary h, and the doubling of the vowels, but all agreed with me in this particular. On the following day I had to make a full report of it to His Majesty (for on the day when the disputation took place, it was bitterly cold, so that the King could not come up, although he had intended to do so, as he himself told me), and for two hours there was a regular disputation on the subject between the King and myself, in the presence of many high gentlemen. Every thing was done graciously earnestly, and decorously, so that there was no occasion for them to rejoice at my expense: on the contrary, they were obliged to listen to some wholesome truths, of which they had been afraid, knowing my habit of not keeping anything in the background. But enough of this. The Vice-president's53 publication the King lent me for a week. I read with astonishment his abusive language, and how inconsistent and incorrect he himself was in his orthography. I sat down and answered the whole of it, in a reply amounting to about thirty sheets. I am letting it rest for the present, until I see the whole work; but at some future time I will show up his ill-breeding. I spoke to His Royal Majesty of Hjrne's53 peculiarity, in not sparing any one, no matter how high his position; I also put a short essay at the beginning of the book, when I returned it. His Majesty is very much interested in our language, and he will probably appoint in the universities and other principal places men whose business it will be to teach it; not, however, in the violent and irrational manner of Hjrne, but properly and decorously.

With respect to the sermon, most of the high gentlemen were displeased with my having said, among other things, that we have received in the past, are now receiving, and shall receive in the future, the severe punishment of sinners, on account of the ungodly life led by us, which is indeed more ungodly than before the commencement of the war; so that when we come now to our King, as the people of Israel came to their Rehoboam, saying; "Thy father made our yoke grievous: now, therefore, make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke, lighter;" we deserve the same answer which they received: "My little finger shall be thicker than my father's lions.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 159 And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke," &c. (1 Kings, xli, 4-14). This, you see, was too strong food for them, which their stomachs could not digest. Afterwards I had an opportunity of conversing with the King alone on these topics, and on many others which I do not venture to entrust to paper. Yet I tempered everything for peace and mercy. The letter about the magister and the bailiff in the "Shibboleth" they [the courtiers] could not at all endure. But my character has always been such, in my life, in my sermons, and in my printed works, that I never concealed a single one of God's truths, whether it was listened to or not, and. whether they raged against me. I have had, and still have, a strong shield in Him whom I serve, and I fear nothing, well knowing that they cannot touch even a hair of my head; still less can they injure my honour, or deprive me of my goods, without the will and permission of my Lord. I also follow Paul, and say, "For do I now preach men, or God? Or do I seek to please men? For if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ" (Gal. I, 10). I have Christ on my side; him I serve. He himself had to hear them charge him with having a devil, with rebelling against Csar; he had to suffer upon the cross, &c.; and he has said to us, who are right-minded priests, "Woe unto you when all men shall speak well of you! For so did their fathers to the false prophets" (Luke vi, 26). I have now grown so old in my office, and have not yesterday, nor the day before yesterday, gone up to the King's house for the first time to preach there, that I require not to read over for a week what I have to preach and say. The real cause is, that I have always challenged and still challenge, the envy of many, especially of my colleagues. They see what God has done and is still doing through me for the good of the Church, in building it up, and this without my having respect to my own honour and interest. This they cannot bear. That by royal command I have the care of the Swedish Churches in Pennsylvania, that the Church in London in England and the one at Lisbon in Portugal are under my superintendence, you see, galls them. And as I have neither desired nor applied for this superintendence, but have been commanded to take charge of them, I do not wish to resign it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 160 I know also that I have more enemies and adversaries than there are hairs upon my head. I am, however, greatly profited by drawing so much nearer to God, and walking more watchfully in my path of life, &c. God also, on that account, grants me to eat my bread with gladness; he grants me to feel satisfaction in everything I do, so that I can still sleep my six hours with the greatest tranquillity, and read my Bible with the greatest delight; He also gives me the grace to feel in myself its truth and power. With God's help I have, during the last two years, been re-translating our Swedish Bible from the original languages, and hope within a month to bring the work to a close. Let men find fault and trifle as much as they choose, I will cling to the wise saying of Solomon, "The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whose putteth his trust in the Lord shall be safe" (Proverbs, xxix, 25). I commend you to the mighty protection of the same Lord, and remain with satisfaction, ever

Your most dutiful servant, and faithful friend,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Feb. 28, 1718.

[P. S.] Will you please peruse at your leisure my "Shibboleth," and let me kindly know if you have anything to remark.

You ought to propose to yourself to write the history of our gracious King. There is much to write, and no one can do this so well as you. I had a work ready about the "Northern Lion," as you may see in the dedication of the "Shibboleth," in the last paragraph; but it has been burnt.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 161

DOCUMENT 12.

SECOND LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.51

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. 10. p. 6.

Noble and Respected Censor,

Dear Brother,

       As you may rightly judge, I have been compelled to defend my honour from the abuse which Vice-president Hjrne,53 has heaped upon me. I have accordingly sent my Defence, which consists of two parts, to my son-in-law, the Librarian.6 The first part is devoted to a refutation of his publication, and I shall send you at once what in justice I have to say about it. The second part is a criticism on his orthography, with a preface. The first part I should like to keep back, until his work is completed. But the second I desire to publish, and the sooner the better. In it I shall unburden myself before God and men of my answer to the question, whether God allows me to defend myself when I have been injured by men. Moreover, as it is natural for me to do this, and as I am justified in doing it, I hope and I entreat, that by virtue of your office you will do me the justice to examine my Defence (the second pert), and permit it to be printed. I have written to the Librarian, that he compensate you for this trouble. I wish you joy and happiness at your meeting. Remember me kindly to my sisters,* and brothers-in-law, and be commended to God. I remain with satisfaction, always

Your most dutiful servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Sept. 2, 1718.

* The "sisters" here referred to are Brita Behm,50 Rosenadler's mother-in-law, who was Bishop Swedberg's sister-in-law, and her daughter Catharina Swede, sister of Rosenadler's wife. (See Document 18).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 162


DOCUMENT 13.

THIRD LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 7, 8.

Noble and Learned Censor,

Respected Brother,

       I thank you very much for your agreeable letter. You have not only the liberty but the right to make any reasonable alteration in the defence of my honour; especially if here and there I have in anything expressed myself too harshly. But if you consider how impudent an onslaught has been made on my honour, you cannot wonder at my using a sharp pen. As soon as you give me permission, I will publish the second part; but the first part I shall hold back until his whole work has appeared. Cannot a grammarian express his thoughts on matters of orthography, without an attack being made upon his honour? I myself having kept free from personalities. I hope also that in justice you will not allow him in future to print anything like his first publication. In speaking of compensation for your trouble I did not speak in jest, but in real earnest. I should like to get some information about Superintendent* Brm's pietistic controversy; will you please to let me know something about it? I also beg you to devote a few hours to the perusal of my "Shibboleth" for a second time. I am delighted also to see from your mode of spelling that you do not employ the unnecessary h in mig, jag, &c., nor double the vowels unnecessarily.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 163 Were I so fortunate as to have but an hour's time, to compare my arguments with yours, I am sure we should soon come to an agreement.

* The Swedish title of an acting Bishop.

Will you please to remember me very kindly to your mother-in-law [Brits Behm50] and the other members of your family, and also to receive my own kind remembrances?

Emanuel* is at present here, and is seeing partvi of his "Ddalus" through the press. The day after to-morrow he will leave for Strmstad, where he says he is always most kindly received by the King. People in our place are in distress from want of bread, which cannot be purchased for love or money, as all the grain has been bought up for the use of the army; and the little that remains has to be saved for sowing. God grant that everything may end well! The coinage also is causing a great deal of confusion.

* The Bishop's son Emanuel Swedenborg.

Remember me-kindly to Vice president Hjrne,53 my good old friend and familiar brother. I beg him to remember the hour of death; and to consider that, for the sake of my office, I am bound to defend my honour. Fama et vita pari passu ambulant. (Reputation and life go together). May God be gracious to him! Herewith I close. And commending you to the mighty protection of God, I remain joyfully, forever

Your most faithful and dutiful servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Oct. 3, 1718.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 164


DOCUMENT 14.

FOURTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 9.

Well-born Secretary,

Dear brother,

       I have, together with another good Christian, agreed to print abroad, in octavo, a Swedish. Bible which may be sold for a daler in silver, certainly not for more than one and a half; and all this for the sole purpose of spreading a knowledge of God's Word. Of this project I spoke in my humble address to His Majesty in the "Shibboleth," paragraph 38. I am well aware that those who have the privilege of printing the Swedish Bible are very much opposed to this. But ought not the honour of God's name, His Holy Word, and that which may promote the salvation of many souls, to avail more than the usury of many, derived from the sale of God's Word? I insist also that our Swedish countrymen in India must rejoice at an opportunity for letting God's Word live plentifully among them. This our godly proposal I herewith, as in duty bound, make known to you, that, in virtue of your office, you may submit it humbly to the Royal College of Chancery; and I beg you to let me know its favourable answer, or any other it may choose to give.

Again, as the clergy in India have recently written to me for an abridgment of my "Godly Exercise in the Catechism," I have prepared it. It amounts to about ten sheets. Will you please, on my account, or rather on account of your office, to submit this also to the Royal College, and obtain a favourable answer for it, with the privilege that no one shall reprint it; the same is at present in the hands of the Theological Faculty for examination and approval.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 165 Must it be sent up afterwards, or may I obtain your kind permission to print it? I should like to have it ready in time to send it out in spring. The title is as follows: "A Godly Catechism for Children, "for the use of the children in the Swedish Churches abroad, abridged from the "Godly Exercise in the Catechism" by Dr. J. Swedberg, Bishop of Skara; together with a godly letter to the Swedish clergy in America."

Vale, saluta, et porro fave,

       Your most obedient,

              J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Dec. 1, 1720.

[P. S.] I wish to make a present of this little book, and a considerable number of the Bibles, to the churches abroad.


DOCUMENT 15.

FIFTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 10-12.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       I thank you most humbly for your own and my dear sisters* congratulations on my marriage. I hope I have made a good choice. She** reached Brunsbo with her company late on Christmas eve. On the following day, at one o'clock, my son-in-law, Magister Unge,5 officiated at the marriage ceremony; no strangers being present. On the following day we had the school-teachers (Lsmestara) to dinner.

* Brita Behm. See Note 50

** Christina Arrhusia (see Document 9, A, Table 11)

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 166

Thank God, she is a very clever person, so that I could scarcely have fared better. You must follow my example. Do not wait until it is too late.

With respect to the printing of the Bible, it is a purely Christian work, the like of which has never been heard of before or will be again in Sweden, viz. a beautiful Swedish Bible to be sold for five marks in silver. The devil, however, opposes this with all his power, as he did in the time of the late King Charles XI, when I had obtained permission from the King to publish at Burchardi's a Swedish Bible with beautiful type and upon good paper for two dalers in silver. Will you kindly, with the weight of your office, promote such a holy and such an important work? I intend it chiefly for America.       

It is sufficient, then, for me to let the Theological Faculty here examine the little work, "a Godly Catechism for Children," for the Swedish Churches abroad.

I have a "Complete Swedish Lexicon" ready; the words and explanations are given in Latin, as Soranus has done heretofore; quotations are made from the Bible, and from old Swedish books in general use. My son-in-law Doctor Benzelius6 thinks very highly of it, and he desires it to appear during my life-time. I wish to obtain for it the favour of the Royal Chancery, and of yourself. It is not one of those things, which are in danger of being opposed to the regulations of the Chancery, and the regulations for printing. It will be a legal quarto. If I could find a good publisher for it, it would be well. In time there would be a demand for it, and it would pay for itself. I have also finished: "Casa pauperum et Gaza divitum." (The poor man's house, and the rich man's treasure). During the prevalence of the pestilence I wrote and published my "Thoughts on Death" (Ddztanckar). I am now preparing for "Judgment," which is to sound thus: "Come, ye blessed of my Father, &c. I was an hungered thirsty, naked, &c." (Matt. xxv.) It has been examined by the Theological Faculty; I wish you would allow its publication. Both books have been mentioned in the "Acta Literaria," published in Upsal.

The reason why the Bible is to be printed abroad, is on account of the expense being less there.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 167 Care will be taken to have the proofs read correctly; otherwise we shall gain no honour by it.

My son, the Assessor,* has come home, and he reports that old Hjrne53 cannot digest the pills he has procured for himself. Let him, in his old age, consider for once, how he has acted, and endeavour to spare himself and others, by being less abusive. But should he do so again during my life-time, he shall not do it without requiring to give an account of himself God willing, the orthography of our Swedish language will become better known thereby, and more settled.

* Emanuel Swedenborg.

With many kind remembrances from myself, my wife, Emanuel, and several others present with us, to you, sister Brita, and sister Caisa*, and to the young people; and with many good wishes for the New Year, and for many others that may follow, I remain, full of affection and respect,

* Catharina Swede, daughter of Brita Behm Swede, and sister of Rosenadler's wife.

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Jan. 2, 1720.


DOCUMENT 16.

SIXTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 14.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       ....... By the first opportunity I shall send you my Swedish grammar, which will amount to ten or twelve sheets, with the request that you may kindly examine it, and allow it to be printed. I have had many applications for it.

I have been informed that Governor Hjrne53 has received permission from the Royal College of Chancery to continue writing and opposing in print my "Shibboleth," and what I wrote in defence of my honour.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 168 Yet I hope that you, by virtue of your office, will not allow him to go on with his abuse; in other respects I am quite pleased to see it. As one knife sharpens another, so "a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend." (Proverbs, xxvii, 27). Nam ut ex silice et chalybe ignis, ita ex conflictu altercantium veritas elicitur. (For as fire is produced by the contact of flint and steel, so truth is produced by the conflict of those that differ). If you should have anything to say or to emend in the Grammar, I shall be very much obliged by your mentioning it to me. My dear wife and I desire to be remembered to sister Brita, yourself, and your sister. May God preserve you all! This is the wish of

Your most dutiful

       J. Sw.

In his letter dated Jan. 23, 1721, Bishop Swedberg asks: "...... How is it? Which iron furnace or forge has been destroyed in Helsingland or near Gefle by the Russians? Are the heirs of the late Behm to bear this loss?"


DOCUMENT 17.

SEVENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 21, 22.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       I thank you very much for your favour; I have no less cause to thank you for your kind and favourable judgment respecting my simple Swedish Grammar, and for your offer to have it printed at your own expense. What I rejoice most at is, that you consider the book of so great value. It will have such value, if, in your letter permitting the printing of it, you will, by a few words, render it worthy of being read.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 169

On the other hand, however, I make this condition, that he who superintends the printing of it, should in all parts preserve my orthography: first, in respect to capital letters, in not using them except where needed, as shown in one of the chapters; secondly, that commas, semicolons, colons, and periods be properly attended to; thirdly, that with respect to the doubled vowels, and the unnecessary h, he should be very careful; fourthly, care must be taken not to put d or dhe instead of t or the, and so forth; and for this purpose the whole work must be read through twice, yea, three times, because the orthography is hereby made so very different from that of others; fifthly, the quotations must be exactly printed; and the printer must follow throughout my own orthography: for in case my manuscript should be copied, I am afraid the copyist would not be sufficiently careful and particular. I hope also that my writing is distinct enough. As for the rest, I hope you will allow me to have some copies for my good friends, on fine writing paper. But enough of this.

It is very bad that Werner67 should have so much influence as to be able to prevent the good work of printing the Bible. If the proposal be acceded to, he must promise that the Bible shall be printed on good paper, from good type, in royal 8vo, for live marks in silver, and that the work shall be done within a year and a day, he being bound to it by a severe fine and penalty. His only purpose is to prevent our good work, as was done by Keisar in making his estimates in the time of Charles XI. If we live, we must see that it be done. I will write to-day about it to His Majesty. It is a thing unheard of, yea, it is a sin, that such a good purpose should be defeated.

I understand that some persons have obtained a copy of Mr. Hjrne's book against me. I thank God that this does not interfere with my slumbers.

Please remember me and my wife kindly to sister Brita, yourself, and all your family. Commending you to God's mighty protection, I remain forever

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, October 20, 1721.

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DOCUMENT 18.

EIGHTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 23, 24.

Well-Born Secretary.

Most honoured brother,

       For your honoured letter, and the great trouble you are taking for me, I thank you very much. If, like many others, I did not write or work until an opportunity offered, I should not be so very troublesome to you. Yet I am so much interested in my subject that I cannot wait, and time and every hour would seem to me twice as long, unless I did so at once. I hope that this impulse comes from God. The person who is monetarily interested with me in the printing of the Bible, is beginning to get tired. But I hope I may succeed in so strengthening him, that he may not be gained over by those by whom I am opposed.

Here are several things which I noticed in the letter from the College of Chancery: first, that Werner is willing to print the Bible in ordinary 8vo, in very small type; while we intend to print it in royal 8vo, in larger type; secondly, that he charges six marks in silver for his, while we would charge only five marks; thirdly, he desires to be paid in advance for the copies intended for America. We give our copies away, without exacting payment in advance. If the College of Chancery takes this into favourable and just consideration, Werner will perhaps abate his terms. I would answer Werner as Moses' answered the servants, "Enviest thou for my sake? Would god that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that the Lord would put his spirit upon them;" (Numbers xi, 29). Had I the spirit of the prophet Daniel, I should long ago, by prayer and calling upon God, have brought down the archangel Michael, who would have assisted me, and gained the victory for me (Dan. x).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 171 I hope, however, that what God has purposed, no man will be able to prevent. Blessed is he who is able to fear Him. Will you please to hold out in this affair? Who knows what God will do? You will receive God's reward in this world, and also in His kingdom above; and all those also who lend a help in this godly work. I have heard that His Majesty has graciously assented to all the other points in behalf of the Americans. But this one man prevents all the others from succeeding.

It is well that you are so kind as to take my Swedish Grammar under your protection, and I give you my best thanks for it. When Rudbeck,49 however, published his Atlantica, he asked of the reader that he should read his book ten times through; so also I may pray, that he who writes about my Grammar should read it several times through, before setting pen to paper. It is a work that requires to be done with great exactness. I wonder that the compositor is not able to set the types from my handwriting, for it is not so very difficult to read. Should a u be made instead of a v; a capital letter for a small letter, or vice versa; should an h be placed at the end of jug, mig an ii for an e, an for an o, a d for a t or th, then I lay myself open to an attack from my adversary. I asked you to let me strike off at my own expense some copies for my good friends, on white paper, after you had kindly written to me that you would print it at your own expense. Secretary Bonowskld130 especially is one of my good friends; should I not mention his name among the names of those to whom the book is dedicated? I submit this to your good judgment.

I thank you heartily for your kind congratulation. I return the same with God's best blessing, wishing you a happy New Year, and many happy returns, for bur country's honour and good, and the joy and profit of your family. I remain forever

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Dec. 29, 1721.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 172

[P. S.] I hear that many are running about with Hjrne's book in manuscript, which he wrote, against my defence of my honour. They may do so; I enjoy my food and my sleep just as well. But should a copy fall into my hands, I will not leave it unanswered.

Will you please look round for some printer who would print the little catechism which is in your charge?

My dear wife desires to be remembered to you; and I myself, to sister Catharina Swede. When shall we hear of her being engaged to be married? She must not be too particular, nor be too long in choosing.

I must beg you again to make my grammar acceptable, by adding a few words to it; should they be no more than Burgomaster Lagerlf received for his milch-cow. This would profit my simple work very much. There is no necessity to write grammars for any other language, as many as ten for each.

DOCUMENT 19.

NINTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 26, 27.

Well-born Secretary.

Most Honoured Brother,

       I thank you very much for your welcome letter. I thought I had sent you the little Catechism; it shall be forwarded at once. By the widow of the late kerhjelm I sent a few days ago my Address to the mountain-district of Fahlun, and to the clergy abroad: this is the proper copy. You will please make an agreement with an honest printer, who has good type, as to what I shall have to pay per sheet. I gave here twelve dalers, during the time of the paper currency. You will also please to inquire about the price of paper.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 173 With respect to the Swedish Grammar, it will be time enough after your return. I have now written to Bergmaster Benzelstierna6 about his being present at the division of the inheritance, on behalf of my sons Emanuel and Jesper,52 so that this important affair may at last be settled. For the accomplishment of which may God grant happiness and his gentle blessing! I have not time now, on account of the unexpected presence of strangers, to answer sister Brita.60 Please remember me and my wife kindly to her and the heirs.

God grant my adversary53 a blessed end, which I wish for him with all my heart. I am under great obligations to him for writing against me, as it has been the cause of much enlightenment in respect to our language. I endeavour as much as possible to prevail upon the pious man, who has become tired and uneasy in respect to his godly undertaking, touching the Bible. For this reason I could not answer the letter of the College of Chancery. In case anything should be said about this in the College, you will have the kindness to represent the grounds, of which I spoke in my last, viz. that Werner insists on having sis marks for the ordinary 8vo in smaller type; while we propose to charge five marks for royal 8vo in larger type; that it is to be a present for America, I commend you to God's protection. I remain with due affection, forever

Your most obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Jan. 8, 1722.

[P. S.] I am very much troubled that the compositor insists on having my manuscript copied. Would it not be best for you to call him and the proof-reader to your house for a short time, and read with them a few leaves of my copy, and at the same time give them- some instruction how to print it?

As you have received ten talents to trade with, you ought, for the great honour and gain of our country, to write the histories of Kings Charles XI and XII. Think of this, when you have again a sleepless hour at night. Procure for yourself also a good bed-companion. Vale.

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DOCUMENT 20.




TENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 29.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured and dear brother,

       I am pleased with every thing. Some things I have improved. When one letter is too dark, a lighter one must be put in its place. Periods and commas must be well attended to. No capital must be put for a small letter, no u for a v. The proof-reader must study well my grammar; which may seem to many unusual. Some letter-paper and fine writing paper must be added. My gratitude shall not fail you for the trouble you take. I now am sending my little catechism, with the address to the clergy abroad, to Dr. Benzelius6 in Upsal, that he my superintend its printing; he will, I hope, gain your consent to have it done. If, in your order permitting the printing of my little grammar, you would be pleased to pass a favourable judgment upon it, it would add not a little to its worth.

I am working now with all my might upon my large dictionary or Swedish-Latin lexicon; on which I have been at work for more than thirty years, and if God grant me life, it will be finished without delay. If it see the light of day, language will be corrected and settled, i. e. if people will allow sense to govern them.

How goes it with the printing of the Bible? His Majesty promises much good, if he be allowed to have his own was. Such a godly and wholesome undertaking has never been, nor ever will bet set on foot again in our land. Though Satan is powerful, yet He who is more powerful will punish him.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 175

Nothing must be allowed to interfere with the thought of your writing the history of the late King Charles. If you write the true history, and do not trouble yourself about what others may write, these will easily be refuted.

My wife and myself desire to assure you and sister Brita, and your family, of our best respects.

Commending you to God, I remain

       Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

              JESPEBUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Feb. 27, 1722.

DOCUMENT 21.

ELEVENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 30.

Well-born Secretary

Most honoured and dear brother,

       I hear now that they have at last met for the purpose of dividing the estate of the late de Behm.* May God cause them to agree in their counsels, and not be too particular: for they are such near blood-relations. More is gained in the end by giving way a little, than by insisting on the strictest right. They have not been much troubled about it; but sister Brita50 has had most of the work to do, which ought to be honourably acknowledged. If there had been any other to superintend, there would certainly have been much less to divide. N. B. The poor ought not to be forgotten on any consideration.

[*There is an indication of a footnote here, but no text was found.]

I do not wish to look forward to anything else, than that His Majesty will act nobly with respect to the printing of the Bible: about which I have written again to His Majesty.

If I could have a sheet of my grammar posted to me as soon as it is printed, it would be well.

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If I could have one or two leaves of my MSS., where, in the letter of a father to his sons, who are studying at the university, he recommends some auctores asceticos, as Herberger, Scriver, Gerhardi, Scholam Pietatis, I should like it very much, as I wish to add something to it.

By a scholar from Skara, travelling to Upsal to the University, I sent the abridgment of my Catechism, with the Letter to the Swedish clergy, which according to the regulations will be submitted for your scrutiny and approval.

Is Justice (lagman) Ulric Frhlich with His Majesty, or not? He accompanied him through the whole country, in the capacity of Secretary. Will you please to let me know?

If I had your talents, I should certainly leave an immortal name behind me, by writing the History of King Charles XII.

Is there in the Swedish language a history of King John, or of King Charles X?

With kind remembrances from myself and my wife to yourself, and to sister Brita and her family, I remain steadfastly

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, March 13, 1723.

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DOCUMENT 22.

TWELFTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 31.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       I thank you most heartily for the great trouble you have taken in examining my humble books. I shall never forget to manifest my gratitude when opportunity offers.       

I am sending now to Upsal, and afterwards to you, my Swedish Lexicon, submitting it to your judgment. Its publication might be useful. But I have so much to print here in Skara, that my old age does not suffice for that, and still less for this Lexicon. I have also ready a Latin-Swedish, and a Swedish-Latin Dictionary; which it is very necessary should see the light. Each of these volumes will make a legal octave.

Perhaps some printer in Stockholm will take upon himself the responsibility of printing them. He would soon reimburse himself.

I send back the first sheet of my Swedish Grammar, and I have asked Magister Scarin to send me one or two sheets more, that I may see whether he has adhered to my orthography. The passages you pointed out, in my letter in the Grammar, I have taken into consideration and made milder. You employ your office to correct what ought to be corrected. Two pair of eyes can see more than one pair, however sharp they may be. Please recommend the work in your official approval, as I have asked before.


Remember me and my wife kindly to sister Brita and the other members of your family.

Commending you to God, I am

       Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

              JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, April, 4. 1722.

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DOCUMENT 23.

THIRTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. pp. 32-34.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       I thank you very much for your letter. In my answer I take up the points in the same order in which they are treated in your letter.

You will please to send me the abridgment of the Catechism by Magister Enegren, who will journey hither at once in order to enter on his pastorate: for the printing-office in Skara will soon commence operations again. I hope I may obtain a mild censure [i. e, an approval by the office of censorship].

Who this Bjrckman is, who ventures to print my grammar at his own expense, I do not know. I did not know otherwise than that you expressed yourself so much in its favour as to be willing to have it printed at your own expense, whereupon I only made the condition of receiving a few copies on writing and on printing paper. If this had not been so, I would have borne the cost. But as matters now stand he must agree to allow me something considerable for my trouble. He will make a good thing out of such a rare work.

My son-in-law, Dr. Benzelius6 of Upsal has long ago received my larger Swedish Lexicon. As soon as he receives word from you, he will send it over at once. Besides this I have ready a smaller Latin-Swedish, and Swedish-Latin dictionary, the publication of which is quite necessary. Both will make legal octave volumes.

It is well that the College of Chancery took in hand a revolution in the school-regulations.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 179 If I might venture to express my simple thoughts on the subject, I should first of all recommend that the tender youth, after learning the Catechism, commit to memory the leading passages from Scripture on all the articles of faith, for which purpose the "Synopsis Biblica" of the late Laurelius may be augmented, and such passages added as treat of a Christian life. Afterwards the scholars ought to read my little Compendiolum Hafenrefferi, which I have published in the Latin and Swedish languages here at Skara, and by which the young are very much profited. Might not Buchananus, Prudentius, and others, be read instead of Ovid and Virgil? And instead of heathenish Greek books, the Wisdom of Sirach and Tobit in the Greek language, together with the New Testament? So that the young, at the same time they are increasing their knowledge of these languages, may also grow in the fear of God. One chapter in the Swedish Bible ought to be read every day by a lector theologice. Here at Skara, where we have about 700 boys, scarcely three had a Swedish Bible when I came. It is wrong of the College of Chancery not to assent to my proposition about the printing of the Bible. No doubt you have had a similar experience; wherefore I can express myself with greater freedom, and say: Crede Ruperto experto.

Governor H.'s53 book against me will probably be submitted for your examination. God grant he leave out all abuse; for the rest I am not afraid. I forgot to remark on the opinion of the College of Chancery on the subject of language, that no one can invalidate my opinion, that we have the best grammar in the Bibles of Gustavus I and II, and in the writings of the same period, and that if any one is not familiar with these works, he will never be able to succeed in this matter. If any one abandon these, he upsets the Bible, the prayers, the usual hymns, and also the laws, &c; and then the confusion will be worse than we have had at any time. It would be well, if this matter could be postponed until after the appearance of my grammar. This is the most difficult point in the whole regulation of schools. And if you [i. e. the College of Chancery] establish rules, if you order and command in opposition to my grammar, it, not you, will min, and thus the mutter will be settled.

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It is a pity Major Schnstrm47 and his brothers-in-law are so unreasonable. I expect to hear better news about my son-in-law Assessor Benzelstierna.8 These, then, are the thanks sister Brita50 gets for all her trouble.* If another had had it in hand, there would be less money to quarrel about. Do not let the matter come before the courts, but only before good men. This is a fat goose to pluck before the courts. You had better let them have 5000 dalers, if they have the conscience to take them.

* See Section IV.

With kind regards to sister, and commending you to God, I remain

       Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

              J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, May 15, 1722.

[P. S.] If you should meet Secretary Bonoschld,130 please remember me kindly to him, and ask whether no answer will be given to my application to His Majesty for the free importation of paper?

DOCUMENT 24.

FOURTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 35.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       When you wrote me that you would invest in my little grammar, I was highly pleased with the arrangement, provided I might advance the paper for some forty or fifty copies for my own use; but since Mr. Tengmark wrote to me that the printer Bjrkman wished to have some money in advance for his work, the subject has presented itself in a different light. It remains settled, then, as you have agreed with him, that Bjrkman should go on printing this on his own account.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 181 He will no doubt be re-imbursed for his expenses, after the work is once finished. My only stipulation is, that I should receive forty or fifty copies, as you had promised me before. As soon as I receive the account for the paper, I shall pay it most thankfully. I wish very much that Bjrkman would hurry on a little, so that the grammar might appear during my life-time. If I live to see the 28th of August, I shall have completed my seventieth year, and according to David's statement, I must then be prepared to meet death inasmuch as he says that the extent of human life is seventy, and, at the utmost, eighty years.

I should like to get my little Catechism by some student travelling hither. The printing-office in Skara will be soon in order again. I hope for a favourable "censur." I cannot find a convenient Swedish expression for this word. "Bifall," i. e. applause, or assent, is too feeble.

Governor Hjrne's53 last essay against me has also come into the hands of many persons down here; by whom it is sought, copied, and read with avidity. I have not yet seen it. He is said to have been like himself. It is possible I may get to print the first part of my answer to his first abusive publication.

I should like to get a copy of the clever biography of the late King Charles XII. Please to remember me kindly to sister Brita and to the members of both your families. Commending you to God, I remain

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, June 12, 1722.

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DOCUMENT 25.

FIFTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 36.

Well-born Secretary,

Most honoured Brother,

       I regret there are such stubborn and unreasonable heads, as are unable to receive in peace the rich blessings of God, without going to law about them. This also will be the reward to our good sister Brita for all the trouble she has taken. I should like to see whether they would have had as much, if another had taken it in hand. But such is the world's recompense. As for myself, I have had so little to do with such things during the last twenty years, that I know as little about them as a babe which was born yesterday. My son, the Assessor,* however, knows all about these things, and he will probably arrange matters so with sister Brita, as to bring about an agreement.**

* Emanuel Swedenborg.

** For further particulars respecting this affair, see Section IV.

Please admonish the printer to be a little quicker with my grammar. If I should come to an end before my grammar, I am afraid my adversary will find much to criticize. This might happen even if all were well and correctly printed: for much depends upon one word and one letter.

Your most dutiful servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, July 10, 1722.

[P. S.] Hjrne's53 essay or answer to my Defence is circulating down here; but I have not yet seen it. As long as arguments are taken for what they are worth, it does not worry me much.

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You are acquainted with the gentlemen and secretaries in the Senate and the College. Let me know whether a resolution has been passed in favour of the free importation of paper. Also, whether the College of Chancery has handed in its opinion about the Printing of the Bible. It is a thing unheard of to sell a beautiful Swedish Bible in royal octave for five marks in copper: and yet such a thing is a matter to dispute about! O tempora!

DOCUMENT 26.

SIXTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 37.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Most honoured Brother,

       With great joy I heard, on my arrival at Mariestad, that vou have been advanced to the office and honour of a Councillor of Chancery. I desire to congratulate you on this with all my beast; and I wish you may live long in the service, and for the honour of our country, and for our happiness, who are your nearest relatives. I do not doubt that you will more vigorously push to a gratifying end the godly purpose of printing the Bible, which has as long remained unsettled in the College of Chancery. Both His Excellency Count Swen and His Royal Majesty have promised that this matter shall be brought to a favourable close. Brother of my heart, help this most important object, and God will help you again.

The enclosed sheet I have received by mail here at Mariestad. As it was not accompanied by a letter, but only furnished with a large seal of authority, I have concluded, that it is from you. I wish very much that the printer would hurry a little more with the book than he has done heretofore.

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My son Emanuel is probably in Stockholm about this time, and I have instructed him to come to an understanding with you on the division of the inheritance, and so avoid law-suits, which require roundabout ways, whereby the greater part of the moneys passes into the hands of the lawyers.

His Majesty will not come down to Westgothland till the month of September. Emanuel ought to know this. Would to God he succeed with his many experiments and discoveries (funder), and that experience may prove their value. Different ores are found, and other modes of treating them prevail in Germany and in Sweden.*

* For further particulars on this subject see the proceedings for 1722, in Section V.

Please remember me kindly to Sister Brita and your family. Commending you to God, I remain, with continued respect, forever

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.

DOCUMENT 27.

SEVENTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. pp. 39, 40.

Well-bon Councillor of Chancery,

My dear Brother,

       Last week I had the honour of congratulating you, and of asking God's omnipotent protection for you in your distinguished office. On account of your web-known zeal for the promotion of learning, I hope that God will cause much good to come out of it. I am assured also that the affair of the printing of the Bible will now be pushed with proper energy, and that it will reach a desirable end. His Excellence, Count Swen, has promised much that is good and favourable. If this matter be not accomplished, the spiritual welfare of many will suffer; and many evil consequences will come upon us from God's judgment.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 185 Dear Brother, be on your guard. Who knows, if God has not raised you for this very purpose to your present post of honour? No delay with the grammar will be caused by me. Lately I have been on visitation

I thank you much for the favourable censorial opinion of my Catechism. I hope to receive the same for my Grammar, which will be of great use to the work. The Lexicon is probably now in your hands. It was a most difficult and laborious work, extending over thirty years. The lesser Swedish-Latin and Latin-Swedish Dictionary I have also ready, but without, any quotations. Each of these works will make a moderate octave volume, and will form a, useful and necessary work, so that the publisher ought to make a good profit by it. I have so many works on spiritual subjects to print, that ten years will not suffice for them.

I hear, then, that old Hjrne53 is selling out (sljer af).* May God change his heart!

*Perhaps this passage ought to read seglar af, i. e. is sailing away, is departing. Yet Hjrne did not die until 1794.

Emanuel gives me hope, that those concerned will soon agree about the division of the inheritance. God grant it!

As in the time of the pestilence I wrote my thoughts on death, so as to prepare myself for judgment, I have now written my thoughts upon the last judgment, calling the book Casa pauperum et Gaza divitum. It treats of real mercy towards the poor and wretched, on the basis of Matthew xxv. I was an hungered, &c.; striving to live in accordance therewith, and in such a manner, as not to be found wanting in the day of judgment. The book is of the same size as my Catechism.

Will it not be sufficient for the lectors in theology here at Skara to examine it, as they did with the "Sabbath Rest," the "Catechism," the "Thoughts on Death," "Rules for Youth," &c; so that I need not send it to you, who have, besides, your hands full of works that are to be printed?

Together with Emanuel I am waiting for the funeral sermon on the late King, and the personal account of him. The latter I have a great desire to read. The former is probably more general.

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Please remember me kindly to sister and to the young people. I commend you to God, and remain with great respect

Your most dutiful and faithful servant,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo Aug. 7, 1722.

[P. S.] Her Majesty the Queen has graciously presented me with 600 dalers in copper for the printing of the Catechism, and also 600 dalers in copper for the printing of the Address to the mountain district of Fahlun. Thus God raises up those by whom that which is godly may be promoted. But the Bible is forbidden to be printed. Werner67 avails more, than many hundred souls.

I have now a very laborious, but, I hope, useful work in hand, viz. to make a list of those who have explained the various Bible passages; as Dorhus has done, who calls his work Biblia Numerata. But among the fifteen commentators that he has cited to each verse, scarcely three have furnished explanations; the rest have simply given quotations. The work does not allow me time for sleep. I have now gone as far as Micah.

DOCUMENT 28.

EIGHTEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 41.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery.

Most honoured Brother,

       Thank God, the Grammar is progressing towards the end! The printer is now beginning the title, the censorial permission, and the dedication. According to the opinion you express in the censorial permission, the work will be appreciated and sought after. I therefore beg for a mild judgment. There is another member of the Chancery, who ought to be introduced into the dedication, viz. Secretary Carlsson.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 187 He is a fine gentleman. I made his acquaintance recently, when he was here with the gentlemen of the government. Perhaps more of the Secretaries might and ought to be mentioned; so that no. one who deserves to be named as well as some of the others, may be slighted. The inspector of the post-office in Stockholm is said to fill a similar function. These points I leave to your good judgment.

As I do not know whether Emanuel or assessor Benzelstierna8 is in Stockholm, I beg you to be kind enough to receive, in return for the enclosed receipts, the gracious gifts of the Queen, and to keep them until, God willing, I come to the Diet. I had to promise His Majesty to come, although I was very loath to do so. If Emanuel and Benzelstierna8 are in Stockholm I beg them to hire a room and bed-chamber with board for me, for just charges. Would to God I could be your comrade at sister Brita's, to whom you will please remember me most kindly, and, commending both her and her family to God, I remain, with the greatest respect,

Your most dutiful and obedient servant,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, October 19, 1722.

[P. S.] Is no favourable termination to be expected in the College of Chancery to the application for printing the Bible? His Excellency Count Horn has made fair promises.

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DOCUMENT 29.

NINETEENTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 43.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery.

Most honoured Brother,

       I presume you will give your kind consent to the publication of the two useful school books which I left in your hands during my stay in Stockholm, viz, the Latin-Swedish, and the Swedish-Latin Dictionaries. In these I have endeavoured to give pure and correct Swedish, not only in respect to orthography, but also in respect to the declinsions and conjugations. On account of my having carefully attended to this, I hope that you will give your favourable assent to these two small dictionaries, and will speed them on. As soon as I receive your consent, I intend to have them printed here at Skara, during my life-time; for we have new type here. Unless this be done we shall remain barbarians in our own country. Could I get them sent here by some student who is returning home, I should like it very much. A student of Westgothland reads with the sons of Assessor L. Benzelstierna8; he no doubt could find out some returning student. My son Emanuel intends to come do here for Christmas. Cleverus is doing much better, but Fahlundius is just as difficult. How did the Committee on the affairs of justice find matters? Please remember me kindly to the sisters and the little boys. Commending you to God, I remain with great respect

Your most obedient servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, October 24, 1723.

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DOCUMENT 30.

TWENTIETH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 45.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Most honoured Brother,

       I had the honour, a short time ago, of receiving your letter. With respect to Festus Magnus, this was originally a short sermon, which I did not think worth while to send through purgatory, especially as it treated of subjects to which no objection could be taken. Afterwards it grew to its present size. I ask to be excused. It shall not happen again. I thought you had seen a specimen of my Pharos Sacra.* I hope I may obtain leave to print it without sending it over; it comprizes six quartos. For the whole of my "Sabbath's Rest", I had in 1705 the consent of the late Hgwal, as has been stated at the beginning of the book; so that the two remaining parts need not be sent to the Consistory in Gottenburg, and so forth; moreover they will have to lie unprinted, on account of the difficulty of importing paper free of duty. Not fifty cart-loads would remove all the printed sheets I have in stock, and which were printed at my own expense; and I can testify upon my honour that I have not had at the utmost more than four hundred reams of paper free of duty. Let it be so. Let another write, print, and pay as much as I have: men have learned better. I am only sorry that paper free of duty is not granted for the printing of the Bible. Please remember me kindly to Mr. Barck, the Secretary of State; he is a countryman of mine, end a good friend and brother; a most learned man; inclined to promote the circulation of Swedish books; and likewise inclined to show to those across the sea that people live here.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 190 The late King, Charles XII, gave me permission to import paper free of duty. I sent the permission to the Exchequer-College, but it did me no good, as I received no answer. And meanwhile the printing-office at Skara was burnt. President Feif can testify to the above. I have several works ready. But they must lie, end after my death they will be used by woman-kind to wrap cakes and pies. But one thing more. Chamberlain Hans Hijerta is down here; he gave me to understand that he is well-disposed towards your dear sister-in-law, Miss Behm. I know nothing but good respecting him. Shall he declare himself?

*The nature of this Pharos Sacra, which means "Sacred Beacon-light," will be found explained in Document 33.

Vale, saluta et porro fave.

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, October 23, 1724.

DOCUMENT 31.

TWENTY-FIRST LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, pp. 47. 48.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery.

Most honoured Brother,

       I find they are favourable to me in your College. Let this be so, until God intervene with His powerful hand. As I wrote you last, I sent to both their Majesties the original letter of Charles XII, respecting a yearly exemption of 500 reams of paper from the payment of duty; a copy of it I enclose herewith. So it goes when the authorities----.I can assert upon oath that I never imported a hundred reams since I began printing; and now several thousand reams are printed, as may be seen at my house, where all my rooms are filled with my writings.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 191 And Mller has charged me as much for printing as he has any one else; and since he has the King in his favour, he makes heavy charges. It would be well, if I succeed one day in obtaining leave to import fifty reams of paper for the Bible free of duty. Since the year 1701 I have petitioned for this holy and wholesome work. But so it goes when the authorities. Is that not a queer measure, that the Hymn-Book from Skepsholm is no longer permitted to be sent to New Sweden; when yet they have never had any other there? Think, that it will cost over 10,000 dalers in silver to send them a requisite supply; think too of the confusion in the singing, from having previously used my Hymn-Book! It is very remarkable also, that, after Charles XII wrote home from Poland that the necessary supply should be sent thither, I went up to the Council, when His Excellency Count Horn went out, and after I had brought forward my objections, it was resolved, against the will of a sovereign Prince, to send mine there instead; which was done. And the Hymn-Book belongs to me; my 30,000 dalers are invested in it. I have to thank my colleagues, that it is now prohibited to be sent thither. They ought to buy copies of their own Hymn-Book at their own expense, and send them there, and order the others to be cast into the fire. Many have written to me about my "Godly Exercise in the Catechism." It is out of print, and I have thought of printing a second edition. So also inquiry has been made after the two remaining parts of my "Sabbath's Rest." The women will make use of these after my death. Olof Rudbeck,49 D. Gezelius, and several others, received assistance from the public for the printing of their works; I have not received a farthing. And yet a hundred cart-loads of unsold books lie at my own house, without counting those in other places. It is possible that I may never obtain my rights in these things. If God prolong my life until the next Diet, I will give them a bit of my mind. Where are the books written by my colleagues? Shame on us, that we are compelled to buy and read the books written by the learned abroad! Neither have I received any answer to my application for another clergyman for America, in the place of Magister Hesselius. A certain Lidenius, who has been there for fifteen years, is now about to come home.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 192 There are four churches there, and only three clergymen. How soon one of these may sicken, and die! It would not be an easy matter then to get a minister there! O tempora, o mores!

I have also intended to publish a "Godly form of government," based on King David's Psalm ci. Where shall I send this to, in order to have it examined censorially? This too may in course of time be used by the women for their cakes.

If I had not written to the Queen on the subject, there would never have been any resolution about the paper for the Bible. She thinks a great deal of my Hymn-Book, and is anxious that it should be sent to America. But the authorities ---.You must do your best in favour of it by virtue of your office.

The gentleman of whom I wrote in my last is engaged to be married to General Rebener's daughter. He makes a rich match, since there was so much delay in taking any action upon his first proposal. My kind regards to all. Commending you to God, I remain to the end of my life

Your most dutiful and sincere servant,

       JESPERUS SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Dec. 1, 1724.

DOCUMENT 32.

TWENTY-SECOND LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV. p. 49.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Most honoured Brother,

       Her Majesty the Queen has most graciously granted the means for publishing my America. Will you please get the copy of the MSS. from the Queen through Lady Duba, and give your consent, so that it may be printed? It consists mostly of historical matters, and does not contain anything for the censors.

Commending you to God, I remain

       Your most dutiful servant,

              J. SWEDBERG.
Mariestad, March 15, 1728.

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DOCUMENT 33.

TWENTY-THIRD LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

*Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV., p. 50.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Most honoured Brother,

       I thank you very much for sending me this reminder about my America. I will comply in all respects with your instructions; and shall submit it to the examination of the Theological Faculty, either at Skara or Gottenburg. I have here a copy exactly like that which you have now in hand.

The Queen had also ordered me to write on the Epistles, which I accordingly did; and after Her Majesty had kept the book for more than a year, she delivered it to Assessor Benzelstierna,8 with a handsome donation for the printing of both works. Will you please to call for the copy, and submit it to the ecclesiastical Consistory for approval?

I have a book in six quartos,* in which I have quoted with each verse the authors who explain it. I have also made a Swedish version of the Bible from the original text. After my death it will be deposited in the Library at Upsal. Likewise my Autobiography in large quarto. I intend now, if God grant me the time, to write on the passion of Christ. If I were a German, I would receive money for it. Here I have always to advance the money. If I had all the money which I have invested in the printing of books, I would be worth now from sixty to seventy thousand dalers in copper.

* The Pharos Sacra mentioned in Document 30.

Commending you to God, I remain with great respect,

       Your most obedient servant,

              J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, April 6, 1725.

[P. S.] Consul Ahlstrm,94 who is at present in Stockholm, and will return here at once, can bring the copy of the MSS.

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DOCUMENT 34.

TWENTY-FOURTH LETTER* OF BISHOP SWEDBERG TO JOHAN ROSENADLER.

* Bergius' Collection, Vol. IV, p. 51.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Most honoured Brother,

       I have received now from the Theological Faculty at Linkping the approval of my America Illuminata, and from those concerned at Gottenburg the approval of my collection of sermons from the Epistles; so that I cannot see anything to prevent the printing of them. I therefore beg you, by virtue of your office, to grant me leave to print, and to inform me of it. As for the rest I remain, commending you to God's almighty protection,

Your most obedient servant,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Aug. 14, 1730.

[P. S.] I am issuing a second edition here of my "Godly Exercise in the Catechism;" which will be finished at Michaelmass, so God will. After that I desire with the aged Simeon to depart hence.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 195

DOCUMENT 35.

EXTRACTS FROM BISHOP J. SWEDBERG'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY.*

* Bishop Swedberg's autobiography fills a large folio volume of 1012 pages. As he himself states he wrote out a copy for each of his children. One of these copies is preserved in the Gymnasium-Library at Skara; this was carefully examined by Dr. Kahl in 1842, to glean from it everything it contains relating to Emanuel Swedenborg. The only information of interest which he found is contained in paragraphs 24, 25, 26, of Chapter xxv, of which the above is a literal English translation. These extracts were sent by Dr. Kahl to Dr. Immanuel Tafel, who inserted them in the Swedish and German languages in Part IV of his "Documents concerning Swedenborg." An English translation of them appeared also in the American, and, we believe, in the appendix to the English edition, of these "Documents." Another copy of Bishop Swedberg's Autobiography is among the Benzelius MSS. in the Cathedral-Library at Linkping.

MY SONS AND THEIR NAMES.

Moreover, I remained humble, and never asked persons of rank, as is frequently done, to stand sponsors to my children. I will also state my reasons for calling my sons, Emanuel, Eliezer, and Jesper, and not, as is customary, naming them after their grandfathers, or other relations; Albrecht, the eldest, was born while I was travelling abroad, and his mother named him after her father. I cannot find a single instance in the whole Bible, of children having received the names of their parents or grandparents. I will only mention the patriarch Jacob and King David. The former had holy, glorious, and honourable forefathers, widely celebrated; and, as is well known, he had twelve sons: none of these he called Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob. So with King David.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 196 He too had many sons, none of whom he called Jesse, or David. Solomon, likewise, had many sons, and yet he called none of them David, Jesse, or Solomon; and none of his numerous descendants, among whom were great kings and princes, were called David or Solomon. Nevertheless, this good custom had been discontinued even before the time of Christ, as appears from the history of John the Baptist, whom with one accord they desired to name after his father Zacharias, which is a beautiful and significant name, meaning memoria Domini, the Lord's remembrance, viz. that he should be constantly mindful of the Lord.

I am far from presuming hereby to blame, find fault with, or disapprove of, those who name their children thus; yet I hope and expect that no one will find fault with my mode of naming my children, since I have the Bible, and the example of so many saints, on my side. I am also fully convinced that children ought to be called such names as will awaken in, and remind them of, the fear of God, and of everything that is orderly and righteous; quite different from many inconsiderate parents, who call their children by such improper names, as Bjrn (bear), Ulf (wolf), Thorheol (wheel of Thor, or of the Thunderer), or who name them after the heathenish god Thor, without remembering the answer which the prudent Abigail gave to King David concerning her husband Nabal: "Let not my Lord set his heart against this man of Belial, even Nabal: for he is a foolish man, even as is his name, and folly is with him." The name of my son Emanuel signifies "God with us;" that he may always remember God's presence, and that intimate, holy, and mysterious conjunction with our good and gracious God, into which we are brought by faith, by which we are conjoined with Him, and are in Him. And blessed be the Lord's name! God has to this hour been with him; and may He be further with him, until he be eternally united with Him in His kingdom! Eliezer signifies "God is my help;" and he has also been graciously and joyfully helped by God. He was a good and pious child, and had made good progress, when, in his twenty-fifth year, he was called away by a blessed death. The youngest son was called Jesper only for this reason, that he was born on the same day of the year and at the same hour as myself, who first saw the light of the world on the 28th August, 1653.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 197 If the name Jesper be written [Hebrew] (Jisper), "he will write," the use has also followed the name: for I believe that scarcely any one in Sweden has written so much as I have: since ten carts could scarcely carry away what I have written and printed at my own expense; and yet there is much, yea, nearly as much, unprinted. My son Jesper also has the same disposition; for he is fond of writing, and writes much.

I am, a Sunday child (i. e. born on a Sunday), and the mother of my children, my late wife, was also a Sunday child: and all my children are Sunday children, except Catharine, who was born at Upsal on the 3rd day of Easter. I have put my sons to that for which God has given them inclination and liking, and have not brought up any for the clerical profession; although many parents do so inconsiderately, and in a manner not justifiable, by which God's Church and likewise the ministerial office suffer not a little, and are brought into contempt. I have never had my daughters in Stockholm, where many are sent in order to learn fine manners, but where they also learn much that is worldly, and injurious to the soul.

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SECTION III

SWEDENBORG'S CORRESPONDENCE

FOR THE YEARS 1709-1747.

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INTRODUCTION.

THE correspondence contained in this section is preserved chiefly in the Benzelius Collection of MSS. in the Cathedral-library of Linkping. The seven letters written by Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius before 1714, are contained in Vols. III. and IV of the Collection; those, however, which he wrote between 1714 and 1724 are contained in Vol. XL, which bears the title: Collectanea Physico-Mathematica, &c. Eleven of the forty-two letters contained in this volume were published by Prof. Atterbom in the Appendix to his "Siare och Skalder;" and forty-one of these letters were copied by Dr. Hhl, Librarian of the Linkping Library, at the expense of the Swedenborg Association, and sent by him to London about 1850.* Twenty-six of these letters, which had been translated into English by Mr. Charles Edward Strutt, were afterwards published by Mr. White in the "New Churchman" for 1856. The letters which Polhem addressed to Swedenborg and Ericus Benzelius are, with the exception of Document 38, contained in a separate quarto volume, in which Benzelius collected all the papers prepared by Polhem. This volume is also in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping. None of these letters had been previously published. Most of the remaining letters of this Section are from the Bergius Collection of Letters, which is preserved in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Particulars concerning this collection may be found in Note 46.

* For further information respecting the Swedish copy of these letters received by the Swedenborg association, see. Note to Document 46.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 201

DOCUMENT 36.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.6*

*Benzelius' Collection, Vol. III, No. 65.

Most learned Librarian,

Dear and honoured friend and brother,

       The reason I have hitherto delayed writing so important a letter, was chiefly that I was uncertain where you might be at the present time. And although I am still in the dark about your return home from the springs, I am compelled to send you these lines because of some matters of importance to me; for relying on your usual kindness and on your friendly promise, I would humbly ask you to give me something in hand, that may assist me in taking my departure; and if you could add to this some letters to your acquaintances in England, or anything else that might be of use to me, I much wish you would do so. I do not intend to remain here longer than a fortnight,--only long enough to receive your answer respecting my journey. I should very much like, by your recommendation, to become acquainted with some one in the English College; (in Collegio Anglicano), where there are about twenty-one assessores, that I might improve myself in mathematics, or in physics and natural history, if these are their strongest points.

As I have always desired to turn to some practical use, and also to perfect myself more in, the studies which I selected with your advice and approval, I thought it advisable to choose a subject early, which I might elaborate in course of time, and into which I might introduce much of what I should notice and read in foreign countries.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 202 This course I have always pursued hitherto in my reading; and now, at my departure, I propose to myself, as far as concerns mathematics, gradually to gather and work up a certain collection, viz. of things discovered and to be discovered in mathematics, or, what is nearly the same thing, the progress made in mathematics during the last one or two centuries. This collection will include all branches of mathematics, and will be, I trust, of use to me in my journeys, since I can introduce into it every thing that I notice in mathematics. If you do not disapprove of this subject, I venture to expect much help and support from you in the treatment of it; I hope especially, that if you meet with anything in this department, you will make a note of it for me. It would greatly serve my purposes if Director Plhammar14 could be prevailed upon to communicate his inventions, before anything mortal happen to him; the mechanics contained therein would be an ornament to the whole work. I have a valuable help in the posthumous work of Mochofvius, and also an excellent guide to authors.

During my stay here I have made such progress, as to acquire a manual art--the art of binding books; for we have a bookbinder with us; I have already displayed my skill upon two books, which I bound in half morocco. I herewith send you for examination an old coin; I do not know of what stock it is; yet it appears to me a suspicious circumstance that Sanctus Ericus is written on the outside; for he probably did not obtain this epithet, until some time after his death. Hl, the master of the horse, is said to have committed the extreme folly of castrating himself in a bungling manner; it is supposed that he will probably not live much longer. I do not know for certain whether this is true, but everybody says it is; perhaps he wishes to become a second Origen.

In case any one succeed me in my room,* I would beg of you to see that the papers which I left behind are gathered up and stored in the vault; because there are some things among them which I collected for Publius Syrus,** and which cost me a good amount of labour.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 203 Will you please to remember me very kindly to all your family, to Prof. Elfvius,54 also to Prof. Upmarck51 (who for some reason or other seems to be angry with me, after he, towards the close, had often showed himself dissatisfied with me; all this I had heard before, and I also understand it very well; but I hope that my fates will not continue so unpropitious, that he will always remain so unapproachable to me; Justin, L. 5. C. 2. V. 6, 7). With many kind remembrances from all the family here, I commend you to God's gracious protection, and remain always

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.

Brunsbo,*** July 13, 1709.

* Swedenborg while at Upsal stayed at the house of his brother-in-law. This is the first letter which he wrote to him after his return home from the university.

** His thesis upon leaving the university consisted of "Select Sentences from Pubius Syrus, Seneca, and others, with notes," which was printed at Skara in 1709, and reprinted by Dr. Im. Tafel in 1841.

*** The name of the Bishop's seat near Skara.

DOCUMENT 37.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. III, No. 83.

Dear and honoured friend and brother,

As Magister Unge5 intends to go to Upsal, to pass his academical examination for the lectorship* in theology which he desires to obtain, these lines will be conveyed by him, and he will wait upon you and pay his respects to you. I should have done this more frequently, if opportunity had offered, and I had been aware of your return. My greatest desire now is, to obtain some information respecting the plan now being discussed here, of my staying with Polhammar.14 If my journey abroad must necessarily be delayed till next spring, I have no objection to be with him for some time; and as I can be there with greater advantage during summer than during winter, and as everything then is more bright and enjoyable, I am still less opposed to going.

* Professors in Gymnasia, or Collegiate Schools are called lectors in Sweden.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 204

I have little desire to remain here much longer; for I am wasting almost my whole time. Still, I have made such progress in music, that I have been able several times to take the place of our organist; but for all my other studies this place affords me very little opportunity; and they are not at all appreciated by those who ought to encourage me in them.

Some time ago a levy of all the country people was ordered here; and when the time came for assembling, they committed an unheard of outrage upon their own bailiff; for they first ill-treated and then killed him, after which they fired several hundred shots at him as a target, so that there was scarcely any part of him left entire; and even then they would have allowed the hogs to eat him, if the pastor of Horn had not restrained them. Magister Fegrus interposed his authority, but they threatened him with the same treatment, unless he would keep silence; two country-men and one country-woman, who expressed sorrow at this occurrence, were also killed. Magistrate Aurell took refuge with the pastor of Horn, whom I mention above, and concealed himself in a dark room in the cellar. The parsonage was surrounded and searched in every corner, but they had to retire without having effected their purpose. Part of them lay down near Billingen, and threatened every one with death who should go further. The provincial governor was then compelled to issue furloughs to all of them; for they gave him to understand, that they had determined to treat in this way all the officers they would have on their march. May God prevent our having an insurrection here; but it looks very much as if we should have one.

Four or five weeks ago the bones of a giant* were sent from here. I hope they have arrived safely; I wish it too, because I alluded to them in some verses, which Magister Unge5 will perhaps introduce into his dissertation; they are as follows:

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Sunct Gothi nuper spatisoa membra gigantis

Avecta, ast cerebro, ast ingenioque carent.

Fertilis hc tellus alium nunc mittit alumnum,

Virbug ingenii hic, corporis ille, valet.

(From Gothland came a giant's bulky frame;

But brains and quickening intellect it lacked.

This fertile land a new alumnus sends;

In mind gigantic this, as huge in body that.)

* These bones which were those of a whale are still preserved in the museum at Upsal, and, if we are not mistaken, Emanuel Swedenborg is marked as their donor. He discusses these bones at large on p. 29 of his little work, Om Watnenshgd, &c., where he says that when they were dug out at first, they were supposed to be the bones of a giant, but after they had been joined together, it appeared that they were those of a large fish or whale.

For this reason I wish the bones may not be delayed on the may; the candidate who took charge of them seemed to be obliging. Brother Eliezer* is probably by this time at Upsal; I wish him all success, and rapid progress in his studies. Brother Jespers52 has a strange illness; may God help him through! With much kind love to sister Anna,5 I commend you to the protection of the Highest, and remain always

Your most obedient servant,

       EMANUEL SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, 6th March, 1710.

* A younger brother of Swedenborg, who died when he was twenty-five years of age. See Document 9, A, Table II, end Document 86.

Viro Amplissimo et celeberrimo

       Dmo. Erico Benzelio

Academi Upsal: Bibliothekario

       h pateant.

(To the Most Worthy and Celebrated

       Mr. Ericus Benzelius,

Librarian of the University of Upsal.)

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DOCUMENT 38.

POLHEM14 TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. III, No. 101.

My very kind friend and well-wisher,

Some time ago I had the honour of receiving from the Right Reverend Bishop Swedberg a distinguished letter, in which he expressed a desire that his son might live for some time with me in my humble dwelling; but, for special reasons, I was obliged to give a negative answer. Since that time the pastor of Husby, on the strength of an additional letter from you on the same subject, has renewed this application and request, showing me at the same time your letter; for which I have every cause to express to you my sincere gratitude, for the good opinion and judgment you were pleased to express respecting my unworthy self.

With regard to young Mr. Swedberg, I must confess I was extremely well pleased that he came here, like the others, of his own accord, and without first making any conditions; and as we were pleased and satisfied with one another, his desire could be gratified without any difficulty; especially when I found him able to assist me in the mechanical undertaking which I have in hand, and in making the necessary experiments; in this matter I am more indebted to him, than he is to me. Moreover, I value more highly a quick and intelligent person, with whom I can enjoy the discussion of subjects on which I possess some little knowledge, than I do a few weeks' board and lodging.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 207 But, in addition to all this, I must confess that I scruple more and more to accept any payment for board and instruction, because I do not consider myself capable of giving all the satisfaction that may be desired and expected.

I thank you very much for the last great pleasure I enjoyed at your house, and wish that I may have the honour and joy of seeing you at my humble dwelling; which would, indeed, be more than a pleasure to me, Meanwhile I desire to be remembered most kindly to your dear family, and remain

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPHER POLHAMMAR.14
Stiernsund,* July 16, 1710.

* An iron-work in Dalecarlia, where a mechanical institute had been established by Polhem at the expense of the King.



DOCUMENT 39.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* The original of this letter in the Latin language is contained in the Benzelius Collection, Vol. III, No. 125.

Dearest Brother,

One letter to you would scarcely be a sufficient apology from me, who so often missed you and your kind offices, at the time I was leaving for London. Further, I have not up to the present day answered your last letter, which was so full of kindness. I wish I might be allowed to cover my negligence with the veil and name of indolence and imprudence, and that I might thus make you feel for me as you did before. But I believe, dear brother, that I can satisfy you by taking all the blame upon myself, and thus anticipating your reproaches.*

* It appears from this as if Swedenborg had undertaken his journey abroad against the desire of Ericua Benzelius.

The idea of a journey to Polhammar,14 the Machaon of our age, I have not altogether renounced, but have only postponed till the time when, with the help of God, I shall again return to my country; for I might not only be charged with negligence, but also with ingratitude towards our age, if I neglected to profit by the teaching of so great a man, one such as our country will never see again.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 208 This island, however, has also men of the greatest experience in this science; but these I have not yet consulted, because I am not yet sufficiently acquainted with their language. I study Newton* daily, and am very anxious to see and hear him. I have provided myself with a small stock of books for the study of mathematics, and also with a certain number of instruments, which are both a help and an ornament in the study of science; such as, an astronomical tube, quadrants of several kinds, prisms, microscopes, artificial scales, and camer obscur, by William Hunt, and Thomas Everard, which I admire and which you too will admire. I hope that after settling my accounts, I may have sufficient money left to purchase an air-pump.

* Probably "The Principia", Sir Isaac Newton's greatest work.

Whatever is worthy of being seen in the town, I have already examined. The magnificent St. Paul's cathedral was finished a few days ago in all its parts. In examining the royal monuments in Westminster abbey, I happened to see the tomb of Casaubon; when I was inspired with such a love for this literary hero, that I kissed his tomb, and dedicated to his manes, under the marble, the following stanzas:

Marmore cur ornas tumulum, cur carmine et auro;

Cum tamen hc pereant, Tuque superstes eris.

At puto sponte sua celebrant Te marmor et aurum;

Oscula quod marmor prtereuntis amet.

(Why adornest thou the tomb with marble, with song, and with gold?

When yet these will perish, and thou wilt survive.

But, methinks, the marble and gold for their own sakes praise thee;

For the marble loves the kisses of the passers by.)

Or else these:

Urna Tuos cineres, animum sed Numen et Astra,

Scripta Tuum ingenium, Nomen at orbis habet;

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Has licet in partes Te mors distraxerit, ipse

Attamen in nostro pectore totus eris.

(The urn holds thy ashes, God and the stars thy Spirit;

Thy writings contain thy genius, but the world thy renown.

Let death dissolve thy mortal frame into fragments,

In our hearts thou shalt dwell forever entire.)

Otherwise, the town is distracted by internal dissensions between the Anglican and Presbyterian churches; they are incensed against each another with almost deadly hatred. The torch and trumpet of this tumult is Doctor Sacheverell, whose name is heard from every mouth and at every corner; and respecting whom every bookshop displays pamphlets.

Were you, dear brother, to ask me about myself, I should say I know that I am alive, but not happy; for I miss you and my home. Should I be so fortunate as to have a letter from you, you would almost carry me back to my country; for I not only love you more than my own brothers, but I even love and revere you as a father. I send you a few verses addressed to Sophia Brenner, the Sappho of our age, that you may polish and improve them, if you find that they require correction, and that, thus corrected, you may communicate them to her. Doctor Edzardus sends you his best greeting. May God preserve you alive, that I may meet you again,

Yours faithfully and affectionately, even to death,

       EMANUEL SWEDBERG.
London, October 13, 1710.

To the Most Reverend Ericus Benzelius, Upsal.

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DOCUMENT 40.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. IV, No. 20.

                     Received April 30, 1711.
Most learned friend and brother,

Several weeks ago I received your more than agreeable letter, in which, among other things, I was especially pleased that you placed so much confidence in me as to charge me with several commissions, which I shall endeavour to fulfil with the greatest diligence. With respect to the twenty-four feet telescope, I ordered the glasses for it at Marshal's, to whom Magister Valerius71 had written, and who is said to be the only one patronized by the Royal Society. These glasses are beyond expectation expensive, for they cost forty shillings; I do not know whether they are not cheaper in Holland; others in the same business charge fifty shillings, so that I did not purchase any for Magister Valerius; for I did not know whether he was willing to pay so much. When they are ready, and there is an opportunity of shipping them to Stockholm, I shall send them, together with Marshal's letter, who promised to do his best; he has sent some of the same kind to Switzerland and Russia, whence they were ordered. The microscope and some of the books shall follow. I must beg you meanwhile to appoint some merchant, to whom Marshal can go for his money; for I am on short allowance, and not permitted to purchase anything on credit; nor are our Swedish merchants willing to let me have money, unless they receive permission to draw for the amount in Sweden, when they charge generally 33 to 34 [Swedish dalers] for the pound, instead of 26 or 27, as is the case when the money is sent here.

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Would you not like to have for the use of the Library a good air-pump, with all the apparatus belonging to it, and the improvements invented by members of the Royal Society? I will send you shortly the book about it, the price, and a list of everything belonging to it. Three have been sent to Russia; for there are many Russians here; they study mostly mathematics and navigation, applying themselves to the tastes of their chief, who took a wonderful interest in these subjects during his visit here. The Czar purchased also from Mr. Edmund Halley,55 for eighty pounds, his "incomparable quadrant," which he used in discovering the southern stars at St. Helena, and with which he took pretty good observations of the moon and the planets in 1683, 1684, and other years.

The books you asked me to get for you I have enquired for at all the bookshops, and also at book-auctions; but some I have not succeeded in finding. Vol. I of Coletlerii Ecclesi Grc Monumenta I found at a bookseller's in Paternoster Row; but I had to pay for it almost the value of the whole work. I purchased the old edition of Norris' Reflections upon the Conduct of Human Life since nothing new has appeared separately, but only together with his other works, i. e. his Christian Blessedness, Christian Monitor, Dialogue between two Protestants, Poetic Miscellany, &c., the whole of which may be bought for twenty or twenty-four shillings. I read his little book through, and found it very clever and ingenious; but he seemed to me to take too many roundabout ways, and not to touch upon the subject he was to treat, beeping one always in suspense, and wondering where he would end, and at what he would arrive. Baker's Reflections upon Learning I have read twice, finding in him my first delight; but I wonder why he does not approve of anything, but considers everything that has been discovered and written, imperfect and unworthy of his esteem; and, unless this has been the author's object, it may be used against him, for his own refutation; for he must include his own work among the number.

I visit daily the best mathematicians here in town. I have been with Flamsteed,56 who is considered the best astronomer in England, and who is constantly taking observations, which, together with the Paris Observations, will give us some day a correct theory respecting the motion of the moon and of its appulse to the fixed stars; and with its help there may be found a true longitude at sea; for he has found that the motion of the moon has as yet been by no means well determined, and that all theoretical luna tables are very imperfect, and that the same errors or deviations which are noticed in an earlier period of eighteen years and eleven days, occur again afterwards.

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Newton has laid a good foundation for correcting the irregularities of the moon in his Principia; he has however not yet published the tables, but simply the theory; he has also corrected in it the precession of the equinoxes, and the periods of the tides.

Will you please ask Prof. Elfvius54 for the meridian or the longitude of Upsal; I know that he succeeded at one time in getting it very accurately by means of a lunar eclipse; I can make some use of it.

You encourage me to go on with my studies; but I think, that I ought rather to be discouraged, as I have such an "immoderate desire"* for them, especially for astronomy and mechanics. I also turn my lodgings to some use, and change them often; at first was at a watchmaker's, afterwards at a cabinetmaker's, and now I am at a mathematical instrument maker's; from them I steal their trades, which some day will be of use to me. I have recently computed for my own pleasure several useful tables for the latitude of Upsal, and all the solar and lunar eclipses which will take place between 1712 and 1721; I am willing to communicate them, if it be desired. In undertaking in astronomy to facilitate the calculation of eclipses. and of the motion of the moon outside those of the syzygies, and also in undertaking to correct the tables so as to agree with the new observations, I shall have enough to do.

* These two words Swedenborg wrote in the English language.

Would you like to have for the library the Philosophical Transactions, that is, everything the Royal Society has deliberated upon and discovered since its beginning in 1666; together with a Collection of some Natural Phenomena, published in 1707?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 213 If so, I think I can procure them for you, although they are very rare; they will be most useful to the public, especially to those who intend to comment upon Polhammar's14 inventions, for perhaps Parallel cases may occur in it. The book is too dear for me. Should any of Polhammar's inventions be published, I wish you would communicate them to me, for by means of them I may obtain an introduction to some mathematicians whose acquaintance I desire; at such a time I sincerely wish I could be at home.

If you would be kind enough to order a quadrant for me of Polhammar's brother, I would be very much obliged to you; four or five feet long, of brass; if it be deemed advisable that he should make the division, I wish he would do it after the manner in which his brother computed one very accurately for Prof. Spole; which showed the fifth of every second. I think my father will not refuse to pay for it, if he has anything to spare.

P. S. Grabe's Septuagint was recently published; but I have only seen it in octave, together with a small pamphlet in quarto upon the Alexandrian codex. He was here for some time; but he had to change his lodgings every week, he was so over-run by visitors. Ephraim Syrius is very well published in folio, at Oxford. They have issued a book of all their poets in two volumes; likewise a universal index. I have much to tell about events among the learned, but I have neither time nor paper. In my next I will give you an account of what I have read of the doings of the learned. I asked Count Gyllenborg about your books; he said he received your letter, but not the books; they are detained in the custom-house, until the duty be paid; it is a great chance if I hear anything about them. The Vitis aquilonia is a catholic and superstitious book, which by an act of Parliament in the third year of William and Mary's reign was forbidden to be introduced into the country. If it was another book, I should try to get it for you, for then it would be free.

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DOCUMENT 41.

EXTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OP THE LITERARY SOCIETY OF UPSAL.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, "Collectanea Physico-Mathematics," No. 66.


1711, June 20. Present Professor D. Boberg,70 Professor Elfvius,54 Magister Valerius.71

1711, July. [Instructions to be sent to Eman. Swedberg in London.]

Paragraph 1. Price and description of an air-pump.

Paragraph 2. That Emanuel Swedberg go to Flamsteed, examine his instruments, how they are made, in what manner the minute divisions are indicated; whether he uses a telescope instead of diopters; all about his other instruments; how they are moved by his apparatus; and also how he makes use of his instruments when it is dark, whether it is done by means of candles, &c.

Paragraph 3. Prof. Elfvius promised to communicate the mode and the points.

Paragraph 4. That Emanuel Swedberg notice the division in the instruments, and how they are tested or examined; also what they cost in respect to size.

Paragraph 5. How much the newest globes cost, and in what estimation they are held by the learned; also whether it is not possible to obtain engravings of them, so that they may be mounted here.

Paragraph 6. He is to be encouraged in trying to facilitate the computation of eclipses.

Paragraph 7. That the Philosophical Transactions be purchased for the Library.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 215


DOCUMENT 42.

PROF. ELFVIUS54 TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol XL, No. 67.

                     Upsal, July 28, St. Swithin's day, 1711.
Most honoured Mr. Swedberg,

My good old friend and cousin,*

* Lars Spole (when ennobled Rosenborg), brother of Mrs. Elfvius, married Magdalena Schnstrm, cousin of Emanuel Swedenborg, on the ground of which relationship Prof. Elfvius addressed Swedenborg as cousin.

With great joy I read your letter to the Librarian; from which I not only learn that your health is good, but also that you apply yourself with most praiseworthy industry to the study of mathematics, and the things belonging thereto. Of this I am heartily glad, and I wish you all success in accomplishing your laudable design. I am coming to you now with a few small matters, which I should like to know myself, and which may also be of some use to you in your pursuits.

1. That you try to be present, at all hazards, while Flamsteed is making some observations; that you notice how he conducts them; that you describe his instruments with all the apparatus belonging to them, and especially the diopters, whether they are provided with a movable limb, after the manner of Hedrus, or with cross-lines, as is the case in Tycho's instruments, or with a screw in the limb, which Robert Hooke so strongly recommends, against the opinion of Hevelius; also whether he uses a telescope in the place of the diopters, and how it is fastened. How the instrument is placed parallel with the horizon; and especially that you find out all about the micrometer, which is placed inside the tube, and by which the diameter of the planets is taken.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 216 If I could get such a micrometer sent here, it would be well; for it is very useful, especially in the observation of eclipses. Also how the tubes of twenty or thirty feet length are handled, with many other things that I cannot detail here.

2. What became of Hooke's observation, according to which he desired to prove the annual motion of the earth, in his treatise: "An attempt to prove the motion of the Earth," London, 1674. Whether it is approved of by the learned, and whether the observation is continued by others.

3. We should like to get a catalogue of all the writings of Flamsteed, which it would not be well for the Library to be without; but about this the Librarian himself will write.

4. Glass-grinding, I think, you ought to make yourself acquainted with, from the beginning even to the minutest detail.

5. What the learned mathematicians think about Newton's theory of the motion of the planets: inasmuch as it seems to be a pure abstraction without any physical ground, viz. how one planetary body could gravitate towards another, &c., which seems to be an absurdity.

6. Whether Flamsteed adopts the number given by Cassini for the greatest obliquity of eclipses, viz. 23" 29', or takes the number given by others, viz. 23" 30'.

7. Which tables of the moon's motion are considered the best.

[Here follows Prof. Elfvius' observation of the eclipse of the moon in 1706, which Swedenborg desired to have].

In conclusion I commend you to God's protection, and remain

Your most obedient servant,

       P. ELFVIUS.

[P. S.] I recommend the above, and everything else that may be of use in our mathematical studies, to Mr. Swedberg's great desire of acquiring knowledge, &c.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 217

DOCUMENT 43.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. IV, No. 66.

                                          Received January, 1712. [E. B.]
Most learned Librarian,

Two weeks ago a letter was dispatched by a ship which started for Gottenburg, but which was unfortunately obliged to put back here again a few days ago, in company with several others. Meanwhile your much wished for answer to my last letter, together with a draft for 250 Rixdalers in copper, on account of the Library, has arrived. Part of this money has already been laid out for the books which you ordered in your last letter, all of which I have succeeded in finding and purchasing, with the exception of the Philosophical Transactions, of which however, after a great deal of enquiry, I have at last found a copy. All these shall be sent by the next opportunity either to Gottenburg or Stockholm, together with a very handsome microscope. With respect to the glasses for the telescopes, I shall wait until I hear from you again; for the manufacturers generally say that they never make more than two glasses for a twenty-four feet telescope, but for one that is only six or seven feet long they make four, and they add, that those which consist of four glasses can be used only in the day-time, but the others also at night. Flamsteed's sixteen feet telescope had only two glasses. The glasses which Hevelius made by hand are ah done, and they all stood the test. The bill will follow when they are sent off, and also a catalogue of everything belonging to the air-pump, of which I have the author's own description in a pamphlet in quarto; this I will also send, and it may then either be for my own use, or it may be ordered for the Library.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 218

It is almost impossible to get the paper for the globes; for they are afraid they will be copied. Those that are mounted are, on the other hand, very dear. I have therefore thought of engraving a couple myself with my own hands; but only of the ordinary size, 10/12 of a Swedish foot, and after they are done I will send both the drawing and the plates to Sweden; after my return I may perhaps make some of more value. I have already perfected myself so much in the art of engraving, that I consider myself capable of it; a specimen of my art I enclose in my father's letter; this, which illustrates some of my inventions, was the first thing I took in hand. At the same time I have learned so much from my landlord in the art of making brass instruments, that I have manufactured many for my own use. If I was in Sweden, I should not need to apply to any one to make the meridians for the globe, and its other appurtenances.

With regard to astronomy I have made such progress in it, as to have discovered much which I think will be useful in its study. Although in the beginning it made my brain ache, yet long speculations are now no longer difficult for me. I examined closely all propositions for finding the terrestrial longitude, but could not find a single one; I have therefore originated a method by means of the moon, which is unerring, and I am certain that it is the best which has yet been advanced. In a short time I will inform the Royal Society that I have a proposition to make on this subject, stating my points. If it is favourably received by these gentlemen, I shall publish it here; if not, in France. I have also discovered many new methods for observing the planets, the moon, and the stars; that which concerns the moon and its parallaxes, diameter, and inequality, I will publish whenever an opportunity arises. I am now busy working my way through algebra and the higher geometry, and I intend to make such progress in it, as to be able in time to continue Polhammar's14 discoveries.

If the following books are not in the library, I think you ought to get them. Wilkins' mathematical works; his writings are very clever.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 219 Isaac Newton's ASeries, Fluxions, and Differentials, with an Enumeration of the Lines of the third costing twelve shillings. The same author on "Arithmetical Composition for the Use of the University at Cambridge, 1707. Ditton's "Institution of Fluxions." There are also eminent English poets, that are well worth reading for the sake of their imagination alone, such as Dryden, Spencer, Waller, Milton, Cowley, Beaumont and Fletcher, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Oldham, Benham, Philip, Smith, and others.

With regard to Wastovius147 I shall ask Bishop More about him; but he has been out of town for some time on visitation. I hope you will not be displeased at my having called him superstitious, for this can no more detract from his usefulness in ecclesiastical matters, than if I had called Virgil a heathen. This proposition, however, cannot, I think, be controverted: "All Catholics worshipers of saints and of the pope, and all worshipers of saints are superstitious." Religion cannot diminish the fame of any one in historical matters. If a precious little copper coin of my brother's should he rashly called by any one a little rusty bit of copper, none of its intrinsic value is thereby lost, perhaps its value is even increased.

I offer my best thanks to Prof. Elfvius54 for communicating to me his observation of the eclipse. I must beg you to procure for the Library a brass quadrant, after the model now in use, which will not cost too much to have imported into Sweden; for, heretofore, all the instruments have been made of iron, and only the circle has been made of brass. Wooden sextants, it is true, are large, but observations made by them are not so reliable as those made with a brass instrument about one third the size. I am also engaged upon a method for a quadrant, by which observations may be made without trigonometrical calculations. Falmsteed's56 largest instrument stands in a crypt, which is open only in the line of the meridian; it is fastened to a stone wedge, and nothing but its tube is movable. The sweep of the instrument is almost 130 [degrees], and it commands the whole of the arc from the horizon to the pole. The division is a mixture of the method employed by Hooke, Tycho, and others; it is divided by cross-lines only for the minutes; every sixth second is shown by some divisions in a brass ruler, which is like a member of a pair of scissors, and cuts off every circle [?].

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 220 Upon the whole it is uniform with Tycho's method, only it is more compendious in the division, for the marks on the above-mentioned brass ruler are in the place of a circle upon the instrument. In his observatory he had also other quadrants, all with tubes and micrometers, which were set in a horizontal position by means of a plumb-line. This is my respectful answer to Prof. Elfvius'54 letter.*

*Compare Document 42.

I have also been asked about Flamsteed's56 publications; they are as follows: The Posthumous Works of Horroxius, together with a little about the eclipses of the sun, how they may be marked down, so that they may be computed in full; he has also published in folio his Observations during fifteen years, but they cannot be obtained. He told me also that he had in the press the Heavenly Constellations as they are found in Hipparchus, but corrected and emended; for he shows that the one among the ancients who first put them on record mistook right for left, upper for lower, and was especially wrong in the constellation of the ship, because he did not sufficiently understand the Greek language. He prefers to take the stars in the order in which they reach the meridian.

When the plates for the globes arrive in Sweden, Prof. Elfvius54 will perhaps take care to have them printed and made up; I shall send a specimen very soon; but no impression is to be sold.

P. S. Prof. Elfvius asks what is the opinion of Englishmen with regard to Newton's Principia; but in this matter no Englishman ought to be consulted, quia ccutit in suis, i. e. because he is blind about his own; yet it would be criminal to doubt them. The lunar tables that are most are, Horroxii tabul Britannic, Strechii [?] Carolinae, Greenwood's Anglican. Flamsteed informed me that he had made unerring lunar tables. No other writings are in use here, nor do the English employ any other writings in mathematics except those of their own countrymen.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 221

P. S. As I have been hitherto so much taken up with astronomical speculations, I hope you will excuse my negligence; I promise to be more industrious in future, and not to let any opportunity pass, without paying you my respects. I do not expect to come home much before 1715. I have longed very much to see the Bodleiian Library, since I saw the little one at Sion College; but I am kept back here on account of "want of money."* I wonder my father does not show greater care for me, than to have let me live now for more than sixteen months upon 200 rixdalers; well knowing that I promised in a letter not to incommode him by drawing for money; and yet none has been forth-coming for the last three or four months. It is hard to live without food or drink like some poor drudge in Schonen.

* These words are in English in the original letter.

P. S. The expenses for postage you will please to charge either to me or to my father. Flamsteed desired Bilbergii Solem Inocciduum. I send my love to all my brothers and sisters. I hope brothers Gustav and Hennick* have not forgotten our former acquaintance. The little copper-plate may be taken out of my father's letter, which accompanies my first specimen. I thank sister Hedwig** for her letter; the one which she sent before starting for Stockholm arrived about a week ago, after it was half a year old. I will pay my respects to Prof. Elfvius54 by letter; a separate letter to him shall follow, though perhaps not very soon; his advice I will obey. I hope very soon to receive money. This letter goes by post to prichet-grubb[?].

* Gustav Benzelstjerna,65 and Dr. Henricus Benzelius, two younger brothers of Ericus, the former became Royal Secretary and Censor of the press, and died 1737; concerning the latter see Note 7.

** Swedenborg's sister Hedvig who was married to Lars Benzelstjerna,8 another brother of Ericus Benzelius.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 222

DOCUMENT 44.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol., IV, No. 104.

                                                 London August 15, 1712.

Most honoured friend and brother,

Some time ago I had the honour of answering your letter. My letter was handed to Alberg, that, when opportunity offered, he might send it over; and as I understand that several ships have since left port, I hope it has arrived and is now in your hands. I was sometimes afraid of writing you too many letters; for if they come in too rapid succession they must necessarily be barren [of news]; wherefore I thought it best to reserve them from time to time, and collect them together, that they might become more important. In the above letter, and also in one that I sent to my father, I detailed the trouble I had taken to get the books out of the custom-house; which it is impossible to do, unless the conditions mentioned are complied with. Some of your friends desire these books, and have asked me to make you acquainted with the state of things, in order that, if they cannot be got out, others may be sent in their place. I am ready to start on my journey, and am delaying only that I may have an opportunity of procuring the friendship of the learned by means of your welcome presents; John Chamberlayne, however, with whom I am very well acquainted, and who has written "On the present state of England," has obligingly promised me, that in case any other of your learned books, as for instance, "Vitis Aquilonia, &c." should be sent over here, he will take care they shall be delivered to those to whom they may be addressed; so much interest does he take in this affair.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 223 He has promised to get the others out of the custom-house, should the particulars above-mentioned come to hand. As you are probably acquainted with the other points that I have discovered or investigated in mathematics, you will not care to have them repeated here; yet of the actual discoveries I have made in them I prepared a list in my letter to Prof. Elvius54. With regard to my discovery for finding the terrestrial longitude by means of the moon, I am convinced that it is the only one that can be given, that it is also the easiest, and in fact the right one. The only objection that can be raised against it, is, that the orbit of the moon is not yet thoroughly reduced into lunar tables; but these are promised by Flamsteed, and he has constructed such good ones, that I am sure, they will always and without error serve to show the moons motion. If this is really so, I have won the whole game, and I make bold to say (after having well considered what I say), that none of the others who have endeavoured to find the longitude by the moon have gained it. Suppose the motion of the moon was really rectified, no other method, of all those that have been projected by others, can be used for this purpose, except mine alone; this much, at least, Dr. Halley55 has admitted to me orally. But as I have not, here in England, among this civil and proud people, met with great encouragement, I have laid it aside for some other place. When I tell them that I have some project about longitude, they treat it as an impossibility, and therefore I do not wish to discuss it here. Let what I enclose be submitted to some mathematicians, perhaps it might be sent to a French mathematician, e. g. Abb Bignon57, that he may pass judgment upon it.

As my speculations made me for a time not so sociable as, is serviceable and useful for me, and as my spirits are somewhat exhausted, I have taken refuge for a short time in the study of poetry, that I might be somewhat recreated by it. I intend to gain a little reputation by this study, on some occasion or other, during this year, and I hope I may have advanced it as much as may be expected from me--but time and others will perhaps judge of this.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 224 Still, after a time, I intend to take mathematics up again, although, at present, I am doing nothing in them; and, if I am encouraged, I intend to make more discoveries in them than any one else in the present age; but without encouragement this would be sheer trouble, and it would be like non profecturis litora bubus arare--ploughing the ground with stubborn steers.

I have been at Woodward's, who was so polite as to introduce me to some of the learned and to members of the Royal Society, and also to some one by whom, he said, you were taken to a certain Doctor Postelwort (I think that is his name); this gentleman talked a good deal about you, and your intention to enter the Church, and both of them desire very much to be remembered to you.

Magister Alstryn will inform you what Hudson at Oxford has in hand; he is a little dissatisfied that he so seldom gets a letter from you; he is very anxious to have from you both a letter and several copies of Chrystostom.

I send you a part of the books which I was most particularly requested to purchase, viz:--

                                                        L       s.       d.
Miscellanea Curiosa, in three volumes                     0       13       0
Notton, Reflection upon Ancient and Modern Learning       0       4       0
Reflection upon the Conduct of human Life                     0       1       6
Reflection upon Learning                                   0       3       6
Hauksbee, Physico-Mechanical Experiments                     0       6       0
Leslie, Truth of Christianity                                   0       2       0
Letter to Sir Joseph Banks                                   0       0       3
Glasses for a Telescope of 24 feet                             2       0       0

                                                 L       3       10       3

In the same box I send a large quantity of my books--mostly mathematical--which I have been using here, and also some of my instruments; a part of my books and instruments I am keeping back. I trust that you will take good care of them; but if Prof. Elfvius54 desires to see them, you may show them to him. I am still several pounds in debt here, which I intend to clear off by means of some other books. The microscope I did not purchase, because it cost too much, viz. four guineas; and the others are scarcely worthy to be in a library.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 225 With regard to the air-pump, I send you the author's book in which there is a drawing of it, and also a list of the things that belong to it. If I hear that you desire to have one, I shall write to Hauksbee from some other place, that he undertake to send it to you, which he has promised to do. There is a large quantity of books worth buying:* Harris's Lexicon of the Sciences and Arts, in which there is also contained much mathematics. Philosophical Transactions and collections from the year 1705, by John Lowth, which will cost fifty shillings; it was recommended to me by Dr. Woodward, because it contains what has been transacted in the Royal Society, and because the information which is scattered through the Philosophical Transactions is here reduced into order. I read it through; it is a great pity it is not translated into Latin. The Memoirs of Literature; which treats on the history of literature, in folio; besides several other books, which I think cannot have escaped your knowledge. Within three or four months I hope, with God's help, to be in France; for I greatly desire to understand its fashionable and useful language. I hope by that time to have, or to find there, letters from you to some of your learned correspondents, especially Abb Bignon,57 whose acquaintance I much desire to make, and which I shall have no difficulty in making by means of a letter from you.

* As will be seen from the original of this letter as published in Vol. III the greater part of what follows was written by Swedenborg in broken English, which we have endeavoured to render into good English.

Your great kindness, and your favour, of which I have had so many proofs, make me believe, that your advice and your letters will induce my father to be so favourable towards me, as to send me the funds which are necessary for a young man, and which will infuse into me new spirit for the prosecution of my studies. Believe me, I desire and strive to be an honour to my father's house and yours, much more strongly than you yourself can wish and endeavour.

P. S. I would have bought the microscope, if the price had not been so much higher than I could venture to pay, before receiving your orders. This microscope was one which Mr. Marshall showed to me especially; it is quite new, and of his own invention, and shows the motion in fishes very vividly.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 226 There was a glass with a candle placed under it, which made the thing itself and the object much lighter; so that any one could see the blood in the fishes flowing swiftly, like small rivulets; for it flowed in this manner, and just as fast.

P. S. At a watchmaker's, Antram, I saw a curiosity which I cannot forbear mentioning: it was a clock which was still, and without any motion. On the top of it there was a candle, and when this was lighted, the clock began to go and to keep its true time: but as soon as the candle was blown out, the motion ceased, and so on. There was nothing on the top, or near the candle, which could be heated by the flame or the fire, and which could thus set the clock in motion. He showed me also the interior, which was entirely different from any other clock. He told me that nobody had as yet find out, how it could be set in motion by the candle.

P. S. Please remember me kindly to sister Anna,* my dear sister Hedvig,** and also to Brother Ericus Benzel,58 the little one; about whose state of health I always desire to hear.

* Swedenborg's sister, the wife of Ericus Benzelius.

** A younger sister of Swedenborg, married to Lass Benzelstjerna.8

DOCUMENT 45.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* IBenzelius' Collection, Vol. IV, No. 149.

Most honoured friend and brother,

Since my last letter, which I sent you from Holland by the mail packet, I have not had the honour of paying you my respects; I am sorry it has been so long after that time I left Holland, intending to make greater progress in mathematics, and also to finish all I had designed in that science. Since my arrival here I have been hindered in my work by an illness which lasted six weeks, and which interfered with my studies and other useful operations; but I have at last recovered, and am beginning to make the acquaintance of the most learned men in this place.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 227 I have called upon, and made the acquaintance of De La Hire,59 who is now a great astronomer, and who was formerly a well-known geometrician. I have also been frequently with Warringnon,60 who is the greatest geometrican and algebraist in this town, and perhaps the greatest in Europe. About eight days ago I called upon Abb Bignon,57 and presented your compliments, on the strength of which I was very favourably received by him. I submitted to him for examination, and for introduction into the Society, three discoveries, two of which were in algebra. In the first invention I showed, that by means of algebraical analysis a great many useful problems could be solved, which it was impossible to do by the usual method--this I proved by more than a hundred examples. In the second invention a new method of treating algebra is presented, in which the unknown quantity is obtained, not by an equation, but in a shorter and more natural way by means of geometrical and arithmetical proportions. The third invention was about the finding of the terrestrial longitude; under this title there are given the outlines of a certain most easy, and, if respect is had to the signs (si signa spectes), of a true and genuine method of finding the terrestrial longitude both by land and by sea. These three discoveries I followed out to some extent; but in my specimens I only gave a sketch of them, and did not add many proofs. Abb Bignon57 at once gave me a letter to Warrignon,60 desiring that he should examine them: in it he mentioned you, and recommended me to him, because I was a relation of Mons. Benzelius, with whom he said he was en liaison intime (intimately connected)--these are his own words. I was to-day for two hours at Warrignon's, during which I submitted my papers to him. I intend to have them printed, that I may communicate them more easily to the learned; they will not exceed three sheets. Moreover, there is another man in England, by the name of Whiston, who has given out that he has discovered the longitude; for this reason I wish to make haste with mine. This man has written on astronomy, but has never before invented anything. Here in town I avoid conversation with Swedes, and shun all those by whom I might be in the least interrupted in my studies.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 228

What I hear from the learned, I note down at once in my journal; it would be too long to copy it out and to communicate it to you. Between the mathematicians here and the English there is great emulation and jealousy. Halley,55 of Oxford, told me that he was the first who examined the variation of the pendulum under the equator; they keep silence about this here; the astronomers here also maintain that Cassini's paper was written before Halley made his expedition to the Island of St. Helena, and so forth.

It is seldom that mathematical works are published here, and if you come a few months after, they are not to be had. All mathematicians take their papers to the Diaria publica Academi Scientiarum (the public Journal of the Academy of Sciences), and do not trouble themselves further about publishing and keeping a copy of them. I find in the book-shops in this country a much smaller number of mathematical works for sale than in England and Holland. I have also been a good deal in the libraries, with the exception of the Royal Library. I ordered Brander in England to send the microscope which was written for, to Sweden for the Library; it will probably cost from three to four pounds. It will be forwarded to you by some opportunity.

I suppose my books and other things, which Alstryn took to Sweden, have been forwarded from Gottenburg to Upsal. During my stay in Holland I was most of the time in Utrecht, where the Diet met, and where I was in great favour with ambassador Palmquist,61 who had me every day at his house; every day also I had discussions on algebra with him. He is a good mathematician, and a great algebraist, He wished me not to go away; and, therefore, I intend next year to return to Leyden, where they have a splendid observatory, and the finest brass quadrant that I have ever seen; it cost 2000 new guilders. They are continually making new observations. I will ask permission from the university to take observations there for two or three months, which I shall easily obtain; Palmquist said the same.

In Leyden I learned glass-grinding; and I have now all the instruments and utensils belonging to it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 229

Three months ago I received a letter from Hinrick Benzelius,7 from Dimmertess, near Adrianople, dated the 30April/11May, in which he mentions that he had been for six months with the King.* I do not know what he intends to do now, whether he will proceed farther into the East, or return to Venice by way of the Archipelago. Magister Eneman,* Professor at Upsal with a salary of 700 rixdalers, had been with him, hut he travelled afterwards to Jerusalem. He had a letter from him dated from Smyrna.

* Henricus Benzelius left Sweden in 1712; after passing through Germany and Hungary he spent some time at Bender in Turkey with Charles XII; afterwards he visited Greece, Palestine, and Egypt, and returned home towards the close of 1718.

** Magister Eneman made an equally extensive journey, and in addition visited Arabia, being the first Swede who had entered that country. While in Egypt, in 1714, he received the appointment of professor of the oriental languages at Upsal; whereupon he immediately returned home, but died a few weeks after his return.

Whatever I am able to gather, from the conversation of the learned, respecting the progress of literature and mathematics, I will always report to you whenever I have an opportunity.

You may rest assured that I entertain the greatest friendship and veneration for you; I hope, therefore, that you will not be displeased with me on account of my silence, and my delay in writing letters, if you hear that I am always intent on my studies, so that sometimes I omit more important matters.

Farewell.

       Yours most faithfully, even to death,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Paris, 9/19 August, 1713.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 230

DOCUMENT 46.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 110. This is the first of the letters copied by Dr. Hhl, the librarian of the Cathedral-library at Linkping, for the Swedenborg association. His transcript of these letters is of considerable value, as it contains Dr. Hhl's reading of doubtful passages. The order in which these letters follow in Dr. Hhl's copies is the same as that in which these letters were originally bound together in Vol. XL of the Benzelius Collection. This order was also preserved by Mr. White in publishing twenty-six of these letters in English; yet this order is by no means chronological, and only serves to confound the biographer of Swedenborg. Upon closer investigation it has been found that all the letters in the collection without any date had been bound up indiscriminately between letters one and two. After the true dates of these letters had been approximately determined by a critical examination of their contents, the true order of these letters, as numbered by Dr. Hhl and Mr. White, appears to be as follows: 1, 5 (omitted both by Dr. Hhl and Mr. White), 9, 38, 13, 8, 32, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 26, &c. Compare the English translation of this letter in Mr. White's "New Churchman," March, 1856, p. 29, "New Documents concerning Swedenborg" Letter 1.

Most honoured Friend and Brother,

It is some time since I had the pleasure of writing to you. I hope this has not caused any feeling of uneasiness. I admit that it was caused partly by procrastination, but in part it was also owing to my not having any opportunities for writing. This reason has also prevented me from giving my dear parents any intelligence concerning myself. But as I am now so much nearer home, I will make amends for all this by increased industry, if I can please you by doing so. Your last letter I received in Paris as I was on the point of leaving that city: nevertheless I attended to the commission respecting the books, several of which I was able to find; I intrusted Secretary Gedda with the care of receiving them from the bookseller, with whom they now are until further orders.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 231 I would have taken charge of them myself, could I have found an opportunity of sending them to Rouen, and thence to Sweden. In case you have occasion to correspond on any literary matters in Paris, Secretary Gedda offers his services; he is well known to a part of the learned, and is versed in scientific studies and literary history. At the close of my stay in Paris, I made a general tour all over the city in company with several others, that I might see what was to be seen. I took my companions also to those of your friends whom you were kind enough to name to me, and they showed us every politeness for your sake; you have left among them an uncommon esteem and affection. As soon as Father le Quien heard your name, he did not know what books to show us first in his library, and what service he could offer to us, who were acquainted with you.

With Father le Long, also, who has a history of literature in hand, it was the same. It would be a heart-felt delight to them, and it is a strong wish of theirs, that you may once more have an opportunity of being with them.

I am very glad that I have come to a place where I have time and leisure to gather up all my works and thoughts, which have hitherto been without any order, and are scattered here and there upon scraps of paper. I have always been in want of a place and time to collect them. I have now commenced this labour, and shall soon get it done. I promised my dear father to publish an academical thesis, for which I shall select some inventions in mechanics which I have at hand. Further, I have the following mechanical inventions either in hand or fully written out, viz:--

1. The plan of a certain ship, which with its men can go under the surface of the sea, wherever it chooses, and do great damage to the fleet of the enemy.

2. A new plan for a syphon, by which a large quantity of water may be raised from any river to a higher locality in a short time.

3. For lifting weights by the aid of water and this portable syphon, with greater facility than by mechanical powers.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 232

4. For constructing sluices in places where there is no fall of water, by means of which entire ships with their cargoes may be raised to ally height required within an hour or two.

5. A machine driven by fire, for throwing out water, and a method of constructing it near forges, where the water has no fall, but is tranquil. The fire and chimney would supply a sufficient quantity of water for the wheels.

6. A draw-bridge which may be closed and opened within the gates and the walls.

7. New machines for condensing and exhausting air by means of water. Also a new pump acting by water and mercury, without any syphon, which presents more advantages, and works more easily, than the common pumps. I have also, besides these, other new plans for pumps.

8. A new construction of air-guns, thousands of which may be discharged in a moment by means of one syphon.

9. A universal musical instrument, by means of which one who is quite unacquainted with music may execute all kinds of airs, that are marked on paper by notes.

10. Sciagraphia universalis. The universal art of delineating shades, or a mechanical method of delineating engravings of any kind upon any surface by means of fire.

11. A water-clock, in which water serves the purpose of an index, and in which, by the flow of the water, all the movable bodies in the heavens are demonstrated, with other curious effects.

12. A mechanical carriage containing all sorts of works, which are set in motion by the movement of the horses.

Also, a flying carriage, or the possibility of remaining suspended in the air, and of being conveyed through it.

13. A method of ascertaining the desires and affections of the minds of men by analysis.

14. New methods of constructing cords and springs, with their properties.

These are my mechanical inventions which were heretofore lying scattered on pieces of paper, but nearly all of which are now brought into order, so that when opportunity offers, they may be published. To all these there is added an algebraic and a numerical calculation, from which the proportions, motion, times, and all the properties which they ought to possess, are deduced. Moreover, all those things which I have in analysis and astronomy, require each its own place and its own time.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 233 O how I wish, my beloved friend and brother, that I could submit all these to your own eyes, and to those of Prof. Elfvius.54 But as I cannot show you the actual machines, I will at least, in a short time, forward you the drawings, with which I am daily occupied.

I have now time also to bring my poetical efforts into order. They are only a kind of fables, like those of Ovid, under cover of which those events are treated which have happened in Europe within the last fourteen or fifteen years; so that in this manner I am allowed to sport with serious things, and to play with the heroes and the great men of our country. But, meanwhile, I am affected with a certain sense of shame, when I reflect that I have said so much about my plans and ideas, and have not yet exhibited anything: my journey and its inconveniences have been the cause of this.

I have now a very great desire to return home to Sweden, and to take in hand all Polhammar's14 inventions, make drawings, and furnish descriptions of them, and also to test them by physics, mechanics, hydroststics, and hydraulics, end likewise by the algebraic calculus; I should prefer to publish them in Sweden, rather than in any other place; and in this manner to make a beginning among us of a Society for Learning and Science, for which pre have such an excellent foundation in Polhammar's inventions. I wish mine could serve the same purpose.

As to my Method for finding the Longitude, it is also contained on small scraps of paper. I gave only a few outlines and points of it in Paris, so that those who wished to see it, and to understand how it operated, could acquire some knowledge of it. But as I had no observations by which I could confirm it, I thought I would let it rest, until I had worked it out fully, and had confirmed it by observations; lest I might lose all my trouble, as well as any reward I might expect from it. I am afraid I might bring forth blind whelps (timeo ut ccos parerem catulos), if I produced it before its proper time.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 234

Meanwhile, I should like very much to know what the Upsal Minerva thinks of the general of the Muscovites, who is only twenty Swedish miles distant; whether she has seized her arms and aegis, and is preparing to go and meet him, together with her muses, or whether she has an olive branch which she prefers to offer? Although afar off, I see how she is instructing her muses in the use of arms, and teaching the exercises of Mars rather than her own. I should have wished to bear the eagles before her, or to perform any other small service under her.

A thousand remembrances to my sister Anna.5 I hope she is not alarmed at the approach of the Russians. I have a great longing to see little brother Eric58 again; perhaps he will be able to make a triangle, or to draw one for me, when I give him a little ruler.

Farewell, and again farewell! This is the wish of

Your devoted friend,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Rostock, 8 September, 1714.

DOCUMENT 47.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 117. Compare the English translation of this letter in Mr. White's "New Churchman," June, 1856, p. 66 "New Documents concerning Swedenborg," Letter 7.

Most honoured friend and brother,

By the last mail I sent enclosed in my father's letter a drawing of an air-pump to be worked by water; I should also have added a letter, had not my time been too short.

In my last letter to my father I promised to send you by every opportunity, and in each of his letters, some machine or other of my invention. If I can thereby amuse you and Professor Elfvius,54 I shall continue to do so for some time.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 235 Herewith follows another machine of the same kind, an air-pump, which has the same effect as the preceding one, but differs considerably in its construction, being easier to make; and perhaps quicker to work with. Further it is my intention, of which I hope you will approve, to send over some of my machines of this kind for the examination of the Upsal people; and when this is done, to do the same with those which are in Plhammar's14 possession, and thus to prepare them for publication, when an opportunity; offers. This may perhaps be a little foundation for a Society in Physics and Mechanics amongst us, Like those in other places. When their utility is known in mining operations, and in the manufactures which may be established in Sweden, we may hope that in time they will meet with encouragement from some college or other; especially, if the High Chancellor Palmquist61, who is a great mathematician, and with whom I have already conferred on this subject, should return home from the Hague. You also, perhaps, will do your share in this matter, as you are almost the only one in the university inclined to encourage these and similar studies. Such an undertaking, however, should be commenced only on a small scale, and in course of years may be enlarged. You will please take care of these machines, as I might lose the copies.

I am relieving these mathematical studies with poetry; I have published a few things, and have now in the press some fables like those of Ovid, under which the deeds and other affairs of certain kings and great men are concealed.*

* The work in question was published by Swedenborg under this title: Camena Borea cum Heroum et Herodium factis ludens: sive Fabell Ovidianis similes cum variis nominibus script ab Emanuel Swedberg (The Northern Muse sporting with the deeds of heroes and heroines: or Fables similar to those of Ovid under various names, by Emanuel Swedberg). Gryphiswaldise (Greifswalde), 1715. A second edition of this work was published by Dr. Im. Tafel at Tbingen, in 1845.

As to the doings of the learned, there is nothing of much interest to be found in Greifswalde, which--you will excuse me for saying--is quite a paltry university. Papke is the professor of mathematics, fit for anything rather than for this science. I should have liked to meet Leibnitz,62 who is at present in Vienna.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 236 Wolf's18 mathematical course translated into Latin may be found perhaps in Sweden: it is a very useful and clearly written book. I should like to know what you have in band at present.

I am exceedingly glad to hear that Professor Upmark51 and sister Eva Swede* are united in thalamo et lecto; I wish them every kind of happiness. I had intended to write a carmen nuptiale in their behalf, but as it is now too late, it will probably be a carmen geniale.

* Daughter of Prof. Swede of Upsal and Brita Behm50 Swede, Swedenborg's maternal aunt.

Remember me a thousand times to sister Anna5; and when you feel inclined to write, I expect to have a short account of how little brother Eric58 is.

I suppose Prof. Elfvius54 will use his greatest diligence at the great eclipse of May the 3rd.

I remain always, my dear brother,

Your most obedient servant and brother,

              EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Greifswalde, 4 April, 1715.

P. S. Messrs. Estenberg and Cederholm, who are ordinarii (ordinary assessors) in the government office, relate that brother Hinric Benzelius7 was staying in Constantinople when they left it. I do not know whether he is with the suite. They arrived safely this week, so we shall soon hear whether he is with them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 237


DOCUMENT 48.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*:

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 118. An English translation of this letter is contained in NM. White's "New Churchman," June, 1856, Letter 8.

Most honoured friend and brother,

As I presume you have now returned from the springs to Upsal, I hope that this letter may find you in good condition and with renewed health, at which I should rejoice more than any one else. I received lately a very nice little Latin letter from brother Ericulus,58 at which I was very much pleased and gratified. I answered it in some extemporaneous Latin verses, in which I wished him every kind of happiness and success, both in his studies, and in everything else that may be agreeable to his parents and to himself.

I looked very carefully for the machines which I some time ago sent to my father; they were eight in number, but I was unable to discover the place in which he had laid them aside. He thinks they have been sent to you, which I hope with all my heart; for it cost me it great amount of work to place them on paper, and I shall not have any time during the next winter to do this over again. There were, 1. Three drawings and plans for water-pumps, by which a large quantity of water can be raised in a short time from any sea or lake you choose. 2. Two machines for raising weights by means of water, as easily and quickly as is done by mechanical forces. 3. Some kinds of sluices, which can be constructed where there is no fall of water, and which will raise boats over hills, sand-banks, &c.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 238 4. A machine to discharge by air 10,000 or 11,000 shots per hour. All these machines are carefully described and calculated algebraically. I had further intended to communicate plans of some kinds of vessels and boats, in which persons may go under water wherever they choose: also a machine for building at pleasure a blast furnace near any still water, where the wheel will nevertheless revolve by means of the fire, which will put the water in motion: likewise some kinds of air-guns that are loaded in a moment, and discharge sixty or seventy shots in succession, without any fresh charge. Towards winter, perhaps, I shall draw and describe these machines: I should like to have the opportunity and the means of setting one or other of them up and getting it to work.

The day after to-morrow I will travel to the Kinnekulle,* to select a spot for a small observatory, where I intend, towards winter, to make some observations respecting our horizon, and to lay a foundation for those observations, by which my invention on the longitude of places may be confirmed: perhaps, I may then in all haste travel first to Upsal, to get some things I need for it.

* The finest mountain in Sweden, which rises from the shores of Lake Wetter 936' above the level of the sea. A most beautiful view is commanded from its summit.

Please let me know whether Professor Upmark51 has yet obtained his appointment. If there is anything in which I can be of use to you again, I wish you would inform me of it. Will you be so good as to recommend me to any of the professors for any opening that may present itself? The rest I shall myself see to. By the nest opportunity I will send you something which I saw through the press before returning home: it is an oration on the King's return, and also some fables like those of Ovid, which I have called Camena Borea,* and have dedicated to Cronhjelm.63 I am waiting impatiently for your oration, about which you said a few words in your last letter. Remember me a thousand times to Anna.5 Whatever additional success I may have in my designs, I will first communicate to you. I wish you would allow me to do so.

* See note to Document 47.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 239

Meanwhile I live in the hope of being allowed to remain, most learned friend and brother,

Your most obedient brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, 9 Aug. 1715.

DOCUMENT 49.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 119. The Swedish original of this letter was published by Prof. Atterbom in the appendix to his "Siare och Skalder," p. 101, Letter 1. Compare the English translation by Mr. Strutt in Mr. White's "New Churchman," June, 1856, p. 68. Letter 9.

Most honoured friend and brother,

According to promise I send these lines in the greatest haste to the post-office, thanking you first and foremost for the great kindness shown to me at Upsal. My highest wish is to find an opportunity by which I call repay it in someday or other. I only came here to-day. I could easily have arrived yesterday, had it not been for the darkness, and for the uncertainty of finding quarters for one in a blue dress.

The Queen Dowager64 is still living; she is better to-day. I intend to send for the ring to-morrow by Magister Rhyzell. I will inquire about the books to-morrow, and send you word by the next post.

We have heard both the best and the worst news; only it has here and there been exaggerated and coloured. Most people know nothing certain about the King's person. Some shut him up in Stralsund, and give him no means of escape; others vainly rejoice at his return, and expect him late this evening; carriages are in readiness at the Court to go to meet him. It is generally supposed, however, that he has made his escape; that after his horse had been shot under him, he ran two thousand paces on foot, before he could procure another charger.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 240 This would likewise redound to his glory, as the Dutch say that the Swede would be the best soldier in the world, if he knew when to run away.

Brother Gustaf65 sends his love, and apologizes for not having written. With a hundred thousand kind remembrances and thanks to sister Anna,5 I remain, most honoured brother,

Your most faithful brother and friend,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Stockholm, 21 November, 1715.

DOCUMENT 50.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 155. This letter which was written by Swedenborg in the French language, was not copied by Dr. Hhl for the Swedenborg Association, and consequently was not translated into English by Mr. Strutt.

My dear brother,

I have enjoyed the pleasure of reading your letter, my dear brother, more than half a dozen times, and each time it has given me increased pleasure; and if I should read it again, I should still derive from it new enjoyment.

My literary occupations* engage me every day; impatience only makes me somewhat restless, and restlessness interferes a little with my affairs here. Messrs. Swab66 and Morus have come to Stockholm, and have asked me to present their respects to you. Both these gentlemen express a hope that by corresponding with Mr. Geisler, the surveyor of the mines at Fahlun, I may obtain fine drawings of all the machines of our Polhammar:14 as he is the ablest and most delightful painter in Sweden of those small but difficult works connected with mines, I flatter myself that I shall by this means obtain some very interesting pieces, which will serve our common work, both in the place of an ornament and of tapestry in gold.

* These literary occupations consisted in the preparation of No. 1 of the "Ddalus Hyperboreus," a scientific magazine, which, upon consultation with Ericus Benzelius, Swedenborg undertook to publish.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 241

The machine of Mr. Lunstrm in Avestad has already run its course; it has not yet paid the King's taxes, nor even two per cent like the others that are subject to the King; nor will it ever pay taxes, if it cannot defray its own expenses. Mr. Swab will report this to the College of Mines here. This is the destiny of machines invented by a master who is merely an empiric, and has no knowledge of theory. If it would not be displeasing to Mr. Polhammar, I would offer to present a more simple machine, in place of this unfortunate one.

The models in the College of Mines are going to ruin as time advances. After six or tell years they will only be good for fire-wood, unless I choose to prevent that destiny by means of a little brass, a little ink, and some paper. Just the opposite, therefore, to the common saying is going to take place; according to which that which is to have some share of eternity, will not smile upon the days of its master.* My dear brother, I suspected the same in regard to Mr. Werner,67 about which you enlighten me by very many proofs. He is a man who thinks he can accomplish everything by promises and pleasant words; and as he is solely intent upon his own puny glory, he thinks only of feeding it by all the worldly advantages that are offered to him. My dear brother, if you would favour me with a letter to him, he might be persuaded; but the principal motives must be honour and self-interest, to secure his services.

* Or in other words: According to the common saying, the works of a master are appreciated only by posterity, and not by his own times-and in agreement with this principle, the wonderful machines for mining purposes invented by Polhammar, which were in the keeping of the College of Mines, were allowed by the authorities of the College to go to ruin. Owing to the representations made by Swedenborg these machines, however, were saved from destruction, and they are, moreover, described by him in his "Ddalus Hyperboreus."

With regard to the dedication* I must obey you.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 242 If you foresee anything, I will try to make it seem as if I saw the same thing too; although I can flatter myself with only a small prospect of recompense from it; but obedience to your counsels will prevail over all my interest in more advantageous prospects.

* The "dedication" of which Swedenborg writes here is the dedication of his "Dedalus Hyperboreus," which Ericus Benzelius insisted should be addressed to King Charles XII. Swedenborg did so only out of consideration for his relative, as he expected little advantage would result from the royal patronage.

But, my dear brother, a single word from you to my father about me, will be worth more than twenty thousand remonstrances from me. You can without any comment inform him of my enterprise, of my zeal in my studies; and that he need not imagine that in future I shall waste my time and, at the same time, his money. One word from another is worth more than a thousand from me. He knows very well that you have the kindness to interest yourself in my behalf; but he knows too, that I am still more interested in my own behalf. For this reason he will distrust me more than you, my dear brother.

I will take care of the shoes for brother Eric, and we will also take care of the dress. But the dyers of [Stockholm] have their hands full; the shops here are all changed into black chambers, to make the goods appear still more dreary, and everything that has been red or gay has assumed now the colour of mourning.* This is the reason why my sister's dress cannot be dyed black.

* All Stockholm seems to have gone into mourning on account of the death of the Queen Dowager, Hedvig Eleonora,64 which occurred on the 24th of November.

I should like very much to form one of the company at Starbo,68 but the affairs of the journal keep me confined here. It is necessary to push matters to a termination first; but a week or a fortnight after your departure I shall probably share the road with you on my way to Brunsbo.

The news that are reported here, arrived from Stralsund this morning, viz:

1. That the Royal government office with all its employes has embarked for Sweden. There was probably a place left in the vessel for the King.

2. That Stralsund has been reduced to ashes, and has become its own grave, and that of many officers.

3. That Mr. Adelstrm has been advanced to be keeper of the Library; no other advancements.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 243

Pardon, my dear brother, that I write to you in French. But the language in which you think usually suits you best. My thoughts at present move in this language; but whenever Cicero shall again engage me, I shall endeavour to address you like a Ciceronian.

Farewell, my dear brother, and think of

       Your very affectionate and very humble servant,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
[Stockholm, beginning of December, 1715.]


DOCUMENT 51.

POLHEM14 TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 335.

Noble and most learned Sir,

Most honoured friend,

       With peculiar joy and delight I have heard of your praiseworthy intention to publish, under your own care and at your own expense, the interesting and useful information in physical mathematics and mechanics which has been collected by the Collegium curiosorum at Upsal and by yourself. For this you will deservedly receive many thanks, and acquire great reputation, if not at present, while the condition of our country is so overclouded, at least in after times when our just God again allows the sun of his grace to rise upon us.

I read with great pleasure the description of the ear-trumpet; and I see from it that you are a ready mathematician, and well qualified for doing this and similar achievements.

I thank you most humbly for the great praise which you were pleased to shower upon me in your preface, but I would advise you to do this more sparingly, so that the sense of delicacy may not be offended thereby; because for one who has been brought up in his own country no such high reputation can be expected, at least not in his own times.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 244 But whatever I am able to contribute for the further promotion of the enterprise, I will forward to you with the greatest pleasure; since I take a deep interest in everything that promises to be useful and creditable to our country. As long, therefore, as you please to continue your laudable undertaking, I hope that I may be able to let you have something or other which may be interesting to the curious world; especially as my daily experience and practical exercise in mechanics furnish materials for many speculations, and for the very best theoretical works. If, therefore, you be pleased to take the trouble and to expend the necessary means, there shall be no lack of matter and of subjects, as long as I live, and as long as God grants me health and vigour.

Meanwhile, I remain constantly, most honoured sir,

       Your most obedient servant,

              CHRISTOPH POLHAMMAR.14
Stiernsund,* December 7th, 1715.

* An iron-work in Dalecarlia where the King of Sweden had established a mechanical institution of which Polhem was the director, (see Document 38).

To Mr. EMANUEL SWEDBERG, Stockholm.


DOCUMENT 52.

POLHEM TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 339.

Most worthy and most learned Librarian,

Most respected friend,

       I thank you most humbly for your kind letter, which arrived by the last post; it was the more welcome, as it was some time since I had the pleasure of receiving a letter from you. I find that young Swedberg is a ready mathematician, and possesses much aptitude for the mechanical sciences; and if he continues as he has begun, he will, in course of time, be able to be of greater use to the King and to his country in this than in any thing else.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 245 For last summer, when I was at Carlscrona,* I found that by the aid of mechanics a great service may be rendered to the establishment there in several respects, so that annually several hundred thousand dalers may be saved to His Majesty; provided, when opportunity offer, everything there is differently arranged, and done in a different fashion from what it is now. Moreover, something advantageous may now be entered into in the setting up of manufactures, as the new custom's regulations are so framed that manufactures are thereby encouraged. For my own part I find matters so different now, that whereas I was formerly induced by experience to consider ill those insane and fools who commenced any manufacture in Sweden, I should now, if I had ten sons, willingly see them engaged in this kind of industry; in fact if we get peace, and if our King come safely back again, he will perhaps gain more for his country during peace, than he has lost for it by war: for no kingdom in Europe combines so many and so great advantages, when properly managed, for the acquirement of wealth, so that we may already hope that things will turn out well, if we can only obtain precious peace, and have our gracious King back again in his proper place.
If I can of use in any way to Mr. Swedberg, I will be so with the greater pleasure, because I may thereby do some good and acquire some honour for our country--for it would be a matter of rejoicing if some young and zealous natures could be found, which are not so much engrossed and taken up with the present condition of things, as to allow themselves to be withdrawn thereby from interesting and at the same time useful designs and studies. I read through Mr. Swedberg's first draught of the ear-trumpet; but I did so while engaged upon, and prevented by, other matters, so that I had not time to examine it as carefully as I could have wished; but I have no doubt it is correct in all its parts. It would be my greatest delight and pleasure, if he could confer personally with me about these things; he would be welcome at my house.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 246 With many friendly remembrances, most worthy Librarian, I am

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLHAMMAR.
Stiernsund, December 10, 1715.

* The Swedish naval station.

P. S. Would you be bind enough to send back my former papers, so that I may see what I have heretofore written and thought upon those things which Mr. Swedberg desires to bring out. They might be received and brought here by my boys at Upsal, only they ought to be sealed up in a packet.

DOCUMENT 53.

POLHEM TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 343.

Noble and most learned Sir,

Most honoured friend,

       The copper-plate which you desire is entirely at your service; only you must take the trouble to ask it from Magister Naclerus, who borrowed it for his disputation, and has forgotten to return it to me. What you desire to know about the water-wheel, with regard to its driving power and velocity, together with several other things, requires more space for a proper discussion than a mere letter, especially if all is to be demonstrated by mathematics. In the mechanical laboratory experiments are made at the expense of the King, on the most important parts of a number of things, which agree pretty well with theory and mathematical computation, especially since I discovered the cause of the difference, viz. of the resistance of mediums and the friction of substances, which have also their proportions, but the subject of which is too extensive to be treated of in a letter.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 247 But if you wish to apply yourself diligently to the study of mechanics, I should very much like, if you are willing, that you would put up with my small accommodation, and more frequently confer orally with me; from which, I have no doubt, both of us would derive satisfaction. For although I am well aware that the present hard times, and the few days I have still to live, will prevent the execution of my designs, I nevertheless experience both pleasure and delight in discoursing upon them with one who is interested in them; for otherwise it would be like loving some one by whom you are not loved in return. As soon as you have committed to the press what you have in hand, and wish to undertake something new, it may be useful to have some talk about it. If, therefore, it be not too much trouble for you to travel so long a distance, it would be a great honour and delight to me, if you would visit me at Stiernsund; for I cannot sufficiently express the esteem I entertain for all those who are interested in the little knowledge I possess. For the rest, I wish you happiness and a merry Christmas and happy New Year. With many kind remembrances, I remain, most learned sir,

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLHAMMAR.
Stiernsund, December 19, 1715.

P. S. If you should have any business with my brother, who is a mathematical instrument maker in Stockholm, I should like you to remember me to him, and to tell him that about three months ago I wrote to him by post, and am still waiting for an answer.

To Mr. EMANUEL SWEDBERG, in Stockholm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 248

DOCUMENT 54.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius's Collection, Vol. XL, No. 120. Compare an English translation in Mr. White's "New Churchman," June, 1856, p. 68, Letter 10.

Most honoured friend and brother,

I herewith send you what I promised in my last letter from Starbo,68 with the view of getting it printed at Upsal. Perhaps some one may be found compassionate enough to read the proof-sheets for me; perhaps brother Esberg69 may do it. I enclose a draft for fourteen rixdalers upon Mons. von der Hagen, which is quite correct, and will be paid on presentation.

1. I have inserted Doctor Roberg's70 experiment, and his proposition for the manufacture of salt, which I have altered throughout, so that the experiment can now be made more accurately. I had also intended to make some experiments on it myself at Starbo, but the winter has not been very favourable for it. Should the Doctor desire his name to appear, notwithstanding the many changes which have been made in the article, he is free to have it.

2. I leave room also for Prof. Valerius'71 observation of the solar eclipse; which he can himself translate into Swedish, and leave with the printer; but with the understanding that it is to be short.

3. The calculation of interest by means of a triangle is Polhammar's, but the calculation of the carolins is my own. I have left them both without a name, and with no one to be answerable for them; still you are at liberty to insert the names.

4. Next time I hope to insert something more useful from the materials collected in Stiernsund, during my short stay there.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 249

5. N.B. I send a drawing for the interest-triangle, and also one for a little instrument used in Polhammar's experiments; I do not know how this may be cut in wood. It would be a piece of good fortune, and a great advantage, if some one could be found at Upsal to do this. It is easy enough, and only requires one who has a knowledge of the first rudiments of the art of engraving. If it were necessary to have it done in copper, I could neither get it to, nor from, Aveln nor Hedengren. If, therefore, it be feasible to have it cut in wood at Upsal, try, I pray you, to have it done; I shall pay for it most willingly. Perhaps Prof. Valerius71 or Dr. Roberg70 will give the instructions.

6. How good it would be to get a copper-plate press at Upsal!

7. For the larger copper-plates and their printing I have made the necessary arrangements in Stockholm, through brother Gustaf.65

8. I wish from my heart that it [the magazine] could be printed--the sooner the better, so that I might take a few copies to Ystad,* to direct, while I am there, attention to this, as well as to the first, number.

* The royal court of Charles XII was at Ystad, at that time. Ystad is a Swedish sea-port in Schonen.

9. If I can remain at Brunsbo* long enough to get your letter, I will beg from you a proposition for providing means for a Professor of Mechanics, to be paid like the other professors; perhaps it may be done by diminishing the salaries of the others. I see no other plan by which this measure can be advocated in the proper place.

* The episcopal residence of his father near Skara.

10. I have also another little work to which Polhammar intends to contribute. It is called Ornament for Youth, Profit for Manhood, and Delight for Old Age, in which arithmetic, geometry, and algebra are treated of, beginning with the easiest problems, and gradually ascending to the more difficult. There are two sheets of it done, which I will send to Upsal at an early opportunity.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 250

11. In my last letter I made a mistake. I ought to have written: Confido tibi hc, mi frater! Ut sacerdoti, simul ut politico; ut etiam hc--I entrust this to you, my brother, as to a priest and at the same time as to a diplomatist; even as I do what is contained in this letter. Farewell, my honoured friend and brother.

Your faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Sklwick, Feb. 14, 1716.

[P. S.] I am just on the point of departing.


DOCUMENT 55.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 121. Compare an English translation of this letter in Mr. White's "New Churchman," July, 1856, p. 78, Letter 11.

Most honoured friend and brother,
As an opportunity presents itself by Hkan, the journeyman printer, I herewith send to you a little work which Plhammar has commenced, and which he intends to publish from time to time. It is a "Mathematical Course," consisting solely of geometry, arithmetic, and algebra, of which this is the first and easiest part. I promised to have it printed, and I also intend to get it done at my own expense, unless some one else will please to undertake it in my stead; and as it is so very useful to beginners and others, it ought certainly, according to our expectations, to obtain a sale. Perhaps the printer may he willing to publish it at his own expense, for I do not care very much to act in such a covert capacity, or in that of a bookseller or a publisher; as I do not see any opportunity in it of doing something for my own benefit.

As the King is still on the Norwegian frontier, my journey to Ystad has been postponed, until I see how matters turn out.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 251 I will therefore probably adhere to my first resolution, and try to obtain what I submitted to you some time ago, viz:--

1. Inasmuch as a Mathematical and Scientific Faculty is as necessary and useful as a Philosophical Faculty, and as more benefit would accrue to our country from the former, than even from the latter, partly by the establishment of manufactures, and partly from its application to mining, navigation, &c., therefore a seventh part of the appropriation made for the university might well be taken for the former; whereby the sum of 9000 dalers in copper might be obtained.

2. This sum might then be divided and applied, as follows:
Professor of mechanics                            600
Secretary                                          300
4 fellows, at 200 dalers each.              800
4 auscultants, at 100 dalers each              400
Models, experiments, and observations        500
Instruments, annually                             400

Making a total of 300 dalers in silver.

3. The four fellowships at 200 dalers in silver might be very well accepted by some of the professors, e. g., by Professors Valerius,71 Elfvius,54 Roberg,70 and Bromell:72 so that, with their professorships, they would get more than they do now. The office of secretary would be filled best by yourself. I should think that the professors would look upon this deduction of one seventh from their income with more favour than upon a deduction of one half, as is the case with all the other servants of the King; especially as they would only be called upon to give up something of their own for the purpose of advancing the cause of education in general.

4. Although all this is proposed more in jest than ill earnest, still if it should gain somebody's consent, it could be followed by the recommendation of those that are concerned,--but more of this anon.

If it were possible, I should like very much to have by some messenger, the camera obscura which is enclosed in a blue cylinder as a case; it lies in the store-room on the locker, near the closet. I intend by means of it to prepare "Reflections on the Art of Perspective," by taking with it many views and prospects. If therefore you could send it to me as soon as possible, you would confer a real benefit upon me, and gratify my chief desire.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 252 Please remember me very kindly to sister Anna,5 and little brother Eric,58 to whom I recommend the enclosed treatise of Polhammar. Commending you to God's protection, I am, most honoured friend and brother,

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, 4th March, 1716.

DOCUMENT 56.

POLHEM TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 347.


Most worthy and most learned Librarian,

Most respected friend,

       By the last post Mr. Swedberg's letter arrived, and it is, together with what I enclose herewith, to be printed. At his desire I read it through in the greatest haste, and as I cannot find but that all is correct, I have nothing else to remark respecting it, except that I see Mr. Swedberg desires to have the triangle introduced about compound interest, which we have lately discussed; and where it is more expeditious to use a curve in the place of the cross-lines, as is shown in the annexed figure:

[Drawing]

I left with Mr. Swedberg a small beginning or introduction to a mechanical and mathematical work for the use of young people, which he said he should see through the press; but as there is no great hurry for this, I should like to hear what the mathematicians at Upsal have to say about it, and in what it might be improved. I do not care whether my name appear upon it or not; if only it can be so arranged that the young people may profit by it; and whenever it is found that the work is in request, it may be increased to a considerable size, although its beginning appears so small and simple.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 253

Some time ago Mr. Swedberg was at my house, when I became acquainted with his readiness of resources and with his other good dualities, so that I am still more willing he should bring to light my small amount of learning, inasmuch as, on account of his knowledge in mathematics, he is quite ready and able for it.

His letter does not indicate where and when it was written. I commend myself to your former favour and friendship; and remain, most worthy and most learned librarian,

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLHAMMAR.
Stiernsund, March 6, 1716.

DOCUMENT 57.

POLHELM TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 351.


Most worthy and most learned Librarian,

Most respected friend,

       On my way to Pahlun I was thinking whether something in Mr. Swedberg's publication ought not to be altered, viz. whether in place of saying, "that which describes the use of the 'Blankstts' work," it might not be better to say: "The use of this work is as follows," &c. [Here follows a long extract from Ddalus, part ii].

The experiment about the swinging ball under the water, together with its application to the motion of the earth and planets, involves several difficulties, which ought to be explained at the same time, but which cannot be done on this occasion; it would therefore be better to exclude it for the present, and everything else belonging to it. Whenever any of my experiments or theories are introduced I should like to know about them beforehand, so that nothing unripe may see daylight, and foreigners may find no occasion for criticising, but may be able to see the subject in its true connection.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 254 If you find it necessary to introduce this experiment in the next number, its application to the earth and the planets may be excluded, and it may be excluded, and it may be promised for the number following.

A little time ago I received a letter from His Majesty, instructing me to travel to Carlscrona,* on account of some work that is to be done there. How long I shah have to stay there I do not know, nor will the journey be undertaken for several weeks in consequence of some obstacles. I remain, most worthy Librarian,       

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLHAMMAR.
Fahlun, March 8, 1716.

* The chief naval station in Sweden.

DOCUMENT 58.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 115. See an English translation in Mr. White's "New Churchman," May, 1856, p. 53, Letter 5.


Most honoured friend and brother,

The last post brought me your very welcome letter of the 12th of March. I am glad to hear that Assessor Polhammar has kindly sent to Upsal his paper for this or the following month. I should like very much to know the general tenor of his observations: for I admit that I have been too much in a hurry with it, inasmuch as I was travelling at the time, and my thoughts were distracted by other occupations and amusements. Further, it is not at all easy to put another's thoughts on paper, so as to agree fully with his own ideas. Still, when I have some leisure again, I will devote more time and industry to it, and will send it to him in good time, although it will be in small portions.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 255

I was very glad to hear your opinion and ideas upon my proposition. I have never been, and I never will be, so forgetful of myself and of my standing at Upsal, as to expect that the professors would support me to their own prejudice; but I thought that by such a desperate and execrable proposition I should compel your prudence and imagination to discover something better for me; the whole of it was conceived merely as a joke, and this can very easily be mended en disant la verit-by telling the truth about it. Besides, it is impossible for it to spread further, inasmuch as I had concealed it well in the envelope directed to you, and had stamped my seal upon it, so that no one could have peeped into it. Still it would be very desirable that such a faculty should be established, and if it is not practicable now, and we have to wait, it could be done with the greatest ease by dispensing with some of the professorships which are least necessary, e. g. in course of time one professorship might be spared both from theology and medicine, and the professorship of Oriental languages might be transferred either to a professorship of theology, or to the professorship of Greek; so also that of morals might be transferred to the professorship of history; especially, as there are few universities where there are so many professorships established. But as it would probably take from six to ten years before this could be carried out, it would be well if meanwhile some other arrangement could be made; and this your prudence will be best able to find out.

By the last post I sent 150 dalers in copper for the liquidation of my debt. I do not know whether this is sufficient, as I do not know what I have sent over on the former account, except two glasses to Valerius, and also the Transactions of the Royal Society, which was fifteen shillings, and a few other small books; the whole account of which amounted to about four pounds, more or less. My travelling-book, in which those and other things are entered, lies at Ramburg. Whatever may be wanted besides, shall be remitted immediately, with much gratitude. I should ere now have discharged my debt on this score in Stockholm; but I scarcely knew then how I should square my accounts, and every stiver was then of consequence to me.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 256 This also prevented me then from testifying my gratitude to you in some manner, as I ought to have done. In Skrviken I became richer than I was before, and in time I hope that by means of it I may be able to be of greater service to you. Just think of my having had a slight attack of ague, of which I am even now ailing!

Hkan, who has gone [to Stockholm] to become a master, understands engraving on wood: he supplies a desideratum.

I remain

       Your most obedient servant,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
[Brunsbo, about March 20, 1716]

P. S. I am sorry for the death of Prof. Valerius;71 I congratulate the junior, and wish him success, and also his successor in the adjunctship, whoever he may be. In my next I will send you a specification of the books sold; I have already taken the necessary measures.

DOCUMENT 59.

ERICUS BENZELIUS TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 69.

                                   Upsal, April 2, 1716.
My very dear friend and brother,

Now at last your Ddalus, part ii, is ready, and it seems as if it ought to be, as it does not contain more than two sheets. Mr. Polhammar's thoughts about the motion of a ball in water, with its application to the motion of the planets, I had to leave out, in accordance with a wish he expressed in a letter. If you would let him have a copy of it, he might have better grounds for changing or adding as he pleases.

256



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 257 He asks that, whenever one of his papers is to be used, he may be informed beforehand, so that nothing shall appear, but what is well matured. I will send you his letter, together with a copy of the Ddalus, which will be sent the day after to-morrow to Magister Norberg in Stockholm, who will travel next week to Brunsbo. Of those remaining some will be sent to the bookseller in Stockholm, which will be handed to the bookbinder here; the rest will remain here subject to your orders. There have also been received 100 copies of the engraving of the "Blankstts" machine. In future the price must be put on the title-page, for the agent in Upsal charges so extravagantly for it that it has no sale. With regard to the observatory it has proceeded so far that the provincial governor [Landshfding] promised to recommend to His Majesty, that the best round tower upon the castle shall be repaired for it. There are bricks enough here among the ruins for the purpose; and rafters and other wood-work may be obtained from the municipality. The means of paying for the repairs I have discovered in the ground here, viz. the long cast-iron pipes which were used for conveying water from the mill to the castle, and which are now lying here and are spoiling; there are too some brass pipes here of considerable value, which can also be used. The former have been sold to the iron works at Wattholm, and the latter to the gun foundry in Stockholm. The instruments, as many as we have, may be obtained at first from the Library. The rest, as well as the annual appropriation, I thought might be supplied by a monopoly on almanacks, by one only being authorized to note them, its is the case now, and as Prof. Krok is dead, and Prof. John Valerius71 receives now the full salary of a professor, he can no longer pretend that he writes them to supply his wants. If an almanack be sold for twelve stivers in copper, it will include a mark for duty, and if 7000 or 8000 copies be sold, it sill yield a considerable sum. With regard to the salary of a professor of mechanics, I know nothing better than that Mr. Polhammar be made an ordinary assessor of the College of Commerce; that you be made director in his place; that the mechanical laboratory be removed here to Upsal, and that the director's rank be made the same as that of the professors.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 258 The rest is in my opinion a mere chimera. For the ordinary professor of geometry is obliged to lecture on mechanics, and he has also done so. Further, when the ordinary professorships were appointed, a fine of 1000 dalers in silver was imposed by His Majesty upon any one who desired a change. I wish you would come here, when we could talk it over.

Dr. Bromell72 promises something better for insertion in the Ddalus; at present he is occupied with an anatomy of the human body.

The camera obscura Magister Norberg took with him. When the woodcut of the triangle for the computation of interest is printed, I shall be present, so that the printers may not derive any extra profit, by giving copies away on their own account. Will you be so kind as to ask after the Theophrastus,* and to leave the money with your father.

* "Theophrasti notationes morum," a work published by Ericus Benzelius at Upsal in 1703, some copies of which it seems that he had sent on sale to Skara.

P. S. With regard to the Schyttian professorship nothing is heard at present. When it is vacant, Major General Count Gyllenstjerna has the right of appointing a successor, and he must be applied to. In case Dr. Roberg70 should be willing to make a drawing of Mr. Polhammar's tap, he would have to open one, and there is no one here who is willing to have his tap destroyed.

[ERICUS BENZELIUS.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 259


DOCUMENT 60.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius" Collection, Vol. XL, No. 112. See an English translation in Mr. White's "New Churchman," April, 1556, Letter 2.


Most honoured friend and brother,

I was much gratified at receiving your letter by the last post; it contained much that pleased me individually, as well as all in general who have any affection for study. That you have lighted on a subterranean treasure to pay the expense of the observatory, is a plan which, independently of its utility, is an exceedingly pleasant one. I should wish it to be laid before his Majesty, to receive his approbation, and be put in execution. It would be well that he should afterwards receive models of the observatories which are abroad, and which have a large balcony above, and perhaps a small one all round below; but more of this some other time. If more come out of this than a mere proposition, the public will have to thank and to love you for it.

I have now finished writing what I intended for the June or July number [of the "Ddalus"]; it will only contain the calculation for a steel-yard, with a description of my air-pump. I hope it will give more satisfaction than the preceding ones, since I have had more time and leisure for improving and working it out. If you like, you may leave it with Prof. Valerius,71 that he may make his criticisms upon it, the more the better; and afterwards, if you be kind enough to accede to my wishes, I desire you to send it by the next post to Stiernsund; the postage to be placed to my account; so that I can make arrangements for having what is already drawn properly engraved on copper.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 260 I have not used any algebra in it, as I had that algebraical formulae are not liked; still, I deduced the proportions, and other similar matters, by means of it.

I do not know whether Dr. Roberg70 can be persuaded to engrave this on copper; the pump is already engraved, as you may see. Aveln makes very had letters and figures, of which there is a large number. I am willing to pay as much at Upsal, as I do to Aveln; and I hope it will come out there much neater.

With regard to the second proposition, I thought I might prevail upon you to exercise your imagination and prudence in such a manner, as to propose to me something more plausible; the chief objections, however, are these: 1st. That no vacancy exists in the College of Commerce for any ordinarius; 2ndly. That it might happen, that in such a case assessor Plhammar would resign his office. I cannot myself say anything on this subject, lest it might be looked upon in an unfriendly manner; but if by any means whatsoever his assent be obtained, I should then make every exertion to secure the position. In this matter, I rely principally upon you, who have hitherto shown me so much kindness, which I entreat you to continue.

I thank you for the trouble you took in the publication. I wish to know whether you have received Polhammar's paper which S. Hkan took with him; I had intended to take care of it myself, as I had promised. I am very glad that the paper on the rotation in water has been left out; especially, as I was in too great a hurry with the preceding numbers. I hope, however, that an improvement has taken place in what I send you now.

I have inquired about Theophrastus.* The widow says that it is not entered in the late Mr. Kelberg's book; but she has 14 copies still remaining, so it seems that 12 copies have been sold. The money for these is subject to your order at the widow's; she desires, however, to see Kelberg's acknowledgment, to ascertain whether there were so many copies received.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 261 As soon as this is produced, the money for those that have been sold will be left in my father's hands.

* See note in Document 59.

I remember now also the thirty silver pennings which I forgot to re-pay you for the copper plter* which I exchanged at Upsal. Lest you might lose by the raised standard of money, I have made an arrangement with brother Lars8 to have them exchanged, for which purpose I left with him a small sum in silver coin. With regard to the other obligations which I owe to you, I shall remember them in due time, with the greatest thankfulness.

* A Swedish copper coin.

I must ask you once more to send the enclosed to Assessor Polhammar14 by the next post, that the drawing may be returned to you, and that, if it cannot be engraved in copper at Upsal, I may make the necessary arrangements for it in Stockholm; and this ought to be done in time. In the newspaper there was something about a new method of computing the exchange of carolins into dalers. I do not think that Werner67 has copied mine and published it in Stockholm. Mine can be sold perhaps for half a daler in copper at Upsal and Stockholm.

I remain, dear friend and brother,

       Your servant,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
[Brunsbo, beginning of April, 1716.]

P. S. I shall not be able to come over to Upsal for some time; for I intend to remain here until there is some opening for me; as I am nearer here to advocate it in the proper quarter [i. e. with the King]. Further, I have a little poetical work in the press, here at Skara.*

* The poetical work in question is entitled: Ludus Heliconius, sive Carmina Miscellanea, qu variis in locis cecinit Emanuel Swedberg. (The Heliconian Sport, or Miscellaneous Poems written in various places by Emanuel Swedberg), Skara, 1716. A second and enlarged edition appeared in Stockholm in 1826; and a third edition was published by Dr. Im. Tafel at Tbingen in 1811. The original edition published by Swedenborg himself included all up to p. 30 of Dr. Tafel's edition.

I should like to get some information either from Dr. Bromell72 or Roberg70 about the clay which they use in Holland and England for making their crockery and tobacco pipes; and how the pipes are afterwards prepared in the sun, and in the oven.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 262 There is here in Westergyllen a white clay, which I suspect to be of the same kind; should this be the case, it would be worth many thousand rix-dalers. But silence about this.

P. S. I am now making arrangements with Werner67 in Stockholm to insert a notice in the news about the Ddalus Hyperboreus, in the following words: "The second part of the ADdalus Hyperboreus" is published, for the month of April, containing a description of assessor Polhammar's hoisting machine at Fahlun with a copper-engraving; also a quick method of computing compound interest, with another method of exchanging carolins, since the increased standard of their value, into any other kind of money. There are also contained in it other curious experiments described by Em. Swedberg. Sold by the booksellers, Messrs. Long & Rger, in Stockholm, and also at Upsal." If there is anything to be changed in this, brother Gustaf65 ought to be informed of it.


DOCUMENT 61.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius" Collection, Vol. XL, No. 183. See an English translation in Mr. White's ANew Churchman," August, 1886 Letter 13.


Most honoured friend and brother,

On my return home from a little pleasure excursion here in Westergyllen, I received your welcome letter from Upsal. I thank you for having taken the trouble to send me fifty copies of Ddalus, part ii. They arrived here yesterday. I have received ten copper-engravings from Stockholm, and I shall receive the remainder by a convenient opportunity.

In the following number the title-page may be saved, and the title placed on the matter itself, as you were pleased to suggest; the same arrangement may be followed in the number which will be issued at the close of the year, or is that for the month of October.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 263 It may also be dedicated, according to our plan, to His Majesty,* if permission be obtained. Perhaps we may then have more potentates in the country; more, indeed, than Sweden can bear.** It seems to me that Sweden is now prostrated, and that she will soon be in her last agony, when she will probably kick for the last time. Many perhaps wish that the affliction may be short, and that we may be released; yet we have scarcely anything better to expect, Si Spiritus ILLUM maneat--if the spirit (i. e. death?) awaits him [Charles XII].

* Concerning this dedication see Document 50.

** The Russians and Danes, who were planning an invasion of Sweden by the Sound.

I thank you for the favour of taking care for me of that little sum. Me thinks that the whole world will soon be filled with jetsam (i. e. with things thrown overboard), wherefore I am glad that my possessions are in such good care and in such a safe place with you.

Palhammar has not come down, and, as I infer from his letter by the last post, all good propositions and all good plans will come to nothing.

The month of July is the time for Ddalus, part iii, to appear; I do not know whether I am not over-taxing your kindness, in asking you to take care of this, as you have done of the former. Brother Gustaf65 will perhaps have the goodness to have the plate well printed; the whole of it is to be printed, but so that only a quarto leaf will be required. It would be well, if the plate could first be corrected; at least that those letters be added, which I put down in the first proof-sheet I sent off. If Dr. Roberg70 could be induced to continue his first article, according to a promise which he made in it, it would be well; because all this is just as interesting as useful.

I ought to be present myself at Upsal; but you scarcely know now where you are safest; and moreover, it is my intention to save all expenses, until I have an opportunity of seeking my fortune, when these same savings may make my greatest fortune, if well applied.

I wonder at your friends, the mathematicians, who have lost all energy and desire to follow up so clever a design, as the one you pointed out to them of the building of an astronomical observatory.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 264 It is a fatality with mathematicians that they remain mostly in theory. I have thought, that it would be a profitable thing if to ten mathematicians there was added one thoroughly practical man, by whom the others could be led to market; in which case this one man would gain more renown and be of more use than all the ten together. If I can be of any use in carrying out this design, I shall spare no labour.

With regard to the Esbergs69 I improved an opportunity, and spoke to my father in their behalf; but he seeks to evade my request by all sorts of means, on account of their relationship--for if any suspicion should arise that they obtained any favour by their relationship, he thinks, that they would be deprived of it again. Still, I believe, that gradually he may be brought to the point; I will not fail to solicit him about it from time to time.

If an opportunity for sending to Stockholm occurs, the first volume of Sturm's AMathesis juvenilis" might be bought, and sent to Magister Rhyzelius. I have his copy down here, and he has several times asked me for it.

Will no one take upon himself the expense of publishing Palhammar's "Second Basis of Wisdom?" it may perhaps be rather too expensive for me. Still, I believe, that the sale will pay for the work; if there is no one, I must keep my word, and bear the expenses myself.

From the little camera obscura which you had the kindness to send me, I have already learned perspective drawing to my own satisfaction. I have practised on churches, houses, etc.; if I were among the lifting machines in Fahlun, or elsewhere, I could make drawings of them, as well as any one else, by means of this little instrument.

Sister Caisa (Catherine)3 has increased the world and our family; she has had a little daughter, at whose baptism I was a witness the day before yesterday.

A thousand kind remembrances to sister Anna5 and little brother Eric;58 I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, Promotion day [June 12?], 1716.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 265


DOCUMENT 62.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 128. Mr. Strutt's English translation, see in Mr. White's "New Churchman," July 1856, p. 76, letter 12.


Most honoured friend and brother,

My last letter I sent to you enclosed in my father's, as I thought I would be travelling about this time to Carlscrona; but as the Assessor has postponed his journey, and as I now feel but little inclination for it, it will not take place on my account. In the mean time I am engaged upon the subject which I intend for the last number of this year, and which I shall finish this week; viz. Plhammar's14 ideas upon the resistance of mediums, which at first were written down in Latin, and which has cost me a great deal of labour and mental exertion to reduce into such a form as will please the assessor and the learned; likewise, my method of finding the longitude of places, which I warrant to be certain and sure--I must hear what the learned say about it. I bought in Stockholm a. project of a Venetian, Doroth. Olimari, for finding the longitude, which is speculation and nothing more; the difficulty of reducing it to practice is immense. By the next post I will send it over, together with some other matter which is to go into this last number.

At the end of this week we expect brother Lars8 and sister Hedvig5 up here; brother Eliezer's widow,* we think, set out upon her journey to-day.

* Elisabeth Brinck, born in 1684, daughter of Sven Brinck, commissioner of the Bank, and father of Col. Gabriel Brinck, when ennobled Leijonbrinck. She was first married to Georg Brandt, owner of mining property (brukspatron), secondly to Eliezer Swedberg, a younger brother of Emanuel Swedenborg. Upon the death of her second husband she married in 1717 her third husband Anders Swab,66 appointed Assessor in the College of Mines in 1716; and upon his death in 1731 she married her fourth husband, John Bergrenstjerna: who was likewise assessor in the College of Mines. The names of Assessors Swab and Bergenstjerna frequently occur in connection with that of Eman. Swedenborg, in the Proceedings of the College of Mines. See "Anrep's ttartaflor," Vol. IV, p. 285, "Swab."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 266

Nothing else has happened, except that the Gottenburgers have been ennobled, as the Stralsunders mere in former times. May God guard them, lest a similar fate await them in other respects. They have now presidents and burgo-counts over them, instead of burgomasters. We do not yet know how sweet this tastes to them; as they must first pay for it by building three men of mar, fitting them out, &c. With kindest remembrance to sister Anna, I remain, most honoured friend and brother,

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, 26 June, 1716.


DOCUMENT 63.

POLHEM TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection, p. 363.


Most worthy Librarian,

My distinguished friend,

       As I have no doubt that Mr. Swedberg's work* is going to be continued, I should like very much to receive a copy of it, as soon as it leaves the press, by post, no matter what it may cost; and the copy itself, also, will be duly paid for. I had expected to be by this time at Carlscrona, but in obedience to orders, I have remained for a little time in Stockholm, busy with the Committee engaged in purchasing the old coinage of Avestad and exchanging it for the new copper coins; which are to be exchanged every third month for the sake of greater security, so that foreigners may not counterfeit and import them.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 267 It seems also that my journey to Carlscrona will be postponed until winter, or next spring. While I was in Stockholm, I received some information on the subject I troubled you with lately, viz. my own and my forefathers' name, which occurs in a printed matricular or book of heraldry in possession of assessor Brenner. They were barons and used two kinds of armorial bearings, the one with three bands and a lion, and the other with three bands and an eagle; but Assessor Brenner thought it best that I should use the three bands and a mathematical figure, something like the Pythagorean theorem, or something else; but I should like very much to hear your opinion upon it. With many kind remembrances I am, most worthy Librarian,

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLLHEIMER.
Stiernsund, July 18, 1715.

* The publication of "Ddalus Hyperboreus."

DOCUMENT 64.

SWEDENBORG TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 124. See Mr. Strutt's English translation in White's ANew Churchman," August 1856, p. 92, letter 14.


Most honoured friend and brother,

When J last wrote you by brother Olaus,* I intended to be at Upsal about the 10th but from one circumstance and another I am prevented from being there before the 18th or 20th.

* Olaus, Olaus being the latinized form of Olof; probably Olof Benzelstjerna, a younger brother of Ericus Benzelius, who was assessor in the Court of Appeals in Stockholm (Svea Hofrtt), and who died in l726.

I am very glad that Ddalus, part iii, has appeared; I thank you for having taken so much trouble and care with it; when I am present with you, I will thank you still more. I am already thinking of the contents of No. 5 of the "Ddalus."

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 268 I think it will be best for me, 1. To put down Assessor Plheimer's ingenious tap with a sufficient mechanical and algebraic description; 2. To make an addition to the description of his "Blanksttz" machine, as this is a work which requires greater accuracy, reflection, and consideration than it has yet received; 3. To leave room for some of the eclipses observed by Prof. Elfvius;54 by which the longitude of Upsal is also obtained. If you would honour our little work with a life of Stiernhjelm,73 or with something else from the history of the learned, I know that thereby our publication would become more interesting; as in this case the heavy matter would be relieved by more pleasant subjects. I know also, that this would gain us the favour and approbation of many; as the literary world acknowledges you as by far its best member; I hope, therefore, that this honour will not be refused. May God grant you a long life--although I am afraid that your many studies will deprive us of this benefit, by shortening your days; for I know no one who has more consideration for his various studies, and less for himself. All the learned and the Muses entreat you to spare yourself, and in you the Muses; it is worthy of all praise, indeed, to offer up oneself to the Muses, but not on the very altar; it is easy enough to become a premature victim. Pardon this admonition, my brother; your letter to my father is the cause of it. I hope that my little learning and my "Ddalus" will be long under your auspices.

I think of inserting in the fourth number of the Ddalus some Ddalian speculations about a flying-machine, and to leave room for Dr. Bromell's72 curiosities, if he be pleased to insert them.

Assessor Plheimer14 writes, that in the following number he wishes to insert such matter as will be of use to the public, such as water and mind machines, mills &c; which I am very glad of. But let us quit these literary topics.

Last Thursday night, His Majesty travelled incognito through Skara and Skarke to Hjo, where he crossed over Lake Wetter to Wadstena, to call on the Princess. We had the lad with us who was his outrider, and who accompanied him from the monastery to Hjo; he reported many amusing questions and answers, of which I send you one.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 269 His Majesty asked, "Whether the King was not expected at Hjentorp?" "Yes," said the lad, "I think so." "What should he do there?" "That I do not know," said the lad, "but they say that he will go thence to Stockholm." He then said smiling, "Psha! to think he would go to Stockholm! they say, it is so far off." And much more of the same sort. Some think, moreover, that there are no guests to be expected in Scania* that Sweden, therefore, may breathe more freely. A hundred thousand kind remembrances to sister Anna5 and brother Eric.58 I commend you, dear brother, to God's protection, and remain, most honoured friend and brother,

Your most faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
[Brunsbo], 4 September, 1716.

* That is to say, that the Danes and Russians will not invade Schonen.

P. S. If there is accommodation, I should like very much to stay at your house; and to be allowed to enjoy the favour of your table. Farewell.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 270


DOCUMENT 65.

POLHEM TO SWEDENBORG:*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 367.


Noble and most respected friend,

With great pleasure I read through the fourth number of your Ddalus, which, as far as I could see, is worked up with great industry and understanding. With regard to the article on Resistance, I may perhaps mention, that it seems to depend rather upon some additional deductions, which might follow here-after, and which we might meanwhile discuss orally, than to need any Changes or corrections that I can point out; but if I may be allowed to express candidly my opinion, it seems to me that the last correction was somewhat unnecessary. With respect to flying by artificial means, there is perhaps the same difficulty contained in it as in making a perpetuum mobile or gold by artificial means; although, at first sight, it seems as easy to be done as it is desirable; for whatever any on approves strongly, he has generally a proportionate desire to carry out. In examining it more closely some difficulty arises, for nature, as in the present case, is opposed to all common machines preserving their same relations when constructed on a large, as on a small scale, though all parts be made exactly alike, and after the same proportions. For instance, although some stick or pole may be capable of bearing itself, and some weight besides, still this does not apply to all sizes, although the same proportion may be preserved between the length and thickness; for while the weight increases in a triple ratio, the strength increases only in a double ratio.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 271 The same rule applies to surfaces, so that large bodies at last are incapable of sustaining themselves; and, accordingly, nature itself provides birds with a much lighter and stronger substance for their feathers, and also quite different sinews and bones in the body itself; which are required for the sake of strength and lightness, and which do not exist in any other organisms; wherefore it is so much more difficult to have any success in the air, the same qualities being required in this case, and all the materials being wanted which are necessary when a human body is to be carried in a machine. But if it mere possible for a man to move and direct all that so large a machine requires, in order to bear him, the whole thing would be done. In this case, however, a good use might be made of a high mind, if it were even and steady. Still, no harm can come of it, when that which is already written upon it is printed with the rest; only a difference must here be made between what is certain and what is uncertain.*

* Swedenborg's article on the art of flying appeared in No. 4 of the "Ddalus Hyperboreus," under the signature of N. N., but he appended to it all the objections which Polhem made in this letter. This problem, with a design from Swedenborg's hand, is contained in Vol. I of the photolithographic edition of his MSS., pages 21 and 22.

With regard to the finding of the longitude of places, I must confess, that I cannot yet comprehend the thing so clearly in all its parts as I ought; but still it appears plausible to me. I took occasion myself to think in what manner this might best be done, and I have found three methods of ascertaining the longitude of places by means of the moon, although they all have their objections; 1. By means of the eclipses, which is not feasible at all times; 2. By the difference of latitude between the moon and the equator in each meridian; but as this is at times small, and sometimes equal to nothing, it has therefore its difficulties; and 3. By means of the parallaxes, which make a smaller difference. A plan which pretends to perfection in this matter is certainly entitled to a hearing; and it is, therefore well worth while to follow out these things a little more, if not for the sake of gain, at least for that of curiosity.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 272

Your arrival in Stiernsund will be most agreeable to me, and if my experience can be of any use to you, I will give it with so much the greater pleasure, as the fruit of it will be of use to the public and will accrue to my own honour. After you enter upon physics, it might be useful to follow them up for some time more extensively, especially those which concern the causes of natural things, and also all other things necessary and curious, especially those of the household, etc. Immediately after I sent off my letter to you, I received yours. My wife and children desire to be remembered to you most kindly, and they also thank you for your compliments. I remain, most respected sir,

Your most dutiful,

       CHRISTOPH POLLHEIMER.


Stiernsund, September 5.

DOCUMENT 66.

POLHEM TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection. p. 371.


Noble and most learned Sir.

My good friend,

       Your letter of the 4th September was received. With respect to the computations for the fall of water for wheels, pipes, and all sorts of works and machines, they require more explanations than can be given in a letter; especially as each case has many circumstances peculiar to itself, so that, although they have altogether their certain rules and demonstrations, as well mathematical, as physical and mechanical, there is still scarcely any rule so perfect that it has not its exceptions under certain contingencies. For instance, although the rule is generally known, by which to produce the greatest effect by means of a wheel, both in respect to time and expenditure of force, which rule must be carefully observed, if you wish to gain all the effect which an ordinary and a scarce supply of water may produce, still the size of the wheel, the direction and shape of the buckets and several other things, differ in a wheel for a saw-mill, a forge, for driving bellows, for a hour-mill, for fountains and water-works, so that there is scarcely any work whatever, which does not require special properties.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 273 One works best when it turns round rapidly, as the wheel in a saw-mill, another when it goes less quickly and strongly, as in a forge, etc.; and as all this requires a longer description than can be given in the usual way at once, it would therefore be best to take up the qualities and properties of each kind of work separately, although they may first be treated in a general may together. And as we have now begun to treat of the resistance of mediums, it would not seem out of the way, to treat of the uses which flow from it, as, for instance, the computations for fire-engines, for water jets and artificial fountains in parks, and also for bomb-shells, cannon-balls, etc.; all of which have their mathematical rules which square with practice, so that every one may see the connection between them, and may be convinced that every thing is just as it is determined by the resistance of mediums.

In fine, if the learned wish to have real satisfaction and honour from that which they teach others, they ought to have a better understanding of many things that are now taught; for nature is in many things quite differently constituted, than is thought by Descartes and almost all his followers; and this can scarcely be taught better than by daily experience in mechanics, and an investigation into its principles; and although what I have gained there is extremely little in comparison with what still remains to be done, I nevertheless hope that my principles may pave the way for the rest. For I never approve of anything which does not apply to all cases and all consequences flowing from it, and whenever there is one single thing opposed to it, I hold its fundamental principle to be false. Moreover, it would be no small honour for the learned mathematicians, if they could point out what their principle and most intricate figures are good for in practice, especially the geometrical curves, etc.; which I found useful in mechanics on more occasions than I expected I would, while teaching them at Upsal, and ignorant of their use.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 274 In short, as long as I live, I hope there will never be a lack of matter for printing, provided you are willing to undergo the trouble of computing, drawing, writing, and preparing every thing belonging to it; for all this fatigues me too much, and I am too much occupied with other business and other things of daily occurrence.

[The rest of the letter is occupied with a project for introducing thrashing machines into the kingdom, the proceeds from which were to aid in the establishment of a laboratorium mechanicum at Upsal, and elsewhere.]

With many kind remembrances from all of us, I remain

       Your most dutiful servant,

              CHRISTOPH POLHEIMER.
Stiernsund, September, 1716.

[P. S.] Will you please present my respects to the honourable Librarian,6 to Professor Elfvius54 and several others. Excuse my haste.


DOCUMENT 67.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius Collection, Vol. XL, No. 114. The Swedish original of this letter is No. II of the Swedenborg letters printed by Prof. Atterbom in the appendix to his "Siare och Skalder," p. 102. Mr. Strutt's English translation appeared in Mr. White's "New Churchman," May, 1856, p. 52, letter 4.


Most honoured friend and brother,

I wrote you a letter from Lund, and should have written to you more frequently, had I not been prevented by my mechanical and other occupations; moreover, I had enough to attend to in order to accomplish my design. Since His Majesty graciously looked at my Ddalus and its plan, he has advanced to the post of an extraordinary assessor in the College of Mines; yet in such a way, that I should for some time attend the Councillor of Commerce, Polheimer.14

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 275 What pleases me most is, that His Majesty pronounced so favourable and gracious a judgment respecting me, and himself defended me against those who thought the worst of me; and that he has since promised me his further favour and protection--of this I have been assured both directly and indirectly. But sufficiently inquired as to my character, studies, and the like, and as I was so fortunate as to have good references, he offered me three posts and offices to choose from, and afterwards gave me the warrant for the rank and post of an extraordinary assessor. But as my enemies had played too many intrigues with the above-mentioned warrant, and had couched it in ambiguous terms, I sent it back to his Majesty with some comments, well knowing whom I had to depend upon: when there was immediately granted me a new one, and likewise a gracious letter to the College of Mines. My opponent* had to sit down at the King's own table and write this out in duplicate in two forms; of which the King selected the best; so that those who had sought to injury me, were glad to escape with honour and reputation: they had so nearly burned their fingers.

* Probably Cronhjelm;63 for the warrant itself, and the letter addressed by Charles XII to the College of Mines, are signed by him.                     

Ddalus has enjoyed the favour of lying these three weeks upon His Majesty's table, and has furnished matter for many discussions and questions; it has also been shown by His Majesty to many persons. Within a short time I intend to send you what is to follow for Ddalus, part v; when perhaps Drs. Roberg70 and Bromell72 will not refuse to honour it with their contributions; they might possibly derive some profit from it.

We arrived here at Carlscrona a few days ago, intending after three weeks to go to Gottenburg, and afterwards to Trollhtta, Lakes Wener and Hjelmar, and Gullspngelf, in order to examine sites for sluices and locks; a plan which meets with His Majesty's entire approbation.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 276 Nothing has been mentioned yet about the institution of the Faculty;** but it shall not be forgotten in its proper time, although the Upsal letter may have to lie over. Towards the month of February we may be in the neighbourhood of Upsal, when everything may be discussed and considered more minutely.

* Ericus Benzelius discovered a letter written by Bishop Brask to Ture Jnsson in 1526, in which the Bishop first proposed the plan for joining the Baltic and the North Sea by a canal. "Of this letter," sags Benzelius (Linkping's Bibl. Handlingar, Vol. I, p. 191), "I gave a copy to my brother-in-law, Mr. Emanuel Swedberg, during his stay at Lund, in 1716, in the suite of the King, and it was the occasion of directing attention to the plan of building a canal between Lakes Wener and Wetter, and of making the river from Gottenburg to Lake Wener navigable; all this, however, was stopped by the King's death."

** The Institution of a Mechanical Faculty at Upsal. See Document 59.

A thousand kind remembrances to sister Anna. The kid gloves have been purchased. I remain, my dear friend and brother,

Your most obedient servant, and faithful brother,

       EM. SW.
[Carlscrona, towards the end of December, 1716.]

[P. S.] Upon the whole the journey has been made at very little beyond the travelling expenses. The making out of the warrant which is usually expensive, did not cost me a single stiver; this I affirm solemnly.

[Swedenborg here gives a copy of the letter sent to the College of Mines. But we prefer to refer our readers to a translation of the original letter which is still preserved in the College of Mines, together with Swedenborg's warrant for his assessorship; see our Documents 142 and 143, in Section V.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 277


DOCUMENT 68.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 125. The Swedish original was published by Prof. Atterbom as No. III of the Swedenborg Letters in the Appendix to his "Siare och Skalder," p. 104. Mr. Strutt's English translation appeared in Mr., White's "New Churchman," Sept. 1856, letter 15.


Most honoured friend and brother,

I hope that this letter may find you still at Brunsbo, and that you will remain there long enough, that I too may have the same good fortune; although it will not be possible for me to get away for ten days, even though my wish and longing mere twice as strong as they are. To leave Polheimer,14 the Councillor of Commerce, in a place where there are important plans in hand, would be opposed to His Majesty's intention and pleasure, as well as prejudicial to my own prospective interest. Still I hope that a want of conveyance will prevent you from leaving within that time. If you could remain so long, something useful to both of us might possibly result from it.

I thank you very much for your congratulations, which I received at Carlscrona a short time before my departure. I can assure you conscientiously, that the only pleasure I derive from this appointment is, that it may give my parents and yourself pleasure, which is my greatest aim and delight.

I am now working upon Ddalus, part v. I hope to have it ready by the next post, and to take it to Brunsbo next week. Should I not find you there, I will send it after you to Upsal, and I entreat your former kindness for this number. As we are to meet the King again in April at the latest, I hope to get this done, as well as an enlarged separate edition of the treatise on the longitude of places.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 278 I hope also that something may then be done for the observatory and the faculty, regarding which pro action has yet been taken. A single word would have been sufficient, if the Councillor of Commerce* could have seen that it might have been arranged and carried out, without the intended one** into the faculty, or at least being present at Upsal. An application shall, nevertheless, soon be made on behalf of the observatory; more might be said about this, however, if it could be done orally. The Councillor of Commerce sends his respects to you. I remain always, honoured friend and brother,

Your most faithful brother until death,

       EMAN. SWEDBEBG.
Gottenburg, 23 January, 1717.

* Polhem.

** Swedenborg himself.

DOCUMENT 69.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 126. No. IV in Atterbom's Collection; and letter 16 in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 102.


Most honoured friend and brother,

Enclosed I send Ddalus, part v, and I most humbly solicit you to extend to it the kindness that you have shown towards the former numbers. I should have finished it long ago, but I have been continually on a journey of ever altering direction, which scarcely left me an hour's time for such work. But as I have now arrived at Stiernsund, I have found an opportunity, for a few days, to get this up, as well as I can. I hope it will win the approval of the Upsal people, and especially your own.

I have added the Latin to it on the opposite page, according to His Majesty's wish, who pointed out to me where the Swedish should be, and where the Latin.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 279 I could wish, therefore, that this might correspond in the same way on the pages. With regard to the engravings for the tap, I do not know how to provide them, as I am so far away, and have not permission to come over. Could Dr. Roberg70 be, in any agreeable and engaging manner, induced to undertake it, it would be the best way of arranging it, as there are several particulars connected with it, which Mons. Aveln could not so easily accomplish Further, should the tap itself require to be inspected, it lies in a box in the room in which I was, in one of the drawers on the top, and might be left with Dr. Robergr,70 should he undertake the task. I also hope that the Doctor will favour us with his thoughts on snow and freezing, as he promised.

With regard to his project for manufacturing salt, His Majesty discussed it, and took the opposite side; proving his case by Hungarian wine, which may be entirely frozen, and stating that when he was in Poland a cask of Hungarian wine was so completely frozen, that he dealt it out in pieces with his sword to the men, although there remained a kernel in it, of the very essence of the wine, as large as a musket-ball. As His Majesty seemed to be interested in the manufacture of salt in Sweden, we gathered minute information about it in Uddevalla; and me found that in Sweden there are the best opportunities for its manufacture, as there is abundance of forest and water for promoting the work; and we might venture to promise to produce almost as much as is required at eight or ten dalers in copper per ton; this will be demonstrated in its proper place. I will confer with Dr. Roberg about something on this subject which must be sent to the King; viz. the drawing of some new salt-pans, by which wood is economized, and the operation considerably accelerated; and also the drawing of the pumps and graduating pipes, which are likewise new; although even there, as in other places, the brine may be concentrated by the drying process, by being exposed to the air in summer, and by being frozen in winter, so that it may be worked and boiled down with the least amount of trouble. At Strmstad there is a salt boilery, but it is constructed with the greatest want of judgment, and without any other graduation than from the water being pumped up from the deep; it has also the most unwieldly salt-pans imaginable, but it nevertheless succeeds in producing three tons with one cord of mood within twenty-four hours.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 280 Should such a work be established, it would profit the country more than the whole of its iron manufacture, in which a loss is occasionally sustained; but in the present case there would be a real gain, and the money would remain in the country.

We hope that our journey hither will in time be of importance. At Trollhtta, Gullspngelf, and Lake Hjelmar also we found everything feasible, and at less expense than had been anticipated. If I do nothing more in the matter, I act at least as a stimulus in it.

Will you please remember me kindly to Prof. Elfvius,54 and try whether he will part with his Linea Carolina,74 which he has in the original. I shall willingly pay what he would like to have for it, if it be not too unreasonable. It is not for myself, but for a gentleman of high rank, who desires to have it. I beg you to assist me in the matter.       

Will you please remember me kindly to Little brother Eric.58 I hear that his love for mechanics and drawing continues. If he can give the slip to his preceptor, I should like to induce him to follow me; when I would try in every way to promote his welfare, to instruct him in mathematics and other things, should it be desired. Please remember me also a hundred times to sister Anna. I remain, my honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant, and faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Stiernsund, February 23, 1717.

P. S. I require a new sign in my Ddalus, viz. [two dots above and two dots below a line]; I wonder whether such a one exists in the printing-office, or whether it can be made up by means of points; this I think may be done. I beg you to send the enclosed to the printing-office, together with the first, as I am very anxious that it should at least be ready before I start upon my journey to Lund.

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DOCUMENT 70.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 129. No. V, p. 107 in the Appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder." Letter 19, in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 115.


Most honoured friend and brother,

I arrived in Stockholm the day before yesterday. I intend to remain here until Easter; for I have much to do in order to get everything ready that I contemplate. Your letter followed me from Stiernsund to Starbo; but I could not answer it earlier, as I have been taking a little journey in the mining district. I thank you for taking so much care about the Ddalus. I wish that Dr. Roberg70 would be pleased to help it with the engraving. If you would kindly supply Ddalus, part vi, with Stjernhjelm's Linea Carolina,74 and afterwards add his life to it, I should be very much pleased, as it deserves to be done, and I have now so little time to write anything that requires quiet and reflection.

The salt boiling and inland navigation are in a good way; I think they will obtain the King's approbation. I am now sending down to Deputy-counsellor Fahlstrm, the project about the observatory at Upsal. I am inclined to think that His Majesty will approve of it; and also that he will call upon Upsal to hand in a proposition about the institution of a faculty. The result will perhaps be known between Easter and Whitsuntide. Will you please give my compliments to Prof. Elfvius,54 and ask him about his Linea Carolina.74 It does not matter that he is hard to deal with for it; he is not usually so with me; I must insist upon begging for it, as I have already half promised it.

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Would that I might be so fortunate as to get Ddalus, part v, and if possible Ddalus, part vi, ready before Easter, so that I could take them with me, and present them to his Majesty! Perhaps our journey will first be directed to Lund; if, therefore, it be possible, it ought to be done. There is also a Latin translation to be added to part vi. In Gottenburg I paid your draft upon Magister--, which I had accepted. A thousand greetings to sister Anna.5

Your most humble servant, and most faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Stockholm, March 24, 1717.


DOCUMENT 71A.

POLHEM TO SWEDENBORG,*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 359.


Respected Assessor,

I avail myself of the present occasion to send my daughters Maja31 and Mrensa* to Stockholm, and at the same time to forward you the first draught of the continuation of my paper on physics, which I have not taken time to read over since, and there are therefore more particulars still to be noticed. If Prof. Hjrne53 like it when written out clean, and give it his approval, it may be printed; but if any objections be raised, which require additional explanations, it will be best to wait until all is properly ventilated. It is very appropriate that Stiernhjelm's73 life, his intelligence, and learning should be described, and it would do no harm if some verses were placed over it in honour of Sweden, and of him about whom the paper is written. However short and cold the days may be which the sun grants to Sweden in winter, so much the longer and warmer are they in summer; and southerners have in this respect nothing to boast of over us, when the year is over.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 283 In a similar manner, although Sweden produces people of the dullest kind, who are ridiculed by other nations, there are, on the other head, brought up in it such penetrating end lofty minds, as surpass those of other countries, and are able to teach them; and yet when you take the average of the two extremes, they may not do more than others. According to agreement I expect you before Easter. The works in Fahlun cannot be set in motion yet on account of the cold, but they will no doubt begin to work in a few days. The Dean will be buried on Sunday, when my wife and I will attend the funeral. What news is there in Stockholm? for since the Dean's death no newspapers have arrived here; and as I shall very soon leave home again, I have not thought it worth while to order one, as this must be done for the whole year. With many kind remembrances, I am

* A shortened form of Emerentia; for information concerning her see No. 53 in the Appendix to Robsahm's Memoirs in Section I, and also Notes 29, 30, and 31.

Your dutiful,

       C. P.
Stiernsund, March 27, 1717.

DOCUMENT 71B.

POLHEM TO SWEDENBORG.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 380.


Respected assessor,

My last letter and parcel by the children have probably arrived. As the time approaches when we are to depart, you will please arrange your affairs accordingly. His Majesty urges our return to Lund; yet I will first go to Carlscrona. You are, however, quite at liberty either to so down to Lund or to remain at Carlscrona. We send our respects to you.

Your dutiful and obedient servant,

       C. P.
Stiernsund, April 3, 1717.

P. S. It is not my intention that the second part of the Nature of Mechanics should be printed this time, but only that something should be selected, to illustrate the first part.

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DOCUMENT 72.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 127. Letter 17 in Mr. White's ANew Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 103.


Most honoured friend and brother,

My last, I hope, has arrived. I request you now to have the kindness to send of Ddalus, part v, twenty copies on fine paper, and also some on the other paper, because I must complete the sets here as well as at Lund with the same quality of paper as the parties received at first. I shall perhaps follow with the Theory of the Earth, as I mentioned in my last. In a fortnight from yesterday I intend to leave; should no opportunity present itself during the interval for sending over the copies and the plate, I shall willingly pay for an express to bring them, on account of the use they will be to me at Lund. I wonder what decision has been arrived at with regard to the Astronomical Observatory, inland navigation, and salt-boiling, plans for which have been submitted to His Majesty. I will let you know about it when opportunity offers; on the last point I will also communicate with Dr. Roberg,70 although the present time seems unseasonable for all good plans. The remaining pair of kid gloves I leave with brother G. Benzel.65 I should like to hear when my maternal aunt, Brita Behm,50 is expected from Upsal. With a thousand kind remembrances, I remain, most hononred and dear brother,

Your most faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Stockholm, April 4, 1717.

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P. S. It would be well if twenty or thirty copies of Ddalus, parts i and ii, could be sent here by some opportunity, and also some notice of what has been published this week about the work done during the year, and its cost. I think I should prefer to confine myself to one agent for their sale, and to allow him a fixed percentage, as the booksellers are unreasonable in fixing the price so high as to have but a small sale for them; and yet they pay me two stivers less for them than the retail price. For Ddalus, part iv, Rger has asked no less than twenty stivers, and has refused to sell it to those who offered sixteen, when yet he ought to have sold it for eight. If you would kindly print the price on those of part v which have not yet been struck off, I will endeavour to find an agent whom I can trust. The ASecond Fundamental Principle of Wisdom"* has been exhausted at Rger's; it would be well if more could be sent. I wonder whether it has commanded any sale at Upsal; I should like to know, to see whether it is worth while to continue it. It was sold here for five stivers; but I shall perhaps get one and a half for it.

* Polhem's work, which was printed at the expense of Swedenborg.


DOCUMENT 73.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 128. Letter 18 in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 9, p. 114.


Most honoured friend and brother,

Since I left Upsal I have returned you neither thanks nor anything else for your late hospitable reception. You will no doubt have been told the reason, why I departed so hastily from Ribbingbeck without taking leave. Five weeks ago, after I came here to Lund, I presented to His Majesty Ddalus, part v, and he was pleased, yea, more than pleased with it. The plan respecting the Observatory I have communicated only to Secretary Cederholm, but I found him cold and indifferent about it, inasmuch as it does not emanate directly from the faculty at Upsal; we shall have to wait therefore for an opportunity.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 286 The Councillor of Commerce [Polhem] has resolved to trouble himself about nothing, except what concerns himself; since he has noticed that many new things are given into his charge, about which he has no knowledge whatever. Still the salt-boiling will go on, His Majesty having resolved to grant great and important privileges, which will perhaps induce many zealous persons to venture their means in the affair; and should there be a scarcity of shareholders in other places, Lund with its attorneys may perhaps do the most. The establishment of canal locks, between Gottenburg and Wenersborg, is also in good trim. I have besides been busy with a new method of counting which His Majesty has hit upon, viz. to let the numeration reach 64, before it turns, in the same may as the ordinary method of counting turns at 10. He has himself devised new characters, new names, &c., for this purpose; and has written and changed a number of points with his own hand. This paper, which I have in my possession, will in time deserve a distinguished place in a library. This method of counting is difficult in multiplication, &c.; but it is useful and speedy in division, in the extraction of the square, cube, and biquadratic roots, all of which terminate in 64; as well as in the solution of smaller numbers. His Majesty has great penetration.

With a thousand remembrances to sister Anna, and little brother Eric, I remain, honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Lund, June 26, 1717.

P. S. I wrote the preceding for the last post. The privileges of the Salt Company have since been signed; they are fairly advantageous, as those who wish to interest themselves with the Councillor of Commerce [Polhem] in a Salt Company, have liberty to purchase any forest that can be bought, and to select any place they choose; are exempt from taxation for twenty years, and are subsequently never to be charged more than half the duty which is levied on foreign salt.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 287 The Company has since been formed, and consists of 200,000 shares of one mark in silver. No other Company is allowed to report itself before the last day of September. Many more privileges are promised, as they may be required. Should any one at Upsal wish to join it, he can do so through Assessor Cameen in Stockholm, within that time. Here we have already issued from 30 to 40,000 shares, and according to all appearances the shares will be taken within the specified term. The whole amount will be 60,000 dalers in silver. I shall probably proceed next week to Warberge, Uddewalla, and Strmstad, to select suitable places. In the mean time remember me to all good friends.

P. S. We shall leave here in eight days. How does Ddalus, part vi. get on. I have spoken twice with Attorney Liljenstedt about Dr. Rudbeck's49 yachts; he promised to do his very best, and said that he has already several times made application for them.

DOCUMENT 74.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 130. No. VI, in the Appendix to Atterbom's ASiare och Skalder," p. 108; and Letter 20 in Mr. White's ANew Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 115.


Most honoured friend and brother,

I sent you a few lines from Carlscrona, and have now come to Brunsbo, where I intend to remain till Christmas; here I can correspond with you from a shorter distance. When I came here, I found that my dear father had gone to Lund, on account of the Consistory. I wish all may turn out well. He had no permission to travel; yet I hope that his business and his good friends will shield him from blame.* I hear that little brother Eric58 has gone to Upsal and caught the small-pox; I should be very sorry if any harm befell him in consequence.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 288 I long to hear of his recovery. His vivacity is very much against his bearing it long; but it rests with God to change it.

* This seems to refer to an order of Charles XII that no one should wait upon him at Lund, unless he had previously received permission.

I am writing to Mons. Vassenius,75 which I could not do before, as I did not know where he was. I should like to be able to do something in the matter of the stipendium duplex, and of anything else in his favour; but the difficulty is simply this: if one presents anything to His Majesty which does not properly belong to his office, he knows what answer he will get; again, if any one were asked to present it, it would have to be Secretary Cederholm, mho will do nothing. The Councillor of Commerce [Polhem] has applied for twenty things, and has only obtained a decision in the matter of the salt works. I myself have not spoken to His Majesty more than twice, and then it was only some nonsense about mathematics, riddles in algebra, etc. On account of the Councillor of Commerce I have tried very earnestly not to obtain this grace more frequently; should I anywhere else have occasion to speak to him alone, I will try to accomplish something. Meanwhile, I have done what I could in Mons. Vassenius'75 favour, and have secured him the good graces of Polhem, the Councillor of Commerce, and of my father.

Present my most respectful compliments to Prof. Vslerius,71 as well as to sister Anna.5 I remain, honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, December, 1717.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 289


DOCUMENT 75.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 131. No. VII, in the Appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder," p. 110. Letter 21, in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 116.


Most honoured friend and brother,

Enclosed I send you something which I found time to write at Brunsbo; it is a new method of calculation, of which I received a hint while I was at Lund. His Majesty is much interested in this kind of calculation, and has himself prepared characters, names, and rules for a method; but in it there was no turn until 64. I have two sheets which he himself wrote on this subject, which shall belong to the Library. The present method goes to 8 before it turns; and could it be introduced into use, it would be of great practical advantage. The example proves this. It is to be left with Prof. Valerius71 for inspection first; and then to be Printed in octave. I have also another work in octavo, which may be joined to it. As I find leisure here at Brunsbo, I shall write down something which I will send you, and which I think will please the public. I have something ready for two posts. If Mons. Vassenius75 will take the trouble to read the proof-sheets, I will find some opportunity of serving him in return. Such opportunities may frequently occur. My dear father is still at Lund; He is about to argue his "Shibboleth," end has perhaps done so already, Sandell* has obtained the pastorate of Hedemora, and one named Samuel Hesselius is to travel in his stead.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 290 You will please excuse my haste; I have some commissions to attend to during the fair. Meanwhile I wish you a happy new year, and much pleasure and joy. With my remembrances to sister Anna,5 and little brother Eric,58 I remain, honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, January 7, 1718.

* Andreas Sandell, the father of Samuel Sandels, the Councillor of Mines, who delivered the eulogium on Emanuel Swedenborg before the Academy of Sciences. Sandell had been Dean of the Swedish Churches in America for eighteen years.

P. S. If anything has to be corrected in the preface, I wish you would undertake the trouble, and help me, in honour, as you have done before.

As to the salt-works, something will certainly come out of them, unless self-interest, which is already beginning to show itself, rule too strongly. It is to be regretted. I yield as far as I can; and I think of withdrawing from the affair entirely, that no blame may fall on me, in case it go on lamely and slowly. Meanwhile I do not believe that it will rest on a good foundation, unless Polhem be as well supported as he thinks he ought to be. The salt can be made tolerably good, quite as good as that from Lneburg--useful for cooking purposes. More some other time.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 291


DOCUMENT 76.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No 132. Letter 28 in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 125.


Most honoured and dear brother,

As I had some leisure hours here at Brunsbo, I have prepared an Art of the Rules (Regel-konst)*- or Algebra in Swedish; and although I had no book or other help at hand, I have tried to make it as easy and concise as possible; it will probably not exceed six sheets in print. I was induced to write it chiefly because so many in Lund and Stockholm have begun to study algebra, and because I have been requested by others to prepare it; I hope that it will be of service to the public. I should like very much that it might, with your usual care, be sent to press, in octave like the last work which I sent over to you, so as to form a volume. I have still enough left for the Ddalus. It would be well to have it done in a handsome style, even in a more handsome one than the ASecond Fundamental Principle" (Andra Grundwahlen).** As to the expenses, they shall be met, as required. Is there any one at Upsal, skilled in algebra, who could read the proof-sheets? for he who undertakes it must have some knowledge of the subject; whenever there is an opportunity he shall be repaid. Can it be true that Bishop Gezelius has received orders to present clergymen and others in his diocese, and also to fill up vacant professorships?

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 292 Recommendations from the Councillor of Commerce [Polhem] and some others might in this case be of use and of weight with the parties concerned.

* Regelkonsten frfattadt i tjo Bkker, &c. Algebra in ten sections, by Emanuel Swedberg, Upsal, 1718, 8vo, 135 pages. A comprehensive review of this work appeared in the "Acta Literaria Sueci" Vol. I, pp. 126 to 134, and also in the "Neuere Zeitungen von Geiehrten Sachen auf das Jahr l722," Leipzig, Vol. I, p. 378.

** See Note to Document 72.

Could there not be a little more delay in sending out the contents of the Ddalus; I should much prefer that something more mature should appear first, something which I have in hand at present, and which only needs time and disposition [for its completion]; some of the things for the Ddalus have been done without sufficient thought; these I should like to replace with others. Towards spring I intend to have some of these things quite ready--but of these anon.

I had the pleasure to receive two letters, one inclosed in my dear father's, and the other in Magister Varolin's, but the one which was sent by the person from Gottenburg I have not seen; he has probably taken it on further.

I have heard nothing about the salt spring in Sdermanland; I should like to have some additional information respecting it, especially whether there is any forest in the neighbourhood, within two [Swedish] miles. I have seen and tested the waters from Finland, but besides the springs being close to the sea, there is no forest or peat near: they are also weak, containing only half a loth [2 oz] in the pound (i. e. half a loth in 32 loths of water); however those in Germany are not much stronger. The sea brine is strongest at Strmstad, or in the province of Bohus, as in the winter it is charged with two loths (i. e. it contains two loths of salt in thirty-two loths of water). In Smland also I know of a salt spring, but in that neighbourhood likewise there is no wood; I mean to learn something more about the one in Sdermanland. I hope the salt-work will go on well, if self-interest does not obtain too strong a hand in it.

There is nothing certain respecting the warm spring which it was thought might be found in Westergyllen. The circumstances are these: When I was travelling on business to Gielle, the estate of Governor Hrdz, I had a countryman with me, whom I asked about all kinds of springs, and amongst them, about salt springs and hot springs. He said that a soldier living in the next parish had told him of a spring in the neighbourhood which was boiling hot.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 293 I objected, that he had meant of the springs abroad; but he answered that it was in the immediate neighbourhood; this he repeated and warranted. As it was some distance to this soldier, I did not follow it up, but charged Dr. Hesselius76 to do so, who has not yet inquired about it. It may possibly be true, but who has even heard of it at Upsal?

With regard to the building [of the dock] at Carlscrona it has not gone on altogether as expected; yet no doubt is entertained that what was intended is still intended, although there is some hitch about it.

Our dear father has not yet returned home; but he is expected to-day or to-morrow, when we shall hear much news. He seems to have been well received by His Majesty; he dined with him three times, and preached before him on the second Sunday in advent; he also conversed with him many times. He preached also at Malm, when the people nearly tore the church asunder. Upon his return to Lund he conversed with the King again, and received orders to argue his "Shibboleth" in a public disputation; many opposed it, but it nevertheless took place. It is not yet known how it turned out, but we hope well. The King had Hjrne's53 scurrilous publication against him, which our dear father received from him as a loan. What ought to be done with this Hjrne?53 Should he be allowed to make such a scandalous personal attack? If he had only attacked the subject itself, and supported it with arguments--but he makes a personal attack and uses [foul] language! I read through his Chemistry, and found that he is but very little grounded in the principles upon which chemistry is founded. Yet more some other time.

With kind remembrances to sister Anna, I remain,

       Your most faithful brother and servant,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, January 14, 1718.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 294

DOCUMENT 77.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 133. Letter 23 in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 125.


Most honoured and dear brother,

By the last post I had the honour to receive your letter, with the intelligence of the death of Prof. Elfvius. God grant him peace and rest; I think it was his own wish. In the advice which you so kindly gave me about becoming his successor, I recognize most gratefully your kindness and good-will; and as I know that no one of my relatives has ever entertained such kind wishes towards me as you, I recognize the same good-will in the present matter. The arguments you adduce are very good, yet on the other side I can also muster some very strong arguments; as for instance, 1. I already have a honourable post; 2. In this post I can be of use to my country, and indeed of more practical use than in the other position; 3. I thus decline a faculty which does not agree with my tastes and my turn of mind, by both of which I am led to mechanics, and will be in future to chemistry; and our College is noted for having assessors who know very little on these subjects; for this reason I will endeavour to supply this deficiency, and I hope that my labours in this direction will be as profitable to them, as their own may be in another; I trust also that no one will judge me unworthy of my office. With regard to envy, this is more a matter of laughter to me than of apprehension; for I have always striven to cause myself to be envied, and in the future I shall perhaps become a still greater object of envy.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 295 The only argument which would induce me to follow your suggestion would be, that I might be with you, and enjoy one or two years' leisure to put my thoughts on paper, which I have some difficulty in doing now: but I will certainly never apply to the Consistory and the Rector in writing, for, did they not accede to my application, I should be under the disadvantage of having sought to be relieved of an honourable post, from which I shall in time derive more profit, than simply the promise of being allowed to enjoy it to the end of my life; moreover, I should be under the disadvantage of having declared myself unfit for my present position. Should the Academy consider me qualified for their position, they may take all necessary steps without my application; but if they do not consider me qualified, I am indifferent about it. I thank you a thousand times for your well intended kindness; I shall never be happier than in being near you, so as to have more frequently the opportunity of doing what is pleasant to you.

As to your having thought it advisable to delay for a while the publication of the new method of reckoning, for the reasons you have named, I did not at first comprehend your meaning, and it was certainly some discouragement to me in a matter I had in hand, to find that my mathematical discoveries were considered as novelties which the country could not stand. I wish I had some more of these novelties, aye, a novelty in literary matters for every day in the year, so that the world might find pleasure in them. There are enough in one century who plod on in the old beaten track, while there are scarcely six or ten in a whole century, who are able to generate novelties which are based upon argument and reason. But I afterwards perceived that you meant those matters concerning the revolution in coinage and currency. That is a different thing. Still, I know that I have not proposed anything that can occasion the slightest inconvenience to the country. The only thing I have pushed is the scheme for the salt-work, which I maintain would be more useful to the country than any other proposition in the world, and which is more feasible than is generally supposed, as may be seen from what follows. 1. There are above thirty salt-pans in Strmstad which have been in use for a hundred years.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 296 2. These have been used with advantage for making salt, a ton of salt with a cord of wood in twenty-four hours. 3. In prosperous times this quantity has been sold for four and a half dalers in copper, and has left some profit. 4. Bohusln and part of Dahl use no other salt. 5. There have been salt-works in other places, as in Gulwarsberg, Count Ascheberg's estate, now laid waste by the enemy. 6. Salt-works are carried on with advantage in Scotland, and that country uses no other salt; the water there is similar to our water at Strmstad. 7. There are salt-works at Lneburg and many other places in Germany; the springs of which are weaker than our sea water. 8. Should there not be a sufficiency of wood, peat may be used, which will not fail; in Holland and Scotland salt is boiled with this fuel. 9. Count Oxenstierna said that he was willing to forfeit all his other merits, if he could have the satisfaction of providing Sweden with salt in time of war. I find therefore nothing chimerical in this undertaking, although it was begun, and is now prosecuted, in a wrong way. If I were allowed to take it in hand, its advantages would soon appear. God grant that all other propositions made were of the same sort, no subject would then suffer any injury by them; not even though a few persons should calculate differently, and I know not whether any will do so.

As the King has already approved of the calculation based on number eight, you must be so good as not to create any difficulties, that may prevent its publication. I have five little, treatises which I desire to lay before my friends: one, which I have finished to-day, is on the round particles, in which Dr. Roberg70 will probably be interested, for he is well skilled in all that concerns these least things, and is delighted with such subjects. I will send this from rebro or Starbo, where I shall go to to-morrow to transact some business connected with the Skinskatteberg furnace.

With my best remembrances to sister Anna, I remain, hononred and dear brother

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, January 21, 1718.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 297

P. S. With regard to my money, you will please to call for the pltar at the treasury-office, as I require them for the printing; in case they should not be there, I consider a plt worth 3 currency bills (mynttecken) or 9 dalers in stivers.

P. S. Our dear father has returned home from his journey; he has many things to tell, and also a number of wholesome truths which he told the King. With regard to the venison, my father sent a messenger at once to Governor Fock about some which has been promised, and which Morelius will send over to Upsal by the first messenger.

DOCUMENT 78.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 134. Letter 29 in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 3, p. 137.


Most honoured and dear brother,

I send you something new in Physics, upon the particles of air and water, proving them to be round, which may militate against the philosophy of many; but as I base my theory upon experience and geometry, I do not expect that any one can refute it by arguments. Preconceived ideas received from Descartes and others will be the greatest obstacle to it, and will cause objections. Dr. Roberg,70 who, in everything that is minute and subtle is himself subtle, is best able to judge respecting it: if you would therefore be kind enough to leave this with him, I should like to hear his opinion. If Prof. Valerius71 would lay aside his own and his father's Cartesianism, his opinion would also be valuable to me. I have materials enough on this subject to fill a large book, as is done by the learned with their speculations abroad, but as we have no appliances here for such large publications, I must cut my coat according to the cloth, and introduce only the most general views.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 298 The use of this seems to me to enable us more thoroughly to investigate the nature of air and water in all its parts: for if the true shape of the particles is once discovered, we obtain with it all the properties which belong to such a shape. I hope that this rests on a solid foundation. In future I should not like to publish anything which has not better ground to rest upon than the former things in the Ddalus. I should like this to appear separately, although likewise in quarto. The papers of Polhem, the Councillor of Commerce, and the articles on mechanics, I will leave for the Ddalus.

With respect to the professorship at Upsal I expressed my thoughts to you from Brunsbo, and I hope you will kindly receive them. I hope I shall be able to be as useful in the post which has been entrusted to me, and also to secure to myself as many advantages; my present position being only a step to a higher one, while at Upsal I should have nothing more to expect; moreover, I do not believe that the King would like me to give up my present position. With regard to the College, I will try most diligently to make myself at home in mechanics, physics, and chemistry, and, at all events, to lay a proper foundation for everything, when I hope no one will have any longer a desire to charge me with having entered the College as one entirely unworthy; still I have no desire, either, to be called legis consultissimus [i. e. the one most versed in the law].

The new method of calculation I intend for the learned; and I hope you will order it to be printed. I take all responsibility upon myself, and assure you that nothing of this kind will be prohibited. The King has full power in everything that concerns law, war, and taxes, but none whatever in what concerns words, language, and calculation. We have great cause to be wearied with all the "innovations" that happen. Would to God that no innovations had taken place with our currency, but only with the method of reckoning it--then our country would have been better off. Good Lord! what extraordinary regulations have been issued with regard to the skjuts [i. e. the relays furnished by the Swedish peasants]; the like of it has never been heard of. If this had not been done with a view to encourage the regular posting vehicles in Sweden, I should entertain different thoughts about it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 299 The first thing I will do, will be to procure myself a horse and sledge, and for each journey a barrel of oats in the sledge, and the first one I meet I will ask for a share of his provisions. I have not the least desire to pay twenty-seven dalers in copper, for a sledge and a driver to the nest inn on the road to Upsal, two Swedish miles from Stockholm.

I arrived here at Starbo68 last night, but found no one at home. Brother Lars8 and sister Hedwig5 are at the fair. I came here to confer about the Skinskatteberg property, which my brothers and sisters intend to dispose of to one Jonas Ahlgren for 32,000 dalers in copper, on condition of his paging 6000 dalers a year; which is an agreement I am also willing to enter into, as iron has a fixed price, viz. 32 dalers. If I find that I cannot draw any money from the furnace, I shall try to obtain it elsewhere. A thousand kind remembrances to sister Anna.

Your most faithful brother,

       E. S.
Starbo, January 30, 1718.

P. S. Morelius sent a messenger to Wenersborg to fetch a buck which was promised by the Governor there, and which shall be forwarded to you by the messenger, I had intended to send off this letter by the last post, but was prevented. Meanwhile Dr. Rudbeck49* has come here, which affords me an opportunity of sending it over to you. If postage is to be so frightfully raised as they say, we shall be obliged to take leave of our friends and customers. I had the honour to receive your letter. I thank you for having sent my algebra to press. If Mr. Hasselbom77 would be kind enough to see that all the numbers are correct, it would be most acceptable. I know that many will be interested in it who have turned their minds to algebra. I have three or four other small matters on hand, which are short and may appear next spring; I will then stop for some time, to see what will be thought of them.

* See Document 130.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 300


DOCUMENT 79.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 135. No. VIII, in the appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder," p. 111. Letter 25, in Mr. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 138.


Most honoured and dear brother,

I send something new in physics by brother Rudbeck;49 but do not know whether it will arrive before this letter. It treats of the smallest round particles, or of air and wind. I believe that it will be acceptable abroad. I have also several other matters, and among them a more thorough explanation of the method of finding the longitude of places; in the calculation of which I have gradually acquired greater facility.

I received to-day a letter from the Councillor of Commerce [Polhem] at Wenersborg, in which he presses and urges me to journey thither. He has now received the order that the locks are to be built, and that the navigation between the Baltic and North Sea is to be through the lakes of Wener and Wetter to Norkping, at His Majesty's private expense. There is therefore considerable work ahead, but I shall have to stay here for two weeks yet. Then, with your leave, I will come as fast as possible to Upsal, in order to see through the press what I have in hand. The Councillor of Commerce writes, that the King wonders and expresses dissatisfaction at my not going on with the Ddalus as before. I should like very much to take something down with which will please the King. Let nothing interfere with my new method of calculation; it may be very useful for those who desire to use it; I take the whole responsibility upon myself.

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I wish to put down a few memoranda, on which I should like to get your opinion and your answer when I come to Upsal: 1. I think of dedicating the little treatise which Dr. Rudbeck49 takes with him, to Abb Bignon,57 abroad, and the other about the longitude to Edward Halley,55 Oxford, who has also done something in this subject; 2. That this be done in pure Swedish, and that I make a translation of both, and thus send them over; I hope that by so doing I may gain the favour of some one; 3. Whether in the place of the professorship of the late Elfvius, another might not be established for the benefit of the Swedish language; 4. Whether Magrister Unge5 might not be promoted thereby to something.

I shall write further some other time; I am prevented at present from doing so.

I remain

       Your most faithful brother and servant,

              EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Starbo,68 February, 1718.


DOCUMENT 80.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 136. No. IX, in the Appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder", p. 112. Letter 26, in Dir. White's "New Churchman," Vol. 2, p. 138.


Most honoured and dear Brother,

Some time has elapsed since I wrote to you. The delay is in proportion to the distance, and the rise in the postage; yet I hope that your confidence remains as before.

We are now daily occupied in bringing the first lock to completion, which cannot, however, be done before Michaelmas. The expenses are small beyond all expectation, because the whole work is of timber. Yet it is built so as to last a long time, and any part which gives way can be repaired without renewing the whole structure.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 302 I am trying to prevail upon the Councillor of Commerce to appoint or two one persons to superintend the work; and as I think Messrs. Wassenius75 and Hasselbom77 would like such an appointment, I have proposed them; they may count upon twenty dalers in silver per month, as long as the work continues. The principal inducement for them would be to acquire practice in mechanics, and to stand a better chance of promotion. If you would please to let them know this, they would perhaps communicate to me their ideas in writing. I should like to be able to advance their interests some other way; this would be the greatest pleasure to me.

It seems to me there is but little reward for the trouble of advancing the cause of science; partly on account of the lack of funds, which prevents our going as far into it as we ought, and partly also on account of the jealousy which is excited against those who busy themselves more than other persons with a given subject. Whenever a country leans towards barbarism, it is vain for one or two persons to try to keep it upright.

Baron Grtz78 has passed twice through this place, and inspected the work at the locks, over which he is chief, when he returned, he was met by the French ambassador, and they had two days' conversation together. Afterwards the former went to land, and the latter to his former residence at Lund. Some persons of his suite gave assurances in the town that we should have peace in a short time, and that we had better terms and conditions to expect than is generally supposed. O! Utanam ne sub melle lateant.... (Would, that under the honey there mere not concealed....!)

His Majesty examined also Trollhtta, and I had the favour of conversing much with him. I did not offer him my part of the Rules," and my "Attempt to find the Longitude," further than by leaving them upon his table, when he sat and perused them for a considerable time. Many wonderful tales are reported about us in the neighbourhood; among other things they say that we stopped up the Trollhtta Falls at the moment the King was there. Such unbounded confidence they have in art.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 303

How is Prof. Valerius71 doing now? God grant that I may hear of his health and prosperity! With a thousand kind remembrances to Anna,5 to Count Mrner,79 and little brother Eric,58 I remain

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.

Wenersborg, the end of June, 1718.

DOCUMENT 81.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 137. No. X, in the Appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder," p. 114.


Most honoured and dear brother,

Your welcome letter reached me in Strmstadt; it had come after me to Wenersborg and Strmstadt, and therefore I could not answer it sooner. I have been twice at Strmstadt, and I shall have probably to go there soon again. I found His Majesty most gracious towards me; much more so than I had any reason to expect, which I regard as a good omen. Count Mrner79 also showed me all the favour that I could wish.

Every day I had some mathematical matters for His Majesty, who deigned to be pleased with all of them. When the eclipse took place, I took His Majesty out to see it, and talked much to him about it. This, however, is a mere beginning. I hope in time to be able to do something in this quarter for the advancement of science; but I do not wish to bring anything fonvard now, except what is of immediate use. His Majesty found considerable fault with me for not having continued my Ddalus, but I pleaded want of means; of which he does not like to hear. I expect some assistance for it very soon.

With respect to brother Esberg,69 I will see that he gets some employment at the locks; but nothing can be done before next spring.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 304 If he meanwhile studies mathematics well, and begins to make models, it will be perhaps of use to him. I wish very much that little brother Ericus58 was grown up. I believe that next spring, if everything remain as it is, I shell begin the building of a lock myself, and shall have my own command; in which case I hope to be of service to one or the other. I receive only three dalers a day at present at the canal works; but I hope soon to receive more.

Polhem's eldest daughter31 is betrothed to a chamberlain of the King, of the name of Manderstrm.80 I wonder what people will say about this, inasmuch as she was engaged to me (som det r MIN bestlling). His second daughter is in my opinion much prettier.31

How is Prof. Valerius?71 I should be very glad to hear of his health and good condition. Remember me to sister Anna.5 I remain

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Wenersborg, September 14, l718.


DOCUMENT 82.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 138. No. XI, in the Appendix to Atterbom's "Siare och Skalder," p. 115.

Most honoured and dear Brother,

I am just starting for Carlsgraf, after having been here about three weeks. Meanwhile I have seen Ddalus, part vi, through the press. It contains the following articles: 1. Directions for pointing mortars, by C. Polhem; 2. An easy way of counting balls, which are stored in the shape of a triangle, by Em. Sw.; 3. Useful directions in ship-building; 4. A proof that our vital nature consists of small tremulations, with a great number of experiments;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 305 5. Respecting a curve, the secant of which forms right angles with it. I have sent this, the figures and letterpress, to His Majesty. As soon as I have an opportunity, I will send it over to you.

By the first opportunity I will also send it to Vice-President Hjrne53 with a courteous, but at the same time decided, letter, [warning him] to stop his impertinencies; because it is quite possible that some one may show up the puerilities and shortcomings in scientific matters, which he himself has had the daring to publish. I will send you a copy of this letter some other time.

Our dear father has made us a present of his share in the mining property. I wish we may succeed in arriving at an equitable arrangement. Brother Lars8 is somewhat unpleasant towards me. It would be well for him not to continue in this course; for it does not seem proper in a relative that he should be more on the side of Ahlgren,* than on that of his brother-in-law. Among all my brothers and relatives there is not one who has entertained a kind feeling towards me, except yourself; and in this I was confirmed by a letter which my brother wrote to my father about my journey abroad. If I can in any way show a due sense of gratitude, I will always do so. Brother Unge5 does not hold his hands away from any one; at least he has estranged from me my dear father's and my dear mother's affections for the last four years; still this will probably not be to his advantage.

* Respecting Jonas Ahlgren, see Document 78.

His Majesty will probably go to Wenersborg, at the close of the month, to inspect the army. I will see if I cannot get leave to follow [the army] to Norway. If I can be of any service there to my brothers and sisters, it will be the greatest pleasure to me. I remain

Your most faithful servant,

       EMANUEL SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, October, 1718

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 306



DOCUMENT 83.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XL, No. 139.


Most honoured and dear brother,

I had the pleasure to receive your letter at Brunsbo, where I intend to remain until the Christmas holidays, and then to go for a few weeks into the mining districts and to Stockholm. Thank God! I have escaped the campaign to Norway, which had laid a hold sufficiently strong upon me, so that I could only escape by dint of some intrigues. I was glad beyond measure to hear of your intended journey hither; I will by all means wait for you here. Although our dear mother makes some remarks about the fodder, still your horses will be very well taken care of at Magister Unge's,5 who is Rector (prost) of Fgre, or else at the inn where brother Lundstedt5 stopped for two weeks; I will take care of this. If my sledge and furs would be of use for the journey you might bring them with you. I have an idea that the harness also is still there. If my muff too could be brought, it would be well. I should like very much to have my telescope and thermometers down here. They might be packed in a wooden case stuffed with hay. If it were not too much trouble, I would ask you to bring them. I shall have the pleasure of showing you Ddalus, part vi, on your arrival. With Ddalus, part vii, I will wait until His Majesty provides the means, which, I understand, will be forthcoming; I have everything ready [to complete] the second year. I have also seen through the press here my theory about the earth's diminishing its course,* which I tried very hard to make pleasant reading.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 307 I understand I shall get it about the time of your arrival. Please present my respects to Count Mrner,79 and remember me kindly to sister anna.5 I remain

Your most obedient and faithful brother,

       EMAN. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, December 8, 1718.

* Om Jordenes och Planetsmas Gng och Stnd (About the Course and Orbits of the Earth and the Planets), Skara, 1718. 40 pages.

P. S. Gyllenlw, a redoubt near Brederickshall, was taken by storm on the 27th November.

I expect my sledge, my furs, and muff.


DOCUMENT 84.

POLHEM TO BENZELIUS.*

* Polhem's MSS. in the Benzelius Collection at Linkping, p. 386.


Reverend and most Learned Librarian,

Most honoured friend and patron,

       I hope the friendship which we formerly cultivated by letter has not ceased, although our correspondence has stopped for some time. On these matters I have conferred instead with Assessor Swedberg, and I have done so partly on your recommendation, and partly because the Assessor has a quick genius for grasping and ventilating such subjects. We have been mutually pleased with our conference, or at least with our correspondence. but I am troubled about its continuance, as it has been interrupted for some time, and I have received three of my letters, which I had written to him, unopened from Stockholm. And as I understand that he is probably now at Upsal, I must beg you to offer him my greeting, or else to send it to him by letter wherever he may be at present, and also to ask him to favour me with one of his welcome letters, which are so much the more acceptable in our house, as he has given us sufficient cause to love him as our own son. With regard to the work at the locks, you are aware it is suspended at present between the will of going on with it and the universal poverty; for although several thousand banknotes are in hand with which to build, yet it is very difficult to go to work with these, so long as people doubt the certainty of getting these notes changed into good silver coin.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 308 Meanwhile I find it necessary to go to Stjernsund as soon as the famished relay-horses are able to go. So God will, I shall remain there until spring, and then I shall return to the work at the locks, as soon as the means for continuing the work are found, without any compulsion, and without banknotes, about which we are now deliberating.

With many kind regards to you and your family, and to my other friends and acquaintances at Upsal, of which there are now not many, I remain

Your most obedient servant,

       CHRISTOPH POLHEM.
Carlsgraf, April 18, 1719.

To the Reverend and most Learned Librarian,

       ERIC BENZELIUS, Upsal.

DOCUMENT 85.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS,*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol, XL, No. 140.


Most honoured and dear Brother,

A few days ago I arrived here in Stockholm, when I was at once informed by various persons that a new discovery had been made in France affecting the inhabitants of this earth, viz. that our earth had approached 25,000 miles nearer the sun, and that they had written on this subject to the learned Academies. I should like very much, for better information, to obtain all the particulars respecting it, viz. whether observations have been made of the sun's diameter, and its visible increase, or of the parallaxes of the planets and their supposed displacement, which could not fail to be noticed, in case me approached nearer to our centre; for this could only show itself within our solar vortex, outside of which there is no possibility of any parallax with the sun showing itself, unless one should appear which could not be distinguished before.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 309 The greatest matter of surprise is, that such a leap should have been made within one or two years, when yet no comet has lately hurled itself into our larger vortex, nor has any other planet, so far as I know, so approached our terrestrial vortex, that it could have forced us inwards. In case there have been some violent cause of this description, we may presume that it will again recede to its proper distance, inasmuch as this always adapts itself to the speed and to the course, so that our phaeton will again return to its proper orbit. It does not seem reasonable that this should have taken place in a natural manner in so short a time, unless it is deduced from observations made within 100 years. I am glad, however, that I treated publicly a similar subject about a year ago, in my treatise "Concerning the Earth's Motion and Duration,"* in which I maintain that the earth moves more and more slowly both in its annual and diurnal revolution, from which it must necessarily follow, that it approaches nearer and nearer to our sun; for the more rapid the motion and revolution of the planets within the solar vortex, the greater is the distance to which they are carried from the centre; but the slower the motion, the more they are drawn inwards; moreover, it is known in what proportion the centrifugal force increases according to the velocity with which a body either tends outwards or inwards. Isaac Newton's Principia treats of this subject.

* "Om Jordenes och Planetarnas Gng och Stnd," Skara, 1718. (On the motion and orbit of the earth and the planets; i. e. some arguments showing that the earth diminishes in its course, and goes more slowly than heretofore; causing winter and summer, days and nights to be longer in respect to time, than heretofore). The date of this little book which on the death of Charles XII. was dedicated to the Crown-prince, is Dec. 16, 1718. See also Document 83.

The case with the planets is, also, as if a long arm were made, with a ball upon it, which was free, and could slide either forward or backward on the arm, and thus could move either out or in by the least force; if, now, this ball should be spun round very rapidly--especially under waterthen the centrifugal force would be increased to such a degree, that the ball would run far out on the arm, away from its centre; but if the motion should decrease, the ball would be drawn inward.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 310 Exactly so is it with the planets; if the first moving cause is taken out of one, it approaches nearer to its centre; but if it is increased, it is thrown far out; or what is the same thing, the slower the revolution the nearer its approach to the sun, which theory I also discuss in the above-named treatise. That this, however, should take place within two or three years, I cannot yet get into my head; although even our atmosphere itself seems to indicate a change in the temperature in respect to summer and winter, and also in respect to the unusual north winds we now have. With regard to the nature of motion, if an examination is made of the degree in which it either increases or decreases, it appears that towards the end motion decreases more in one minute than before in 20; for instance, if anything be whirled around, the revolution towards the end diminishes more in one moment, than it did before in twenty; yet this cannot apply to our planet. I should therefore like very much to get some further particulars about this matter.

During the summer I took the necessary leisure to commit some things to paper, which I trust will be my last; as speculations and arts like these are left to starve in Sweden, where they are looked upon by a set of political blockheads as scholastic matters, which must remain in the background, while their own supposed refined ideas and their intrigues occupy the foreground.

What I have in hand consist, first, of a minute description of our Swedish blasting-furnaces; secondly, a theory or an investigation into the nature of fire and stoves, where I have collected everything I could gather from blacksmiths, charcoal-burners, roasters of ore, superintendents of iron-furnaces, &c., and upon this the theory is based.*

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 311 I hope also that the many discoveries which I have made therein, will in time prove useful. For instance, a fire may be made in some new stoves for warming, where the wood and coal which usually last a day, will last six days, and will give out more heat. Vice-President Hjrne53 has approved of this in all its particulars, and if desired I can show the proof of it. The former of these treatises I handed in to-day to the Royal College of Mines.**

* Swedenborg's theory concerning fire was published by him in Amsterdam, in 1721, under the title: Nova Observata et Inventa circa Ferrum et Ignem, et prcipue circa naturam Ignis elementarem, una cum nova Camini inventione. An English translation of this work by Charles E. Strutt was published in London, in 1847, under the following title: New Observations and Discoveries respecting Iron and Fire, and particularly respecting the elemental nature of Fire: together with a new construction of stoves.

** This treatise which was never published is still preserved in the College of Mines; it bears the following title: Beskrifning fver Svenska Masugnar och deras Blsningar (A Description of Swedish Iron Furnaces and the processes of melting Iron). See Document 145.

I have also written a little anatomy of our vital forces, which, I maintain, consist of tremulations; for this purpose I made myself thoroughly acquainted with the anatomy of the nerves and membranes, and I have proved the harmony which exists between that and the interesting geometry of tremulations; together with many other ideas, where I found that I agreed with those of Baglivius.82 The day before yesterday I handed them in to the Royal Medical College.*

* During the editor's visit to Stockholm in 1869 and 1870, he found the following entry in the Proceedings of the Board of Health (Sundhet's Collegium) for the years 1710-1720:--"October, 1719. 2. The Syndicus reported that the extraordinary Assessor of the Royal College of Mines, the well-born Emanuel Swedenborg, had submitted to the College for examination a work entitled: Anatomi af vr aldrafinaste Natur wisande att vrt rrande och lefwande wsende bestr af Contremiscentien. (Anatomy of our most subtle nature showing that our moving and living force consists of tremulations). The College resolved that this treatise should be read in turn by all the assessors of the College; and that afterwards they should pronounce an opinion respecting it."

The work itself is not contained in the library of the College, but a large portion of it, Chapters I to VI, and Chapter XIII, filling 46 pages in 4to, is preserved in the Cathedral-library at Linkping in Vol. XL of the Benzelius Collection, No. 109. Of this a photo-lithographic copy was taken, which occupies pages 132 to 180 of Vol. I, of the photo-lithographed MSS. of Swedenborg. These chapters Swedenborg had sent to his brother-in-law, Ericus Benzelius, for examination, as is shown in Document 88.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 312

Besides this, I have improved the little treatise which was published at Upsal, about the High Water in primeval times, and I have added .number of clear proofs, together with an undeniable demonstration how stones were moved in a deep ocean; I have also adduced arguments to show how the northern horizon was changed, and that it is reasonable to suppose that Sweden in the primeval ages was an island; this I have handed in to the Censor of books, so as to publish it anew.* There is also quite a number of smaller papers. The deep study by which I have endeavoured to compass these subjects, has caused me to look with contempt upon everything I have heretofore published; I intend to improve them very much when they are to be translated.

* Of this little work which bears the title: Om Watnens hgd och frra werldens starcka Ebb och Flod, Bewis utur Swerige (Respecting the great depth of water, and the strong tides in the primeval world; proofs from Sweden), two editions were published by Swedenborg, both bearing the date of March 17, 1719, but in the first the author signs himself Em. Swedberg, and in the second Em. Swedenborg. A very favourable opinion respecting this little work was given by the great Swedish chemist, Benzelius, before the Scandinavian Scientific Association of 1842. It will be found on pages 46 and 47 of the printed Report.

Vice-President Hjrne53 showed me a letter from an anonymous writer at Upsal, which reports that our dear father's reply to him is in the press, in which he (Hjrne) is said to be assailed in unmeasured terms, and which the letter characterised as a mean work (fdum opus). The Vice-President is very much incensed at this, and is ready to lay a wager of ten to one, that you and I are at the bottom of it; although it is merely a defensive work. I wish you would smooth the old gentleman down as much as you can. With much love, I remain

Your most faithful servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 3, 1719.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 313

DOCUMENT 86.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 141.


Most honoured and dear Brother,

I am glad to hear that you are enjoying good health, and am delighted also to hear that what I wrote you in my last was to your liking; wherefore I feel encouraged to give you some more of my thoughts on the subject. I cannot derive any proofs from the velocity; but I believe that so rapid a change in the earth's motion could not have taken place in so short a time; for you cannot make me believe that a planet should all at once rush towards the centre, as if it were driven by a Phaeton, without this being shown at once by the sun's diameter. If the sun became larger and larger before our eyes, there would then be occasion for fear, and it would be time to commend oneself into God's hands. That the earth is gradually drawing in towards its centre, may also be inferred from the change in our horizon; for the same shape which belongs to the vortex of our earth exhibits itself in the sea, or upon the earth; and if the very horizon has changed considerably during 100 years, i. e. if the sea has become rounder, then this is a clear proof that the earth revolves more slowly, and consequently draws itself inwards. I have treated on this subject to some extent in the abused little work on the "Depth of Water and the Tides in the Primeval ages,"* which I send you.

* See Note to Document 85.

It is very certain that the whole vortex of our earth, in which we and our globe are contained, is held together merely by motion; if motion should cease, the very vortex itself would be dispersed, and every thing above and below would be irrevocably destroyed; the centrifugal and centripetal forces as well as everything else by which our elementary substance is held together, would lose their direction.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 314 Everything would then in a moment be dispersed into its least particles, which might well be called a fire; for if our vortex is gone, then everything below is gone, down to the very centre of the earth, and everything above, even to our zenith; there would no longer be any compression, no longer any gravity; not even the hardest diamond could continue in its form; for it is kept in its form by the pressure of the ether towards the centre, which is effected by the vortex of the earth. Wherefore, the fire by which our planet is to be destroyed, may be caused either by its drawing nearer to, the sun, or by all matter, all bodies, or all the elements, being in an instant dissolved into their least particles.

With regard to the place of the damned ([Greek] damnatum) being in the sun, I have exactly the opposite idea; it seems to me rather to be the place of the blessed ([Greek] beatum). My reasons are the following: first, that the sun is the centre of the whole of our planetary system, and that motion, with the existence of everything in the solar vortex, derives its origin from the above-named centre; secondly, that above, or the heaven of the planets, is towards the sun; so that any ascent in the solar vortex is towards the sun, but below is towards the extremities of the vortex, towards Saturn and Tartarus; thirdly that the principal light and splendour are in the sun, and on the other hand, darkness and other terrors are at the greatest distance from it, where the sun can scarcely be seen; fourthly, but the principal reason seems to be, because the most refined air, and the most subtle essence which exists in the least elements, are in the sun: for the nearer we draw to the sun, the finer everything becomes, and in its centre we should probably find such a degree of refinement and subtlety, that the particles would be almost without any composition, when they would also lay aside the name of matter, as well as of form, gravity, and other properties which belong to compound particles. It seems also probable, that in the greatest refinement, there would likewise be the most refined existence; that God, and the angels, that a something which has nothing material in its substance, would be there chiefly in their element; like seeks like, and the finer does not naturally seek the coarser; so that there are more grounds for believing (although I willingly leave this to your judgment) that God has His seat in the sun, as the Bible says.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 315 With regard to the fire, it would be too gross an idea to suppose that the bodies of the damned are to be tortured there; for the pains of burning are not caused naturally without destruction. When the fire burns, it causes a sensation as if it was tearing something asunder, and as if it was dissolving and destroying something; where there is no destruction, there can be no pain caused by burning; for such a purpose the remorses of conscience might be a sufficiently strong fire. I hope that my philosophizing on such a subject may not be misinterpreted; for after all God's Word is the foundation [of everything].

With respect to the written matters which I mentioned in my last, I should like very much to have an opportunity to publish some of them, but I would prefer to show some of them actually at work. I did not say anything about my having made a minute description of our Swedish blasting-furnaces, which I handed in to the Royal College of Mines; this is the beginning of a description of all our mines.* I have also submitted a little treatise with this title: "New Directions for discovering mineral veins, or some hints hitherto unknown for the discovery of mineral veins and treasures long hidden in the earth," which was favourably received by those whom it concerned.** It is very probable, however, that what I have printed in connection with a decimal system in our coinage and measures, and which fills a sheet,*** will be my last; for I see that Pluto and envy have taken possession of this Northern People; and that greater fortunes are made by acting the part of an idiot than that of a wise man.

* See Note to Document 85.

** A duplicate of this treatise was sent by Swedenborg to Ericus Benzelius for the benefit of the Upsal professors, before whom it was read on Feb. 6, 1720. A photo-lithographic copy of it is contained in Vol. I of the photo-lithographed MSS. of Swedenborg, from pages 106 to 119. The original is at present in the Cathedral-Library at Linkping, in Vol. XL of the Benzelius Collection, No. 73.

*** Frslag til wrt och Mlas indelning, s at rekningen kan lttas och alt brck afskaffas (Proposal for regulating our coinage and measures, by which computation is facilitated, and fractions are abolished). Stockholm, 1719.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 316

At the time I received your letter, I was in company with that old gentleman, Mr. Hjrne,53 and as I saw that what you had written about him might be communicated to him, I showed it to him; but he promised to answer it himself. My best regards to all your family. I remain

Your most faithful brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 26, 1719.

P. S. Brother Albert Schnstrm81 desires to be remembered to you, and wishes me to tell you that if you have not made arrangements about carriage horses, he has two pairs to show you, of which you may choose one.


DOCUMENT 87.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius" Collection," Vol. XL, No. 142.


Most honoured and dearest brother,

I send you herewith the little work which I mentioned in my last respecting a decimal system in our coinage and measures.* This is the last that I will publish myself, because quotidiana et domestica vilescunt (i. e. because things that have reference to domestic and every day affairs are considered of no account), and because I have already worked myself poor by them. I have been singing long enough; let us see whether any one will come forward, and hand me some bread in return.

* See Note to Document 86.

There are, however, some plans which I have entertained for some time, and which at last have assumed a definite shape; I should like to see how far they meet with your approval:

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 317 First, to translate what I have published into Latin or French, and to send it afterwards to Holland and England; to which I should like to add, by way of improvement, some of my discoveries about fire and stones, and about some improvements in mining matters; besides some other papers which are not yet printed: would you be kind enough to give the names of some who write scientific papers and memoirs? Secondly, as I think I now in some measure understand the mechanics which are of use in mining districts, and in mines, so far at least as to be able better than any one else to describe what is new and old there; and further, to understand the theory of fire and stones, where I have made quite a number of discoveries, I intend to spend all my remaining time upon what may promote everything that concerns mining, and, on the basis which has already been laid, in collecting as much information as possible. Thirdly, if fortune so favours me, that I shall be provided with all the means that are required, and if meanwhile by the above preparations and communications I shall have gained some credit abroad, I should prefer by all means to go abroad, and seek my fortune in my calling, which consists in promoting everything that concerns the administration and the working of mines. For he is nothing short of a fool, who is independent and at liberty to do as he pleases, and sees an opportunity for himself abroad, and yet remains at home in darkness and cold, where the Furies, Envy, and Pluto have taken up their abode, and dispose the rewards, and where labours such as I have performed are rewarded with misery. The only thing I would desire until that time come, is bene latere (i. e. to find a sequestered place where I can live secluded from the world); I think I may find such a corner in the end, either at Starbo68 or at Skin[skatte]berg.* But as this would take four or five years' time, I am quite ready to acknowledge that long laid plans are like long continued erections, which do not go on long without interruptions, or without changes being produced by some circumstances either of a general or of a private nature: for homo proponit, Deus disponit, (man proposes, God disposes).

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 318 Still I have always been in favour of a man's knowing what he is doing, end of his forming for himself some clever plan of what it is most practicable for him to carry out in his life. I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful servant and brother,

       EM. SW.
Stockholm, December 1, 1719.

* See Document 130.


DOCUMENT 88.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection, Vol. XI;, No. 116; an English translation of this letter was published by Mr. White in his "New Churchman," Vol. 2, P 130, p. 53, letter 6.


Most honoured and dear Brother,

By the last post I began sending over to you my novelties in literary matters (nouvelles litteraires).* I should be very glad if they, as well as what are to follow, meet with your approbation. It is certainly true that Baglivius82 first started the theory; and that Descartes83 treated upon it, end afterwards Borellus;84 but no one has yet furnished any proofs, or treated the whole subject fully; wherefore I claim my proofs as new and as my own, although the subject, or the theory itself, I am willing to leave to others. Still I must say that a great part of what I discovered myself, I afterwards found I had done in conjunction with Baglivius,82 which has rather pleased my fancy; as, for instance, what I have to say about the function of the meninges.** The whole will cover a large space; I think it will occupy seven or eight weeks, even if I send you portions twice a week.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 319 The physicians here in town will take the subject into consideration, and all express themselves favourably; yet I shall not get any expression from them until Bromell72 also has had it [under consideration]. They intend to establish here a Collegium Curisoum, of which they wish me to become a member, but I beg them not merely to talk about it, but to set it actually to work.

* "The anatomy" or the anatomical treatise spoken of in Document 85, and discussed there in a footnote.

** The cerebral membranes usually called dura mater, and pia mater.

If it be possible to have my two papers, of which I spoke in my last, translated into good Latin, I should like very much go have it done. I remain

Your most obedient servant,

       Em. S.
Stockholm [about the middle of January, 1720].


DOCUMENT 89.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 143.


Most honoured and dear brother,

I have received one of your letters, but the other, which was enclosed in Doctor Rudbeck's,49 has, it seems, been mislaid in the post-office. I break off my article now, and send Chapter XIII,* else there will be a squabble about the proper meaning. It would be very desirable if, in the objections that may be raised, respect were had to such things as would contribute to set this matter in its proper light for me; I mean, that such objections should be raised, by which I might in a certain measure see whether I am on the right or on a wrong track; but merely to imagine many things about the animal spirits, and to admit only such things as have reference to their chemistry and their function, and none that concern their geometry, seems too weak a defence: for I lay it down as a principle, that the tremulation begins in the liquid, or in the fluid contained in the membrane;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 320 in order that this tremulation may spread, the membranes require to be in a state of tension with the hard substances, as well as with the blood-vessels: for in such a case all the lymphatic vessels, or the vessels of the nervous fluid, lie in the membranes in their proper order, and exert a pressure upon their contiguous parts in an instant, just like any other fluid, and they thus communicate a trembling motion to the membranes, and also to their bones; so that almost the whole body is brought into a state of subtle co-tremulation, which causes sensation. I presume that Messrs. the Academicians are so reasonable, as to set aside childish prejudices, and oppose reasons to reasons, so as to see on which side is the greatest weight. But more some other time. I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, February 24, 1720.

* See footnote to Document 86.


DOCUMENT 90.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 144.


Most honoured and dear Brother,

I send you now the continuation of the preceding part. I wish much that it may gain the approval of the learned who are concerned in the subject; but as I am doubtful of this, I will allow some interval to elapse, that I may meanwhile learn, what objections may be raised to it: for if any one entertains an opposite opinion, the best arguments may be thrown away; in preconceived opinions every one is almost totally blind; still I will with all my heart leave to your good pleasure, and to the service of the public, anything that may be demanded. Care must be taken, not to draw down upon oneself the anathemas of the learned, on account of new discoveries, or some hitherto untried argumentations.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 321 In the next chapter there seem to me to be contained better and more evident proofs, which are taken from the senses and our sensations. I have some other parts besides, which are not yet worked out, and which treat of the mechanism of our passions and the movements of our senses, so far as they may be deduced from the structures of the nerves and membranes. To this there will be added some unknown properties possessed by the least ramifications of the arteries and veins, for the purpose of continuing motion; but inasmuch as this requires to be established by several courses of thought and by anatomical investigations, I reserve it for some future opportunity. What I have written upon fire is nearly twice as long as the present treatise; for I have devoted much industry and study to it.

The whole of what has been sent over to you has been written off from the first draught; should any mistakes have crept in with regard to the orthography, you will please attribute it to the fact, that a proper copy does not yet exist.

I have just received your letter of the 26th February; the review* also is pleasing, ipsa latinitas etiam laudanda est, (i. e. its very Latin is even worthy of praise); yet it would not have done any harm, if a little more had been said of the proof of the moving of stones at a great depth; yet this map be supplied by the treatise itself. I offer you my best thanks for it. On p. 10, towards the close, instead of "Singulis horis" it ought to be Singulis sex horis, which may be corrected by a slip in the copies which are sent abroad.

* Swedenborg here alludes to the review of his work: Om watnens hgd, &c. (About the water's height, and the strong tides in the primeval world), which appeared in the first number of the "Acta Literaria, Sueci," Anno 1720.

I must beg of you to have an inventory made of the Ddalus; I should like to hear how far the auction has advanced. Two Bibles ought to follow in the book parcel, which are to be bound at my father's expense, one for himself, end one as a present to me; if they are at Upsal, I should like the binding to be done there.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 322

The books of the Councillor of Commerce, Polhem,14 must be lying somewhere among my papers; as soon as they are found, they ought to be sent back.

If I may safely send the continuation of the former paper,* it shall be done as soon as possible, but I would not like to leave anything sinistris arbitris (i. e. to unfair critics); for all heads are not always exactly alike.

* I. e. of the anatomical or anthropological treatise.

As a matter of curiosity, worth communicating, I subjoin an extract from a letter which has recently been received from Kohlmter, who is at Newcastle, respecting a curious pumping machine; he is an auscultant (i. e. assistant) in the College of Mines.

COPY.

Just outside the town, a newly invented pumping machine has been set up for the coal-mines, which are very liable to be flooded with water, which is a great hindrance to them. This work which was only completed six weeks ago, is an invention which is ingenious beyond measure, being driven by means of fire and water. There is a large iron boiler, which is covered above and has a very small hole in the top; in this vessel mater is boiled, and the whole machine is driven by the steam, which comes out of the small hole above, and which is so strong as to push up the handle of the pump; and in proportion as the blast is withdrawn, the opening draws the pump or the handle down again; for at one end of the handle which causes this motion, there is a sort of chum or drum, constructed of iron, like that in which butter is made, and which is so tight that no air can press in at the sides of the piston-rod, which goes inside the drum. This machine can scarcely be described. Such a work would be of great importance, in Sweden, in mines where there is no falling water. It pumps out 400 hogsheads an hour, and may be made to do still more; it consumes about nine tons of coal a day, and can descend as far as you please. Secretary Triwald's brother, who is in the employment of Messrs. Ridley, has promised to send a drawing, with full description, to his brother in Stockholm.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 323        

My own thoughts about this, with reference to the letter and the models for a similar purpose which were published a few years ago, I will show, with directions how they are to be applied in Sweden, at greater length some other time.

EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
February 29, 1720.


DOCUMENT 91.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 145.


Most honoured and dear brother,

By the last post I sent you a double quantity,* which accounts for the deficient supply by the present post, and must be held sufficient also until I learn whether what has been sent meets with praise or blame; otherwise the small matters I have collected are entirely at your command. Will you please express my thanks to Magister Valerius71 for the trouble he has taken with the translation. I am glad you will get my treatise on the Longitude** reviewed; I only wish it may be done carefully, so that it may meet with favour abroad, especially as it may be of such great use to the public generally, for I still feel assured that, of all the methods that have been discovered, it is the easiest. In the translation, and also in the review, chapters 21, 22, 23, ought to come immediately- after chapter 12, so as to present the following order, 12, 21, 22, 23, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, to preserve the continuity of the subject.

* A double quantity of the anatomical treatise.

** This review is contained in the "Acta Literaria Sueci," for 1720, pages 27 to 33.

Have not the time and opportunity arrived for proposing to the Diet the plan which was projected during the time of the late King Charles XII, for the establishment of a Mathematical Society, similar to those which exist in other countries where the sciences flourish, so as to promote this important interest, for the cultivation of which there are men of genius indeed in Sweden, but very small encouragement otherwise in the form of advancement, salaries, and means of sustenance.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 324 In England such a society has been developed from a small beginning, and by means of contributions from the many who regard it with favour; it is well sustained, and is of great use to the Empire. I do not see why, for the promotion of such an object, an annual public lottery the gains of which have been calculated, might not be established according to my humble proposition, on the same plan in fact that was recently followed at Malm, and which is applied annually in France for the purpose of educating youths and poor children. You can yourself best suggest how this work is to be set in motion; if many should favour it, such a measure might acquire weight and importance. An income of 5000 dalers in silver would accomplish most of it; viz. a salary for one of 1000 dalers in silver, for two of 700 each, for four of 500, and for other four of 100 each. If, for instance, the lottery should be so arranged as to consist of 15,000 lottery tickets, at a daler in silver each, and with the following prizes--one of 2000 dalers in silver, two of 1000 dalers each, four of 500, ten of 100, twenty of 50, fifty of 10 dalers, and one thousand of one daler each. In such case the prizes would amount to 9,500, and the income to 5,500 dalers in silver, of which 500 may be reckoned for expenses. I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, March 8, 1720.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 325

              

DOCUMENT 92.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 146.


Most honoured and dear brother,

Since my departure from Stockholm I have not had time to send you the continuation of my Anatomy; nor can I send it to you from here, because I have not my first draught with me, and my head does not well recall things from memory; with the first opportunity I will again communicate something to you.

At Starbo68 I heard something from a person named Kock, which is worthy of an observation, that will take about midsummer in the coming month of June: He watched one night with another man on a mountain, about a mile and a half from Starbo; the name of the mountain is Hnsberget, it lies midway between Ldwiken and Hellsjn, and has at its base, on the side which lies towards the setting sun, a large lake, known by the name of Wesman; there he has seen the sun during almost the whole night above the horizon; and when, in the middle of the night, the sun set for about half an hour, he still saw it in Lake Wesman.* He told this as substantially true to the master of mines, Lars Benzel,8 and myself; if this really is so, Lake Wesman must have been the chief cause of the phenomenon, from its making the horizon clamp and more disposed for refraction. Meanwhile, I do not wish to place any reliance on this account, until I have made the same observation, which would be worth a place in the Acta eruditorum. With kind regards to sister Anna and little Eric, I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Brunsbo, April 12, 1720.

* Near Marns and Smedjebacken.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 326


DOCUMENT 93.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 147.


Most honoured and dear brother,

I received your letter yesterday. It would be my greatest delight if I could continue my Anatomy from here. The first draught was left at Starbo,68 and without it it would make my head ache, to endeavour to hunt up the various threads which are already deeply obducta alius generis cogitationibus (i. e. covered up by thoughts of a different kind). Still it shall he done, as soon as opportunity offers.

As you intend to be here on Ascension Day, I may be back at Starbo about the 11th or 12th of June, so as to take there the observation de sole inocciduo aut refracto (i. e. of the non-setting or refracted sun), about which I wrote to you. I will suspend my faith in it, until I have witnessed it with my own eyes.

I am at present engaged in examining all the chemistry contained in the treasury of the Sudeman Library, which belongs now to Hesselius,76 for I have proposed to myself to examine thoroughly everything that concerns fire and metals, a primis incunabilis usque ad maturitatem (from the first attempts and experiments to the maturer results), according to the plan of the memorandum which has already been communicated to you. I take the chemical experiments of Boyle,85 Reucher,* Hjrne,53 Simons(?), etc., and trace out nature in its least things, instituting comparisons with geometry and mechanics.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 327 I am also encouraged every day by new discoveries, as to the nature of these subtle substances, and as I am beginning to see that experience in an uninterrupted series seems to be inclined to agree therewith, I am becoming more and more confirmed in my ideas. It seems to me that the immense number of experiments that have been made affords a good ground for building upon; and that the toil and expenses incurred by others may be turned to use by working up with head what they have collected with their hands. Many deductions may thus be made which will be of use in chemistry, metallurgy, and in determining the nature of fire and other things.

* This name probably stands for Kircher, a celebrated Jesuit, who lived in the 17th century, and who was one of the very first who distinguished between chemistry and alchemy, and is regarded as the founder of the science of chemistry.

If it would not be too much trouble, I should like you to bring Hauksbee's Experimenta Antle su, (i. e. the experiments made with his air-pump), which the Library has purchased from me. There are, if I remember rightly, contained in it, a considerable number of interesting experiments upon fire, the magnet, etc., which were made either in a vacuum, vel in moto [or in common air?]. If I could but glance over it down here, I would immediately return it to you with much gratitude. Please remember me kindly to sister Anna, brother Eric, and the others, I remain, most honoured brother,

Your most obedient brother and servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Brunsbo, May 2, 1720.


[P. S.] I must beg of you to bring Hauksbee. In travelling down here I noticed how the very largest stones, from 80 to 100 tons weight, like small mountains, were raised to the highest eminences. Look upon these on your journey down as demonstrative proofs in favour of my assertion that stones were rolled and distributed at a great depth, viz. that they were raised up higher and higher (those of the largest size are near rebro), i. e. nearer and nearer the shore, or towards the surface of the sea, until at last they came into such shallow water, that they could no longer be rolled away again. This is what I prove, that a deep sea could have done this, but by no means a shallow one.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 328


DOCUMENT 94.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 113. an English translation was published by Mr. White in his "New Churchman," Vol. 2, page 41, letter 3.


Most honoured and dear brother,

Respecting the theory that the Aurora Borealis originated in fiery eruptions, which converged hither from Hecla, Vesuvius, or Etna, my candid opinion is as follows:

1. It is well known that the air has been loaded or impregnated with sulphur, as has been noticed from so many meteors and other phenomena, which have appeared in the air, from the Aurora- Borealis, from the effects of thunder, and the luminous appearances around lofty towers from sulphurous air, and also from the fact that sulphur and other substances accompany rain, showing that the air has occasionally been highly charged with sulphur.

2. It seems that the origin of these conditions ought to be ascribed to the great bent of some summers, unaccompanied by rain, or to the severe dry cold of winter.

3. We know that in every soil, during summer, perpetual distillations and sublimations are going on; sometimes particles are loosened, sometimes they are combined, sometimes they are formed into certain growths, sometimes the particles vegetate; so that according to the state of the weather an infinite number of chemical operations are noticed in the earth.

4. Moreover, it is known that the sublimations of sulphur abhor all dampness, and require certain higher degrees of heat; if now there have been one or two summers without rain, preceded by severe winters, it is no wonder that the particles should at first be dissolved, and afterwards the most subtle sulphur be sublimated, and that the air should thus become impregnated with it; which perhaps would not have happened, if a different temperature had existed in the air, sufficient to bind the particles together.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 329

5. To maintain that an Etna or Vesuvius could fill the whole atmosphere with sulphur, would be the same as if we were to say that the rain ascends into the atmosphere from the River Motala alone, or that one shower could give birth to 200 waterfalls like those of the Motala. On the contrary, the surface from which such a sublimation can take place must be immensely large, i. e. it must take place from the whole surface of the earth upon which the sun shines, and whence continually particles are exhaled that fill the air. For, besides, an eruption from one mountain can no more be assigned as the cause of this, than one brook can be assigned as the cause of rain.

6. On the same ground it might be supposed that more meteors of this sort would appear in Sweden than anywhere else in the world, and particularly at Fahlun, where at least as much sulphur is drawn up as from Etna, since 200 roasting furnaces burn there day and night, and at least 200 blasting furnaces are there at work, and yet no more meteors are seen there, than anywhere else.

7. The sulphur which causes meteors, and which can remain suspended in the air, is far more subtle than that which has already passed through an open fire, is not long held suspended in the air, but is soon precipitated again; but that which has not yet been in the fire can be suspended in water, as in acidulous springs, in the air, in the clouds, and afterwards in dry weather it may be combined with the air.

8. Therefore, neither the eruptions of Etna nor Vesuvius, nor the roastings of ore at Fahlun, are the cause of any meteors; for it is only when Etna or Vesuvius is about to burn, that a quantity of fire is seen in the atmosphere in the form of meteors, and some other phenomena; for then that subtle sulphur is exhaled; but never to my knowledge after an eruption is over.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 330 Hence it is my candid opinion that the arial sulphur proceeds from the surface of the earth by the action of the sun, end that a dry temperature sublimates such a subtle sulphur into the form of a gas, etc.

EM. SW.

[Probably written between June 1720 and June 1721, either at Skinskatteberg or at Starbo.]

DOCUMENT 95.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.

[Swedenborg added to a MS. copy of his Miscellanea Observata, which he sent from Liege, Holland, to Ericus Benzelius, on December 12, 1721, the following:--]

P. S.* Great illuminations are made in Holland by the Russian ministers for certain reasons, and I was present at the Hague when Prince Kurakin let his rockets fly and his wine flow; the following verses were exhibited upon this occasion:

* The original of this P. S. is contained in the "Benzelius Collection," Vol. XL, No. 148D, and a photo-lithographic copy is included in Vol. I of the photo-lithographed MSS. of Swedenborg, page 193.



"Marte triumpharunt, aquil, jam pace triumphant,

Quo Mars ante stetit, Pax sedet alma loco.

Bis denis gemuit Septentrio turbidus amnis,

Ast ltam retuilit Pacis oliva diem.

Sanguinis iverunt, jam flumina nectaris ibunt,

Marte catenato, Bacchus ad arma venit.

(The eagles victorious in war, now triumph in peace;

Where Mars once stood, there lovely peace now reigns.

For twenty long years the wild northern stream rushed forth.

But olive-branched peace now ushers in days of joy.

The rivers of blood into rivers of wine are changed,

When Mars is chained, then Bacchus will call to arms.)

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 331

These verses, if demanded, could have easily been changed into the following:

Morte* triumpharunt aquil, sic pace triumphant;

Quo Mars** ante stetit, Czar sedet ipse loco,

Et denis gemuit Septentrio Russicus amnis,

Ast ltam retulit Pacis oliva Diem.

Sanguinis iverunt, jam flumina nectaris ibunt,

Mate*** catenato, Bacchus**** ad arma venit.

(The eagles prevailed by death,* and thus they triumph in peace;

Where Mars,** once stood, even there the Czar now reigns.

For ten full years the wild Russian stream rushed forth.

But olive-branched peace now ushers in days of joy.

The rivers of blood into rivers of wine are changed;

When Mars*** is chained, then Bacchus**** will call to arms.)

       * Caroli, i. e. of Charles XII.

       ** Carolus.

       *** Carolo.

       **** This name is illegible in the original MSS.

DOCUMENT 96.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* These lines were added to a MS. copy of some of Swedenborg's "Miscellanea Observata," which he sent to Ericus Benzelius, and which were afterwards published in Leipzig. A photo-lithographic copy of this letter is contained in the photo-lithographic edition of Swedenborg's MSS., Vol. I, p. 199; the original is preserved in the Cathedral-Library at Linkping in the "Benzelius Collection," Vol. XL, No. 148.


Most honoured Brother,

As I have occasion and time I send you some of my thoughts," which may be of use to you in your conference with those of the Society. At a future time I hope to be able to communicate to you something more pleasant; I am now very much occupied during the day in making experiments, and testing one thing and another.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 332 With my humble regards to all good friends, I remain forever, most honoured brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Liege, December 15, 1721.

[P. S.] To-morrow, with God's will, I shall start for some of the mining districts of Germany.

DOCUMENT 97.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 150.

Most honoured and dear brother,

I thank you very much for your agreeable letter from Upsal, which brother Gustav Benzelstierna65 has handed to me. I am glad to hear that you are enjoying good health. I should like very much, if I had the time, to make a trip to Upsal; but as it is of great importance for me to be as soon as possible at Starbo,68 whence I have not received any news at all, and especially as long as the iron conveyance from Kping is here, I therefore reserve this honour for myself until after my return, when I may profit at your house by any books that I find in the Library.

With respect to what you were kind enough to observe about my proposition,* I gratefully acknowledge your kind intention, but first of all I do not proceed in this matter on such loose principles as Kunckel**; on the contrary I have on my side two new and important proofs, with a great many minor ones; and also the computation and the [whole] theory, and in addition their own ignorance in what concerns smelting, so that I am more embarrassed at the outset by the fact that there is nothing at all on the other side to counter-balance my proposition, than with the [difficulty of] setting it to work, and with whatever will come afterwards; in this matter I will take proper measures.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 333 When I have the honour of some conversation with you, I will mention some additional circumstances, by which you may be better assured respecting my intentions.

* This proposition will be found discussed fully in Documents 149 to 152, section IV. Swedenborg's object in this proposition was to increase by ten per cent the yield of copper from the ore; and to demonstrate the feasibility of his proposition, he applied to the King for permission to institute a competitive trial at Fahlun.

** Johan Kunckel, a well-known chemist, born 1630, at Rendsburg in Holstein. He was inspector of the mines at Annaberg, and chemist to Elector John Georga of Saxony. In 1679 he came to Sweden, where in course of time he became councillor of mines. He was ennobled in 1693, when he assumed the name of von Lwenstern. He is known as the discoverer of phosphorus, and died in 1708 on his estate of Brend. As appears from Document 151, he had proposed a change in the smelting process for copper at Fahlun, but without success. His process is discussed and criticized by Swedenborg in Vol. III of his Opera Philosophica et Mineralia, p. 45; but he wrongly calls him "Kunckle von Ljwenstein." See "Anrep's ttartaflor," Vol. II, p. 844.

If you consider what I wrote down in haste, my Amicum Responsum, worthy, I give you leave to introduce it into the Acts.*

* ThisAmicum Responsum, or "Friendly Reply," is addressed to Prof. Quensel of Lund, who in the "Acta Literaria," p. 270, had objected to a statement made by Swedenborg in his "Method of finding the Longitude." Swedenborg's reply was inserted in the "Acta Literaria," of 1782, p. 316.

The affairs at Axmar* will soon be settled now, as it only requires brother Peter Schnstrm's47 signature under the deed; so that all pretensions will be killed for all times, and there can be no opportunity for reviving them, and disturbing any one who may be in possession.

* Concerning Swedenborg's affairs at Axmar, see Document 132.

With kind regards to sister Anna,5 and brother Eric,58 I remain most respectfully, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, August 9, 1722.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 334

DOCUMENT 98.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

*This fragment of Benzelius' letter to Swedenborg is contained in Vol. XVI of the Bergius Collection of letters in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, p. 289.

To Assessor Eman. Swedenborg.

Dearest brother,

       I wish very much that the "Historie der Gelhrsamkeit"* (i. e. the History of Learning), might arrive, so that we may see her with our own eyes; because she herself desires to go about with a mask before the face, and thus raises our suspicions****

I am, my dear brother's

       Most faithful servant and brother,

              E. BENZELIUS.
Upsal, December 11, 1722.

* The full title of this work is "Historie der Gelehrsamkeit unserer Zeiten," Leipzig, 1722. In part 4, p. 320, of this work Swedenborg=s theory, that large rocks were shifted about in the aboriginal ocean was attacked, and as this "Historie" was published anonymously, and no list of contributors was given, Swedenborg, after explaining his theory and answering the objection in the Acta Literaria Sueci, Vol. I, p. 353-356, declares that he would never enter into the list against any antagonist who attacked others anonymously, and thus under a mask.

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DOCUMENT 99.

SWEDENBORG TO LARS BENZELSTJERNA.*

* The original of this letter in Swedenborg's own handwriting, but with the signature cut off, is in the possession of the editor of these documents.

Most honoured and dear Brother,

I hope that you are now at Starbo,68 so that this letter may reach you. I was uncertain of this when the last post left, and further had nothing to write to you about.

Most noteworthy occurrences happened yesterday, viz: 1. Daleen's* sentence was so modified by the House of Nobles, that he shall during his life-time be confined in Marstrand with a crown, and an iron round his neck, and upon the crown is to be written: "His country's traitor." In all towns, also, through which he will pass, he is to stand in the pillory. It is not yet known what the other houses will decree in this matter. 2. Landmarshall Lagerberg,86 Count Gyllenborg,87 and Josias Cederhielm88 were proposed as councillors of state; and when this list was presented to the King, he expressed a desire to have them all in the council; and after this had been deliberated upon, it was unanimously agreed to, which caused a good deal of talk. 3. The list of appointments was also read yesterday, which likewise grave origin to many speeches and conferences. I should like to ask you what the condition of things is at Starbo; inasmuch as he never lets me know about the iron-works [in general], only about some particulars now and then.

* Notary Dahln and Field-secretary Brodzenius, who, in the year 1723, laboured for the restoration of an absolute monarchy in Sweden, were condemned to death, at the instigation of Count Arvid Horn, but this sentence was commuted by the House of Nobles into imprisonment for life. (See "Biografiskt Lexicon," Vol. VI, p. 260.)

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With my kind regards to sister, I remain, most hononred brother,

       Your most obedient servant,

              [signature cut off]


[No date, but written in 1723; for in that year Lagerberg, Gyllenborg, and Cederhielm received their appointments as councillors of state].

To assessor LARS BENZELSTJERNA

       at Ster or Starbo.



DOCUMENT 100.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 151.

Most honoured and dear Brother,

I had the honour to receive your letter on the 3rd inst. I am infinitely obliged to you for letting me know in time that I shall not be able to have any grain from the Academy. As I found that there was some delay in the matter, and as at the iron-works they were finishing the preparation of the charcoal, the hauling and every thing else, I thought it best meanwhile to provide myself from some other source. I had never any doubt of your kindness and care in this matter, and I should be very sorry, and indeed very much grieved, if you should have any idea that I thought otherwise; for what you promise, I know to be promised so far as it lies in your power; I am therefore just as much obliged to you, as if it had turned out well. It is, nevertheless, true that the Academy's treasurer or commissary has been guilty in this matter of a trickery, which no business man would ever allow himself to become guilty of, viz. of acting against a resolution of the Academy. If this should occur more frequently, their credit in the end will become very small; for in a similar case it would be far preferable to deal and to close a bargain with an upright and honest merchant.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 337 I will take measures that such a thing may not happen again. With regard to the price at which Hans Behm, Westers, and others, closed with the Academy, I should have been happy to have paid the same cash, and if any one had doubted it, I would have prepaid the amount: sed hc transeant (i. e. but let these be bygones).

With regard to your suggestions for my work on metals,* it would occupy too much room to introduce them all: for about each of the following metals, gold, silver, and iron, I shall probably have more to say than about copper. But if you think it worth while, it might first be treated in a general way, and afterwards some particulars might be inserted. I have nothing more to say in this matter than that paragraph 2, i, e. the process at Fahlun, should come after paragraph 14, i. e. the process in Hungary, for some special reasons. What I send you now, as well as an article I sent before, on the refining of metals, is indeed considered a secret; for it is difficult for a foreigner to obtain information on such subjects; but according to my simple notions, there ought to be no secrets at all in metallurgy; for without such knowledge it is impossible for any one to investigate nature. Still less ought our Swedish processes to be kept secret; inasmuch as foreigners cannot benefit by any information concerning them. I hope I may in time increase my cabinet or collection of minerals, as others increase their collections of stones. Meanwhile I remain with all due respect, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Presthyttan, February 14, 1724.

* This refers to a large work "De Genuina Metallorum Tractatione" (the genuine treatment of metals), of which Swedenborg had published a prospectus in the year l729 (see Document 196); but which was never printed in the form set forth in that prospectus. The parts on iron and copper were published by Swedenborg in 1734, as volumes II & III of his Opera Philosophica et Mineralia. The parts on sulphur, common salt, and vitriol are preserved among his MSS. in the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm.

P. S. You can see from the pages whether anything is wanting; if there is, I should like to know; for some may have been mislaid in the post-office, and may otherwise be lost.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 338

DOCUMENT 101.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 152.

Most honoured and dear Brother,

By the last post I had the honour to receive your dear letter. With regard to the professorship of the late Celsius,17 for which the Chancellor desires an able man, whoever he may be, to be proposed--there are some fine men at the University, as Magister Buhrman,89 and after him Vassenius,75 or Hasselquist.* My own business has been geometry, metallurgy, and chemistry, and there is a great difference between them and astronomy. It would be inexcusable for me to give up a profession, in which I think I can be of good use; further, I have not the donum docendi (i. e. the gift of teaching); you know my natural difficulty in speaking; I hope, therefore, that the Academy will not propose me, as it would act as an obstruction on the part of the Chancellor with His Majesty in the matter of my receiving a salary at the College, which is now before him, and which I expect to obtain some time; again, I no longer find my thoughts directed towards an academical life, and I should no longer feel satisfaction in it, even were I to receive a salary of 1500 Rixdalers, which is, however, out of the question. You will do an act of great friendship to me, if, in case any one in the Consistory should think of me, you will answer with an absolute No, yet at the same time expressing my gratitude to them for considering me worthy.

* Thus name ought probably to be Hasselbom, see Note 77.

I thank you for your kind invitation to Upsal; I should like very much to accept it, if I could venture, immediately upon my return, to ask the College for another leave of absence for taking a journey; were I to tell them the reason, they might answer, that I could very well dispense with it.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 339 Moreover, several connected with the College will depart on a commission in a few days, which will increase my difficulties. Meanwhile I congratulate you; I should like very much in your nest to learn the point of the strife (materiam litis), that still remains.

I should like to see the sharp answer of my antagonists;* but words will not rouse me, and I will not make any reply to them, as I have stated in what has been printed; for this would be a most ignoble contest, between one with a mask and another without one; probably it is some low, vituperative person, which I infer from his laying the greatest stress upon mere words, and from his not seeming to have any understanding at all of the matter itself; inasmuch as he supposes my meaning to be, that whole mountains bed been removed, and is not at all aware that in Sweden large stones are found in the middle of flat fields, and also that many ridges and mountains in Sweden consist entirely of piles of stones. In order to please the learned in Sweden I shall, therefore, at once make a clear proposition of given dates, introduce experiments from hydrostatics and hydraulics, apply geometry to them, and thus arrive at a clear conclusion, without even mentioning this low character, who seeks his glory in involving another in a dispute in a mean manner out of which no honour can accrue, inasmuch as while he is unknown, the other is well-known. This demonstration I will afterwards send to Polhem, the Councillor of Commerce, and after he has expressed his opinion upon it, you might send a copy to Wolf18 at Halle, and Julius in Leipzig. I presume that you and other learned men will be pleased and satisfied with the judgment of these gentlemen; and this will be sufficient.

* Compare Document 98.

By brother Anton Swab68 I send you my collections on sulphur, vitriol, alum, common salt, saltpetre, and the acids;* but these collections are not yet set up with any care, and as I desire to keep them for myself alone, I should like to have them returned with my former collections about copper, not later than July.

* See Note to Document 100, p. 336.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 340

I thank you very much for your offer of money, but I have already plenty in Norrberke,68 which will not be wanted until next winter, so that I have no occasion for it. I am glad that you effected a good sale; I should like to hear at what price it was sold.

I remain, honoured and dear brother, most respectfully

       Your most obedient servant,

              EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, May 26, 1724.

P. S. I shall have the honour now of congratulating you on obtaining the theological profesjorship in succession to Diurberg.*

* Ericus Benzelius continued as professor of theology at Upsal until 1786, when he was appointed Bishop of Gottenburg.

       DOCUMENT 102.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. XL, No. 153.

Most honoured and dear brother,

I thank you with all my heart for your company and the welcome you gave to me on my visit. I had no difficulty on my journey to Stockholm; and on my arrival I met my brother Jesper,52 Magister Nordborg90 from England, and Magister Andreas Hesselius91 from Pennsylvania. Magister Hesselius is now pastor in Ster; he collected many curious objects during his stay in Pennsylvania, and wrote a minute description of the country; but he had the misfortune to have this, as well as his other things immersed in water, and spoiled; still he will try to refresh his memory, and put the descriptions on paper again.

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Reaumur,92 who has written about steel in France, has come here, and is at the College; from what I have seen of him already, I consider him to be a clever scientific man. At present I have only time to think of my preparations to travel again to rebro; but after my return, I will set apart a certain time each day, which I will employ for things useful in science and literature.

When you answer Dr. Sloane93 in England, you may mention that we have spoken on the subject together; and that I am willing to correspond with them on matters connected with metallurgy, if they are willing to print it at their own expense; for were I to go on printing at my expense, I should lose as much by it as I did formerly; moreover I should not take the time afterwards to keep an account of these printed works.

With my best regards to sister Anna5 and brother Eric,58 I remain, honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, August 20, 1764.

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DOCUMENT 103.

BENZELIUS TO SWEDENBORG.*

* From the "Bergius Collection," in the academy of Sciences at Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 289.

To Assessor EM. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured end dear brother,
* * * * I rejoice at the safe arrival of Brother Jesper52 and his good companions at Stockholm, and I hope to see them here, which would be a great pleasure to me. I will write to Dr. Sloane93 in London, as soon as I obtain an observation on the state of the barometer in the mines at Sahlberg, whither young Celsius17 will travel to-day for this purpose. Dr. Martin* has left for Roslags-skieren in order to make there his ichthyological observations. I thank you for the promised paper, which will be an ornament in the Acta Literaria. I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most faithful servant and brother,

       E. BENZELIUS.
Upsal, August 25, 1724.

* Dr. Per Martin, Assessor in the Royal Medical College and adjunct in the Medical Faculty at Upsal; he was married to a daughter of Prof. Olof Rudbeck the younger.49

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 343

DOCUMENT 104.

JESPER SWEDENBORG52 TO HIS BROTHER EMANUEL.*

* "Bergius' Collection," Vol. XIV, p. 287.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured and dear brother,

       I had the honour to answer by the last post your two agreeable letters, but I forgot to write about several important matters, which I now wish to submit to you.

1. The first point is about my specie rix-dalers, which you were kind enough to send to Mr. Myra, who is chaplain of St. Mary's Church in Stockholm; he has received the royal commission for Floby [Floda?].

2. The other point is, whether you think I ought to go out to America again, or not. I have a great inclination to go, but good advice is sometimes very necessary in such a matter. Some advise me to go there again, and others dissuade me from it; most dissuade me.

3. In case I should go, I should like you to receive my money here, and to procure for me again letters of exchange on London, to be payable either at Consul Ahlstrm's,94 or at any other banker's, as you may think best. About this and similar things I should like to get your advice, when I go out again.

Mr. Ahlstrm94 was here to-day; he left for Stockholm. He has a great desire to talk with you; he wishes very much to take you with him to England, where he will show you much that is interesting, and that would be useful to the country. He has done some great things here at Alingss, and he has hid machines constructed, the like of which cannot be found in all Europe.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 344 He will either become a very rich, or a very poor man. He travels about over half the world, in order to examine machines and inventions. I should like you to tell me what sentence has been passed on the false King Charles XII, and whether it is true that the Emperor has died in Moscow, or not. If there is any other news in Stockholm, I wish you would let me know.

Remember me kindly to brother Benzelstierna8 and sister Hedwig.5 I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       JESPER SWEDENBORG.
Brunsbo, February 26, 1725.


DOCUMENT 105.

BENZELIUS TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," Vol. XIV, p. 290.

To assessor E. SWEDENBORG,

My most honoured and dear brother,

       I acknowledge with all clue respect the favour which you have shown towards my Ericus,58 and which he has received in so many ways from you in Stockholm, both by instruction in physics and mathematics, and more recently by a new present. I wish you mould restrain yourself a little in this respect, especially at the present time, when expenses are so great and pressing with severity.

A good friend has translated your calculation respecting the well-known ttebackan (genealogical tree?), so that this may be introduced into the Acta. He made the calculation from a conical figure, although you made it from an oval. Should any thing require to be noted respecting his calculation, I await your orders, and remain, my dear brother,

Your most faithfnl brother and servant,

       E. BENZELIUS.
Upsal, July 13, 1725.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 345

P. S. The Royal Society in England has been pleased to send me one of Hauksbee's thermometers, in order to make observations with it. It will probably be here by this time by the yacht.

DOCUMENT 106.

SWEDENBORG TO BENZELIUS.*

* "Benzelius' Collection," Vol. X, No. 61.

Most honoured and dear brother,

By Friday's post a letter arrived from dear father, which I enclose herewith. A few days ago there was sent me by post a treatise on "Finding the Longitude of Places," which has been written by some one in England, of whom I know nothing. His method seems principally to consist, in observing the moon when it reaches the meridian, and in order to find her there, he makes use of another star. But two things seem to conflict with this method: First that it is difficult to find out the precise time when the moon reaches the meridian of a place, which it must pass at its height, and although other auxiliary means may be resorted to, still the moon cannot be got there with accuracy, nor can it be known precisely when this appulsion to the meridian takes place; moreover it is more difficult to find this when at sea than on land. Secondly, that it is just as difficult to get the parallax there correctly as in any other place, so that this method has the same difficulties in this respect as the other methods. Moreover, this method really belongs to Kircher, mho besides acknowledges its difficulties. I remain meanwhile with all due respect, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, June 6, 1726.

P. S. I will send you by the yacht to-day this treatise; Prof. Buhrman89 would perhaps like to read it.

To ERICUS BENZELIUS, Upsal.

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DOCUMENT 107.

MAGISTER UNGE5 TO SWEDENBORG.*

*ABergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 296.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

My most honoured and dear brother,

       Last Tuesday I had the honour of writing to you, and I informed you then, that the Bishop accepted your draught for 700 dalers, for the sake of assisting brother Anthon Swab.66 It would be well if he could really be helped by it. The Bishop's wife thanks you very much for the trouble you have taken. But is Anthon Swab66 so poor that he requires the Bishop's assistance? I thought the Swabs had a good inheritance, and if this is so, why does the Bishop's wife trouble him with it? I remember her saying once, when she was troubled about him, that if the Bishop would only come to his assistance, she would willingly pay it back to him again from what would some day come to her. I believe that he must have received a snug little sum, when all is added up.

With regard to the deputies in the House of Nobles--I do not mean the heads of families which hitherto have been there--there has been considerable talk about them down here; but I believe that the House of Nobles will lose much of the authority, which it has maintained thus far, as long as it could derive strength from the Biblical saying: plures sumus. I wish the present Diet may close well, and indeed by Christmas. In every other respect, I remain with many kind remembrances and esteem, my most honoured and dear brother's.

Most obedient servant,

       J. UNGE.5
Wnga, September 25, 1726.

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DOCUMENT 108.

SWEDENBORG TO A. D. SCHNSTRM.95*

* The original of this letter is in the possession of one of the Counts Hamilton in Sweden, who kindly sent it to the editor of these documents through the Librarian Klemming, to take a copy of it.

To Mr. Abraham Daniel Schnstrm, gentleman in attendance on His Majesty, at Kping and Jnsarbo,

I thank you for your favourable letter. With regard to the meadows belonging to Aslittforst, a resolution was taken last week, Brother Horleman96 has probably taken a copy of it. The governor's resolution was simply confirmed. With respect to Fru Behm50 nothing further has been decided; although, whichever may it may be decided, I shall be satisfied with it. With regard to your plan, we can discuss it better orally; meanwhile I have placed your letter where it cannot be summoned by any judge; for after reading it through, I committed it to Vulcanus, and if he after reading it can make any use of it, it lies in his power. Remember me kindly to my aunt and other brothers and sisters at present in Jnsarbo. Meanwhile I remain with all due respect, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, October 24, 1727.

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DOCUMENT 109.

SWEDENBORG TO A. D. SCHNSTRM.95*

* The original of this letter in Swedenborg's own handwriting is in the possession of John Bragg, Esq., Birmingham.

Most honoured and dear brother,

I thank you for your kind letter, and also for having returned me my letter. With respect to the matter about which you asked. me in confidence, and where I was to point out to you the way by which to obtain it, I can see no better way or mode for it, than that you should first sound them orally, so as to be able to tell whether those who are concerned are flexible or not; no one wishes you better success than I, and if the appearances are favourable, I will help you as much as I am able, according to my small ability. But as you make your request so very urgently, I can surmise nothing else, than that there is something very pressing involved in it, which you endeavour to reach by it. In case there should be any pretty maiden in question, I wish you as much success in the latter, as in the former case.

With respect to the letter to Mr. Balgerie, I have not written him a letter for the last three years, and he may no longer remember me; at all events it would be difficult for me to compose a letter in French, which you might approve. In order to oblige you in this matter, I yesterday therefore requested the Councillor of Commerce, Camen, to do this service for you, which he has promised to do in all due form, and to send it to you, at least if you request him to do so; and I can assure you that one word from him will weigh more than a thousand from me, who have never had any dealings with him.

I remain, meanwhile, with all due respect,

       Your most obedient servant,

              EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 21, 1727.

[To ABRAHAM DANIEL SCHNSTRM.]

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DOCUMENT 110.

SWEDENBORG TO A. D. SCHNSTRM.*

* The original of this letter in Swedenborg's own handwriting is in the possession of Mr. J. R. Boyle, Bacup, Lancashire, England.

Most honoured and dear brother,

****Brother Benzelstierna8 is in Sahlberg, wherefore I cannot confer with him on this matter, as you wished me to do, before his return. If there is some maiden in your thoughts, and I hit it correctly, I wish you much success in it. * * * * The king has ordered the College to meet together upon the trade through commission merchants, which I also demanded in my memorial before the Diet.

I remain with all due respect, most honoured and dear brother,

       Your most obedient servant,

              EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 27, 1727.

P. S. There is a loud rumour that the young Czar was murdered on the 11th inst.

To Mr. Abraham Daniel Schnstrm,95 gentilhomme de la Cour, at Kping and Jnsarbo.

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DOCUMENT 111.

MAGISTER UNGE TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 291.

Most honoured and dear brother.

****When I have closed my account with Zelow, I have also closed the account of my moneys. The little real estate which I have purchased, cannot yield more than 300 dalers in silver; and I had to expend a good deal in building upon it. But I am happy and contented that, with God's help, my wife and children are provided for to some extent, in case they should lose me. If God grant me life, I shall always be able to gain a little extra. Brother Jesper Swedenborg52 has likewise bought a little estate, so that he too can take care of himself; the best thing in his case is, that he is temperate and economical, does not run into expenses, and has a good and pious wife. Brother Lundstedt5 seems to be worst off, inasmuch as he has no other property than a rusthll [a farm which is obliged to equip a cavalry soldier], which has its difficulties in times of peace, and still more in times of war.

There is one matter with which I would trouble you, if you will allow me. Vice-magistrate Rydbeck, the son of the late Dean at Lidkping, has applied to His Majesty for the benefit of the year of grace; on which account I must remain one year longer in Wnga, which for several reasons I do not like. But the Consistory has opposed his application, and has forwarded a written objection to His Majesty, that he, as an only son, who has come of age, and occupies a position of honour, is not entitled to enjoy the privilege. His Majesty has therefore referred this matter to the revenue office, and to the office of the exchequer, that they should give him a definition of what is meant by minors and unprovided children who may enjoy the privileges of the clergy;

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 351 this has always been understood to refer to the unmarried daughters of a clergyman, for whose support the year of grace was granted by His Majesty; and also to a clergyman's sons, if they mere studying either in the schools or at the universities, and required assistance to enable them to make themselves serviceable to the state; but when the sons of a clergyman were more than thirty years old, when they had left their studies, and had entered upon a different kind of life, they were never included among miners and unprovided children. If, then, you are acquainted with the two respective presidents, please talk with them, and tell them that Rydbeck above-named does not seem to have any claim upon the privilege of the year of grace, and afterwards speak a word with Cederstrm, the Secretary of State, and ask him to be so kind as to draw this matter to a close, so that all concerned may know the ground on which they stand, as the first of May is rapidly approaching. It is said that Rydbeck has gone to Stockholm, to endeavour to obtain a favourable sentence for himself; Cederbielke is his maternal uncle.

In conclusion, I desire you to consider well, why you let all chances of a good marriage slip away from your Major Otter is engaged to be married to Tham's97 eldest daughter; again; will you not take your measures accordingly? I am inclined to think that Tham97 would think well of it. I believe that there are considerable means with each of his daughters, so that you could not find a better match in the whole country. Muster courage in God's name, and trust for success in His gracious Providence; lenta remedia et longas deliberationes non patitur tempus, et periculum in mora (i. e. time does not admit of slow remedies and long deliberations, there is danger in delay). With kind remembrances from my wife, I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your obedient servant,

       J. UNGE.
Wnga, March 18, l729.

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DOCUMENT 112.

SWEDENBORG TO BRITA BEHM.50*

* The original of this letter is in the possession of the Rev. W. H. Benade, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

Madam,

With regard to the goods conveyed, which I gave in charge to Chamberlain Count Gyllenborg,87 I am not at all willing to take them back, and I neither ought nor can do so; and as what I sent there from my own works amounts to a total of 608 copper dalers in currency, and 144 skeppund, 18 pund, pig iron, I have always suspected, that you would not give it up on closing up correctly and without objections. If you really entertain such pretensions as your letter intimates, where you demand that these assignments should be accepted and paid for, it is well that I have taken all necessary precaution in this matter; if, therefore, you make such a demand by law, I shall give you an answer, and meanwhile it is quite unnecessary for us to talk about it; I will only tell you this much beforehand, that with such a case you will lose more by going to law, then win.

Moreover it may be necessary to go into court with respect to the considerable expenses in the building of the forge, and also about the large amount of out-standing debts with which me are charged, with several other things, inasmuch as I cannot agree to several things which are entered into the account; all of which will also have to be examined by law, should we be unable to agree. I remain meanwhile, with esteem, madam,

Your dutiful servant,

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, Dec. 23, 1729.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 353

DOCUMENT 113.

BISHOP SWEDBERG TO HIS SON EMANUEL.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol, XIV, page 294.

To assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

My dear son, Eman. Swedenborg,

       1. I have written to Assessor Benzelstierna,8 that either you or he ought to go over to Upsal, and look after my large stone house there, which must be repaired this summer, or else it will go to ruin, and be beyond repairing.

2. I wish you would apply to the authorities for leave to take out of Skepsholm a number of my psalm books. I wrote about this to both Their Majesties, and the Queen most graciously answered me, that it shall be done. Talk with Lady Dube* about it.

* Probably Baroness Frederica Ulrica von Daben, in attendance on the Queen, who was married in 1734 to Skutenhjelm, the Councillor of Court.

3. I have the spiritual exercises of my catechism in the press. As you are a good Latin poet, I wish you would write a few verses for it. It is the book which was burnt in the year 1712; two copies were, however, found in the ashes, a little singed outside, but not as to their contents.

4. Send me a hundred copies of my portrait or pictures, which also escaped being burnt in the same conflagration; and as you have written some clever verses upon it, I shall let them be printed, and added to the picture. You may send them with Consul Ahlstrm,94 who is in Stockholm on account of his works at Alingss.

5. Send also Scriver's Gotthold, which is said to be translated into Swedish.

6. I have written a copy of my biography for each of my children. Write me also some verses for it. I think very highly of your verses.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 354 My dear wife desires to be remembered to you. Remember me kindly to Assessor Benzelstierna.8 Vale.

Your most obedient servant,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, April 10, 1730.


DOCUMENT 114.

MAGISTER UNGE TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection, Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 293.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG,

Most honoured and dear brother,

       You are probably aware that Brunsbo was again reduced to ashes by a vehement conflagration between the 18th and 19th of August, and the Bishop came very near being burnt himself. The large wooden building together with the stone house is destroyed, and everything it contained. The silver in the chest, as much as was in it, was saved, but every thing out of it, for ordinary use, was lost. All our dear father's printed works, the newly re-printed Catechism, all his manuscripts, with the exception of one copy of the book of sermons, and one of the biography, and his entire remaining library, are lying in ashes. This latter damage is almost greater than the first. Three banknotes were saved, one for 900 dalers, another for 1,060 dalers, and a third for 1,686 rix-dalers in silver, if I remember rightly. I think there were four bank- notes, but you probably know, as you collected the interest last. Before brother Swab66 left, the Bishop gave him a quittance for all he had cost him, which was considerable.

The printer, the rogue, had, against my advice and consent, prevailed on the Bishop to reprint the Catechism, for which he received a considerable sum, so that the Bishop is now in debt to the diocese for 700 dalers in silver, and the book itself is in ashes.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 355

With kind remembrances, I remain, my dear brother,

       Your most obedient servant,

              J. UNGE.5
Lidkping, August 24, 1730.


DOCUMENT 115.

BISHOP SWEDBERG TO HIS SON EMANUEL.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 296.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

My dear son,

       I wrote to Their Majesties about getting a few of my psalm books from Skepsholm. Look after it. If you get permission to take 10, take 50. Try to find out whether Their Majesties received recently my newly printed Catechism, which I sent them by Henrich Kohlmter. Let me know what happens at the Diet. I am writing to-day to Landmarshall Count Arvid Horn,* about some important matters, which ought to be taken into consideration by the Diet. Let me hear how they are received, and what is resolved upon respecting them. My best remembrances. Be commended to God. I remain,

Your loving father,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, March 1, 1731.

* Concerning Count A. Horn, see Introduction to Document 172 and likewise Note 104.

P. S. My collection of sermons is now ready, and has passed the censors. Will you invest in it? you will gain a good deal by it. Or perhaps some one else in Stockholm? Try to find out, also, whether Their Majesties have received my "America." Mine was burnt. The Queen must certainly have received hers.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 356

DOCUMENT 116.

MAGISTER UNGE TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV., p. 295.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured and dear brother,

       They are doing well at Brunsbo. Mller is now beginning to swindle the Bishop on a new account, for he desires to print the collection of sermons which was burnt. The Bishop has no money, and he owes from 500 to 600 dalers to the Cathedral, which Mller received for printing the Catechism last year. How will this end if he begin printing in his poverty? I really believe that Mller has bewitched the Bishop, as no man can prevail upon him to have nothing to do with this swindler. No one is allowed to see their accounts, but dear father enters it all in his book. Some days ago we made a computation, but how much it really amounts to or how much. Mller has received, no one knows. I was told for certain that he received last year 1500 dalers in silver merely for the Catechism.

What will this lead to? The Bishop plunges himself more and more into debt. He is now writing daily with great industry at the two other volumes of the collection of sermons, which was burnt; but you can imagine what they will be in his old age, and without any help from his library. With kind remembrances from my wife, I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your obedient servant,

       J. UNGE.5


[Lidkping, 1731].

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 357

DOCUMENT 117.

HENKEL, THE COUNCILLOR OF MINES, TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 284.

       
To assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

I rejoice in the honour of having made your acquaintance; and this so much the more, because I have long desired to make it, on account of your great merits, which your fellow-countrymen who have honoured me with their visits have testified to. You would oblige me infinitely, if, in accordance with your offer, you would kindly assist me with some observations in respect to the mineralogy of your country, because I shall need them very much in a real mineralogical dictionary which I am preparing, and which is an enterprise as difficult as it is important. Mr. Hekel,* an honest man, understands his business; you will therefore, have patience with him, if he does not accomplish what he has promised, in the desired time. I assure you, that no booksellers exist at the present time among us who will not try to perform their contract. As for myself I shall never fail to do every thing for it I can. With all due consideration, I am, Sir,

* Friedrich Hekel, a printer of Leipzig and Dresden, who published Swedenborg's "Opera philosophica et Mineralia," and his "Prodomus de Infinito," in 1734.

Your most humble and obedient servant,

       J. F. HENKEL. 98
Freyberg, November 21, 1732.

P. S. I have changed my place of abode, and will be for the future stationed at Freyberg, where His Majesty the King has placed me in the capacity of Councillor of Mines.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 358


DOCUMENT 118.

LECTOR SPARSCHUH TO CARL JESPER BENZELIUS.*

* This letter is contained in the correspondence of Dr. Carl Jesper Benzelius,99 Professor at Lund, which is preserved in the Cathedral-Library at Linkping.

This week we were visited by the most noble assessors of the College of Mines, your paternal uncle, Mr. Lars Benzelstjerna, with his most noble wife, and your maternal uncle, Mr. Em. Swedenborg. The former departed yesterday for Stockholm; but the latter directed his journey to Germany, in order to see through the press a work written by himself. May God lead him and bring him back again!

Linkping, May 19, 1733.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 359

DOCUMENT 119.

JACOB FORSKL TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 285.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most noble Assessor,

       Promoter of learning, most worthy of honour,

              I am compelled by necessity to overcome my timidity, and address to you these lines, which are barbarous, rather than Latin. You will please to overlook their defects. I appear as a captive in a doubtful victory, in daring to molest you, a man of many sciences, with these lines. I, who have not yet quite rubbed off the rudiments of Latinity acquired in the elementary schools, and who, from straitened domestic circumstances and the storms I have passed through, was unable to be within the walls of a university, would not have dared to molest you, if necessity had not compelled me. For I have heard, most noble Sir, that you have in the press some helps in metallurgy in the Latin language. I beseech, and most humbly beg of you, that you will let me have a copy of this work, for which I will send you the amount of its cost.

Meanwhile, I thank the High and Most blessed God, from the depth of my heart, that by His blessing He has made our country worthy of such a genius, so that I also, who am sweating in the dust, may be able to derive the necessary light from your work, most noble and celebrated Sir, and master of many sciences, to enlighten my darkness. For I long to have some clear insight into metallurgy.

Most noble Sir, hearken to me, and favour me with a copy of your work, for which I will pay you. To continue my humble thanks even to the time of my death, is the vow of, most noble assessor,

Your humble servant,

       JACOB FORSKL.
Ironworks Koskis [in Finland], Aug. 27, 1734.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 360

DOCUMENT 120.

MAGISTER UNGE TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm Vol. XIV, p. , 297.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured and dear brother,
Your last letter seems to put it beyond a doubt that you will come down to the funeral.* The old atheist, Chamberlain Eric Sparre,** who lived in Ryholm, has also recently deceased. Re was a regular Lucian, and, if possible, worse than Lucian. Besides many other disciples of atheism, he had a fellow religionist even at Upsal--our age seems almost in decay. It is said that on his death-bed he discovered that the light he had followed in his principles was a seductive, hidden fire, and in itself the thick darkness of hell. He is said to have repented very sincerely, and to have condemned it, and done penance for it, and also to have prepared himself in a Christian fashion for a blessed end. I trust that this may have been so. With many kind remembrances from my wife, I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

Your most obedient servant,

       J. UNGE.5
Lidkping, January 17, 1736.

* Among the letters, etc. from Their Royal Majesties, of the years 1736, 1737, p. 99, in the College of Mines in Stockholm, there is a document in which the King grants leave of absence to Assessors Swedenborg and Benzelstierna for three or four weeks, to go to Westergthland to attend the funeral of Bishop Swedberg. That document is dated Jan. 13, 1736.

From the minutes of the College it appears that the funeral of the Bishop was to take place on the 29th of January; yet the Bishop died as early as the 26th of July, 1735. See the letter in which the widow announces his decease to Ericus Benzelius, which is dated Brunsbo, July 27, 1735, and which is among Bishop Benzelius' letters at Linkping, Vol. XIV, No. 114.

** Baron Eric Sparre, chamberlain of the Dowager-Queen Hedwig Eleanora; he was born in 1660, and died in 1736. See "Anrep," Vol. IV, p. 40.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 361

DOCUMENT 121

MAGISTER UNGE TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 297.


To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured and dear brother,

       As much as I was pleased with your former letter, in which you wrote me that your journey abroad was given up, so much the more disappointed was I at your last letter, in which you say the French journey is again determined upon. Remember me kindly to brother Benzelstierna,8 whom I will not answer this time, as he wishes to have some particulars respecting the earthquake that took place here. There is another thing which happened to a man here, who some years ago, while he was young, in the course of half an hour got a beard which was so long that it reached down to his waistband, and he would no doubt have kept this long beard, if he had not been too young to run about with it. The man is still living; he is over seventy years old. This was done through sorcery or rather by the evil one himself. I will send an account of this to brother Benzelstierna, together with the former.

Your most obedient servant,

       J. UNGE.
Lidkping, April 24, 1736.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 362


DOCUMENT 122.

ERICUS BENZELIUS TO CHRISTOPHER WOLF.100*

* This served as a letter of introduction for Swedenborg, and was delivered by him in Hamburg to Christopher Wolf,100 one of the leading clergyman of that town. It is now preserved among the letters of Christopher Wolf, in the town-library of Hamburg, where it was found by the editor in 1868.

Most reverend and learned Sir,

****From my boyhood I was seized with such a zeal for collecting letters of learned men, that even now I refresh my mind in reading them. My little Museum consists of only twenty volumes. I will tell you very soon, in what manner I desire to dispose of them; but I am importuned now by my very best relative, Emanuel Swedenborg, who brings this letter, and who is the author of most distinguished works in mineralogy, which, as you are probably aware, have been published, in three folio volumes at Leipzig, etc. Farewell.

Yours most respectfully,

       E. BENZELIUS.
Linkping, July 13, 1736.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 363

DOCUMENT 123.

CHRISTOPHER WOLF100 TO E. BENZELIUS.*

* This letter is found in the "Benzelius' Collection" of letters, Vol. XIV, No. 185, at Linkping.

I received recently your most welcome letter, which was handed to me by your relative, the most noble Swedenborg, who was known to me by name already. I value his most celebrated work in mineralogy so much the more, because in the present age scarcely any one can be compared with this most excellent and clear-headed man in this department.

September 1, 1736.

DOCUMENT 124.

LARS BENZELSTJERNA8 TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 298.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG.

Most honoured and dear brother,

       I, as well as all your friends and relatives, rejoice most heartily at your being in good health, and at having arrived safely again in Paris, of which your last welcome letter of May 14 assures us. You are quite right in supposing that things have changed here considerably since your departure. In our sphere, in the Royal College of Mines, things are in statu quo, i. e. they have not changed since President Ribbing's101 death brought us for president Baron Ramb;102 only Leyell,103 the Councillor of Mines, has had a hard time of it, and has been unable to attend our sessions for 17 or 18 months on account of a severe affliction, the stone and cramps.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 364 But in the Royal Senate, and in the Royal Court of Chancery, a complete sweep has taken place. His Excellency Count Horn104 was the first who retired at his own request with his full salary and money for rations. Afterwards their Excellencies Bonde, Bielke, Bark, Hrd, and Creutz retired each with an annual pension of 4,000 dalers in silver. The Court Chancellor von Kocken and the Councillor of Chancery Ners105 have also retired. The cause of all this I do not know, inasmuch as I was a member of the secret committee, and thus could not know anything about it. In consequence of this change and of former vacancies there were called into the Council of State Messrs. Lwen, kerhielm, Adlerfelt, Nordenstrhle, Cederstrm, Roos, Wrangel, Sparre, Posse, and Ehrenpreus. His Excellency Count Gyllenborg70 is President of the Court of Chancery and of the Council of State, Adlerfelt is Councillor of Chancery, and Secretary of State Gedda is Court-Chancellor. Mr. Falcker became Secretary of State after the late Mr. Carlsson, and Mr. Boneauskld after Councillor of State Cederstrm. Count Carl Bielke is President of the Revenue-office (Stats Contoiret) after the late Baron Feiff.106

In private matters I have to relate that the widow of Bishop Swedberg* has recently deceased. Otherwise your brothers and sisters, my dear wife, and my children are all doing well, and they desire to be most kindly remembered to you. Lars Benzelstierna10 is now Master of Arts, and has several times stood his trial in preaching; he is staying at present at Lund.

* The Bishop's third wife, see Document 16.

I remain, most honoured and dear brother,

       Your obedient servant,

              LARS BENZELSTIERNA.
Stockholm, June 26, 1739.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 365


DOCUMENT 125.

LARS BENZELSTJERNA8 TO SWEDENBORG.*

* "Bergius' Collection," in Stockholm, Vol. XIV, p. 286.

To Assessor E. SWEDENBORG,

Your last honoured letter was received last November, and sometime afterwards the table of which you had spoken37 arrived. I had to use sundry expedients in the College of Commerce and the Committee on Customs to get it out of the Custom-house; for it was looked upon as contraband and subject to confiscation, but it nevertheless got through purgatory. Many of your friends of both sexes paid a visit to it in the College of Mines, where the table is placed, and they examined the beautiful work with surprise and pleasure. The Court-Intendant, Horleman,96 is the cause of my answering your letter so late, and only after receiving your second letter of the 16th inst; for this same Court-Intendant has been so busy, that I had to wait for a definite answer from him. Be finds the work very well done, and he and also young Cronstedt* maintain that they have seen this kind of work abroad, and that it is an artificial compound. The above mentioned Court-Intendant does not think that there is any chance of the master of this art obtaining employment in this country, inasmuch as the building funds of the Royal Castle cannot be counted upon for such an object; and although there may be some who would fancy such a curious work, still the taste for art in 1696[?] does not warrant the expectation that it would find many purchasers now.

Your most faithful servant,

       LARS BENZELSTIERNA
Stockholm, February 22, 1740.

* Probably Axel Frederic Cronstedt, see Note. 107.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 366


DOCUMENT 126.

JESPER SWEDENBORG52 TO ERICUS BENZELIUS.6

Most reverend Doctor and Bishop,

Most honoured and dear brother,

       Since you have always been favourably inclined towards me, I am so much the more assured that you will not receive my letter unfavourably; for I am compelled by necessity to address you, I have written many times to brother Lars Benzelstierna8 about the moneys that have been received for the large stone house, but I am unable to have justice done me in Stockholm, inasmuch as I have never had a word in reply. If he say that he has not received my letter, be the case, because I have in truth written him at least thirty letters, and have received no answer to any of them, which appears to me very surprising. I, therefore, entreat you most humbly for the sake of justice to write to brother Lars Benzelstierna,8 and endeavour to prevail upon him to be so good as to hand over to me the money he has had in his possession for a long time, and to pay me the following sums, which I know [belong to me].

I have been informed that he has paid 3,000 pund[?] of the money for the large stone house to the widow of the Bishop; two-sevenths of that purchase money I am entitled to. I have, therefore, to receive for my share 500 pund[?] more than the other brothers and sisters. In addition to this, brother Lars Benzelstierna has to pay me brother Emanuel's money for Barby; for which he has to pay the Bishop's widow, as well as myself. The next is the 8,500 pund from Schultz, out of which I received 1,600 pund after the Bishop's widow received hers, but I have not received my second seventh of the remaining stock; of this there are still 233 pund due to me; now I know that Schultz has paid all correctly.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 367 Besides, for house rent, which brother Benzelstierna collected before I came to Upsal, and which was paid to Werner's67 widow for the hymn book; under this bend I am short of what my other brothers and sisters have received, by 116 pund. All these I have not received, amounting in all to 894 pund, which belong to me simply from the proceeds of the large stone house above-named, and which brother Benzelstjerna has long ago received, I have to pay heavy interest on borrowed money, while others enjoy my money. Please be a good friend to me, and beg him to pay me, end let me have a correct account of the whole amount. I do not understand how I can be unworthy of receiving any answer to all those letters which I have written to him, and the number of which it would be hard to ascertain. As I have no one but you to whom I can apply, I therefore beg you to see that justice is done me, which may be effected by your writing a serious letter to him. How it is with the little stone house, I do not yet know, I have no knowledge whether brother Emanuel is still alive, or whether he is dead. With many kind remembrances to you and sister Anna from my wife and myself, I remain forever, most honoured and dear brother,

Your humble servant,

       JESP. SWEDEBBORG.52
Swedendahl, October 26, 1740.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 368

DOCUMENT 127.

EXTRACT FROM A LETTER OF E. BENZELIUS TO HIS SON CHARLES JESPER BENZELIUS99 IN STOCKHOLM.*

* This letter is contained in the Correspondence of Doctor Carl Jesper Benzelius,99 professor at Lund, which is preserved in the Cathedral-library at Linkping.

Visit your uncle Emanuel Swedenborg as often as possible, but at such hours as he may himself appoint; for he is not always at leisure, and is most economical with his time.

Linkping, October 25, 1740.

DOCUMENT 128.

SWEDENBORG TO -------.*

* "Bergius" Collection," in Stockholm Vol. XIV, p. 299.

Most hononred Sir,

I had the honour to receive from you another letter, from which I saw that you were pleased with meditating upon the causes of the change of colour in metals. As I am always willing to furnish whatever may serve this object, I appeal therefore to my former [letter], especially as this depends chiefly upon the experiments themselves, and upon all the circumstances by which they are necessarily attended, all of which must be taken into consideration, before a statement can be made about their cause. For in order that anything may be judged a posteriori, and a priori, such data must be given, as may enable one in the end to arrive at the cause; because one and the same phenomenon cannot only be produced in a great many ways, but one thing may be apparently like another, although in itself it is entirely different.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 369 In this case, therefore, the same rules must be observed as in the algebraical analyses, where one must have such propositions or date as will enable one to conclude in respect to those that are sought after. The change of colour does not furnish me any datum at all, inasmuch as this may be produced in a hundred different ways, and the particles also may be similarly circumstanced in respect to form, position, pellucidity, etc.; and yet entirely different in one case from what it is in another. Without noticing the experiments recorded in books, and which may be studied there, I will only mention two instances known to myself, which may usefully receive your consideration. Councillor of Commerce Polhem,14 about thirty years ago, made an experiment in Fahlun with mercury and sulphur, which he mixed, and introduced into a strong iron globe, and then laid, or probably immured in a blast-furnace, where it was exposed to a pretty strong heat; when the mixture was taken out, it had a golden colour, but it was in powder, and could not be made into a solid mass. The late Councillor of Mines Lybecker108 [died 1714] was present at this experiment. With regard to the second experiment, about making gold white, I wish to state that when Brunsbo was burnt down in 1712, there was an iron-chest, in which were ducats; among these were some, where 1/4 or 1/5 portion of the surface upon one side became as white as silver. These I handled myself, and the true gold colour could not be restored to them by glowing. As I did not trouble myself very much at that time with chemistry, I did not make any other experiments with them. This I wish to communicate to you, that you may think about it; inasmuch as it concerns such things as are unknown to chemistry. I remain with all esteem,

Your most obedient servant,

       EM. SWEDENBORG.

[Written from 1741-1743; for 30 years after Councillor Lybecker's death would be 1744; he was made Councillor of Mines in 1713.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 370

DOCUMENT 129.

SWEDENBORG TO COUNCILLOR-------*

* The original of this letter is preserved in the Royal Library in Stockholm.

Well-born Councillor of Chancery,

Dear brother,

       I heard from Professor Oelreich109 that you had perused the two small treatises on the "Worship and Love of God," and mere pleased with them; I, therefore, take the honour to send you two larger treatises, but on a different subject, viz. "On the Heart, etc.," which you will perhaps examine in some of your leisure hours; inasmuch as in them the intellectual mind and the soul are here and there treated of. The copies which I have of this work are freely at the service of those who possess understanding, and are interested in such subjects.

I remain, dear brother, most respectfully

       Your most obedient servant,

              EM. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, September 16, 1745.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 372

SECTION IV.

DOCUMENTS CONCERNING

SWEDENBORG'S PRIVATE PROPERTY.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 374

DOCUMENT 130.

SWEDENBORG AS MINE-OWNER IN SKINGSKATTEBERG.


[In the year 1679 died Assessor Albrecht Behm, who had a son and five daughters, one of whom was the mother of Emanuel Swedenborg. (See Document 9, p. 87.) In the year 1693 his estate was divided among his heirs, and the children of Bishop Swedberg received as a portion of their inheritance the larger share in some iron-works at Skinskatteberg in Westmanland. This share was valued in 1718 at 32,000 dalers in copper. (See Document 78.) In October, 1718 (see Document 82), Swedenborg wrote to Ericus Benzelius, that Bishop Swedberg had presented his share in the mining property to his children. Finally, Emanuel Swedenborg and Prof. Olof Rudbeck49 the younger, who had married one of Swedenborg's cousins, (see Document 9, p. 85) became the sole owners of the property, as appears from the following entry in the archives of the College of Mines, which was communicated to the editor in the year 1870 by Prof. A. E. N. Nordenskld, of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.]

Schillon, Skinskatteherg.
Managers: Erland Cameen and Ludwig v. Hagen.
EMANUEL SWEDENBORG AND RUDBECK.
Iron-furnace and forge.

[Symbol] [This is the trade-mark of Swedenborg's mining property at Skinskatteberg.]

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 375

DOCUMENT 131.

BISHOP JESPER TO HIS SON JESPER.90

[On March 3, 1720, died the second wife of Bishop Swedberg, Sara Bergia, daughter of the Dean and. B. Bergius, at Norrberke, Dalecarlia. She was sole owner of the Starbo68 iron-work in the perish of Norrberke, which she left to Emanuel Swedenborg. At first she had intended him to be her sole heir, but on the representation of the Bishop she consented that the other children should have an equal share; she insisted, however, that her son Emanuel should remain the sole owner of the works, and that he should pay the other children their share in money. All this appears from the following letter, which was written by Bishop Swedberg to his son Jesper,52 who was at the time in America. The division of the property of Sara Bergia must have taken place some time in the winter of 1720, as, by the funds accruing from this inheritance, Swedenborg was enabled to make his journey abroad in 1720, and to print sundry books there. The Swedish original of the following letter is in the Bergius Collection of letters in the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Vol. XVI., p. 288, and according to a statement of Bengt Bergius, it was copied by him from the original letter.]

My dear son Jesper Swedberg,

I forgot to inform you about the will of my late wife. She had always said, even while she was in good health, that after her death Emanuel should have her property at Starbo.68 I reminded her of this when I found that she was about to die, when she repeated the statement. But I begged her not to exclude the other children. When she said, they may have equal shares, but Emanuel shall have Starbo alone, and he shall pay out the others.

375



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 376 On your account, I made out a written declaration for him. You may thank the good Lord for such a handsome sum of money. If I had chosen, I, and not my children, should have inherited her property according to law. But my best intentions are for my children. I, even in addition, paid to the claimants 6000 dalers, and more besides, which has been asked for--of this Emanuel will be able to tell you. All this sum not I, but you, ought to have paid. But I am a father, and you are my children, and I always have your interest at heart. Let me see now, that you agree well among yourselves, as brothers; and as a reward for my overflowing kindness let me not hear of any discord. Look to it that you get on well out there. There would be no use in your being here, for you would spend your time uselessly. You write a good hand; you are good at figures. You are, thank God, unmarried. Try to get a good wife; and a good dowry with her. Ask God to direct you in his own good ways. I commend you to God, and remain

Your loving Father,

       J. SWEDBERG.
Brunsbo, April 20, l724.

P. S. All send their love to thee. My book will appear shortly; within three weeks. If you are willing that the other book, on the forgiveness of sinners, should be printed at your expense, I will dedicate it to you. Give me a definite answer.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 377

DOCUMENT 132.

SWEDENBORG'S LAW-SUITS.*

* Abstract from the records of the Court of Appeals (Hofrtten) at Stockholm, prepared by the editor.

During E. Swedenborg's absence on the continent in 1721 or 1722, died Captain-lieutenant Albrecht De Behm (see Document 9, p. 87), the only brother of Emanuel's mother, Sara, Behm. Captain De Behm had served with distinction in the French army, and on his return to Sweden in 1693 he was ennobled by the king; in 1695 he became captain-lieutenant in the Swedish army, but soon resigned his commission an account of ill health and melancholy. His property, which consisted of two iron-moth in Gefle-ln, was administered during his life-time by his sister, Brita Behm,50 widow of Prof. Johan Swede, of Upsal. Her administration of this properly is very much praised by Bishop Swedberg, in his letters to Johan Rosenadler,51 the Councillor of Chancery, son-in-law of Brita Behm (See Documents 21 and 23). In April 1722, after the death of De Behm, a meeting was held by his heirs for the purpose of dividing their inheritance, but on account of some claims which were made against her by some of the heirs, Brita Behm resisted the division of the inheritance, and she refused to give up her trust, until these claims should be withdrawn. Recourse was had by the remaining heirs, among whom was E. Swedenborg to the Court of Appeals, and by this it was ruled, that the division of the inheritance should be proceeded with at once. The final result was, that E. Swedenborg purchased the shares of some of the heirs in the iron furnace at Axmar in Gefle-ln, so that he and Brita Behm become the joint owners of the property: Brita Behm owning four-fifths, and Swedenborg one-fifth.

The acts of the lawsuit were kindly communicated to the editor during his stay in Stockholm in 1870, by Secretary S. Bergstrm, who was examining at the time the early Acts of the Court of Appeal (Hofrtten), with a view to their better arrangement.

377



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 378 A copy of these acts was made under his superintendence, and collated by Secretary Bergstrm; and the above is a concise history of the suit, as contained in them. As, however, they throw light only on the character of Swedenborg's maternal aunt, Brita Behm,50 and not on his own, it is not worth while to dwell upon them at greater length.

The above suit was terminated some time during the month of August, 1722, since, in a letter dated August 7, 1722, Bishop Swedberg makes the following remarks respecting it to Johan Rosenadler:51 Emanuel gives me hope that those concerned will soon agree in the division of the inheritance. May God grant it! (See Document 27.)

The following letter, which was communicated to the editor in 1870 by the late Madame Ehrenborg110 of Linkping, and which was addressed by Swedenborg to his banker in Amsterdam, shows that he was at the time Anegotiating for some mining interest," which Amining interest" was no other than a share in the iron-works at Axmar, which belonged to the estate of his late uncle, and four-fifths of which came into the possession of Brita Behm. Swedenborg had also negotiated with the same banker for the money, by which he came into the possession of the iron-works at Starbo, in 1721.

SWEDENBORG TO HIS BANKER.*

* Swedenborg's banker in Amsterdam. A copy of this letter was received by the editor from Madame Ehrenborg of Linkping.

Most honoured Sir,

Yesterday I had the honour to receive your last letter, and I thank you for the trouble you have taken about the trunk; if it is not too late, I would ask the favour of your sending it by some ship coming here. The bill of exchange, which you sent for 300 pund, Dutch Currency, I have caused to be accepted, and I take it for the present on account, and hope it will be honoured at the proper time, of which I will give you notice.

378



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 379 I should like very much if you would let me have a short account of all I have received from you, and of what you have received from me in return, that I may by means of it arrange my debit and credit a little; although I know pretty well how much it is. I hope that everything regarding the balance of------has been settled, in which matter you obliged me exceedingly. About New Year's time I shall want some more, as I am negotiating for some mining interest; I am quite willing to pay sis per cent for the rest, if you will let me have it in time; I much prefer to ask you to furnish me with the money than any one else, as for instance-----or von Fitzen. Just think, the little bill of exchange of Hofman's for 30 pounds, Dutch Currency, is not yet paid. There are still due upon it 80 dalers in copper, about 25 guilders. -----'s servant has been there some hundreds of times; at last he received a ducat and some small coins, but the rest he has been unable to get, and he has since failed twice, so that 95 per cent has now to be deducted from the former bill of exchange. Vice-President Liliecreutz has received correctly 25 ducats, for which I have his receipt. Will you be so kind as to send some one to Osterwick, the bookseller, upon the---, and ask him what he has sold of my printed matters, and as soon as I know the amount, I will give you an order for it. I have published here something concerning our Swedish currency,* in which I give the reason why it ought not to be lowered; it has caused quite a stir here.

* "Ofrgripelige Tanckar om Svenska Myntets frnedring ofch frhgning" (Frank Views on the Rise and Fall in the Swedish Currency), Stockholm, 1722.

With kind regards to --- and family, I remain with all--------

       EMAN. SWEDENBORG.
Stockholm, November 7, 1722.

Swedenborg's share in the mining-works of Axmar was anything but a source of comfort and satisfaction to him: as, in the first place, the furnace had been destroyed by the Russians, who had effected a landing in Gestrickeland in 1721, and before the lucrative operations of smelting could be resumed, it had to be re-built at the joint expense of himself and Brita Behm.*

379



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 380 And, in the second place, Brita Behm,50 and her son-in-law, Johan Rosenadler,51 the Councillor of Chancery, probably exasperated against the heirs of De Behm, on account of their appeal to the courts of justice to ensure an immediate division of De Behm's property, did every thing in their power to worry and disgust Emanuel Swedenborg, who was one of the heirs. This they did by encouraging the manager of their interests at the works to annoy the manager of Swedenborg's interests, and finally by denying to Swedenborg the right of a joint use of the furnace with themselves. To protect himself against the aggression of Brita Behm, Swedenborg was compelled to bring his case before the College of Mines, and to have it adjusted there. This case engaged the attention of the College from Nov. 9, 1724 to March 1, 1725, when it was decided in favour of Swedenborg. The acts of this law-suit were discovered by the editor in the archives of the College of Mines in 1869, and carefully copied under his superintendence. The interesting portions in these acts are the charges and counter-charges which were respectively written by Brita Behm and Emanuel Swedenborg. The former based all the grounds of her action on the incompatibility of the temper of Swedenborg's manager, Lindbohm, which made it impossible for her manager, Wahlstrm, to associate with him. Swedenborg, however, showed in his answer to Brita's paper that she entirely lost sight of the point at issue, viz. that he had the right of a joint use of the furnace with herself, of which right she sought to deprive him, by inveighing against the private character of his manager. As it is deemed unnecessary and undesirable to place on permanent record a dispute on such a comparatively trifling matter, me refrain from reproducing either Swedenborg's or Brita Behm's papers, limiting ourselves to a general statement of the nature of the case.

* See Document 112.

Another difficulty between Swedenborg and Brita Behm arose at the division of the mining estate, of which Swedenborg owned one-fifth, and Brita Behm four-fifths: The bulk of the estate had been divided to their mutual satisfaction, when a difficulty arose as to the division of the dwelling-house belonging to the furnace, of which Swedenborg was entitled to one-fifth and Brits Behm to four-fifths.

380



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 381 The law-court, under the superintendence of which the division of the estate had been carried out, had decided that the dwelling rooms could not be divided into five parts; moreover the law-court had decided that the division of the lands belonging to the furnace property, and not to the estate in general, was beyond its jurisdiction, and belonged to the mining authorities of the province. Against this ruling of the lower court Brita appealed to the Court of Appeals (Swea Hofrtten), in Stockholm, by which the decision of the lower court was reversed, and the application of Brita Behm was granted, according to which the further division of the property was to be entrusted to the law-court in the neighbourhood. Against this ruling Swedenborg protested, because, he said, the costs of the division would be thereby enhanced; he also protested against being charged with the payment of the costs of the case, because, as he said, he could not be held responsible for a false ruling of the lower court, as it was immaterial to him which may the decision of that court went. His protest was however ineffectual. Against the ruling of the Court of Appeals which seemed unjust to him, Swedenborg had recourse to the King himself but as this was not done within the time prescribed by law, the decision of the Court of Appeals took effect.

By the ruling of the neighbouring law-court of Sderahla in Helsingland, by which all matters connected with the final division of the estate mere decided, Swedenborg was obliged to pay 484 dalers in copper for the rent of the premises occupied by his manager, from the autumn of 1724 to Dec. 1, 1727, and 456 dalers in copper for costs.

The acts of this lawsuit were likewise discovered by Secretary S. Bergstrm, during his re-arrangement of the acts belonging to cases decided by the Court of Appeals in Stockholm. They were kindly communicated by him to the editor, and carefully copied under his superintendence. As, however these acts and the lawsuit to which they belong have no intrinsic value, and are only worthy of notice from their being connected with the name of Swedenborg, we refrain from publishing them at large.

381



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 382 Still some of the papers throw light on the nature of the work with which Swedenborg was entrusted at the College of Mines, and they enable us to determine his whereabouts during a portion of the time between 1785 and 1727. All such portions of these acts were carefully extracted, and they may be found in the following section which, treats of "Swedenborg's official life in the College of Mines from 1717 to 1747."

DOCUMENT 133.

BISHOP ERICUS BENZELIUS6 TO HIS SON CHARLES JESPER.99

Hand to your uncle Assessor Swedenborg 236 dalers in copper, which is a part of the sum paid by Momme for the hymn book, with notes. Send me the receipt.

Linkping, May 23, 1742.

(The same order is repeated by Bishop Benzelius to his son in a letter dated Linkping, May 31, 1742.)

* This letter is contained in the Correspondence of Doctor Carl Jesper Benzelius, professor at Lund, which is preserved in the Cathedral-library at Linkping.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 383


DOCUMENT 134.

MONEYS RECEIVED BY E. SWEDENBORG DURING THE YEARS 1743 AND 1744.*

* This account is contained in Swedenborg's memorandum-book of the years 1743 and 1744, pp. 104-107, which is preserved in the Royal Library in Stockholm. In the same pocket or memorandum-book there is also contained an account of the journeys which Swedenborg made in l743, and of the dreams which he had in 1744. The contents of this memorandum-book were published by the Librarian G. E. Klemming in the year 1869 in a book, entitled: "Swedenborg's Drmmar" (Swedenborg's Dreams). A more minute account of this book will be given in Section VIII under the head of "Swedenborg's Journals and Diaries from 1733 to 1744."

From Hultman111 through Messrs. Anthon and Johan Grill,11 and upon Peter Hultman's account from Johan Spieker in London:

Jan. 20, 1744. Received by a bill of exchange upon Balair at the Hague        500 florins.

       (exchange quoted at 42 1/2 to 3/4)

For contribution                                          640 dalers.

       For the estate of Celsing                                          327
May 30, 1744. Taken out in London , L15 15 (at 43 1/4)              684
July 23, 1744. Received on account from Joh. Spieker ,60              2715

                                    Total amount                     6516

Muillman & Sons, n. 13 through Frantz Jennings:114
Sept. 2/13 1743. Taken out                                          500 florins.
Nov. 12, A do                                                        500
Dec. 21, 1744. Received from Mr. Mackei in London ,60 (at 46 dalers
per pound)                                                                2760

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 384


DOCUMENT 135.

EXTRACTS FROM SWEDENBORG'S COMMONPLACE BOOK* FOR THE YEARS 1747 AND 1748.

* This volume is Codex 6 of the Swedenborg MSS. in the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. This volume had previously been used as an Index of Bible passages and correspondences from the Prophet Isaiah and Genesis; but its contents, after having been transferred to Codex 4, crossed out by Swedenborg, and the volume was afterwards used by him as a commonplace book. N.B. The Index of Genesis is not crossed out.

A. Memorandum of business letters, which were to be written by Swedenborg, at the beginning of the year 1748:
       To write to Hultman.111
       An order upon Broman.113
       Letter to the bank commissioner.
       About the fire in the pavilion.
       Letter to------with order upon Benzelstjerna.8
       Letter to Benzelstjerna8 with statement of account, and a copy of the former letter; explanation of the order. He is to be asked whether he does not agree that they should be paid out of my funds in the hands of------
       Letter to Broman.113
B. First draughts of some of the above business letters; to Hultman.111

By the last post I received your letter, with statement of account for the year 1745, together with a draft for the balance of 180 rix-dalers, Dutch Currency. With respect to the statement of account, it is quite correct; likewise the draft, which was endorsed at once. I thank you for your despatch. I enclose a letter which you will please forward to its address, post-paid; and in case there be an answer to it you will please send it to me, Care of Messrs. Grill.112

384



DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 385 While I think of it, you will please not to have any fire made in the stove of the pavilion, as the chimney in the loft is open below, that no sparks may fly out and set fire to my papers that are in the loft, where I have stored them and other things. Further, it does not seem necessary that a fire should be made there.

I enclose an order on Broman,113 the Master of Ceremonies, for 600 dalers, which you will please to collect.



C. To the Bookkeeper in the Bank.

Before my departure my account was examined, and although I have not written out any cheques since, I nevertheless send it over to be examined again. After examining it you will please enclose it in an envelope and seal it, and give it to the merchant, Peter Hultman, who will forward it to me. You will please to seal the envelope securely, so that no one may see my account.

D. To Benzelstjerna.8
Since my departure I have not written to you, because there was no occasion for it, but now-

E. To Broman.113
As the interest upon the capital of 10,000 dalers, to Jan. 31, 1745, is now due, you will please-

The well-born Master of Ceremonies, Carl Broman, will please pay to Mr. Peter Hultman111 six hundred dalers in copper, which is the interest on my capital in your hands, from Jan. 31, 1747, to Jan. 31, 1748; for which please to receive my receipt.

F. Memoranda, and list of articles which Swedenborg was to provide for his journey in 1748,*

* These memoranda are all crossed out in the commonplace book.

To see what is wanted,

linen socks,

muffler,

my documents,

to take the Ex[positionem] Sp[iritualem] (the Spiritual Explanation),* and to lay it on the top.

* Probably the MSS. of the Arcana Coelestia.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 386

to buy strings,

to put in my most important books,

to buy snuff,

to take tea,

to take my penknife,

to take some pens,

to take shirts,

to take neckties,

to take handkerchiefs,

my night cap,

my dressing gown,

The Hebrew Lexicon,

two memorandum books,

the little memorandum book,

my small books.

Money,

socks,

my silk cloth,

two papers of strong snuff,

the wig-case,

to send to the tailor for my body-fur,

to see when the ship starts,

to talk to the landlord about something,

my snuff-box,

lead-pencil and the little note-book,

spectacles,

to take my signet, etc.

G. Small bills:

Oysters        5-1/2

meat              4-1/2

paper              4-1/2

figs              2

coffee       1-1/2

chestnuts       2

        20

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 387

                                   guilders       styf.
Nov. 23. 1747. small wood              -              12

white understockings              -              11

shoes                                   2              10

wood                                   -              3-1/2

lined shoes                            2              15
Jan. 2.        night gown                     15              20

coarse white stocking              -              11

10 finer stockings at 3-1/2       1              15

a band around nightgown              -              4

warming pan                      5              -



DOCUMENT 136.

MEMORANDUM OF THE YEAR 1748.*

* This memorandum is written on a fly-leaf of Codex 2, containing the MS. of the "Spiritual Diary."

Took lodgings on the 23rd of November, 1748, for six shillings per week for half a year; if the rooms are taken for a whole year there is a deduction made of 32 shillings, so that the whole rent amounts to L14.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 388

DOCUMENT 137.

STATEMENT OF JENNINGS114 AND FINLAY'S ACCOUNT WITH E. SWEDENBORG.*

* This document was originally preserved in the library of Count Lars von Engestrm, who by marriage was connected with the families of Benzelstjerna and Schnstrm; after his death, it came with other documents into the possession of the Royal Library in Stockholm.

Twelve months after date We, the undersigned, agree to pay to the Assessor, the well-born Emanuel Swedenborg, or Order, the sum of ten thousand dalers in copper, with one half per cent interest per month. Value received, which is herewith acknowledged. JENNINGS & FINLAY.


Stockholm, Aug. 17, 1759.

D. 10,000 in copper with
1/2 per cent interest per month.

The above sum with the interest then due was paid in Amsterdam in the year 1763.

       EM. SWEDENBORG.

1760. August 18, paid one year's interest D. 600.
1761. August 19, paid one year's interest D. 600.
1762. August 21, paid one year's interest D. 600.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 389

DOCUMENT 138.

STATEMENT OF SWEDENBORG'S INCOME FOR THE YEARS 1765 AND 1766.*

* This document was originally in the library of Count Lars von Engestrm, but is now in the Royal Library in Stockholm.

Capital invested with Mr. Hultman.111


Besides the 30,000 dalers in copper, which are at interest:
According to statement made on the last day of Dec. 1764       14,479       13
Added since July 8                                                 1,642        4

       Dalers in copper                                           16,121        17

Before the end of the year there will come in:                            
From President Gyllenborg115                                          1200              --
From Governor Broman113                                                 500              --
Six months' salary                                                 848              --
Interest from Mr. Hultman111                                          1800              --

       Dalers in copper                                           20,469        25

Next year, 1766, there will come in:
Salary for one year                                                 1696              16
From Governor Broman113                                                 500              --
From the Countess Gyllenborg115                                   1200              ---
Interest from Mr. Hultman                                          1800              --

       Dalers in copper                                           5196               16

together with the former                                   25,666       9
In addition 27 lbs sugar at 4                                          111              12
together with the former                                          25,777        21

Mr. Hultman has in hand the certificate of indebtedness of Count Frederic Gyllenborg, with the security of the Councillor Henning Gyllenborg, which makes                                                                      30,000       --
From which there are to be deducted                             10,000       --
Leaving a balance of Dalers                                           20,000       --

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 390


DOCUMENT 139.

LIST OF VALUABLES OF EMANUEL SWEDENBORG FROM THE YEAR 1770.*

* This list, in the handwriting of Emanuel Swedenborg, was transferred from the library of Count Lars von Engestrm to the Royal Library in Stockholm.

The following articles are deposited in a drawer:
One silver waiter                                                               174
7 plates belonging to it                                                 65
One chandelier                                                               140
One silver basket                                                               93
One bowl, i. e. a plate belonging to it                                   89-1/4
Two dessert plates                                                        70-1/4
One water-bowl with water-pitcher                                          108
One coffee pot                                                                48-1/2
One milk can                                                               28-1/4
One sugar bowl                                                               34-1/2
One tea-caddy                                                                36
Fine tea-spoons and one pair of sugar-tongs                            9
Three table spoons                                                        15
Two candlesticks                                                               52
Six small pieces belonging to them, with snuffers                     15
Sugar bowl                                                                       21
One antique waiter made of a shell, mounted in silver, with

several genuine stones.
Four tea-spoons and a pair of tongs of gold, in a case.
One scent-bottle of crystal with gold mountings, in a case.
One porcelain snuff-box in the form of a female figure, with a gold "charnire," in a case.
One gold-watch, with gold-chain.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 391
Six snuff-boxes, and a small one with two rings in it.
One microscope with everything belonging to it.
Diploma of nobility, in which there are also the deeds respecting the garden.
The above articles are left in charge of the agent, the wife of Carl Wilhelm Seele.116

EM. SWEDENBORG.

In the year 1770, in the month of July.

On behalf of the heirs of the late assessor Emanuel, We, the undersigned, have received from Mrs. Maria Seele all the plate and other articles mentioned above, with the exception of one tea-spoon, and two small articles belonging to the candle-sticks, all of silver, but in their stead there was found a box of mirror-glass and two small snuff-boxes not mentioned in the list. All these we have received and sign our names. Jonas Breding, Job. George Ridder[bielke].*
July 16, 1772.

* He was married to the third daughter of Jesper Swedenborg; see Document 9, p. 92.

DOCUMENT 140.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPERTY OF THE LATE ASSESSOR EMANUEL SWEDENBORG, SITUATED IN SODERMALM.*

* This is an official description of Swedenborg's house, published after his death, and printed by Johan George Lange, in Stockholm, 1772. It is exceedingly scarce, the only copy known to exist having been presented in 1870, by prof. A. E. N. Nordenskld to the Royal Library in Stockholm.

1. This suburban property is situated in Hornsgatan, Sder, in the quarter Mullwaden, No. 1, on freehold ground.

2. The plot of ground, after measurement, was found to extend in length on the northern side, along Hornsgatan, 112 yards; upon the southern side, where it is contiguous to other property, likewise 112 yards, and in breadth, on the eastern side up to Cheesemonger Wempe's property, 53 yards, and on the western side, where it touches Ropemaker Nyman's property, 52 yards, which, when added together, amount to an area of 5880 square yards.

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3. This plot is well protected and enclosed, on the one side by the house, and on the other by a board-fence, and is also first of all divided into two parts by a neat wooden fence with gates; the eastern portion containing about one-third of the whole area, and the western portion two-thirds. The eastern division is again, with the dwelling-house, subdivided into three portions by means of wooden fences and gates. The first division, which is narrow and passes along the whole eastern division, is simply a place for gathering up and carrying off the offal from the stables the second northern portion embraces the dwelling-house itself, with a sufficiently large and handsome yard, and the third portion, towards the south, includes, first of all, a building which, of its singularity, must be described, and outside the same is a flower garden with curious figures in box-tree. The larger western division of the property is taken up by a large garden with choice young fruit-trees, flowers, and vegetables, and also large and splendid lime trees, which are planted both in the garden itself and in the part around the dwelling-house. In the garden there are several buildings which will be specified below.

4. The out-house, near the dwelling, consists of a barn not long since built of wood with a roof of tiles which is ..... yards long, and 14 yards wide, and has three large rooms, two in the lower and one in the upper story; adjoining it, near the street, there is a stable for horses and cows with the necessary room for holding fodder, together with other conveniences; all built of wood and covered with tiles, and painted red like the barn.

5. The building which is to the south of the dwelling-house, and which occupies the whole northern side of the flower garden, 19 yards long, and 16 yards wide. It has doors and entries both on its northern and southern sides, and has in its lower story a large room serving for an orangery, well provided with furnaces.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 393 This house is build of panel work and bricks, and is covered on the outside with boards which are painted yellow.

6. On the larger western division of the property, which we style above the large garden, there are several buildings: first, there is a square house in the middle, which has openings towards the four paths of the garden, which meet here; the walls are made of wood, in wicker-work, with a flat roof, likewise of wicker-work, going all round and forming a pretty balcony; there is a round seat in each corner. Secondly, right along the northern board-fence is a house with three sides, and three double doors opening into the garden, it has a pointed roof, with three large three-cornered windows in it. This house is so arranged that when all the three doors are opened, and a mirror is placed in front of the fourth wall, which is along the board-fence, three gardens are seen reflected in it, in which every thing is represented in the same order as in the original garden. Thirdly, on the southern side, right opposite the last building, there is a many-sided bower, usually called a volire, which is intended for all kinds of larger and smaller birds; the walls are of net-work, and made of coarse brass wire. Fourthly, in the middle, directly opposite the large walk, there is a pretty summer-house, consisting of a hall, inside from which there is a little room, whence there is a passage into a library, which, fifthly, is a lower house with a neat room, extending towards the south from the above-named summer-house. This last house, viz. the summer-house, has a good covering of planks on the outside, painted yellow, and in the interior it is hung with pretty tapestry. Sixthly, between the library and the board-fence on the south there is a Dutch structure like a vaulted cellar, but covered with earth, which is for the purpose of keeping vegetables. Seventhly, in front of this cavern there is a maze, built of boards, which is so contrived that if any one unacquainted with it goes in, he cannot find the entrance again without help.

7. Under the summer-house, No. 5, in the large garden, is a new vaulted cellar, and under the dwelling-house the foundation is laid for building a stone house.

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DOCUMENT 141.

A.

LETTER WRITTEN BY MR. CHAS. LINDEGREN117 TO MESSRS. BOHMAN, HASSEL AND GRGES,

DATED JULY 18, 1772.*

* These two letters have been transferred from Count Engestrm's library to the Royal Library in Stockholm.

By Captain Fox, of the ship Nancy, I forwarded to you all the effects of the late Assessor Swedenborg which I received from himself, or found in his lodgings, and which are specified in the enclosed bill of lading. They are of little value, especially his clothes and linen, which I should not have sent, if I had not thought that his dear and worthy family would wish to possess something which was worn by the good and worthy man in this life. The most important is a brown parcel sealed, and addressed to yourself, in which there are all-important documents and bills for the moneys which he drew from young Mr. Clas Grill and myself, all of which are sealed up; in order to avoid all suspicion, I must beg you not to break the seal, except in the presence of some of his relations, and of the agent Carl Wm. Seele. Besides this I paid to him in cash ,70, for which I have two receipts, and also 12-1/2 guineas and 1 Dutch ducat during his sickness, and likewise 5 banknotes, which, according to the enclosed specification, amount to 2140 dalers in copper. The bank-bills I will send to you by next Tuesday's post, because it is safer. There are now only a few unsold books left with two booksellers, concerning which I will report in my next by post.

In addition I will only repeat, what I have already reported to the agent Seele, viz. that the deceased has not left behind, nor has he ever made, a will.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 395 Frequently, when I asked him about it, he said, that he was not going to trouble himself about it: let those who shall have it, take it according to the Swedish law. The expenses during his illness mere very great, likewise were very great, likewise the cost of his burial, so that there is still some money due to me, of which I will send you my bill per post.

B.

LETTER OF MR. CHAS. LINDEGREN117 TO MESSRS. BOHMAN, HASSEL AND GRGES,

DATED LONDON, AUG. 11, 1772.

I hope Capt. Fox has arrived, and delivered the effects of the late Assessor Swedenborg.

I send you enclosed his account up to the present, showing a balance in my favour of ,18. There are still three bills to come in which I have paid, and which are in my books. I enclose also the five bank-bills which were described in my last, amounting in all to 2140 dalers. After Assessor Swedenborg's death only three guineas, or L3:3, were found in his possession. These I will not put down in my account, but I shall pay ,2:2 to Magister Mathesius,l18 who officiated at the funeral, and ,1:l to the sexton. In addition, I must remark that I have not given Pastor Ferelius119 any satisfaction in respect to his complaint about the funeral. I offered him L3:3, or three guineas, but he considered this too little, and I did not feel authorized to pay away the money belonging to the heirs. This matter can be settled best with Pastor Ferelius himself according to the Swedish usage, either by yourself or Mr. Seele; for this gentleman is now in Stockholm. There are still some books with two booksellers, but I cannot get them without a order--about this I will however write to you in my next.

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DOCUMENT 142.

LETTER FROM THE SWEDISH TRAVELLER, BJRNSTHL120 TO DR. CARL JESPER
BENZELIUS,99 PROFESSOR AT LUND.*

* This letter is preserved in the Cathedral-Library at Linkping in a bound volume containing the correspondence of Doctor Carl Jesper Benzelius.

Right reverend Doctor and Professor,

With respect to the books of the late Assessor Swedenborg, Mr. Springer,l21 who was his very intimate friend, could not help expressing his great astonishment, that you should never have been able to obtain any information on the subject; for he himself, about two years and a half ago, wrote a very minute letter on the subject to Matthias Benzelstjerna,* the Secretary of State. Mr. Springer has wondered no less at never having received an answer to his letter, especially as he had offered his services; and had a power of attorney been sent over, all books would doubtless have been sold, inasmuch as there is a great demand for them. They may be worth about L200. He has showed me a copy of the letter which was written on Nov. 13, 1773, where the number of all the books in stock at the book-sellers in London is given, and a mode is explained by which they might be quickly sold, and the heirs in Sweden be benefited by their sale. If, therefore, you will ask the Secretary of State for the above-mentioned letter, it will not be necessary for me to do any thing more in this matter. Good old Mr. Springer however cannot be troubled any more with it, as the infirmities of old age have rendered him incapable; it would therefore be best for you to put the whole matter into the hands of Mr. Clas Grill,112 an honourable Swedish merchant in this place, and a good friend of Mr. Springer,121 who will assist you with his advice, and will procure the services of a man able to estimate the value of books, as you cannot in such a matter depend on the booksellers themselves.

* Son of Bishop Jacob Benzelstjerna.7

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I understand that many books of the same kind are also in store at Amsterdam; I wish I had known about them while I was there. If Mr. Springer's letter had been answered, this matter could have been settled both in England and in Holland. Are you acquainted with the circumstance that the Assessor had moneys on deposit with the Messrs. Hoop in Amsterdam? those which he had deposited with Mr. Lindegren117 in London have long since been paid off and despatched.

Do you not consider it good and advisable that a small stone should be raised in the Swedish Church, where assessor Swedenborg is buried, upon which at least his name, with the date of his birth and death, should be engraved? This cannot be very expensive; and he has been such a very remarkable man. Several of his books have been translated from Latin into English; one has been accompanied with a very clever preface by Doctor[?] Hartley,1 who was an intimate friend not only of the Assessor, but also of his mode of explaining the Bible.

Your obedient servant,

       JACOB JONAS BJRNSTHL.120
London, March 2, 1776.

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SECTION V 7:

SWEDENBORG'S OFFICIAL LIFE IN

THE COLLEGE OF MINES,

FROM 1717 TO 1747.

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INTRODUCTION.

This Section contains the results of a thorough examination of the Archives of the College of Mines in Stockholm, which was instituted with the view of obtaining an authentic account of the official life of Emanuel Swedenborg, as one of its assessors. This investigation was carried on by the editor of these documents during several months of the year 1869, permission having most kindly been given him for that purpose by the authorities of the College of Commerce, with which the College of Mines is now combined. This College no longer holds its meetings in the building so long frequented by Emanuel Swedenborg, that being now occupied by the Royal Archives of Sweden (Riks-Arkivet); but has removed to a building in the "Stora Ryrko brinken" Cathedral Lane No. 9, which was formerly the residence of Count Fr. Stenbock.

The College of Mines, although formerly an independent department of the State, is now a branch of the College of Commerce, or of what is more properly called the "Department of Commerce:" for there never was anything of the nature of a College in the English meaning of the word in the Swedish College of Mines. It was, and still is, the government department, under the charge of which the whole mining interest of the kingdom of Sweden is placed. The functions
of this college are administrative, and at the same time judiciary, i. e. it appoints the various mining officers in Sweden, and receives reports from them, and it also judges in all law-suits arising, in which mining interests are involved.

The College of Mines in Swedenborg's times consisted of a president, who always belonged to the highest order of nobility, two councillors of mines, and about six assessors.

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DOCUMENTS CONCERNING SWEDENBORG Volume 1 p. 401 The board consisted of these officers, each of whom had a vote. The session of the College usually commenced in the month of September, and was continued uninterruptedly till the middle of July. During the summer months generally some of the assessors were engaged in an inspecting tour among the mines. At Christmas also there was usually a recess of from one to two weeks.

The meetings of the College were daily, Sunday of course excepted; and the proceedings were commenced by the Secretary calling the roll. If any one of the members was absent, the reason of his absence was recorded; if he was unwell, it was so state